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Indent Level:
Color Curly Brackets (indicating CPC extensions to IPC)

CPC
COOPERATIVE PATENT CLASSIFICATION
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PERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
NOTE
-
The following notes are meant to assist in the use of
{
classes B01 to B09
}
; they must not be read as modifying in any way the elaborations.
In this sub-section, the separation of different materials, e.g. of different matter, size, or state, is predominantly found in the following subclasses:

The classifying characteristics of these subclasses are:

- the physical state of the matter to be separated
- the principle of the process used
- particular kinds of apparatus
The first of these characteristics involves six different
aspects, assembled in three groups.

a liquid/liquid or liquid/gas and gas/gas
b solid/liquid or solid/gas
c solid/solid

Theses subclasses are to be used according to the following general rules:

- B01D is the most general class as far as separation other
than solids from solids is concerned.
- Apparatus for separating solids from solids are covered by
B03B when the process concerned is regarded as the equivalent
of "washing" in the sense of the mining art, even if such
apparatus is a pneumatic one, especially pneumatic tables or
jigs. Screens PER SE are not covered by this subclass but
are classified in B07B, even if they are being used in a
wet process. All other apparatus for the separation of solids
from solids according to dry methods are classified in B07B.
- If the separation takes place as a result of the detection
or measurement of some feature of the material or articles to
be sorted it is classified in B07C.
It should also be noted that the separation of isotopes of the
same chemical element is covered by B01D 59/00, whatever
process or apparatus is employed.


4. The following scheme illustrates the classification according
to these rules.
(a) LIQUID/LIQUID
LIQUID/GAS
GAS/GAS
_____________________________________________________________________
Subclasses dealing with
Operations Method Apparatus
_____________________________________________________________________
General B01DB01D
by centrifugal force, using centrifuges
or free-vortex apparatus B01DB04B, B04C
using magnetic or electrostatic effect B03CB03C
_____________________________________________________________________
(b) SOLID/LIQUID
SOLID/GAS
_____________________________________________________________________
Subclasses dealing with
Operations Method Apparatus
_____________________________________________________________________
General B01DB01D
by centrifugal force B01DB01D
using centrifuges or free-vortex
apparatus B01DB04B, B04C
using magnetic or electrostatic effect B03CB03C
_____________________________________________________________________
(c) SOLID/SOLID
_____________________________________________________________________
Dry Methods
_____________________________________________________________________
Subclasses dealing with
Operations Method Apparatus
_____________________________________________________________________
General for material in bulk B07BB07B
Individual sorting B07CB07C
Screening, sifting, pneumatic sorting B07BB07B
using pneumatic tables or jigs B03BB03B
by magnetic or electrostatic effect B03CB03C
by centrifugal force B07BB07B
using centrifuges or free-vortex
apparatus B07BB04B, B04C
_____________________________________________________________________
Wet Methods
_____________________________________________________________________
Subclasses dealing with
Operations Method Apparatus
_____________________________________________________________________
General B03BB03B
flotation, differential sedimentation B03DB03D
screening B07BB07B
_____________________________________________________________________
Combinations = dry methods - wet methods: B03B
_____________________________________________________________________

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SUBSECTION:
Separating; Mixing
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PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES OR APPARATUS IN GENERAL (furnaces, kilns, ovens, retorts in general F27)
BOILING; BOILING APPARATUS;
{
EVAPORATION; EVAPORATION APPARATUS
}
SEPARATION( separating solids from solids by wet methods B03B, B03D; by pneumatic jigs or tables B03B; by other dry methods B07; magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high-voltage electric fields B03C; centrifuges, vortex apparatus B04; presses per se for squeezing-out liquid from liquid-containing material B30B 9/02 ; treatment of water C02F, e.g. softening by ion-exchange C02F 1/42 ;
{
arrangements of air intake cleaners in gas turbine plants F02C 7/05
}
; arrangements or mounting of filters in air-conditioning, air-humidification or ventilation F24F 13/28 )
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
- evaporation, distillation, crystallisation, filtration, dust precipitation, gas cleaning, absorption, adsorption;
- similar processes which are not concerned with, or limited to, separation (except in
the case of absorption or adsorption).

In this subclass the terms or expressions are used with the meaning indicated:
- "filtration" and analogous terms include straining solids from fluids;
- "filter medium" is a porous material or porous arrangement of material used to filter solids from fluids;
- "filtering element" is a section of filter medium in addition to parts to which the medium is demountably or permanently fixed, including other sections of medium, end caps, peripheral frames or edge strips, but excluding housings;
- "filter housing" is the fluid-constraining impervious vessel, whether open or closed, which contains, or is adapted to contain, one or more filtering elements or filter media;
- "filter chamber" is the space within a housing, where filtering elements or filter media are located. Partitions may divide a single housing into a plurality of chambers;
- "filtering apparatus" consists of filtering elements combined with housings, cleaning arrangements, motor or the like parts, which are characteristic of the particular type of apparatus. Ancillary devices such as pumps or valves are considered part of a filtering apparatus when inside the apparatus. Ancillary devices performing similar or different unit operation such as comminutors, mixers or non-filtering separators, whether or not inside the apparatus, are not considered part of a filtering apparatus. The term does not extend to apparatus, e.g. washing machines, of which the filter forms only a part.

For apparatus used in drying or evaporation, F26 takes precedence over B01D.

Group B01D 59/00 takes precedence over the other groups of this subclass and over other subclasses in class B01


WARNING
-
 
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following groups:

B01D 19/0454 covered by B01D 9/00
B01D15/04 covered by B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/02
B01D17/022 covered by B01D 17/0202
B01D17/025 covered by B01D 17/02 F
B01D17/028 covered by B01D 17/0211
B01D17/032 covered by B01D 17/0214
B01D17/035 covered by B01D 17/02 D
B01D17/038 covered by B01D 17/0217
B01D17/05 covered by B01D 17/04 J
B01D17/09 covered by B01D 17/005
B01D 17/12 covered by B01D 17/00
B01D25/133 covered by B01D 25/285
B01D25/168 covered by B01D 25/285
B01D 25/21 covered by B01D 25/164
B01D29/075 covered by B01D 29/62 , B01D 29/76
B01D29/37 covered by B01D 29/336 , B01D 29/356
B01D33/052 covered by B01D 33/64
B01D35/01 covered by B01D 36/00 D
B01D61/26 covered by A61M 1/1656
B01D61/34 covered by A61M 1/16

5. The group B01D 24/00 was introduced in March 1989. This group includes subject matter of B01D 23/00 , B01D 25/06 , B01D 25/10 , B01D 29/0027 , B01D 33/0032 and B01D 33/0054 .

6. Documents from the backlog of the group B01D 23/00 , and the subgroups B01D 25/06 , B01D 25/10 , B01D 29/0027 , B01D 33/0032 and B01D 33/0054 are in the process of being revised and also systematically transferred to B01D 24/00 .

7. The groups B01D 29/01 to B01D 29/43 and B01D 29/50 to B01D 29/965 were introduced in March 1989; these subgroups include the subject matter of the subgroups of groups B01D 29/0002 , which are from this date no longer use for the classification of new documents.

8. The documents from the backlog of the subgroups of group B01D 29/0002 are in the process of being systematically transferred to the other subgroups of group B01D 29/00 .

11. The documents from the backlog of the subgroups of group B01D 33/0003 are in the process of being systematically transferred to the other subgroups of group B01D 33/00 .

9. Groups B01D 25/16 , B01D 25/18 and B01D 25/20 are no longer used for the classification of new. Patent documents are continuously being reclassified to groups B01D 29/44 , B01D 29/46 and B01D 29/48 .

10. The groups B01D 25/04 , B01D 25/08 , B01D 25/121 , B01D 25/122 , B01D 25/124 , B01D 25/125 , B01D 25/14 , are no longer used for classification of new documents from December 1, 2011 onwards. The backlog of those groups are being continuously reclassified to groups B01D 25/00 , B01D 29/00 and subgroups.


MIXING, e.g. DISSOLVING, EMULSIFYING, DISPERSING (
{
miscellaneous implements for preparing food, e.g. machines for domestic use for mixing, egg-whisks, cream beaters A47J 43/00
}
; mixing paints B44D 3/06;
{
apparatus specially adapted for mixing radioactively contaminated material G21F 9/008
}
)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term or expression is used with the meaning indicated:
- "mixing" covers stirring of a single material.

WARNING
-
1.The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following groups:
B01F17/02 to B01F17/56 covered by B01F 17/00 to B01F 17/0092


CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY ; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS( processes or apparatus for specific applications, see the relevant places for these processes or apparatus, e.g. F26B 3/08 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated :
- "solid particles" includes such particles whether catalysts, reactants or inert in solid,semi-solid or pasty state;
- "fluidised particles" means finely divided solid particles lifted and agitated by a stream of fluid;
- "fluidised bed-technique" means fluid-solid contacting technique in which finely divided particles are lifted and agitated by a rising stream of fluid, said stream having such a speed as to form a lower dense phase (the "bed") and an upper dilute fluidised phase of "fluidised particles";
- "processes conducted in the presence of solid particles" does not include processes wherein the only solid particles present are formed during the reaction.

In this subclass, tradenames that are often found in scientific and patent literature have been used in order to define precisely the scope of the groups



WARNING
-
>
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B01J37/025 covered by B01J 37/02


CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL LABORATORY APPARATUS FOR GENERAL USE (apparatus for medical or pharmaceutical purposes A61; apparatus for industrial purposes or laboratory apparatus whose construction and performance are comparable to that of similar industrial apparatus, see the relevant classes for industrial apparatus, particularly subclasses of B01 and C12; separating or distilling apparatus B01D; mixing or stirring devices B01F; atomisers B05B;
{
vibrating devices, e.g. shaking tables,
}
sieves B07B; corks, bungs B65D; handling liquids in general B67; vacuum pumps F04; siphons F04F 10/00; taps, stop-cocks F16K; tubes, tube joints F16L; apparatus specially adapted for investigating or analysing materials G01, particularly G01N; electrical or optical apparatus, see the relevant classes in Sections G and H)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers only laboratory apparatus which is either applicable solely to laboratory purposes or which, by reason of its simple construction and adaptability, is such as would not be suitable for industrial use.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
- B01L 3/14 covered by B01L 3/50

Groups B01L 1/50, B01L 3/50-B01L 3/569, B01L 7/50-B01L 7/54, B01L 9/50-B01L 9/547 do not correspond to former or future IPC groups.
Concordance CPC : IPC for these groups is as follows:
- B01L 1/50 : B01L 1/00 - B01L 3/50 - B01L 3/502 : B01L 3/00 - B01L 3/5021 - B01L 3/50215 : B01L 3/14 - B01L 3/5023 - B01L 3/508 : B01L 3/00 - B01L 3/5082 - B01L 3/50825 : B01L 3/14 - B01L 3/5085 - B01L 3/569: B01L 3/00 - B01L 7/50 - B01L 7/54 : B01L 7/00 - B01L 9/50 - B01L 9/547 : B01L 9/00

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CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING; PREPARATORY TREATMENT OF GRAIN FOR MILLING
PREPARING GRAIN FOR MILLING; REFINING GRANULAR FRUIT TO COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS BY WORKING THE SURFACE (making dough from cereals directly A21C; preservation or sterilisation of cereals A23B; cleaning fruit A23N; preparation of malt C12C)
CRUSHING, PULVERISING, OR DISINTEGRATING IN GENERAL; MILLING GRAIN (
{
household tools and machines for pulverising foodstuffs, e.g. coffee and spice mills A47J 42/00; pharmaceutical mortars A61J 3/02; mechanical processing of refuse and garbage B03B 9/06; dressing mould materials by grinding B22C 5/04
}
; obtaining metallic powder by crushing, grinding or milling B22F 9/04;
{
recovery of plastics by desintegration B29B 17/00; crushing raw materials in starch making C08B 30/02; beaters for papermaking D21D 1/02; crushing devices specially for transport in mines E21F 13/002; slag crushing devices F23J 1/00; fuel milling devices in combustion apparatus F23K 1/00; household devices for crushing coal F24B 15/02; ice desintegrating devices F25C 5/02
}
)
C2011.10
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SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS; MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS (separating isotopes B01D 59/00; crushing or disintegrating B02C; centrifuges or vortex apparatus for carrying out physical processes B04)
SEPARATING SOLID MATERIALS USING LIQUIDS OR USING PNEUMATIC TABLES OR JIGS( removing fluids from solids B01D; magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high voltage electric fields B03C; flotation differential sedimentation B03D; separating by dry methods B07; screening or sifting B07B; by picking B07C; separating peculiar to particular materials and provided for in other single classes, see the relevant classes )
MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS (filters making use of electricity or magnetism B01D 35/06; separating isotopes B01D 59/00; combinations of magnetic or electrostatic separation with separation of solids by other means B03B, B07B; separating sheets from piles B65H 3/00; magnets or magnet coils per se H01F)
FLOTATION ; DIFFERENTIAL SEDIMENTATION( sedimentation in general B01D 21/00 ; in combination with other separation of solids B03B; sink-float separation B03B 5/28 ; detergents, soaps C11D )
WARNING
-
The following groups are not complete: B03D1/02C, see also B03D 1/02B03D1/02F, see also B03D 1/02B03D1/02L, see also B03D 1/02B03D1/02R, see also B03D 1/02B03D1/08D, see also B03D 1/08B03D1/08F, see also B03D 1/08B03D1/08T, see also B03D 1/08B03D1/14A, see also B03D 1/14B03D1/14F, see also B03D 1/14B03D 1/145 , see also B03D 1/14B03D 1/1456 , see also B03D 1/14B03D 1/1462 , see also B03D 1/14B03D 1/1468 , see also B03D 1/14B03D 1/1475 , see also B03D 1/14B03D1/14M, see also B03D 1/14B03D1/14S, see also B03D 1/14B03D1/24N, see also B03D 1/24B03D1/24R, see also B03D 1/24 ]

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CENTRIFUGAL APPARATUS OR MACHINES FOR CARRYING-OUT PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL PROCESSES (using centrifugal force for the separation of particles from liquids or gases, in general B01D, e.g. B01D 21/26, B01D 43/00, B01D 45/12)
CENTRIFUGES (high-speed drum mills B02C 19/11; domestic spin driers D06F; analysing, measuring or monitoring physical or chemical properties of samples during centrifuging, see the relevant subclasses for these procedures, e.g. G01N)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers machines or apparatus for separating, mixing, drying, extracting, purifying, or like treating in which centrifugal effects are generated by rotary bowls or other rotors. Where such machines or apparatus involve pumping effects, such effects must be incidental or subsidiary to the treating.

APPARATUS USING FREE VORTEX FLOW, e.g. CYCLONES (
{
centrifugal separation of water from steam B01D 45/12;
}
jet mills B02C 19/06;
{
wind sifters B07B 7/00;
}
cyclonic type combustion apparatus F23;
{
vortex burners for cyclone-type combustion apparatus F23D 1/02; cyclonic type combustion apparatus for gas turbines F23R 3/00
}
)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers apparatus for separating, mixing or like treating in which centrifugal effects are generated by free vortex flow, otherwise than by rotary bowls, rotors or curved passages.

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SPRAYING OR ATOMISING IN GENERAL; APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL (domestic cleaning A47L; cleaning in general by methods essentially involving the use or presence of liquid B08B 3/00; sand-blasting B24C; coating of articles during shaping of substances in a plastic state B29C 39/10, B29C 39/18, B29C 41/20, B29C 41/30, B29C 43/18, B29C 43/28, B29C 45/14, B29C 47/02; for further classification of forming layered products, see B32B; printing, copying B41; conveying articles or workpieces through baths of liquid B65G, e.g. B65G 49/02; handling webs or filaments in general B65H; surface treatment of glass by coating C03C 17/00, C03C 25/10; coating or impregnation of mortars, concrete, stone or ceramics C04B 41/45; paints, varnishes, lacquers C09D; enamelling of metals, applying a vitreous layer to metals, chemical cleaning or de-greasing of metallic objects C23; electroplating C25D; treating of textile materials by liquids, gases or vapours D06B; laundering D06F; treating roads E01C; apparatus or processes for the preparation or treatment of photosensitive materials G03; apparatus or processes, restricted to a purpose fully provided for in a single other class, see the relevant class covering the purpose)
NOTE
-
In this class, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:

- "other fluent materials" includes semiliquids, pastes, melts,
solutions, dispersions, suspensions, particulate materials,
gases or vapours;
- "particulate materials" includes powders, granules, short
fibres or chips;
- "coating" means the materials applied. The coating may be a
liquid having become solid after drying, e.g. paint.

SPRAYING APPARATUS ; ATOMISING APPARATUS ; NOZZLES(
{
sprayers or atomisers specially adapted for therapeutic purposes A61M 11/00
}
; spray-mixers with nozzles B01F 5/20 ; processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces by spraying B05D;
{
nozzles specially adapted for injection moulding of plastics or substances in a plastic state B29C 45/1603 , B29C 45/20 ; nozzles specially adapted for windscreen washers B60S 1/52
}
; means for pumping fluids F04; valves, e.g. water-taps, F16K )
NOTE
-
This subclass covers particularly apparatus for the release or projection of drops or droplets into the atmosphere or into a chamber to form a mist or the like. For this purpose, the materials to be projected may be suspended in a stream of gas or vapour.

Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B05.

In this subclass, "means for controlling volume of flow" is used in the most general meaning and includes also means allowing only starting and stopping the flow

In this subclass, the meaning of the expression "apparatus carried on or by a person" includes all apparatus comprising at least one container for the material to be sprayed carried on or by a person during use

In this subclass, the word "container" is to be understood as the innermost enclosure containing the material to be sprayed

WARNING
-

Groups B05B 11/30 to B05B 11/3098 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups. The concordance CPC : IPC for these groups is as follows: - B05B 11/30 - B05B11/30V : B05B 11/00

APPARATUS FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL (spraying apparatus, atomising apparatus, nozzles B05B; plant for applying liquids or other fluent materials to objects by electrostatic spraying B05B 5/08; processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces B05D;
{
coating of foodstuffs A23P 1/084, A23P 1/085, of shaped or preshaped ceramic articles B28B 11/04
}
)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers apparatus or hand tools, in general, for applying liquids or other fluent materials to a surface or a part thereof, by any mechanical or physical method, in particular apparatus for obtaining a uniform distribution of liquids or other fluent materials on a surface.

Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B05.

WARNING
-

1. The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B05C5/04 covered by B05C5/00A, B05C11/10H

PROCESSES FOR APPLYING LIQUIDS OR OTHER FLUENT MATERIALS TO SURFACES, IN GENERAL( apparatus for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces B05B, B05C;
{
coating of foodstuffs A23P 1/084 , A23P 1/085
}
)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
- processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to
a surface or part of a surface, in general, by any mechanical
or physical method and particularly processes producing
a uniform distribution of liquids or other fluent materials
on a surface;
- pretreatment of surfaces to which liquids or other fluent
materials are to be applied;
- after-treatment of applied coatings. Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B05.

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GENERATING OR TRANSMITTING MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS IN GENERAL
METHODS OR APPARATUS FOR GENERATING OR TRANSMITTING MECHANICAL VIBRATIONS OF INFRASONIC, SONIC, OR ULTRASONIC FREQUENCY,
{
e.g.
}
FOR PERFORMING MECHANICAL WORK IN GENERAL (for particular applications, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. B07B 1/40, B23Q 17/12, B24B 31/06; measurement of mechanical vibrations G01H; in direction finding, locating, distance or velocity measuring G01S;
{
generating seismic energy G01V 1/02
}
; control of mechanical vibrations in general G05D; sound-producing devices, e.g. bells, sirens, whistles G10K,
{
e.g. methods or devices for transmitting, conducting, or directing sound in general G10K 11/00
}
; generation of electrical oscillations H03B; electromechanical resonators in general H03H; electromechanical transducers
{
for communication techniques, e.g. microphones, speakers
}
H04R)
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SEPARATING SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS; SORTING (separation in general B01D; wet separating processes, sorting by processes using fluent material in the same way as liquid B03; using liquids B03B, D; sorting by magnetic or electrostatic separation of solid materials from solid materials or fluids, separation by high voltage electric fields B03C; centrifuges or vortex apparatus for carrying out physical processes B04; sorting peculiar to particular materials or articles and provided for in other classes, see the relevant classes)
SEPERATING SOLIDS FROM SOLIDS BY SIEVING, SCREENING, OR SIFTING OR BY USING GAS CURRENTS; OTHER SEPARATING BY DRY METHODS APPLICABLE TO BULK MATERIAL, e.g. LOOSE ARTICLES FIT TO BE HANDLED LIKE BULK MATERIAL (combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus B03B; hand sorting, postal sorting, sorting by switching or other devices actuated in responce to detection or measurement of some feature of articles or samples of material B07C)
NOTE
-
In this subclass any sorting or grading of bulk material or loose articles fit to be handled like bulk material results automatically from the construction of the apparatus and properties of the material, e.g. by a trap opening under an object of a certain minimum weight, by an aperture of graduated size. Sorting of articles is included in so far as the same conditions apply, e.g. sorting of timber by passing it over successively longer openings; the articles may or may not be orientated for the purpose of sorting.

POSTAL SORTING; SORTING INDIVIDUAL ARTICLES, OR BULK MATERIAL FIT TO BE SORTED PIECE-MEAL, e.g. BY PICKING (specially adapted for a specific purpose covered by another class, see the relevant place, e.g. A43D 33/06, B23Q 7/12)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers sorting of materials or articles by hand or by devices actuated, manually or automatically, as a result of inspection or of detection or measurement of some feature of the material or articles

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CLEANING
CLEANING IN GENERAL ; PREVENTION OF FOULING IN GENERAL( brushes A46; devices for domestic or like cleaning A47L;
{
cleaning golf-clubs or golf accessories A63B 57/0087 ; cleaning grips of bats on rackets A63B 59/0062
}
; separation of particles from liquids or gases B01D; separation of solids B03, B07; spraying or applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general B05; cleaning devices for conveyers B65G 45/10 ; concurrent cleaning, filling and closing of bottles B67C 7/00 ; inhibiting corrosion or incrustation in general C23; cleaning streets, permanent ways, beaches or land E01H; parts, details or accessories of swimming or splash baths or pools, specially adapted for cleaning E04H 4/16 ; preventing or removing electrostatic charges H05F )
NOTE
-
This subclass covers only inventions relating to cleaning which are usually classified according to one (or more) of the aspects mentioned below if they are not fully classifiable in a subclass a subclass providing for any of the following aspects: the articles cleaned, e.g. bed-pans, urinal or other sanitary devices for bed-ridden persons A61G 9/02 , filters, semi-permeable membres B01D, castings and moulds B22D 29/00 , vehicles B60S, coke ovens C10B 43/00 , building forms E04G, boilers F22, combustion apparatus F23, furnaces F27;the general nature of the cleaning, e.g. preparing for sugar manufacture A23N, domestic cleaning A47L, treatment of textiles D06, laundry D06F, air-conditioning F24F; the particular operation performed, e.g. filtering B01D, separating of solids B03, B07, sand-blasting B24C;the particular apparatus or device, e.g. brushes A46B, mops A47L, centrifuges B04, hand tools B25
{
devices for cleaning paint-applying hand tools after use B44D3/00D
}
; the substance cleaned, e.g. metals B21C, C23, water C02, glass C03B, leather C14B, textile fibres D01; the substance removed (or prevented from depositing or forming) e.g.
{
removing paint B44D 3/00 , e.g.
}
implements or apparatus for removing dry paint from surfaces B44D 3/16 ; chemical paint-removers C09D 9/00 ; preventing rust C23F; the substance used, e.g. macromolecular compounds or compositions C08, anti-icing materials C09K, detergents C11D;the operation in connection with which cleaning is done, e.g. metal rolling B21B, metal boring B23B, soldering B23K, textile fabrication D01G, H, D03J, D04B; the surroundings of a surface to be cleaned or kept clean, e.g. water in a boiler C02F, air in a room F24F.

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DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE; RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINED SOIL (treatment of waste water, sewage or sludge C02F; treating radioactively contaminated solids G21F 9/28)
DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE
NOTE
-
This subclass covers only single or combined, e.g. multistage, operations not fully classifiable in a single other subclass

In this subclass the following terms or expressions are added with the meanings indicated :

- "disposal" means the discarding, e.g. dumping, or
destroying of waste or its transformation into something
useful or harmless;
- "solid waste" includes waste which, although it has liquid
content, is for practical purposes handled as solid

Attention is drawn to the following places:

A23J 1/16 Obtaining proteins from waste water of starch
manufacturing plants of like wastes
A23K 1/06 Animal feeding-stuffs from distillers` or
brewers` waste
A23K 1/08 Animal feeding-stuffs from waste products of
dairy plants
A23K 1/10 Animal feeding-stuffs from kitchen waste
A43B 1/12 Footwear made of rubber waste
A61L 11/00 Disinfection or sterilisation methods specially
adapted for refuse
A62D 3/00 Chemical means for combatting harmful chemical
agents; processes for making harmful chemical
agents harmless
B01D 53/34 Chemical purification of smoke or fumes, e.g.
flue gas
B02C18/40 Disintegrating by knives or other cutting or
tearing members, which chop material into
fragments, speciallyz adapted for disintegrating
garbage, waste or sewage
B03B 7/00 Combinations of wet processes or apparatus with
other processes or apparatus, e.g. for dressing
ores or garbage
B03B 9/06 General arrangement of separating plant, e.g.
flow sheets, specially adapted for refuse
B05B 15/04 Control of spray area of spraying plant, e.g.
masking, side shields; Means for collection or
re-use of excess material
B08B 15/00 Prevent escape of dirt or fumes from the area
where they are produced; Collecting or removing
dirt or fumes from that area
B23D 25/14 Machines or arrangements for shearing stock
while the latter is travelling otherwise than in
the direction of the cut without regard to the
exact dimensions of the resulting material, e.g.
for cutting up scrap
B27B 33/20 Edge trimming saw blades or tools combined with
means to disintegrate waste
B29B 17/00 Recovery of plastics or other constituents of
waste material containing plastics
B30B 9/32 Presses for consolidating scrap metal or for
compacting used cars
B63B 17/06 Refuse discharge from vessels, e.g. for ash
{
B63J 4/006
}
Arrangements of installation for treating waste
water or sewage on vessels
B65F 1/00 Refuse receptacles
B65F 3/00 Vehicles particularly adapted for collecting
refuse
B65F 5/00 Gathering or removal of refuse otherwise than by
receptacles or vehicles
B65F 7/00 Cleaning or disinfecting devices combined with
refuse receptacles or refuse vehicles
C03C 1/00 Ingredients generally applicable to manufacture
of glasses, glazes or vitreous enamels
C04B 7/24 Hydraulic cements from oil shales, residues or
waste other than slag
C04B 11/26 Calcium sulfate cements from phosphogypsum or
from waste, e.g. purification products of smoke
C04B 18/04 Waste materials or refuse used as fillers for
mortars, concrete, artificial stone or the like
C04B 22/0006 Waste inorganic materials used as active
ingredients for mortars, concrete, artificial
stone or the like
C04B 24/001 Waste organic materials used as active
ingredients for mortars, concrete, artificial
stone or the like
C05F 9/00 Fertilisers made from household or town refuse
C08J 11/00 Recovery of waste materials of macromolecular
substances
C08L 17/00 Compositions of reclaimed rubber
C10B 53/00 Destructive distillation, specially adapted for
particular solid raw materials or solid raw
materials in special form
C10B 57/00 Other processes not covered before; Features of
destructive distillation processes in general
C10G 1/10 Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from
rubber or rubber waste
C10L 5/46 Solid fuels essentially based on sewage, house
or town refuse
C10L 5/48 Solid fuels essentially based on industrial
residues and waste materials
C10M 175/02 Working-up used lubricants based on mineral oils
C11B 13/00 Recovery of fats, fatty oils, or fatty acids
from waste materials
C11D 19/00 Recovery of glycerol from a saponification
liquor
C12F 3/00 Recovery of by-products
C12F 3/08 Recovery of alcohol from press residues or other
waste material
C12P 7/08 Biochemical production of ethanol from waste
C22B 7/00 Working-up raw materials other than ores, e.g.
scrap, to produce non-ferrous metals or
compounds thereof
C22B 19/28 Obtaining zinc or zinc oxide from muffle furnace
residues
C22B 19/30 Obtaining zinc or zinc oxide from metallic
residues or scrap
C22B 25/06 Obtaining tin from scrap
D01B Mechanical treatment of natural fibrous or
filamentary material to obtain fibres or
filaments, e.g. for spinning
D01C 5/00 Carbonising rags to recover animal fibres
D01F 13/00 Recovery of starting material, waste material or
solvents during the manufacture of artificial
filaments or the like
D01G 11/00 Disintegrating fibre-containing articles to
obtain fibres for re-use
D01H 11/00 Arrangements for confining or removing dust,
fly, or the like
D06L 1/10 Regeneration of used chemical baths used for
dry-cleaning or washing fibres, fabrics or the
like
D21B 1/08 Dry treatment of waste paper or rags for making
paper or for the production of cellulose
D21B 1/32 Defibrating waste paper
D21C 5/02 Processes for obtaining cellulose by working-up
waste paper
D21C 11/14 Regeneration of pulp liquors by wet combustion
D21F 1/66 Re-use of pulp-water in wet end machines for
making continuous webs of paper
D21H 17/01 Waste products added to the pulp or used in
paper-impregnating material
E03F Sewers, Cesspools
E04F 17/10 Arrangements in building for the disposal of
refuse
F23B 5/00 Combustion apparatus arrangements for burning
uncombusted material from primary combustion
F23G Consuming waste products by combustion
F23J Removal or treatment of combustion products or
combustion residues
G03C 11/24 Removing emulsion from waste photographic
material
H01B 15/00 Apparatus or processes for salvaging material
from electric cables
H01M 6/52 Reclaiming serviceable parts of waste cells or
batteries
H01M 10/54 Reclaiming serviceable parts of waste
accumulators

RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SOIL( gatherers for removing stone or the like from the soil A01B 43/00 ; sterilising soil by steam A01G 11/00 ; processes for making harmful chemical substances harmless or less harmful by effecting chemical change in the substance A62D 3/00 ; separation in general B01D; cleaning beaches E01H 12/00 ; removing undesirable matter, e.g. rubbish, from the land E01H 15/00 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

-"reclamation" means the partial or total elimination
or the fixing of contaminants in soil.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B09C1/04 covered by B09C 1/02 ]

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SUBSECTION:
Shaping
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MECHANICAL METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL; PUNCHING METAL (casting, powder metallurgy B22; shearing B23D; working of metal by the action of a high concentration of electric current B23H; soldering, welding, flame-cutting B23K; other working of metal B23P; punching sheet material in general B26F; processes for changing of physical properties of metals C21D, C22F; electroforming C25D 1/00)
NOTE
-
This class does not cover:- combinations of operations covered by different subclasses of class B21, which are covered by subclass B23P;- combinations of operations covered by any particular subclass of class B21 with operations covered by other classes, e.g. with operations involving removal of material, which are also covered by subclass B23P, except that if the operations covered by the other classes are subsidiary to the operations properly covered by a single subclass of B21 the combination is classified in that subclass.

Processes of a kind covered by this class but applied to non-metallic materials are classified in this class if they are applicable to metal and cannot be classified fully in another class.


ROLLING OF METAL( auxiliary operations used in connection with metal-working operations covered in B21 , see B21C ; bending by rolling B21D ; manufacture of particular objects, e.g. screws, wheels, rings, barrels, balls, by rolling B21H ; pressure welding by means of a rolling mill B23K 20/04 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:- "rolling" means rolling operations in which plastic deformations occur;- "continuous process" means a process employing a mill train designed to have the workpiece enter one pair of rolls before leaving the preceding pair.

MANUFACTURE OF METAL SHEETS, WIRE, RODS, TUBES OR PROFILES, OTHERWISE THAN BY ROLLING; AUXILIARY OPERATIONS USED IN CONNECTION WITH METAL-WORKING WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL
WORKING OR PROCESSING OF SHEET METAL OR METAL TUBES, RODS OR PROFILES WITHOUT ESSENTIALLY REMOVING MATERIAL ; PUNCHING( operations of the kind involved in the manufacture of such products B21B, B21C; working or processing of wire B21F; cutting or severing devices or machines in general B26; presses in general B30B )
NOTE
-
This subclass covers cutting or perforating of sheet metal or other stock material

This subclass does not cover the working of metal foils in a manner analogous to the working of paper, which is covered by classes B26, B31

WORKING AND PROCESSING OF WIRE (
{
reducing diameter by
}
rolling of metal B21B; by drawing, auxiliary operations used in connection with metal working without essentially removing material B21C)
MAKING NEEDLES, PINS OR NAILS
MAKING PARTICULAR METAL OBJECTS BY ROLLING, e.g. SCREWS, WHEELS, RINGS, BARRELS, BALLS (essentially from sheet metal B21D)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers rolling operations which are specially adapted for use in the manufacture of particular objects and which are not essentially combined with any different metal-working operation unless the latter is a subsidiary operation performed in the same machine.

FORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES (rolling of metal B21B; making particular products by forging or pressing B21K; cladding or plating B23K; finishing surfaces by hammering B23P 9/04; compacting surfaces by blasting with particulate material B24C 1/10; general features of presses, presses for consolidating scrap B30B; furnace in general F27)
MAKING FORGED OR PRESSED PRODUCTS, e.g. HORSE-SHOES, RIVETS, BOLTS, WHEELS (making particular articles by working sheet metal without essentially removing material B21D; processing wire B21F; making pins, needles or nails B21G; making particular articles by rolling B21H; forging machines, pressing machines, hammering machines, in general B21J; making chain B21L; plating B23K)
NOTE
-
This subclass includes only forging, pressing, or hammering operations which are specially adapted for use in the manufacture of particular objects and which, sor far as the invention is concerned, are not combined with any different metal-working operation unless the latter is a subsidiary operation performed in the same machine.

MAKING CHAINS (making chains or chain links by casting B22D 25/02; chains in general F16G)
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CASTING; POWDER METALLURGY
FOUNDRY MOULDING (moulding refractory materials in general B28B)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:- the making of moulds for casting metals or of other refractory moulds;- selection or preparation of materials therefor;- the necessary patterns, processes, machines, accessory devices or tools.

WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B22C3/02 covered by B22C 3/00
B22C5/13 covered by B22C 5/12
B22C7/05 covered by B22C 7/04
B22C9/11 covered by B22C 9/10
B22C9/14 covered by B22C 9/12
B22C9/16 covered by B22C 9/12
B22C15/264 to B22C15/276 covered by B22C 15/23
B22C19/01 covered by B22C 19/00


CASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES (shaping of plastics or substances in a plastic state B29C; metallurgical processing, selection of substances to be added to metal C21, C22).
WORKING METALLIC POWDER; MANUFACTURE OF ARTICLES FROM METALLIC POWDER; MAKING METALLIC POWDER (processes or devices for granulating materials in general B01J 2/00; making ceramics by compacting or sintering C04B, e.g. C04B 35/64; for the production of metals as such, see class C22; reduction or decomposition of metal compounds in general C22B; making alloys by powder metallurgy C22C; electrolytic production of metal powder C25C 5/00)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers the making of metallic powder only insofar as powder with specific physical characteristics is made;

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

- "metallic powder" covers powders containing a substantial
proportion of non-metallic material;
- "powder" includes somewhat larger particles which are worked,
obtained or behave in a manner similar to powder, e.g. fibres.

WARNING
-

1. The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B22F3/035 covered by B22F 3/03


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MACHINE TOOLS; METAL-WORKING NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (punching, perforating, making articles by processing sheet metal, tubes, or profiles B21D; wire-working B21F; making pins, needles, or nails B21G; making chains B21L; grinding B24)
NOTE
-
This class covers:- operations not provided for in any other class;- combinations of operations covered by different subclasses of classes B21 to B24, which combinations are covered by subclass B23P, with the exception of subsidiary operations performed in conjunction with main operations covered by a single subclass;- features, specific to machine tools, which relate to a requirement or problem of a nature which is not peculiar to a particular kind of machine tool, e.g. feeding work, which are covered by subclass B23Q, although the realisation of these features may differ according to the kind of machine tool concerned. The said subclass covers such features, in general, even if the feature or a specific function, in any particular case, is to some extent peculiar to, or is claimed only for, machine tools designed for one particular operation; only in exceptional cases are such features classified in the subclass for the machine tool concerned. Certain features of this general nature are, however, referred to subclasses relating to particular metal-working operations, especially B23B, in which case the subclass in question are not restricted, in respect of those features, to the kind of machine tool with which they are primarily concerned.

In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:- "metal-working" covers the working of other materials unless the context requires otherwise;- "kind of operations" and similar expressions relate to such metal-working operations as boring, drilling, milling and grinding;- "kind of machine" means a machine designed for a particular kind of metal-working operation (e.g. a lathe);- "form of machine" means a machine of a particular king adapted or arranged for a particular way of working or for particular work, e.g. face-plate lathe, tailstock lathe, turret lathe;-"different machines" covers different forms of machines for performing the same type of metal-working operation, e.g. vertical and horizontal boring machines.

If details, components, or accessories have no essential feature specific to machine tools, the more general class, e.g. F16, takes precedence.


TURNING; BORING (arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q)
WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B23B3/18 covered by B23B 3/16
B23B3/20 covered by B23B 3/16
B23B3/28 covered by B23B 3/00
B23B5/22 covered by B23B 31/00
B23B5/24 covered by B23Q 27/00; B23B 35/00
B23B5/30 covered by B23Q 35/00
B23B5/34 covered by B23B 31/00; B23B 33/00
B23B5/42 covered by B23Q 35/00
B23B5/44 covered by B23Q 27/00
B23B7/08 covered by B23B 7/04
B23B7/14 covered by B23B 7/12
B23B7/16 covered by B23B 7/12
B23B9/04 covered by B23B 9/02
B23B9/06 covered by B23B 9/02
B23B9/10 covered by B23B 9/08
B23B9/12 covered by B23B 9/08
B23B15/00 covered by B23Q 7/00
B23B17/00 covered by B23Q 1/01; B23Q 1/03; B23Q 1/25
B23B19/00 covered by B23Q 1/70
B23B19/02 covered by B23Q 1/70
B23B21/00 covered by B23Q 1/00
B23B29/30 covered by B23B 29/28
B23B31/163 covered by B23B 31/16004
B23B31/165 covered by B23B 31/16045
B23B31/167 covered by B23B 31/16045
B23B31/169 covered by B23B 31/16083
B23B31/171 covered by B23B 31/1612
B23B31/173 covered by B23B 31/16158
B23B31/175 covered by B23B 31/16195
B23B31/177 covered by B23B 31/16233
B23B41/08 covered by F16L 41/04
B23B45/14 covered by B25H 1/0021
B23B45/16 covered by B25D 16/00
B23B47/02 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/04 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/06 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/08 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/10 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/12 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/14 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/16 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/18 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/20 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/22 covered by B23Q 5/00
B23B47/24 covered by B23Q 16/00

MILLING (broaching B23D; broach-milling in making gears B23F; arrangement for copying or controlling B23Q)
PLANING; SLOTTING; SHEARING; BROACHING; SAWING; FILING; SCRAPING; LIKE OPERATIONS FOR WORKING METAL BY REMOVING MATERIAL, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (making toothed gears or the like B23F; cutting metal by applying heat locally B23K; arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q)
MAKING GEARS OR TOOTHED RACKS (by stamping B21D; by rolling B21H; by forging or pressing B21K; by casting B22; arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q; machines or devices for grinding or polishing, in general B24B)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
the use of methods or apparatus specially designed to produce accurately the shapes of gear teeth which are essential for proper intermeshing of toothed gearing elements to ensure the required relative motions;

the use of similar methods or apparatus in the production of other articles of toothed or like form, e.g. dog clutches, splined shafts, milling cutters.


This subclass does not cover the production of such other articles of toothed or like form using methods or apparatus other than those mentioned under Note (1) above.

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
"gear teeth" covers the teeth or lobes of other accurately-intermeshing members having relative movement of a similar kind, such as rotors of rotary pumps and blowers;

"profile" may include the outline of both faces or only one face of a tooth, or the opposing faces of adjacent teeth;

"straight" means that a tooth as a whole (ignoring any curvature of the tooth-face alone, e.g. crowning) is straight in the direction of its length, for example as seen in the direction of a radius of a spur wheel. It accordingly includes the teeth of helical gears and of the normal type of bevel gear;

"broach-milling" means milling with a rotary cutter having a number of teeth of progressively increasing depth or width.


THREAD CUTTING; WORKING OF SCREWS, BOLT HEADS, OR NUTS, IN CONJUNCTION THEREWITH (making helical grooves by turning B23B 5/48, by milling B23C 3/32, by forging, pressing, or hammering B21K 1/56, by grinding B24B 19/02; arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q; thread-forming by corrugating tubes B21D 15/04, by rolling B21H 3/02)
NOTE
-
The term "thread cutting" is to be understood as including the use of tools similar both in form and in manner of use to thread-cutting tools, but without removing any material

WORKING OF METAL BY THE ACTION OF A HIGH CONCENTRATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENT ON A WORKPIECE USING AN ELECTRODE WHICH TAKES THE PLACE OF A TOOL; SUCH WORKING COMBINED WITH OTHER FORMS OF WORKING OF METAL (processes for the electrolytic or electrophoretic production of coatings, electroforming, or apparatus therefor C25D; processes for the electrolytic removal of material from objects C25F; manufacturing printed circuits using precipitation techniques to apply the conductive material to form the desired conductive pattern H05K 3/18)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers the working of metal described as "electroerosion"

SOLDERING OR UNSOLDERING ; WELDING ; CLADDING OR PLATING BY SOLDERING OR WELDING ; CUTTING BY APPLYING HEAT LOCALLY, e.g. FLAME CUTTING ; WORKING BY LASER BEAM( making metal-coated products by extruding metal B21C 23/22 ; building up linings or coverings by casting B22D 19/08 ; casting by dipping B22D 23/04 ; manufacture of composite layers by sintering metal powder B22F 7/00 ; arrangements on machine tools for copying or controlling B23Q; covering metals or covering materials with metals, not otherwise provided for C23C; burners F23D )
NOTE
-
This subclass covers also electric circuits specially adapted for the purposes covered by the title of the subclass.

In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
"soldering" means uniting metals using solder and applying heat without melting either of the parts to be united



WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B23K35/04 - B23K35/20 covered by B23K 35/0205 - B23K 35/0294B23K35/363 " B23K 35/3601 - B23K 35/3618

OTHER WORKING OF METAL; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS (arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q)
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover non-mechanical operations on non-metallic materials unless such operations are specially mentioned in this subclass.

In this subclass, the following expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
"combined operations" excludes the assembling of parts if it is an essential feature of the next metal-working operation, since it is not regarded as an operation per se.

"working of metal" and equivalent expressions include non-mechanical treatment of metal so far as it is not provided for in any other class or subclass, for example in C21D, C22C, C22F, C23. Thus, combinations of such non-mechanical treatment with other metal-working are classified in this subclass.


Attention is drawn to the Notes following the title of class B23.

DETAILS, COMPONENTS, OR ACCESSORIES FOR MACHINE TOOLS, e.g. ARRANGEMENTS FOR COPYING OR CONTROLLING (tools of the kind used in lathes or boring machines B23B 27/00); MACHINE TOOLS IN GENERAL CHARACTERISED BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF PARTICULAR DETAILS OR COMPONENTS; COMBINATIONS OR ASSOCIATIONS OF METAL-WORKING MACHINES, NOT DIRECTED TO A PARTICULAR RESULT
NOTE
-
In this subclass, groups designating parts of machine tools cover machine tools characterised by constructional features of such parts.

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

- "controlling" means influencing a variable in any way,
e.g. changing its direction or its value (including
changing it to or from zero), maintaining it constant,
limiting its range of variation;
- "regulation" means maintaining a variable automatically
at a desired value or within a desired range of values.
The desired value or range may be fixed, or manually
varied, or may vary with time according to a predetermined
"programme" or according to variation of another variable.
Regulation is a form of control;
- "automatic control" is often used in the art as a synonym
for regulation.

Attention is drawn to the Notes following the title of class B23.

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GRINDING; POLISHING
NOTE
-
In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

- "grinding" is used in the most general sense to mean machining
and covers, in particular, "corrective" operations.

MACHINES, DEVICES, OR PROCESSES FOR GRINDING OR POLISHING (grinding of gear teeth B23F, of screw-threads B23G 1/36; by electro-erosion B23H; abrasive or related blasting B24C; tools for grinding, buffing or sharpening B24D; polishing compositions C09G 1/00; abrasives C09K 3/14; electrolytic etching or polishing C25F 3/00; grinding arrangements for use on assembled railway tracks E01B 31/17); DRESSING OR CONDITIONING OF ABRADING SURFACES; FEEDING OF GRINDING, POLISHING, OR LAPPING AGENTS
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
"polishing" means the smoothing of a surface, i.e. a surface improvement but no improvement of the dimensional accuracy as would occur in a "grinding" operation.


Attention is drawn to Notes (1) and (2) following the title of subclass B23F.

In groups B24B 1/00 to B24B 27/00, in connection with glass the terms "grinding " and "polishing" are treated as being equivalent.

ABRASIVE OR RELATED BLASTING WITH PARTICULATE MATERIAL
NOTE
-

This subclass covers: - the use of a blast of any particles or pellets dispersed in air, gas, or liquid for the treatment of surfaces or cutting of materials, the particles usually being of abrasive material; - the equivalent use of a jet of particles or pellets projected or energised by means other than a stream of air
{
- the equivalent use of material without particles or pellets for deburring, removal of extended surface areas or jet milling of local recessions, e.g. grooves
}
In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated: - "abrasive" covers any material used in the manner mentioned in Note (1) above; - "blast" covers any equivalent jet of material mentioned in Note (1) above

TOOLS FOR GRINDING, BUFFING, OR SHARPENING (tools for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape B24B 13/01; grinding heads B24B 41/00; manufacture of abrasive or friction articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances C08J5/14; polishing compositions C09G 1/00; abrasives C09K 3/14)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers grinding tools for working on any material

Tools for grinding, buffing or sharpening, specially designed for a particular purpose, which purpose is provided for in a single other place, are classified in that place, e.g. B23F 21/02

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HAND TOOLS; PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS; MANIPULATORS
NOTE
-
The work "portable" is to be understood as including suspension for easy manual handling, e.g. in connection with springsuspended portable apparatus for use along assembly lines

TOOLS OR BENCH DEVICES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, FOR FASTENING, CONNECTING, DISENGAGING OR HOLDING
NOTE
-
This subclass is to be understood as covering those hand tools for fastening, connecting, disengaging, or holding which are not provided for in another subclass such as B25C (nailing or stapling tools) or in an application class such as B65B (packaging) or B21F (working of wire)

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B25B23/143 covered by B25B 23/1422
B25B23/144 covered by B25B 23/1425
B25B23/151 covered by B25B 23/14, B25B 23/147
B25B23/153 covered by B25B 23/1415
B25B23/155 covered by B25B 23/141
B25B23/157 covered by B25B 23/14
B25B23/159 covered by B25B 23/14
B25B27/067 covered by B25B 27/06
B25B27/073 covered by B25B 27/062


HAND-HELD NAILING OR STAPLING TOOLS; MANUALLY OPERATED PORTABLE STAPLING TOOLS (for shoemaking A43D)
NOTE
-
For the purposes of this subclass, the term "nail" is to be understood as including pin, bolt, and plug

PERCUSSIVE TOOLS
{
(percussive machines for forging B21J; hand-held drilling machines, in general B23B 45/00, for wood B27C 3/08 ; drilling machines, used for mining or quarrying, with reciprocating tool which is turned intermittently when out of contact with the working face E21B 1/00) [M1204
}
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B25D13/00 covered by B25D 11/064B25D15/00 covered by B25D 11/066B25D15/02 covered by B25D 11/068B25D17/10 covered by B25D 17/00, F16PB25D17/14 covered by B23Q 11/0042B25D17/16 covered by B23Q 11/0042B25D17/18 covered by B23Q 11/0042

COMBINATION OR MULTI-PURPOSE TOOLS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DETAILS OR COMPONENTS OF PORTABLE POWER-DRIVEN TOOLS NOT PARTICULARLY RELATED TO THE OPERATIONS PERFORMED AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
{
(machines or arrangements of machines for performing specified combinations of different metal-working operations not covered by a single other subclass B23P 23/00 and subgroups)
}
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover tools having a clear primary function as well as one or more secondary functions. Those tools are covered by the relevant subclass for tools having such primary function and are, thus, not classified in group B25F 1/00 or B25F 3/00 of this subclass.

HANDLES FOR HAND IMPLEMENTS (attaching the blades or the like to handles of hand tools for soil working A01B 1/22; handles of hand implements for harvesting A01D 1/14; handles integral with brushware A46B)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
handles for hand implements, in general;

handles for hand implements for particular purposes, subject to Note (2) below.


This subclass does not cover handles provided for elsewhere, e.g. it does not cover those provided for in A45B 9/02, A45C 13/22, A45C 13/26, A47B 95/02, A47J 45/00, B23D 51/01, B25J 13/02, B26B, B60N 3/02, B62B 5/06, B62B 9/20, B62K 21/26, B62M 3/14, B65D 25/28, E05B, G05G.


WORKSHOP EQUIPMENT, e.g. FOR MARKING-OUT WORK; STORAGE MEANS FOR WORKSHOPS (storing or packaging B65)
MANIPULATORS ; CHAMBERS PROVIDED WITH MANIPULATION DEVICES(
{
manipulators specially adapted for use in surgery A61B 19/22 ; manipulators used in cleaning hollow articles B08B 9/04
}
; manipulators associated with rolling mills B21B 39/20 ; manipulators associated with forging machines B21J 13/10 ;
{
manipulators associated with picking-up and placing mechanisms B23P 19/007
}
; means for holding wheels or parts thereof B60B 30/00 ;
{
vehicles with ground-engaging propulsion means, e.g. walking members B62D 57/02 , B62D 57/032 ; devices for picking-up and depositing articles or materials between conveyers B65G 47/90 , B65G 47/91 ; manipulators with gripping or holding means for transferring packages B65H 67/065
}
; cranes B66C;
{
manipulators used in the protection or supervision of pipe-line installations F17D 5/00 ; walking equipment adapted for nuclear steam-generators F22B 37/006
}
; manipulators specially adapted for, or associated with, nuclear reactors G21C;
{
apparatus used for handling wafers during manufacture or treatment of semiconductor H01L 21/68
}
)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated :

- "manipulator" covers handling tools, devices, or machines
having a gripping or work head capable of bodily
movement in space and of change of orientation, such bodily
movement and change of orientation being controlled,
at will, by means remote from the head.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B25J9/18 covered by B25J 9/16
B25J9/22 " " B25J 9/16 P, G05B 19/42

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HAND CUTTING TOOLS; CUTTING; SEVERING
HAND-HELD CUTTING TOOLS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (for harvesting A01D; for horticulture, for forestry A01G; for butchering or meat treatment A22; for manufactering or repairing footwear A43D; nail clippers or cutters A45D 29/02; kitchen equipment A47J;
{
vegetable slicers, julienne cutters and similar devices and holders therefor, B26D 3/28
}
; for surgical purposes A61B; for metal B23D; cutting by abrasive fluid jets B24C 5/02; plier-like tools with cutting edges B25B 7/22; pincers B25C 11/02; handles for hand implements, in general B25G; guillotine-type cutters B26D;
{
perforating by non-mechanical means, e.g. by fluid jet, B26F 1/26
}
; for erasing B43L 19/00; for textile materials D06H)
CUTTING; DETAILS COMMON TO MACHINES FOR PERFORATING, PUNCHING, CUTTING-OUT, STAMPING-OUT OR SEVERING (soil-working A01B; for growing crops or plants A01D, G; for fodder or straw A01F; for bulk butter A01J; for dough A21C; slaughtering A22B; for tobacco, cigars or cigarettes A24; marking-out, perforating or making buttonholes A41H 25/00; manufacturing footwear A43D; brushmaking A46D; surgery A61B; disintegrating, mincing or shredding in general B02C; cutting wire, making pins or nails B21F, G; of the kind used formetal B23; cutting by abrasive fluid jets B24C 5/02; hand-held cutting tools B26B; perforating, cutting-out, stamping-out or punching, or severing by means other than cutting B26F; for wood B27; for stone B28D; working of plastics or substances in a plastic state B29; making boxes, cartons, envelopes or bags, of paper or similarly worked materials, e.g. metal foil, B31B; article or web delivery apparatus incorporating cutting or line-perforating devices B65H 35/00; for leather or upholstery B68; C14B; for glass C03B; making matches C06F; for peat C10F; for sugar C13H; for textile materials D06H; civil engineering, building, mining, see Section E; for light guides G02B 6/25; cutting processed photographic material G03D 15/04)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
cutting non-metallic sheet material and metal foil in general;

cutting other forms of non-metallic material not otherwise provided for;

features specific to machines for cutting, perforating, punching, cutting-out, stamping-out and severing by means other than cutting, which relate to a requirement or problem of a nature which is not peculiar to a machine for these purposes, that is, details of or arrangements for operating or controlling such machines, although the realisation of such features may differ according to the kind of machine concerned. This subclass covers such features in general even if the feature in any particular case is to some extent peculiar to, or is claimed only for, a machine designed for perforating, punching, cutting-out, stamping-out, or for severing other than by cutting.


If the details or arrangements have no essential features specific to cutting, perforating, punching, cutting-out, stamping-out or severing machines, the more general classes, e.g. F16, take precedence.

In this subclass, in groups B26D 5/00 and B26D 7/00, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
"cutting" includes cutting-out, stamping-out, punching, perforating, and severing by means other than cutting.


PERFORATING; PUNCHING; CUTTING-OUT; STAMPING-OUT; SEVERING BY MEANS OTHER THAN CUTTING (marking-out, perforating or making buttonholes A41H 25/00; shoemaking A43D; surgery A61B; punching metal B21D; drilling metal B23B; cutting of metal by applying heat locally, e.g. flame cutting, B23K; cutting by abrasive fluid jets B24C 5/02; details common to machines for severing B26D; drilling wood B27C; drilling stone B28D; working of plastics or substances in a plastic state B29; making boxes, cartons, envelopes or bags, of paper or similarly worked materials, e.g. metal foil, B31B; of glass C03B; of leather C14B; of textile materials D06H; for light guides G02B 6/25; of tickets G07B)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
perforating, punching, cutting-out, stamping-out;

severing, by means other than cutting, non-metallic sheet materials or metal foil in general;

severing, by means other than cutting, other forms of non-metallic material not otherwise provided for.


Attention is drawn to Notes (1) and (2) following the title of subclass B26D.

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WORKING OR PRESERVING WOOD OR SIMILAR MATERIAL; NAILING OR STAPLING MACHINES IN GENERAL
SAWS; COMPONENTS OR ACCESSORIES THEREFOR (saws specially adapted for pruning or debranching A01G 3/08; sawing apparatus specially adapted for felling trees A01G 23/091; features not restricted to a particular type of wood saw B23D, e.g. attaching saw blades B23D 51/00; machine tool frames, beds, pillars or analogous members, in general B23Q 1/01)
PLANING, DRILLING, MILLING, TURNING, OR UNIVERSAL MACHINES (machine tools in general B23; working wood using abrasive, e.g. sanding, devices B24; tools for these purposes B27G)
WORKING VENEER OR PLYWOOD (applying liquids or other fluent materials to surface in general B05; grinding, sanding, or polishing of wood B24; applying adhesives or glue to surfaces of wood B27G 11/00; manufacture of veneer B27L 5/00)
DOVETAILED WORK; TENONS; SLOTTING MACHINES; NAILING OR STAPLING MACHINES (hand- held nailing or stapling tools B25C; manufacture of cases, boxes, or trunks from wood B27M 3/34; jointing elements F16B)
{
manufacture of long strips or planks by bonding together pieces of wood, e.g. by glueing, B27M3/00D
}
NOTE
-
This subclass covers also the assembling of the elements to be jointed, e.g. using adhesives, but the application of adhesives or glue to surfaces of wood to be jointed per se is dealt with in group B27G 11/00
{
manufacture of specific semi-finished or finished articles B27M 3/00
}

ACCESSORY MACHINES OR APPARATUS; TOOLS; SAFETY DEVICES e.g. THOSE FOR SAWS (clamping devices for mitre joints, presses for producing frames, press frames, or cages equipped with clamping devices B25B; woodworkers` benches B25H)
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B27G17/08 covered by B25D 3/00


BENDING; COOPERAGE; WHEEL-MAKING
MECHANICAL WORKING OF CANE, CORK, OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the working of cane embraces the working of other materials, e.g. of strips of wood or plastics, in the same manner

PROCESSES, APPARATUS OR SELECTION OF SUBSTANCES FOR IMPREGNATING, STAINING, DYEING, BLEACHING OF WOOD OR SIMILAR MATERIALS, OR TREATING OF WOOD OR SIMILAR MATERIALS WITH PERMEANT LIQUIDS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general B05; coating wood or similar material B44D); CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL TREATMENT OF CORK, CANE, REED, STRAW OR SIMILAR MATERIALS
REMOVING BARK OR VESTIGES OF BRANCHES (forestry A01G); SPLITTING WOOD; MANUFACTURE OF VENEER, WOODEN STICKS, WOOD SHAVINGS, WOOD FIBRES OR WOOD POWDER
WORKING OF WOOD NOT PROVIDED FOR IN SUBCLASSES B27B TO B27L; MANUFACTURE OF SPECIFIC WOODEN ARTICLES
MANUFACTURE BY DRY PROCESSES OF ARTICLES, WITH OR WITHOUT ORGANIC BINDING AGENTS, MADE FROM PARTICLES OR FIBRES CONSISTING OF WOOD OR OTHER LIGNOCELLULOSIC OR LIKE ORGANIC MATERIAL (containing cementitious material B28B; shaping of substances in a plastic state B29C; fibreboards made from fibrous suspensions D21J; drying F26B 17/00)
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover treatment of compositions which are in a plastic state, or worked by the same type of process or apparatus as plastics, which is covered by subclass B29B or B29C.

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WORKING CEMENT, CLAY, OR STONE
SHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER( foundry moulding B22C; working stone or stone-like material B28D; shaping of substances in a plastic state, in general B29C; making layered products not composed wholly of these substances B32B; shaping in situ, see the relevant classes of section E )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
- "the material" means: a. clay or other ceramic compositions; b. slag; c. mixtures with water-setting properties given by clay, cementitious material, or slag.

WARNING
-
The following IPC group(s) are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following groups:
B28B23/08 covered by B28B 21/60 , B28B 23/06

PREPARING CLAY ; PRODUCING MIXTURES CONTAINING CLAY OR CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER( preparing material for foundry moulds B22C 5/00 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
"cement" or "mixtures of cement with other substance" includes plaster;

"clay" includes like ceramic compositions.


WORKING STONE OR STONE-LIKE MATERIALS
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WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL (processing doughs A21C; working chocolate A23G; casting of metals B22; working cement, clay B28; chemical aspects, see section C, particularly C08; working glass C03B; candle making C11C 5/02; making soap C11D 13/00; manufacture of artificial filaments, threads, fibres, bristles or ribbons D01D, F; manufacture of articles from cellulosic fibrous suspensions or from papier-mâchè D21J)
NOTE
-
1. This class does not cover the working of plastics sheet material in a manner analogous to the working of paper, which is covered by class B31.
2. In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

- "plastics" means macromolecular compounds or compositions
based on such compounds.

3. In this class , the following rules apply:

a. The working of plastics is, as far as possible, classified primarily
according to the particular shaping technique used, e.g.
in subclass B29C. b. Classification according to production of particular articles
in subclass B29D is restricted to:
i. aspects which are characteristic for the production of a
particular article, and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C; ii. combined operations for making the particular article which
are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C. c. Products per se are not classified in this class. However,
if a product is characterised by the way it is produced and
not by its structure or composition, the production method
should be classified in this class.


PREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
SHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS ; SHAPING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE, IN GENERAL ; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING(
{
moulding devices for producing toilet or cosmetic sticks A45D 40/16
}
; working in the manner of metal B23; grinding, polishing B24; cutting B26D, B26F; making preforms B29B 11/00 ; making laminated products by combining previously unconnected layers which become one product whose layers will remain together B32B 37/00 - B32B 41/00 )
NOTE
-

1. Attention is drawn to Note (3) following the title of class B29.

2. In this subclass:
- repairing of articles made from plastics or substances in
a plastic state, e.g. of articles shaped or produced by
using techniques covered by this subclass or subclass B29D,
is classified in group B29C 73/00 ;
- component parts, details, accessories or auxiliary
operations which are applicable to more than one moulding
technique a reclassified in groups B29C 31/00 to B29C 37/00 ;
- component parts, details, accessories or auxiliary
operations which are only of use for one specific shaping
technique a reclassified only in the relevant subgroups of
groups B29C 39/00 to B29C 71/00 .


PRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE (making granules B29B 9/00; making preforms B29B 11/00)
INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASSES B29B, C OR D, RELATING TO MOULDING MATERIALS
NOTE
-

1. This subclass constitutes an indexing scheme associated with subclasses B29B, B29C or B29D.
2. In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated: "rubber" covers: natural or conjugated diene rubbers; rubber in general (for a specific rubber, other than a natural rubber or a conjugated diene rubber, see the group provided for such macromolecular compounds
3. Documents relating to compositions or properties of the materials to be shaped, said compositions having a particular influence on the shaping technique, should be classified in the shaping technique, e.g. B29C 39/003 , B29C 41/003 , B29C 43/003 , B29C 45/0001 , B29C 47/0004 , B29C 49/0005 , B29C 51/002 , B29C 53/005 , B29C 55/005 , B29C 61/003 , B29C 63/0017 and B2965/00S
Copolymers are indexed with the same indexing code as the majority polymers

WARNING
-
The following IPC indexing codes are not being used: B29K105/02 , B29K105/22 , B29K105/28 , B29K105/30 , B29K105/32 and B29K105/34 The aspect of B29K105/02 is covered by B29K 2995/0064 The aspect of B29K105/22 is covered by B29K705/00 The aspect of B29K105/28 is covered by B29K 2995/0025 The aspect of B29K105/30 is covered by B29K 2995/003 The aspect of B29K105/32 is covered by B29K 2995/0026 The aspects of B29K105/34 are covered by B29K 2995/002 , B29K 2995/0007 and B29K 2995/0015 Subclass indexes Compositions for moulding materials, condition, form or state of moulded material: B29K1 - B29K105 Compositions for reinforcements: B29K201 - B29K313 Compositions for fillers: B29K401 - B29K511 Compositions for preformed parts: B29K601 - B29K713 Compositions for moulds: B29K801 - B29K913 Properties of moulding materials, reinforcements, fillers, preformed parts or moulds: B29K995 Compositions for moulding materials; Condition, form or state of moulded material
From the date indicated below, the following groups have been deleted from the classification scheme. The documents of these groups have been transferred to the new groups as follows :
B29K105/28 transfered to B29K 2995/0025
B29K105/30 transfered to B29K 2995/003
B29K105/32 transfered to B29K 2995/0026
B29K105/34 transfered to B29K 2995/002 , B29K 2995/0007 , B29K00D4

INDEXING SCHEME ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLASS B29C, RELATING TO PARTICULAR ARTICLES
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an indexing scheme for non-obligatory use only. The indexing scheme may be used to identify information which supplements subject matter already classified in subclass B29C. The indexing codes of this subclass, of which only the pertinent ones should be selected, are added in conformity with paragraph 82 of the Guide so as to provide information concerning the articles produced
This subclass constitutes an indexing scheme associated with subclass B29C [N: and group B29B 17/00. Parts of specified articles are indexed with the same index codes as the articles]

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PRESSES
PRESSES IN GENERAL( producing ultra-high pressure or ultra-high pressure and high temperature to effect modifications of a substance, e.g. for making artificial diamonds B01J 3/00 )
{
( compressing means for refuse receptacles B65F 1/1405 )
}
NOTE
-
This subclass provides for presses in general and also for those presses, for particular purposes, which are not provided for elsewhere.

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MAKING PAPER ARTICLES; WORKING PAPER (making layered products not composed wholly of paper or cardboard B32B; handling thin material, e.g. sheets, webs, B65H)
NOTE
-
The word "paper" in this class is to be interpreted as covering material worked in a manner analogous to paper, e.g. plastic sheet materials, laminated materials or metal foils. This class does not include making articles directly from paper pulp, which is covered by D21J.

This class is to be understood as restricted to adaptations or associations of handling sheets, webs, or blank peculiar to paper-working, e.g. bag or box making, machinery. Handling sheets, webs, or blanks of wider applicability, irrespective of whether described or claimed only for paper-working machinery, is to be regarded as of a more comprehensive nature and as such classified in B65H.

MAKING BOXES, CARTONS, ENVELOPES OR BAGS (incising, scoring, in general B26D 3/08; combined making and filling B65B)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, envelopes or bags are regarded as being essentially flexible containers, the final shape of which is determined by their contents.

In this subclass, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:
- "boxes or cartons" includes bags formed similarly to cartons, trays with upstanding side-walls, barrels, tubes and cups, other than articles formed by winding.

In this subclass, it is desirable to add the indexing codes of B31B 2201/00 - B31B2241/00N

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B31B7/02 covered by B31B 1/02B31B7/14 covered by B31B 1/14B31B7/60 covered by B31B 1/60B31B7/74 covered by B31B 1/74B31B9/00 covered by B31B 3/00B31B9/02 covered by B31B 3/02B31B9/14 covered by B31B 3/14B31B9/26 covered by B31B 3/26B31B9/60 covered by B31B 3/60B31B9/74 covered by B31B 3/74B31B11/02 covered by B31B 1/02B31B11/14 covered by B31B 1/14B31B11/26 covered by B31B 1/26B31B11/60 covered by B31B 1/60B31B11/74 covered by B31B 1/74B31B13/02 covered by B31B 1/02B31B13/14 covered by B31B 1/14B31B13/60 covered by B31B 1/60B31B13/74 covered by B31B 1/74B31B15/14 covered by B31B 1/14B31B15/26 covered by B31B 1/26B31B15/60 covered by B31B 1/60B31B15/74 covered by B31B 1/74B31B21/02 covered by B31B 19/02B31B21/14 covered by B31B 19/14B31B21/26 covered by B31B 19/26B31B21/60 covered by B31B 19/60B31B21/74 covered by B31B 19/74B31B23/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 23/00B31B23/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 23/00B31B23/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 23/00B31B23/60 covered by B31B 19/60, B31B 23/00B31B23/74 covered by B31B 19/74, B31B 23/00B31B25/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 25/00B31B25/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 25/00B31B25/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 25/00B31B25/60 covered by B31B 19/60, B31B 25/00B31B25/74 covered by B31B 19/74, B31B 25/00B31B27/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 27/00B31B27/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 27/00B31B27/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 27/00B31B27/60 covered by B31B 19/60, B31B 27/00B31B27/74 covered by B31B 19/74, B31B 27/00B31B29/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 29/00B31B29/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 29/00B31B29/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 29/00B31B31/00 covered by B31B 29/00B31B31/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 29/00B31B31/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 29/00B31B31/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 29/00B31B31/60 covered by B31B 29/60B31B31/74 covered by B31B 29/74B31B33/00 covered by B31B 29/00B31B33/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 29/00B31B33/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 29/00B31B33/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 29/00B31B33/60 covered by B31B 29/60B31B33/74 covered by B31B 29/74B31B35/00 covered by B31B 29/00B31B35/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 29/00B31B35/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 29/00B31B35/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 29/00B31B35/60 covered by B31B 29/60B31B35/74 covered by B31B 29/74B31B37/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 37/00B31B37/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 37/00B31B37/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 37/00B31B37/60 covered by B31B 19/60, B31B 37/00B31B37/74 covered by B31B 19/74, B31B 37/00B31B39/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 39/00B31B39/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 39/00B31B39/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 39/00B31B39/60 covered by B31B 19/60, B31B 39/00B31B41/02 covered by B31B 19/02, B31B 41/00B31B41/14 covered by B31B 19/14, B31B 41/00B31B41/26 covered by B31B 19/26, B31B 41/00B31B41/60 covered by B31B 19/60, B31B 41/00B31B41/74 covered by B31B 19/74, B31B 41/00

MAKING WOUND ARTICLES, e.g. WOUND TUBES (characteristics relating to the working of plastics B29)
NOTE
-
The term "winding" in this subclass means forming two or more complete convolutions.

MAKING OTHER PAPER ARTICLES (manufacture by dry processes of articles made from particles or fibres consisting of wood or other lignocellulosic material B27N; making layered products not composed wholly of paper or cardboard B32B; making cardboard or paper D21F, D21H; making articles form wood pulp D21J)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers the making, otherwise than by winding, of articles other than boxes, cartons, envelopes, bags, and tubes from paper, other than from paper pulp.

MECHANICAL WORKING OR DEFORMATION OF PAPER OR CARDBOARD (cutting, trimming, in general B26; incising, scoring, in general B26D 3/08; making layered products not composed wholly of paper or cardboard B32B; multi-ply material of paper or cardboard, its manufacture D21H)
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LAYERED PRODUCTS
LAYERED PRODUCTS, i.e. PRODUCTS BUILT-UP OF STRATA OF FLAT OR NON-FLAT, e.g. CELLULAR OR HONEYCOMB, FORM
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
- layered products comprising different kinds of material or
layered products not characterised by the particular kind
of material used;
- a product similar to a layered product but comprising only
material in the form of a sheet or network embedded in a
mass of plastics or of physically-similar substances which
mass penetrates the said sheet or network and lies on both
sides of the latter (e.g. so that the sheet or network
reinforces the plastics substance) PROVIDED THAT the
embedded sheet or network extends coherently or connectedly
over substantially the whole area of the product; thus the
embedded sheet or network may be a fabric or a series of
rods connected by cross wires. The manner of making such a
product is, however, classified in this subclass only if it
is essentially a process of building-up an assembly of layers
of which at least one outer layer is preformed. If the
embedded material comprises only a series of unconnected
rods, the product is not classified in this subclass.
This subclass does not cover:
- processes or apparatus used in, or in connection with, the
production or treatment of any product, if the process or
apparatus is fully classifiable in a single other class or
subclass for processes or apparatus, e.g. B05, B29, B44D,
C08J, C09J, C23;
- compositions or preparation or treatment thereof, unless
they are essentially restricted to layered products and
cannot be fully classified in another class without
ignoring this restriction;
- etched metallic pattern on the surface of a printed circuit board.
In this subclass:
- a film formed on a layer by spreading a substance thereon
is not considered to constitute a layer itself if it
serves only as an adhesive or its purpose is merely to
finish a surface of a product;
- groups designating products cover also methods or apparatus
specially adapted for producing such products.
In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
- "layer" is a sheet or strip or anything else having a small
thickness relatively to its other dimensions which, together
with at least one other layer, exists in a product, whether
it pre-existed, e.g. as a separate sheet or strip, or was
formed during the production of the layered product. It may
or may not be homogeneous or cohesive; it may be an assembly
of fibres or pieces of material. It may be discontinuous,
e.g. in the form of a grating, honeycomb, or frame. It may
may or may not be in complete contact with the next layer,
e.g. a corrugated layer against a flat layer;
- "layered product" comprises at least two layers secured
together. The term "secured" includes any method of uniting
layers, e.g. needling, stitching, gluing, nailing,
dovetailing or the interposition of an adhesive or adhesive
impregnated support. It may also be an intermediate stage
in the production of an article which is not layered in its
final form, e.g. a panel with a protective layer which is
stripped off when the panel is placed in its position of
use. The layers are preformed layers or layers formed IN
SITU on a preformed layer and may consist of coherent solid
materials, including honeycombs and other cellular materials
or of non-coherent solid materials composed of assemblies of
strands, strips, fibres, tiles or the like;
- "filamentary layer" means a layer of threads or filaments of
any substance (e.g. wires) of more or less unlimited length
placed in an orderly arrangement and secured together; it
may be woven, knitted, braided, or netted, or formed of
threads crossed or laid side by side and bonded together;
- "fibrous layer" means a random assembly of fibres of limited length, e.g. felt, fleece;
the fibres
{
being
}
interengaged or connected, e.g. by adhesive.
In this subclass, - "First place rule" is used in the following groups B32B 9/04 , B32B 11/04 , B32B 13/04 , B32B 15/04 , B32B 19/04 , B32B 21/04 , B32B 23/04 C- B32B 23/12 , B32B 25/04 , B32B 27/06 , B32B 29/002 . However, when these groups are not characterised by the specific material adjacency to be classified, then, multiple classification is given, e.g. a layered product having a stone layer next to a bituminous layer would be classified in B32B 9/04 and in B32B 11/04 . For a cellulosic plastic layer next to a metal layer or to a wood layer B32B 23/042 or B32B 23/044 , respectively, take precedence (i.e. first rule does not apply). For layered products comprising at least two ceramic layers , products comprising only ceramic layers are classified in group B32B 18/00 and products comprising two ceramics layers and at least one layer of another material are classified in B32B 18/00 and B32B 9/04 .

WARNING
-

The following IPC are not used in the CPC scheme Subject matter covered by theses groups is classified in the following CPC groups - B32B 1/04 covered by B32B 3/02 - B32B 3/08 - B32B 1/06 covered by B32B 13/02 - B32B 3/08 - B32B 3/22 covered by B32B 3/08 -B2B3/22 - B32B3/24 covered by B32B 3/266 - B32B 5/28 covered by B32B 2260/021 - B32B 2260/023 - B32B 17/02 covered by B32B 2262/101 - B32B 17/04 covered by B32B 2262/101 and B32B 2260/04 - B32B17/12 covered by B32B 17/067 - B32B 23/02 covered by B32B 2262/04 and B32B 5/02 - B32B 5/12 - B32B 27/02 covered by B32B 2262/02 - B32B 2262/0292 and B32B 5/02 - B32B 5/12 - B32B 27/04 covered by B32B 2260/048

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SUBSECTION:
Printing
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PRINTING; LINING MACHINES; TYPEWRITERS; STAMPS (reproduction or duplication of pictures or patterns by scanning and converting into electrical signals H04N)
MACHINES OR ACCESSORIES FOR MAKING, SETTING, OR DISTRIBUTING TYPE; TYPE; PHOTOGRAPHIC OR PHOTOELECTRIC COMPOSING DEVICES (photographic devices in general G03)
PROCESSES FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR REPRODUCTION OF PRINTING SURFACES( photomechanical processes for producing printing surfaces G03F; photoelectrical processes for producing printing surfaces G03G )
APPARATUS FOR THE MECHANICAL REPRODUCTION OF PRINTING SURFACES FOR STEREOTYPE PRINTING; SHAPING ELASTIC OR DEFORMABLE MATERIAL TO FORM PRINTING SURFACES (
{
engraving by spark erosion B23H;
}
marking or engraving metal by the action of a high concentration of electric current B23H 9/06; type, machines or accessories for making, setting, or distributing type B41B; processes for the manufacture or reproduction of printing surfaces B41C; machines or apparatus for engraving in general, or for embossing B44B 3/00, B44B 5/00; chemical etching of metal C23F 1/00; electrolytic etching C25F 3/00; photomechanical reprodcution G03F)
PRINTING MACHINES OR PRESSES( machines for manufacturing footwear incorporating printing or embossing apparatus A43D , e.g. A43D 8/26 , A43D 95/14 ; presses in general B30B ; making of printing surfaces B41C , B41D ; manifolding devices, office printing machines B41L ; stencilling B41L ,
{
B44D
}
; printing processes not dependent on the use of special machines B41M ; duplicating or marking by sublimation or volatilisation of design B41M 5/035 ; thermography B41M 5/26 ; embossing decorations or marks B44B 5/00 ;
{
applying transfers or decalcomanias B44C 1/16
}
; handling thin or filamentary material B65H ; electrography, electrophotography, magnetography G03G )
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to Notes 1 and 2 following the title of subclass B41L .

APPARATUS FOR BRONZE PRINTING, LINE PRINTING, OR FOR BORDERING OR EDGING SHEETS OR LIKE ARTICLES; AUXILIARY FOR PERFORATING IN CONJUNCTION WITH PRINTING (perforating in general B26D; production of decorations B44C; perforating in conjunction with sheet or web delivery B65H 35/00; folding or unfolding thin material, e.g. sheets, webs, B65H 45/00, B65H 47/00)
TYPEWRITERS; SELECTIVE PRINTING MECHANISMS,
{
e.g. INK-JET PRINTERS, THERMAL PRINTERS
}
, i.e. MECHANISMS PRINTING OTHERWISE THAN FROM A FORME; CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERRORS (composing B41B; printing on special surfaces B41F; laundry marking B41K; erasers, rubbers or erasing devices B43L 19/00; fluid media for correction of typographical errors by coating C09D 10/00; recording the results of measuring G01; recognition or presentation of data, marking record carriers in digital fashion, e.g. by punching, G06K; franking or ticket-printing and issuing apparatus G07B; electric keyboard switches, in general H01H 13/70, H03K 17/94; coding in connection with keyboards or like devices, in general H03M 11/00; receivers or transmitters for transmission of digital information H04L; transmission or reproduction of documents, or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission, H04N 1/00; printing mechanisms specially adapted for apparatus, e.g. cash registers, weighing machines, producing records of their own performance, see the relevant subclasses)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
- manually controlled power-operated apparatus or apparatus of this type with additional
control by input of recorded information, e.g. on punched cards of tapes;
- the "print-out" features of apparatus controlled by record carriers or electric signals
in so far as these are of general interest, e.g. impression, inking, line-spacing
mechanisms, printing heads.

This subclass does not cover:
- electrical features of apparatus controlled by record carriers or electric signals and
of interest apart from the "print-out" features of said apparatus;
- apparatus controlled by record carriers or electric signals, as a whole.

In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
- "paper" covers also similar flexible copy material;
- "printing material" covers both paper and temporary record carriers from which records
are transferred to a paper, but does not cover printing masters, e.g. formes.

STAMPS; STAMPING OR NUMBERING APPARATUS OR DEVICES (marking meat A22C 17/10; embossing combined with printing B41F 19/00; selective printing mechanisms B41J; embossing decorations or marks B44B 5/00; marking or coding completed packages B65B 61/26; ticket printing and issuing, fare registering, nonprinting aspects of franking apparatus G07B)
APPARATUS OR DEVICES FOR MANIFOLDING, DUPLICATING, OR PRINTING FOR OFFICE OR OTHER COMMERCIAL PURPOSES; ADDRESSING MACHINES OR LIKE SERIES-PRINTING MACHINES (printing presses or machines for industrial purposes B41F; stamps, stamping or numbering devices B41K)
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover constituent parts common to manifolding by means of pressure-sensitive layers or intermediaries, to apparatus or machines for duplicating or printing for office or other commercial purposes, or to addressing machines or like series-printing machines, which are covered by subclass B41F.

In this subclass, as indicated by the references, groups B41L 15/00 and B41L 17/00 are intended to cover letterpress and lithographic printing apparatus only in so far as it is specially adapted for office or other commercial purposes; the general constructions or features of apparatus of these types are classified in subclass B41F.

Constructions or features determining classification in these
groups are, for example:
ease of operation by clerical staff, cleanliness of operation
in non-industrial environments, the use of printing surfaces
constructed for the production of a limited number of copies.

In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:

- "manifolding" means the obtaining of several copies
simultaneously by means of pressure-sensitive layers when
making an original;
- "duplicating" means the obtaining of successive copies from
a master, e.g. a hectographic image;
- "stencilling" involves the use of a printing surface which
is perforated to form the image, the ink flowing through
the perforations on the copy material.


PRINTING, DUPLICATING, MARKING, OR COPYING PROCESSES ; COLOUR PRINTING,( correction of typographical errors B41J; processes for applying transfer pictures or the like B44C 1/16 ; fluid media for correction of typographical errors by coating C09D 10/00 ; printing textiles D06P )
PRINTING PLATES OR FOILS (photosensitive material G03); MATERIALS FOR SURFACES USED IN PRINTING MACHINES FOR PRINTING, INKING, DAMPING, OR THE LIKE; PREPARING SUCH SURFACES FOR USE AND CONSERVING THEM
{
In this subclass the COPES System is used
}
INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO PRINTING, LINING MACHINES, TYPEWRITERS, AND TO STAMPS
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only.

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BOOKBINDING; ALBUMS; FILES; SPECIAL PRINTED MATTER
PERMANENTLY ATTACHING TOGETHER SHEETS, QUIRES OR SIGNATURES OR PERMANENTLY ATTACHING OBJECTS THERETO (nailing or stapling in general B25C, B27F; machines for both collating or gathering and permanently attaching together sheets or signatures B42C 1/12; temporarily attaching sheets together B42F)
BOOKBINDING (cutting or perforating machines, devices or tools B26; folding sheets or webs B31F; ornamenting books B44)
BOOKS; BOOK COVERS; LOOSE LEAVES; PRINTED MATTER OF SPECIAL FORMAT OR STYLE NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; DEVICES FOR USE THEREWITH; MOVABLE-STRIP WRITING OR READING APPARATUS (book stands A47B 19/00; book-rests A47B 23/00)<br/>
SHEETS TEMPORARILY ATTACHED TOGETHER; FILING APPLIANCES; FILE CARDS; INDEXING (reading desks A47B 19/00; book rests A47B 23/00)
NOTE
-
The words "filing appliance" in this subclass mean holders for collections of papers, sheets, cards, or units thereof, each paper, sheet, card, or unit being individually insertable and extractable. These words may thus include a calendar, an instruction manual, or a letter file

INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO BOOKS, FILING APPLIANCES OR THE LIKE
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only.

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WRITING OR DRAWING IMPLEMENTS; BUREAU ACCESSORIES
IMPLEMENTS FOR WRITING OR DRAWING (containers, casings or accessories for cosmetic substances, e.g. shaving soap, lipstick, make-up A45D 34/00, A45D 40/00)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:-"writing implements" covers pens, pencils, crayons, chalks or like markers for writing or drawing

ARTICLES FOR WRITING OR DRAWING UPON;
{
WRITING OR DRAWING AIDS;
}
ACCESSORIES FOR WRITING OR DRAWING (workshop equipment for marking-out work B25H 7/00; teaching hand-writing or drawing G09B 11/00)
NOTE
-
Devices used for both teaching and facilitating writing or drawing are classified in G09B 11/00)

BUREAU ACCESSORIES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (stapling devices B25C 5/00; devices for temporarily attaching sheets together B42F)
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DECORATIVE ARTS
NOTE
-
Any machine, apparatus, tool or process is classified in this class insofar as it produces an effect or mark meant to be judged by the eye and insofar as such machine, apparatus, tool or process is not provided for elsewhere

MACHINES, APPARATUS OR TOOLS FOR ARTISTIC WORK, e.g. FOR SCULPTURING, GUILLOCHING, CARVING, BRANDING, INLAYING (processes for producing decorative effects B44C; embossing leather C14B)
PRODUCING DECORATIVE EFFECTS (processes for applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general B05D; shaping of plastics or substances in a plastic state B29C; printing processes to produce transfer pictures B41M 3/12; thermographic duplication or marking methods B41M 5/00); MOSAICS; TARSIA WORK (imitation of mosaic or tarsia work patterns B44F 11/04); PAPERHANGING
{
(Labels G09F; Multi-step processes for making paper labels or tags B31D 1/02)
}
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:

- "decorative effects", when used in connection with the
expressions "transfer picture" or "decalcomanias",covers
also "information"

PAINTING OR ARTISTIC DRAWING, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; PRESERVING PAINTINGS; SURFACE TREATMENT TO OBTAIN SPECIAL ARTISTIC SURFACE EFFECTS OR FINISHES (surface treatment in general, see the relevant places, e.g. applying liquids or other fluent materials B05) <br/>
SPECIAL DESIGNS OR PICTURES
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups: B44F1/12 covered by B42D 15/00

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SUBSECTION:
Transporting
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VEHICLES IN GENERAL
NOTE
-
In this class, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:- "vehicle" means all vehicles except those restricted to one of the following types of vehicles: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles, and sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61 to B64. Thus, the term "vehicle" includes:- vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above listed types;- certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road or cross-country trailersThe following exceptions to the above should be noted:
Subclass B60B or B60C embrace all vehicle wheels and tyres, except wheels for roller skates A63C 17/22, wheels for model railway vehicles A63H 19/22, and special adaptations of wheels or tyres for aircraft B64C 25/36

Subclass B60C embraces the connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies in general, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles

Subclass B60L embraces certain electric equipment of all electrically-propelled vehicles

Subclass B60M embraces certain power supply for, but external to, any kind of electrically-propelled vehicle

Subclass B60R embraces safety belts or body harnesses used in all types of land vehicles

Subclass B60S relates to all kinds of vehicles, except the servicing of rail locomotives B61K 11/00, ground equipment for aircraft B64F, or cleaning apparatus peculiar to waterborne vessels B63B 57/00, B63B 59/00

Subclass B60T includes brake control systems of general applicability, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles. It also includes rail-vehicle power-brake systems and some other features of rail-vehicle brake systems


VEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the Explanatory Note following the class title (B60)

VEHICLE TYRES( manufacture B29 ) ; TYRE INFLATION ; TYRE CHANGING OR REPAIRING ; REPAIRING, OR CONNECTING VALVES TO, INFLATABLE ELASTIC BODIES IN GENERAL ; DEVICES OR ARRANGEMENTS RELATED TO TYRES( testing of tyres G01M 17/02 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the term "tyre" is to be understood as a separate ground-engaging, continuous element outside the periphery of the wheel rim and includes the tyre casing, cover, or jacket and any insert, e.g. inner tube. In the groups relating to repair or connection of valves, the term "tyre" is to be understood to include also inflatable elastic bodies other than tyres or inner tubes

Attention is drawn to the note following the title of class B 60.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B60C11/113 covered by B60C 11/0311
B60C11/117 covered by B60C 11/032


VEHICLE CONNECTIONS (components of brake systems B60T 17/04)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the note following the class B60

VEHICLES FOR USE BOTH ON RAIL AND ON ROAD; AMPHIBIOUS OR LIKE VEHICLES; CONVERTIBLE VEHICLES (air-cushion vehicles B60V)
VEHICLE SUSPENSION ARRANGEMENTS (air-cushion vehicles B60V;
{
cycle suspensions B62K 25/00
}
)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the explanatory note following the class title B60


Indexing codes B60G 2200/00 to B60G 2800/00 are dedicated to particular aspects of suspension arrangements:
B60G 2200/00 refers to the type of suspension arrangement;

B60G 2202/00 refers to the suspension elements used (springs, dampers and actuators);

B60G 2204/00 refers to mounting features of suspension elements;

B60G 2206/00 refers to constructional and manufacturing details of suspension elements;

B60G 2300/00 refers to the type of vehicle;

B60G 2400/00 to B60G 2800/00 refer to the electronic control of suspension arrangements, whereby:
B60G 2400/00 refers to input parameters of the control;

B60G 2401/00 refers to types of sensors used;

B60G 2500/00 refers to the controlled action or device;

B60G 2600/00 refers to particular details of the control system;

B60G 2800/00 refers to the result to be achieved by the control action.



Groups B60G 2200/00 to B60G 2800/00 are to be used in multi-aspect classification, so that subject matter characterised by aspects covered by more than one of these groups, which is considered to represent information of interest for search, should be classified in a combination of at least one relevant "invention information" symbol in association with indexing codes from each of these groups.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
- B60G23/00 covered by B60G 17/0165

ARRANGEMENTS OR ADAPTATIONS OF HEATING, COOLING, VENTILATING, OR OTHER AIR-TREATING DEVICES SPECIALLY FOR PASSENGER OR GOODS SPACES OF VEHICLES
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B60

WINDOWS, WINDSCREENS, NON-FIXED ROOFS, DOORS, OR SIMILAR DEVICES FOR VEHICLES; REMOVABLE EXTERNAL PROTECTIVE COVERINGS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR VEHICLES (fastening, suspending, closing, or opening of such devices E05)
NOTE
-
Windows, windscreens, non-fixed roofs, doors, or similar devices which are of general applicability, irrespective of whether described or claimed only for vehicles, are also classified in subclass E06B.

Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B60.

ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PROPULSION UNITS OR OF TRANSMISSIONS IN VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENT OR MOUNTING OF PLURAL DIVERSE PRIME-MOVERS; AUXILIARY DRIVES; INSTRUMENTATION OR DASHBOARDS FOR VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS IN CONNECTION WITH COOLING, AIR INTAKE, GAS EXHAUST, OR FUEL SUPPLY, OF PROPULSION UNITS, IN VEHICLES
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

- "conjoint control of drive units" includes such control for
vehicles or of general applicability;
- "auxiliary drives" means drives of auxiliary or external
machines or devices from the propulsion unit, transmission,
or other parts of the vehicle, and includes the control of
such drives;
- "transmission" means all propulsion parts linking propulsion
units, e.g. engines, to ultimate propulsive elements, e.g.
wheels;
- "drive unit" means propulsion unit conjoint with transmission,
a "drive unit" can additionally include the ultimate driven
unit;
- "sub-unit" means, e.g. propulsion unit, clutch, gearing or
brake system;
- "hybrid vehicle" means vehicles with plural diverse
prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion

Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B60

ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL (electric coupling devices combined with mechanical couplings of vehicles B60D 1/62; electric heating for vehicles B60H; transmitting drive from electric motors to ultimate propulsive elements in vehicles B60K; disposition of electric propulsion equipment, other than current collectors, in vehicles B60K; auxiliary generator drives on vehicles B60K; lighting for vehicles B60Q; vehicle brake control systems in general B60T; preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles B61C; railway track circuits in general B61L; lighting in general F21; H05B; switches in general H01H; coupling devices for electric connections in general H01R; dynamo-electric machines H02K; electric converters H02M; starting, controlling, braking of electric machines or converters in general H02P; electric heating in general H05B)
NOTE
-
This subclass, subject to the above references, covers:
feeding of power to auxiliary circuits;

current collectors; arrangements thereof on rail or road vehicles or on vehicles in general

electrodynamic brake systems;

electric propulsion of vehicles; control and regulation therefor


In this subclass it is desirable to classify any "additional information" which is of interest for search.

POWER SUPPLY LINES, AND DEVICES ALONG RAILS, FOR ELECTRICALLY- PROPELLED VEHICLES (control of points and safety arrangements along railway lines B61L; construction of rails and points in general E01B)
NOTE
-
This subclass deals with:
overhead, overground or underground power supply lines; their crossings and points, erection and supervision;

devices along rails and rail joints, for current conduction and for insulation;

safety devices along the route against earth currents and inductive interference with nearby communication lines


VEHICLE PASSENGER ACCOMMODATION NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR( furniture construction A47 )
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the Explanatory Note following the class title B60

In this subclass the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
- "cushion": seating part of a seat distinguished from the back-rest

VEHICLES ADAPTED FOR LOAD TRANSPORTATION OR TO TRANSPORT, TO CARRY OR TO COMPRISE SPECIAL LOADS OR OBJECTS (vehicles with special provisions for invalids A61G 3/00)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the Explanatory Note following the class title (B60)

WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B60P1/46 covered by B60P 1/4421
B60P3/022 covered by E04G 21/14
B60P3/325 covered by B60P 3/32
B60P3/33 covered by B60P 3/34
B60P3/335 covered by B60P 3/32
B60P3/345 covered by B60P 3/34
B60P3/35 covered by B60P 3/34
B60P3/355 covered by B60P 3/34
B60P3/363 covered by B60P 3/36
B60P3/367 covered by B60P 3/36
B60P3/37 covered by B60P 3/343
B60P3/373 covered by B60P 3/32
B60P3/377 covered by B60P 3/34
B60P5/00 covered by G01G 19/08


VEHICLE LIGHTING OR SIGNALLING( arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof for rail vehicles B61D, for cycles B62J, for ships B63B, for aircrafts B64D; lighting in general, lighting devices per se F21, H05B; signalling in general G08; electric switches per se H01H )
NOTE
-
This subclass covers also:

- electric signalling of lighting circuits so far as specially
arranged in vehicles;
- arrangements or adaptations of lighting switches or signal-
initiating means

Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B60

Attention is drawn to the following places :
B60K 28/00 Safety devices, e.g. sleeping driver
B60R25 Anti theft
B62D Driving assistance
B62D 15/02 Steering aids
B60K 31/0008 Cruise control
F21S 48/00 Lighting devices or systems specially adapted for vehicles
G01S Infra red night vision
G01S 13/931 Anti Collision
G05D 1/00 Automatic pilot
G06K 9/00 Pattern recognition
G06T 3/00 Image transformation
G06T 5/00 Image enhancement
G06T 7/00 Image analysis
G08B 21/00 Alarms in general
G08G Traffic control
G08G 1/16 Anti-collision systems
H04N Television systems

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B60Q1/128 covered by B60Q 1/124
B60Q1/132 covered by B60Q 1/124
B60Q1/136 covered by B60Q 1/124

VEHICLES, VEHICLE FITTINGS, OR VEHICLE PARTS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B60

SERVICING, CLEANING, REPAIRING, SUPPORTING, LIFTING, OR MANOEUVRING OF VEHICLES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B60.

VEHICLE BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF ; BRAKE CONTROL SYSTEMS OR PARTS THEREOF, IN GENERAL( electrodynamic brake systems for vehicle, in general B60L; brakes per se, i.e. devices where braking effect occurs, including ultimate brake actuators, F16D ) ; ARRANGEMENT OF BRAKING ELEMENTS ON VEHICLES IN GENERAL ; PORTABLE DEVICES FOR PREVENTING UNWANTED MOVEMENT OF VEHICLES ; VEHICLE MODIFICATIONS TO FACILITATE COOLING OF BRAKES
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the term "brake control systems" includes brake control systems for vehicles or of general applicability

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B60T8/20 covered by B60T 8/18
B60T8/22 covered by B60T 8/18
B60T8/60 - B60T8/70 covered by B60T 8/17
B60T8/78 - B60T8/84 covered by B60T 8/17
B60T13/122 covered by B60T 13/147 , B60T 13/167
B60T13/125 covered by B60T 13/141
B60T13/128 covered by B60T 13/145 , B60T 13/165
B60T13/13 covered by B60T 13/146 , B60T 13/166
B60T13/132 covered by B60T 13/143 , B60T 13/162
B60T13/135 covered by B60T 13/144 , B60T 13/163
B60T13/138 covered by B60T 13/148 , B60T 13/168
B60T13/60 covered by B60T 13/58
B60T15/06 covered by B60T 15/04
B60T15/08 covered by B60T 15/04


AIR-CUSHION VEHICLES (devices for short-distance movement of heavy loads by providing a high-pressure fluid cushion, supplied from an independent source, between load and ground B65G 7/06)
NOTE
-
The term "air-cushion vehicles" in this subclass includes all vehicles which are wholly or partly supported on land or water by air or other gaseous cushions

CONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
NOTE
-
(1) This subclass does not cover the control of a single sub-unit; such control is classified in the relevant place for the sub-unit, e.g. F02D, F16H. Where a single sub-unit is controlled by means of signals or commands from other sub-units, the control of this single sub-unit is classified in the relevant place for this sub-unit. For example, the control of variable-ratio gearing by means of signals from the engine or the accelerator is classified in the subclass for gearing, F16H.
(2) Conjoint control of driveline units, e.g. engines, and variable-ratio gearing occurring only transiently during ratio shift and being also characterised by the control of the gearing is also classified in the subclass for gearing, F16H.
(3) In groups B60W 20/00 - B60W 50/00, the first place priority rule is applied, i.e. at each hierarchical level, classification is made in the first appropriate place.
(4) When classifying in group B60W 10/00, classification must also be made in groups B60W 20/00-B60W 50/00 in order to identify the purpose or use of the control.
(5) In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:
- "conjoint control" means that a programmed or condition-responsive
{
main
}
automatic controller on board the vehicle, embodying control logic for vehicle sub-units of different type or different function, sends control signals to actuators of two or more vehicle sub-units,
{
three or more vehicle sub-units for groups B60W 30/00-30/16
}
, so that the sub-units act together to solve a particular problem or in response to a paticular driving condition,
{
in order to improve stability, comfort or safety by managing the global dynamics of the vehicle
}
;
- "drive control system" means an electronic system in a road vehicle for automatically controlling the movement
{
by managing the global dynamics
}
of that vehicle in order to take certain actions
{
in order to improve stability, comfort or safety
}
;
- "road vehicle" means a
{
motorised passenger
}
vehicle normally under the control of a human driver for transportation on roads, e.g. an automobile, truck or bus;
- "sub-unit" means one of the following vehicle systems:
{
driveline systems, e.g.
}
propulsion system, clutch system, change-speed gearing system, system for distributing drive torque between front and rear axles, axle differential system, brake system, steering system, suspension system,
{
and, particularly for hybrid vehicles,
}
energy storage means, fuel cells, or auxiliary equipment.

INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO ASPECTS CROSS-CUTTING VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY
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RAILWAYS
NOTE
-
In this class, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:- "railway systems" covers:
systems in which trains or individual passenger vehicles or load carriers run on or are guided by ground or elevated tracks defined by rails, ropes, cables, or other guiding elements for wheels, rollers, or sliding anti-friction devices (
{
load carriers
}
permanently attached to a continuous traction element B65G 17/00);

systems in which carriers or impellers for persons or loads are attached to, e.g. suspended from, a guided traction rope or cable which determines their path of movement (chain conveyers, scraper conveyers B65G 17/00, B65G 19/00);

power and free systems of either of the above types in which vehicles, load carriers or loads may be selectively coupled to, or uncoupled from, continuous traction members, e.g. cables, chains


RAILWAY SYSTEMS; EQUIPMENT THEREFOR NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (lifts or hoists, elevators, escalators, moving walkways B66B)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:- "rope railways" covers railways using cables or chains as traction or suspension means;-"ropes", "cables", or "chains" are equivalent unless specifically mentioned

LOCOMOTIVES ; MOTOR RAILCARS( vehicles in general B60; frames or bogies B61F; special railroad equipment for locomotives B61J, B61K )
NOTE
-
This subclass covers :
general design features or items of locomotives and motor railcars not otherwise provided for;

non-electric features of electric locomotives


BODY DETAILS OR KINDS OF RAILWAY VEHICLES (vehicles in general B60; adaptation of vehicles to special systems B61B; underframes B61F)
RAIL VEHICLE SUSPENSIONS, e.g. UNDERFRAMES, BOGIES, ARRANGEMENTS OF WHEEL AXLES; RAIL VEHICLES FOR USE ON TRACKS OF DIFFERENT WIDTH; PREVENTING DERAILING; WHEEL GUARDS; OBSTRUCTION REMOVERS, OR THE LIKE (for vehicles in general B60; axles, wheels B60B; tyres B60C)
COUPLINGS; DRAUGHT AND BUFFING APPLIANCES (vehicle connections in general B60D)
BRAKES OR OTHER RETARDING APPARATUS PECULIAR TO RAIL VEHICLES; ARRANGEMENTS OR DISPOSITIONS OF BRAKES OR OTHER RETARDING APPARATUS IN RAIL VEHICLES (electrodynamic braking of vehicles B60L, in general H02K; arrangements in rail vehicles for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or permanent-way conditions B60T 8/00; transmitting braking action from initiating means to ultimate brake actuator with power assistance or drive, brake systems incorporating such transmitting means, e.g. air-pressure brake systems, B60T 13/00 to B60T 17/00; brakes per se F16D)
SHIFTING OR SHUNTING OF RAIL VEHICLES (shifting vehicles in general B60S; marshalling systems B61B)
OTHER AUXILIARY EQUIPMENT FOR RAILWAYS (energy storing brakes B61H; protection of permanent way against weather influences E01B; rail cleaning, snow ploughs E01H)
GUIDING RAILWAY TRAFFIC; ENSURING THE SAFETY OF RAILWAY TRAFFIC (power supply lines for electrically-propelled vehicles B60M; vehicle signalling in general B60Q; brakes or auxiliary equipment B61H, B61K; point or crossing construction E01B; insulated rail joints E01B 11/54; optical devices in general G02; controlling in general G05; electric communication technique H04)
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LAND VEHICLES FOR TRAVELLING OTHERWISE THAN ON RAILS
HAND-PROPELLED VEHICLES, e.g. HAND CARTS, PERAMBULATORS ; SLEDGES
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the term "hand carts" also embraces hand-propelled wheeled devices in so far as the features thereof are generic to hand carts. This term also embraces pedestrian-controlled power-driven vehicles in so far as the features thereof are generic to hand carts

Rollers are taken as being equivalent to wheels

VEHICLES DRAWN BY ANIMALS
NOTE
-
This subclass covers only vehicles or parts thereof in so far as the relevant features are essential for animal-drawn vehicles.

This subclass does not cover animal-drawn vehicles which have not the features mentioned in Note (1) above. They are regarded as trailers which are covered by class B60 or subclass B62D, or as sledges which are covered by subclass B62B.

MOTOR VEHICLES ; TRAILERS( steering, or guiding on a desired track, of agricultural machines or implements A01B 69/00 ; wheels, castors, axles, increasing wheel adhesion B60B; vehicle tyres, tyre inflation or tyre changing B60C; connections between vehicles of a train or the like B60D; vehicles for use on rail and road, amphibious or convertible vehicles B60F; suspension arrangements B60G; heating, cooling, ventilating or other air treating devices B60H; windows, windscreens, non-fixed roofs, doors or similar devices, protective coverings for vehicles not in use B60J; propulsion plant arrangements, auxiliary drives, transmissions, controls, instrumentation or dashboards B60K; electric equipment or propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles B60L; power supply for electrically-propelled vehicles B60M; passenger accommodation not otherwise provided for B60N; adaptations for load transportation or to carry special loads or objects B60P; arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general B60Q; vehicles, vehicle fittings or vehicle parts not otherwise provided for B60R; servicing, cleaning, repairing, supporting, lifting, or manoeuvring, not otherwise provided for, B60S; brake arrangements, brake control systems or parts thereof B60T; air-cushion vehicles B60V; motor-cycles, accessories therefor B62J, B62K; testing of vehicles G01M )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:
- "vehicles" include motor vehicles and trailers;
- "trailers" include forecars or sidecars.

WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B62D25/13 covered by B60J 1/20 , B60R 13/07B62D25/22 covered by B60R 3/00B62D65/08 covered by B60J 10/0088

CYCLE STANDS; SUPPORTS OR HOLDERS FOR PARKING OR STORING CYCLES; APPLIANCES PREVENTING OR INDICATING UNAUTHORIZED USE OR THEFT OF CYCLES; LOCKS INTEGRAL WITH CYCLES; DEVICES FOR LEARNING TO RIDE CYCLES
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the term "cycles" also embraces scooters

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B62H5/16 covered by B62H 5/14

CYCLE SADDLES OR SEATS; ACCESSORIES PECULIAR TO CYCLES AND NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, e.g. ARTICLE CARRIERS, CYCLE PROTECTORS
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the term "cycles" also embraces scooters

CYCLES; CYCLE FRAMES; CYCLE STEERING DEVICES; RIDER-OPERATED TERMINAL CONTROLS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CYCLES; CYCLE AXLE SUSPENSIONS; CYCLE SIDE-CARS, FORECARS, OR THE LIKE
NOTE
-
In this subclass, each of the main groups B62K 7/00 to B62K 15/00 takes precedence over all the preceding main groups, e.g. a child`s bicycle is classified in B62K 9/00 and not in B62K 3/00

BRAKES SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR CYCLES
{
(arrangements in cycles for adjusting wheel-braking force to meet varying vehicular or ground-surface conditions B60T 8/00)
}
NOTE
-
This subclass covers only adaptations of brakes and their actuating mechanisms peculiar to their use on cycles.

This subclass does not cover brakes or actuating mechanisms of wider applicability, which are regarded as of general type, irrespective of whether described or claimed only for cycles, which are covered by subclass B60T or the relevant subclass of F16.


RIDER PROPULSION OF WHEELED VEHICLES OR SLEDGES; POWERED PROPULSION OF SLEDGES OR
{
SINGLE-TRACK
}
CYCLES; TRANSMISSIONS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR SUCH VEHICLES (arrangements or mounting of transmissions in vehicles in general B60K; transmission elements per se F16)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the term "transmission" means all parts between the prime mover or the part to which a rider immediately applies propulsive effort, e.g. pedal cranks, and a driven ground wheel.>

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SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS; RELATED EQUIPMENT
SHIPS OR OTHER WATERBORNE VESSELS ; EQUIPMENT FOR SHIPPING(
{
amphibious vehicles B60F 3/00 ;
}
air-cushion vehicles B60V; arrangements of vessel ventilation, heating, cooling or air conditioning B63J 2/00 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the indexing codes B63B 2201/00 to B63B 2241/00 are to be used for relevant technical information concerning particular or unusual use, materials, design, methods or means.

LAUNCHING, HAULING-OUT, OR DRY-DOCKING OF VESSELS ; LIFE-SAVING IN WATER ; EQUIPMENT FOR DWELLING OR WORKING UNDER WATER ; MEANS FOR SALVAGING OR SEARCHING FOR UNDERWATER OBJECTS( floating nets, floating slipways, or the like for recovering aircraft from the water B63B 35/52 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the indexing codes B63B 2201/00 to B63B 2241/00 are to be used for relevant technical information concerning particular or unusual use, materials, design, methods or means.

OFFENSIVE OR DEFENSIVE ARRANGEMENTS ON VESSELS; MINE-LAYING; MINE-SWEEPING; SUBMARINES; AIRCRAFT CARRIERS (means of attack or defence in general e.g. turrets F41H)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the indexing codes B63B 2201/00 to B63B 2241/00 are to be used for relevant technical information concerning particular or unusual use, materials, design, methods or means.

MARINE PROPULSION OR STEERING(
{
arrangement of propulsion or steering means on amphibious vehicles B60F 3/0007 ;
}
propulsion of air-cushion vehicles B60V 1/14 ; peculiar to submarines, other than nuclear propulsion, B63G; peculiar to torpedoes F42B 19/00 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the indexing codes B63B 2201/00 to B63B 2241/00 are to be used for relevant technical information concerning particular or unusual use, materials, design, methods or means

AUXILIARIES ON VESSELS
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated: - "auxiliaries" means only apparatus specially arranged for rendering vessels, in general, habitable or operative, insofar as such apparatus is not specifically provided for in another subclass of class B63

In this subclass, the indexing codes B63B 2201/00 to B63B 2241/00 are to be used for relevant technical information concerning particular or unusual use, materials, design, methods or means.

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AIRCRAFT; AVIATION; COSMONAUTICS
LIGHTER-THAN AIR AIRCRAFT
AEROPLANES ; HELICOPTERS( air-cushion vehicles B60V )
NOTE
-
As far as possible, classification is made according to constructional features; classification according to particular kinds of aircraft is normally regarded as being of secondary importance, except in cases where this is considered to be the characteristic feature.

WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
- B64C35/02 covered by B64C 35/00

EQUIPMENT FOR FITTING IN OR TO AIRCRAFT ; FLYING SUITS ; PARACHUTES ; ARRANGEMENTS OR MOUNTING OF POWERPLANTS OR PROPULSION TRANSMISSIONS
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B64D15/18 covered by B64D 15/16B64D25/102 covered by B64D 25/10B64D25/105 covered by B64D 25/10B64D25/108 covered by B64D 25/10B64D25/11 covered by B64D 25/10B64D25/112 covered by B64D 25/10B64D25/115 covered by B64D 25/10B64D25/118 covered by B64D 25/10

GROUND OR AIRCRAFT-CARRIER-DECK INSTALLATIONS
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the term "installation" embraces equipment, including mobile equipment, peculiar to use in connection with aircraft and not fitted thereto

The term "ground installations" in this subclass embraces waterborne installations

COSMONAUTICS; VEHICLES OR EQUIPMENT THEREFOR (apparatus for, or methods of, winning materials from extraterrestrial sources E21C 51/00)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers only vehicles, equipment or the like, which are specially adapted for cosmonautics.

This subclass does not cover vehicles and equipment applicable to both cosmonautics and aeronautics, which are covered by the appropriate aeronautical subclasses of class B64.

In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
- "cosmonautics" includes all transport outside the earth`s atmosphere, and thus includes artificial earth satellites, and interplanetary and interstellar travel.

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CONVEYING; PACKING; STORING; HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL
MACHINES, APPARATUS OR DEVICES FOR, OR METHODS OF, PACKAGING ARTICLES OR MATERIALS; UNPACKING (bundling and pressing devices for cigars A24C 1/44; paper-bag holders as shop or office accessories A47F 13/08; apparatus for coating, e.g. by dipping, B05C; devices for tensioning and securing binders adapted to be supported by the article or articles to be bound B25B, B65B 13/00; nailing or stapling devices per se B25C, B27F;
{
cutting or severing in general B26D, B26F;
}
inserting documents in envelopes and closing the latter B43M 3/00, B43M 5/00; wrappers, containers or other packaging elements, e.g. binders protective caps B65D; stacking articles in, or removing them from, pallets B65G; devices for handling sheets or webs of interest apart from their application in packaging machines B65H; packaging of matches C06F; wrapping sugar during manufacture C13H;
{
filling of grease guns F16N 37/02; packing of shotgun cartridges for immediate use F42B; wrapping of coins G07D 9/00
}
; making containers or receptacles per se, see the appropriate subclasses)
NOTE
-
The term "packaging" should be understood as including mainly the  following operations:      filling portable containers or receptacles with materials or small  articles to form packages      inserting articles, or groups of articles, into containers or  receptacles      closing filled containers or receptacles otherwise than by metal-,  glass-, or wood-working operations      enclosing, or partially enclosing, articles or quantities of  material, in sheets, strips, blanks, webs, or tubes of thin flexible  material, e.g. wrapping      bundling articles, e.g. holding articles together in groups by  applying string or wire      attaching articles to cards, sheets, or webs      Operations of these types employed in the manufacture of articles  other than packages are classified in other appropriate subclasses, e.g.  making confectionery products by casting in moulds formed by wrappers  A23G, filling ammunition cartridges F42B      Methods of packaging which are wholly characterised by the form of  the package produced, or the form of the container or packaging-element  utilised, are to be classified in B65D rather than in this subclass      In the following elaborations, the term "package" is used to mean  the end product of a packaging operation, e.g. a filled and closed  container, an article enclosed in a wrapper, a group of articles held  together by string or wire, a crate of bottles      In the following elaborations, the term "materials" is to be  understood as embracing matter, or masses of articles, which are to be  packaged, as distinct from separate or individual articles     Machines, apparatus or methods of general application for packaging  articles or materials  

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B65B51/09 covered by B65B 51/00

LABELLING OR TAGGING MACHINES, APPARATUS, OR PROCESSES (nailing or stapling in general B25C, B27F; applying labels for packaging purposes B65B; labels, name-plates G09F)
{
(series-printing machines B41L; containers for the storage or transport of packages B65D)
}
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:
- "labels" covers also decalcomanias, stamps or the like

CONTAINERS FOR STORAGE OR TRANSPORT OF ARTICLES OR MATERIALS, e.g. BAGS, BARRELS, BOTTLES, BOXES, CANS, CARTONS, CRATES, DRUMS, JARS, TANKS, HOPPERS, FORWARDING CONTAINERS ; ACCESSORIES, CLOSURES, OR FITTINGS THEREFOR ; PACKAGING ELEMENTS ; PACKAGES( containers specially adapted for storing agricultural or horticultural products A01F 25/14 ; containers specially adapted for use in dairies A01J; travelling bags or baskets, suitcases A45C; travelling or camp equipment A45F;
{
linkable display containers A47B87/00C
}
; household or table equipment A47G; letter-boxes for home use A47G 29/12 ; kitchen equipment A47J; associated with vehicles, see the appropriate subclass of B60 to B64; machines, apparatus, or devices for, or methods of, packaging articles or materials B65B; sack holders B65B 67/00 ; refuse receptacles B65F 1/00 ; handling sheets, webs or filamentary material B65H; load-engaging elements or devices attached to lifting or lowering gear of cranes or adapted for connection therewith for transmitting lifting forces B66C; liquid handling B67; storing gases F17;
{
packaging for photosensitive or like materials G03, e.g. G03C 3/00
}
; making containers, see subclasses dealing with the working of the material concerned )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the indexing codes of B65D 2519/00004 - B65D 2519/00995 should be added, if applicable

This subclass covers:
- containers, packaging elements or packages with auxilliary means or provisions for displaying articles or materials;


- methods of packaging which are wholly characterised by the form of the package produced or the form of the container or packaging element used, as distinct from the operations performed or the apparatus employed, which are covered by subclass B65B


This subclass, which is intended to be as comprehensive as possible, only excludes containers or packages of a nature clearly confined to a single other subclass, which are classified in that subclass

In this subclass, groups B65D 5/00 , B65D 27/00 , B65D30/00 or B65D 65/00 include constructional features of foldable or erectable container or wrapper blanks as well as the containers or wrappers formed by folding or erecting such blanks

Containers, packaging elements or packages classified in group B65D 85/00 , are also classified according to the constructional or functional features, if such features are of interest [6]

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

- "rigid or semi-rigid containers" includes:
a. containers not deformed by, or not taking-up the shape
of, their contents;
b. containers adapted to be temporarily deformed to expel
their contents;
c. pallets;
d. trays;
- "flexible containers" includes:
a. containers deformed by, or taking-up the shape of, their
contents:
b. containers adapted to be permanently deformed to expel
their contents;
- "packaging elements" includes:
a. elements, other than containers, for covering, protecting,
stiffening, or holding together articles or materials to
be stored or transported;
b. packaging materials of special type or form not provided
for in other subclasses;
- "packages" includes:
a. combination of containers or packaging elements with
articles or materials to be stored or transported:
b. articles joined together for convenience of storage or
transport;
- "paper" includes materials, e.g. cardboard, plastic sheet
materials, laminated materials, or metal foils, worked in
a manner analogous to paper;
- "large containers", in groups B65D 88/00 or B65D 90/00 , means
containers having about the size of containers used in container
traffic, sometimes referred to as freight, forwarding or "ISO"
(International Standardization) containers, or larger
containers [3]

Tamper-indicating means for containers or closures are classified in the group appropriate to the type of container of closure, e.g. B65D5/43 , B65D 5/54 , B65D 17/00 , B65D 27/30 , B65D 27/30 , B65D 27/34 , B65D 33/34 , B65D 41/32 , B65D 47/36 , B65D 49/12 , B65D 51/20 , B65D 55/06 [5]

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B65D5/34 covered by B65D 5/325
B65D5/35 covered by B65D 5/32
B65D5/355 covered by B65D 5/0005
B65D5/43 covered by B65D 5/42
B65D5/462 covered by B65D 5/46008 to B65D 5/46032
B65D5/465 covered by B65D 5/46008 to B65D 5/46032
B65D5/468 covered by B65D 5/4608
B65D5/472 covered by B65D 5/46048
B65D5/475 covered by B65D 5/46008
B65D5/478 covered by B65D 5/46056
B65D5/4805 - B65D5/489 covered by B65D 5/48002
B65D5/49 - B65D5/499 covered by B65D 5/48024
B65D5/63 covered by B65D 5/72
B65D6/00 - B65D6/40 covered by B65D 7/00 , B65D 9/00 , B65D 11/00 , B65D 15/00
B65D8/00 - B65D8/22 covered by B65D 7/00 , B65D 9/00 , B65D 11/00 , B65D 15/00

B65D19/22 covered by B65D 19/0004 & subgroups B65D19/24 covered by B65D 19/0004 & subgroups B65D19/26 covered by B65D 19/0004 & subgroups B65D19/28 covered by B65D 19/0004 & subgroups B65D19/30 covered by B65D 19/0004 & subgroups B65D19/31 covered by B65D 19/0004 & subgroups B65D19/34 covered by B65D 19/0004 & subgroups
B65D17/28 - B65D17/48 , B65D17/52 covered by B65D 17/16 to B65D 17/26
B65D19/32 covered by B65D 19/0002 , B65D 19/0004
B65D21/024 covered by B65D 21/0201
B65D21/028 covered by B65D 21/0204
B65D21/032 covered by B65D 21/0211
B65D21/036 covered by B65D 21/0217
B65D25/26 covered by B65D 81/02
B65D30/00 - B65D30/28 covered by B65D 29/00 , B65D 31/00
B65D33/17 covered by B65D 33/1633
B65D33/36 covered by B65D 75/58
B65D33/38 covered by B65D 75/5861
B65D35/48 - B65D35/54 covered by B65D 47/2018
B65D39/18 covered by B65D 39/00 +s.gr.
B65D41/01 covered by B65D 41/00
B65D43/03 covered by B65D 43/00 + B65D 2543/00027
B65D47/22 covered by B65D 47/20
B65D47/34 covered by B05B 11/00
B65D 50/06 covered by B65D55/02E
B65D50/08 covered by B65D 55/02
B65D50/10 covered by B65D 55/02
B65D50/12 covered by B65D 55/02
B65D50/14 covered by B65D 55/02
B65D65/26 - B65D65/32 covered by B65D 75/58
B65D65/34 covered by B65D 75/66
B65D65/36 covered by B65D 75/58
B65D71/52 - B65D71/68 covered by B65D 71/0003 to B65D 71/0077
B65D75/60 - B65D75/64 covered by B65D 75/58
B65D81/15 covered by B65D 81/05
B65D81/17 covered by B65D 81/02
B65D83/18 - B65D 83/74 covered by B65D 83/14 , B65D 83/16
B65D83/18 covered by B65D 83/201
B65D83/58 covered by B65D 83/44
B65D83/76 covered by B65D 83/0005
B65D85/57 covered by G11B 23/00
B65D85/575 covered by G11B 23/00
B65D85/86 - B65D85/90 covered by H01L 21/00 S, H05K 13/00
B65D91/00 covered by A47G 29/12


GATHERING OR REMOVAL OF DOMESTIC OR LIKE REFUSE (disinfecting refuse A61L; refuse disintegrators B02C; sorting refuse B03B; B07B; handcarts for transporting refuse receptacles B62B; sack holders B65B 67/00; converting refuse into fertilisers C05F; converting refuse into solid fuels C10L; sewers, cesspools E03F; arrangements in buildings for the disposal of refuse E04F 17/10; refuse-consuming furnaces F23G;
{
for surgical articles A61B 19/0287
}
)
TRANSPORT OR STORAGE DEVICES, e.g. CONVEYERS FOR LOADING OR TIPPING ; SHOP CONVEYER SYSTEMS ; PNEUMATIC TUBE CONVEYERS(
{
preventing fire in special objects or places A62C 3/00
}
; transport or storage devices used in a particular handling or treatment of articles or materials, see the relevant subclass, e.g. in metal-working B21D 43/00 , B23Q 7/00 , B23Q 41/02 ; vehicle, railway, sea or aircraft aspects B60 to B64; in packaging B65B; handling thin or filamentary materials B65H; hoisting, lifting, hauling, e.g. truck loaders B66; handling liquids B67;
{
transport or storage containers for preparing or distributing road building materials E01C; construction or assembling of bulk storage containers employing civil engineering techniques in site or off the site E04H 7/00
}
; specially adapted to underground conditions in mines E21F 13/00 ; storing or distributing gases or liquids F17; in handling radioactive materials G21C 19/00 )
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following groups:

B65G33/28 covered by B65G 33/26 B
B65G47/10 covered by B65G 1/137 D
B65G47/86 covered by B65G 47/842 , B65G 47/847
B65G 49/07 covered by H01L 21/677
B65G69/32 covered by B65G 69/28
B65G69/34 covered by B65G 69/28



HANDLING THIN OR FILAMENTARY MATERIAL, e.g. SHEETS, WEBS, CABLES
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover methods or devices intimately associated with other operations on thin or filamentary material, e.g sheets, webs, cables or means for performing such operations, which are classified in the relevant subclasses for these operations, e.g.:

B07C Postal sorting, similar sorting of documents,
e.g. cheques
B08B 1/02 Cleaning travelling work, e.g. webs, by methods
involving the use of tools, brushes or like
members
B21B 41/00 Metal rolling involving guiding, conveying or
accumulating easily-flexible work, e.g. wire,
sheet metal bands, in loops or curves
B21C 47/00 , Winding-up,coiling, winding-off or temporarily
B21C 49/00 accumulating metal wire, metal band or other
flexible metal material, characterised by
features relevant to metal processing only,
other than by rolling
B21D 43/00 Feeding, positioning or storing devices,
combined with, or arranged in, or specially
adapted for use in connection with, apparatus
for working or processing sheet metal without
essentially removing material
B23K 9/12 Means for automatic feeding of electrodes for
spot or seam welding or cutting
B29C 31/00 Handling for shaping or joining of plastics, for
shaping of substances in a plastic state in
general or for after-treatment of shaped
products, e.g. feeding the material to be shaped
B41B 15/32 , Film-handling mechanisms in photographic
B41B 21/32 composing machines
B41F 13/02 Conveying or guiding webs through rotary
printing presses or machines
B41J 11/00 to Handling of copy- or impression-transfer material
B41J 17/00 in typewriters or selective printing mechanisms
B41K 3/44 Means for handling copy matter in stamping or
numbering apparatus or devices
B41L Handling sheets or webs in apparatus or devices
for manifolding, duplicating or printing for
office or other commercial purposes, or on
addressing machines or like series-printing
machines
B42B Handling relating to permanently attaching
together sheets, quires, or signatures
B42C Handling sheets in book-binding
B65B Handling of sheets or webs in apparatus for, or
methods of, packaging articles, not of interest
apart from their application in packaging
machines
B65C Handling of labels in labelling or tagging
apparatus
C14B 1/62 Winding or stacking hides or leather in
machines or devices for manufacturing leather
D01 to D07 Spinning, weaving, braiding, lace-making,
knitting, sewing, making ropes or cables
D21F 2/00 Transferring webs from wet ends to press
sections in paper-making
F26B 13/00 Handling fabrics, fibres, yarns or other
material in long lengths in drying apparatus
G03B Film-strip handling or handling of pictures
in apparatus for taking photographs or for
projecting or viewing them
G06K 13/00 Conveying record carriers from one station to
another
G06M 7/00 Counting of flat articles, e.g. sheets, carried
by a conveyer
G11B 15/00 to Information storage based on relative movement
G11B 19/00 , between record carrier and transducer,
G11B 23/00 , involving handling record carriers for
G11B 25/00 recording or reproducing
H01F 41/06 Manufacturing coils for magnets, inductances,
transformers, by winding
H01G 13/02 Machines for winding capacitors
H04N 1/00 Sheet handling not of interest apart from its
use in systems for transmission or reproduction
of pictures or patterns not varying in
time, e.g. facsimile transmission

In this subclass:

- the groups relating to thin material, as defined under
(i) of Note (3) below, are primarily intended to cover
the handling of articles made of paper or cardboard,but
also include the handling of articles made of other
materials which have similar characteristics or present
similar handling problems, e.g. articles made of sheet-
plastics or leather;
- the groups relating to filamentary material (groups
B65H 49/00 onwards,) as defined in Note (3) below, cover only
methods or devices of general application or interest.

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

- "handling" includes feeding, folding (other than in the
manufacture of products), guiding, orientating, storing,
unwinding, and winding;
- "thin material" includes:
(i) sheets, signatures, envelopes, blanks, and thin and
thin piles thereof (hereinafter referred to as
"articles"), and
(ii) webs, tapes, and films, e.g. of paper, fabric, metal
foil, or plastics;
- "filamentary material" includes thread, wires, ropes,
cables, and hoses;
- "package" means a mass of filamentary material, formed
by coiling, depositing, or winding, with or without a
supporting core or former or an enclosing container or
receptacle.
{
-"yarn" also covers similar filamentary materials.
}

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
- B65H35/07 covered by B65H 35/0006 - B65H77/00 covered by B65H 23/00 , B65H 59/00 - B65H 83/00 , B65H 83/02 covered by B07C 1/02 C, G07D 1/00 D, G07D 11/00 and s.gr - B65H 85/00 covered by G03B 27/62 , G03B 27/6264 , G03B 27/6257

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HOISTING; LIFTING; HAULING
ELEVATORS ; ESCALATORS OR MOVING WALKWAYS(
{
apparatus for raising or lowering persons on theatrical stages or the like A63J 5/12
}
; funicular railbound systems with rigid ground-supported tracks and cable traction, e.g. cliff railways, B61B 9/00 ; arrangements of ammunition handlers in vessels B63G 3/00 ; hoists, lifts, or conveyers for loading or unloading in general B65G; braking or detent devices controlling normal movements of winding drums or barrels B66D; ship-lifting devices E02C; garages for many vehicles with mechanical means for lifting vehicles E04H 6/12 ; hoists for feeding ammunition or projectiles to launching apparatus or to loading mechanisms F41A 9/00 )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

- "elevator" covers the term "lift", and the two terms are interchangeable

CRANES; LOAD-ENGAGING ELEMENTS OR DEVICES FOR CRANES, CAPSTANS, WINCHES, OR TACKLES (
{
specially adapted for lifting invalids A61G 7/10;
}
rope, cable, or chain winding mechanisms, braking or detent devices therefor B66D; specially adapted for nuclear reactors G21)
WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B66C23/61 covered by B66C 23/60
B66C23/683 covered by B66C 23/68
B66C23/687 covered by B66C 23/701
B66C23/69 covered by B66C 23/701
B66C23/693 covered by B66C 23/705
B66C23/697 covered by B66C 23/707

CAPSTANS; WINCHES; TACKLES, e.g. PULLEY BLOCKS; HOISTS (winding or unwinding ropes or cables for feeding or storage purposes B65H; rope or cable winding or unwinding mechanisms for lifts B66B)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
rope, cable or chain winding or unwinding mechanisms for moving all loads except lift cages, e.g. winches for dredges;

braking or detent devices characterised by their application for retarding or preventing rotary movement of a winding drum or barrel


WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B66D1/395 covered by B66D 1/36, B66D 1/50

HOISTING, LIFTING, HAULING OR PUSHING, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR, e.g. DEVICES WHICH APPLY A LIFTING OR PUSHING FORCE DIRECTLY TO THE SURFACE OF A LOAD(
{
invalid lifting devices A61G 7/10 ;
}
mounting artificial islands on piles or like supports E02B 17/00 : scaffolding combined with lifting devices E04G 1/22 ; lifting devices for sliding forms E04G 11/24 ; lifting of buildings E04G 23/06 ; shores or struts E04G 25/00 ; lifts or other hoisting devices on ladders E06C 7/12 ; props for mining E21D 15/00 )
WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

B66F19/02 covered by B66F 19/00

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OPENING, CLOSING
{
OR CLEANING
}
BOTTLES, JARS OR SIMILAR CONTAINERS; LIQUID HANDLING (nozzles in general B05B; packaging liquids B65B, e.g. B65B 3/00; pumps in general F04; siphons F04F 10/00; valves F16K; handling liquefied gases F17C)
APPLYING CLOSURE MEMBERS TO BOTTLES JARS, OR SIMILAR CONTAINERS; OPENING CLOSED CONTAINERS (opening or closing devices attached to, or incorporated in, containers or container closures B65D)
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject-matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
B67B7/46 covered by B67B 7/30 to B67B 7/385
B67B7/48 to B67B7/52 covered by B67B 7/24, B67B 7/26, B67B 7/28
B67B7/54 to B67B7/90 covered by B67B 7/30 to B67B 7/385

CLEANING, FILLING WITH LIQUIDS OR SEMILIQUIDS, OR EMPTYING, OF BOTTLES, JARS, CANS, CASKS, BARRELS, OR SIMILAR CONTAINERS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; FUNNELS
DISPENSING, DELIVERING OR TRANSFERRING LIQUIDS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (cleaning pipes or tubes or systems of pipes or tubes B08B 9/02; emptying or filling of bottles, jars, cans, casks, barrels, or similar containers, not otherwise provided for B67C; water supply E03; pipe systems F17D; domestic hot-water supply systems F24D; measuring volume, volume flow, mass flow or liquid level, metering by volume G01F; coin-freed or like apparatus G07F)
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SADDLERY; UPHOLSTERY
HARNESS; DEVICES USED IN CONNECTION THEREWITH; WHIPS OR THE LIKE
SADDLES; STIRRUPS
MAKING ARTICLES FROM LEATHER, CANVAS, OR THE LIKE
METHODS, EQUIPMENT, OR MACHINES FOR USE IN UPHOLSTERING; UPHOLSTERY NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
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SUBSECTION:
Micro-structural technology; Nano-technology
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MICRO-STRUCTURAL TECHNOLOGY
NOTE
-
This class covers micro-structural devices or systems, including at least one essential element or formation characterised by its very small size typically within the range of 10-4 to 10-7 meters, i.e. its significant features can not, in at least one dimension, be completely discerned without the use of an optical microscope.

In this class, the following expressions are used with the meaning indicated :

- "micro-structural devices" covers:
(i) micro-mechanical devices comprising movable, flexible
or deformable elements; and
(ii) three-dimensional structures without movable, flexible
or deformable elements, comprising microformations
designed to accomplish an essential structural
function for interacting with their environment, as
opposed to purely electronic or chemical functions,
regardless of whether the structures are combined with
micro-electronic devices or formed from specific
materials;
- "micro-structural systems" covers:
(i) systems of cooperating micro-structural devices; and
(ii) micro-electro-mechanical or micro-opto-mechanical
systems, which combine on a common substrate the
specific features of micro-structural devices and
electrical or optical components, e.g. for
controlling, analysing or signalling the functioning
of micro-structural devices.

MICRO-STRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS, e.g. MICRO-MECHANICAL DEVICES (piezo-electric, electrostrictive or magnetostrictive elements per se H01L 41/00)
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover:

- purely electrical or electronic devices per se which are covered by section H, e.g. subclass H01L; - purely optical devices per se which are covered by subclasses G02B or G02F; - essentially two-dimensional structures, e.g. layered products which are covered by subclass B32B; - chemical or biological structures per se which are covered by section C; - structures in atomic scale produced by manipulation of single atoms or molecules, which are covered by group B82B 1/00.

Devices or systems classified in this subclass are also classified in appropriate subclasses providing for their structural or functional features, if such features are of interest.

Attention is drawn to the following places:
A61K 9/50 Microcapsules for medicinal preparations B25J 7/00 Micromanipulators G02B 21/32 Micromanupulators combined with microscopes G11B 5/127 Magnetic heads H01P 3/08 Waveguide microstrips.

In this subclass, local "residual" subgroups, e.g. B81B 7/0077, are used with the following purpose:
When classifying a document which does not fit in any of a set of subgroups with the same dot-level, the document should be classified in the residual group, if present, and not in the group at the hierarchical level one dot above.
In the example, the document shall be classified in B81B 7/0077 and not in B81B 7/0032 as B81B 7/0077 is "residual" to B81B 7/0035-B81B 7/0074

PROCESSES OR APPARATUS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR THE MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF MICRO-STRUCTURAL DEVICES OR SYSTEMS (making microcapsules or microballoons B01J 13/02; processes or apparatus peculiar to the manufacture or treatment of piezo-electric, electrostrictive or magnetostrictive element per se H01L 41/22)
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover:
- processes or apparatus for the manufacture or treatment of purely electrical or electronic devices, which are covered by section H, e.g. group H01L 21/00; - processes or apparatus involving the manipulation of single atoms or molecules, which are covered by group B82B 3/00.


In this subclass, local "residual" subgroups, e.g. B81C 1/00126, are used with the following purpose.
When classifying a document which does not fit in any of a set of subgroups with the same dot-level, the document should be classified in the residual group, if present, and not in the group at the hierarchical level one dot above.
In the example, the document shall be classified in B81C 1/00126 and not in B81C 1/00023 as B81C 1/00126 is "residual" to B81C 1/00031-B81C 1/00119

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NANO-TECHNOLOGY
NOTE
-
In this class, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:
- "nano-size" or "nano-scale" relate to a controlled geometrical size below 100 nanometres (nm) in one or more dimensions;
- "nano-structure" means an entity having at least one nano-sized functional component that makes physical, chemical or biological properties or effects available, which are uniquely attributable to the nano-scale.

NANO-STRUCTURES FORMED BY MANIPULATION OF INDIVIDUAL ATOMS, MOLECULES, OR LIMITED COLLECTIONS OF ATOMS OR MOLECULES AS DISCRETE UNITS; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT THEREOF
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover chemical or biological nano-structures per se, provided for elsewhere, e.g. in classes C08 or C12.

Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B82, which defines the meaning of the terms "nano-size", "nano-scale" and "nano-structure" in this subclass.



Subject matter classified in this subclass is further classified in subclass B82Y, in order to enable a comprehensive search of nano-structure technology using classification symbols of B82Y in combination with classification symbols of B82B.

Nano-structures having specialised features or functions are further classified in appropriate places in other subclasses that provide for those features or functions, e.g. in G01Q, G02F 1/017, H01L 29/775.

SPECIFIC USES OR APPLICATIONS OF NANO-STRUCTURES; MEASUREMENT OR ANALYSIS OF NANO-STRUCTURES; MANUFACTURE OR TREATMENT OF NANO-STRUCTURES
NOTE
-
This subclass covers applications and aspects of nano-structures which are produced by any method, and is not restricted to those that are formed by manipulation of individual atoms or molecules.



Attention is drawn to the Note following the title of class B82, which defines the meaning of the terms "nano-size", "nano-scale" and "nano-structure" in this subclass.

This subclass is intended to enable a comprehensive search of subject matter related to nano-structures by combination of classification symbols of this subclass with classification symbols from other subclasses. Therefore this subclass covers aspects of nano-structures that might also be entirely or partially covered elsewhere in the IPC.

This subclass is for secondary classification, i.e. obligatory supplementary classification of subject matter already classified as such in other classification places, e.g. :

B82B Nanostructures formed by individual manipulation of atoms, molecules, or limited collections of atoms or molecules as discrete units; manufacture or treatment thereof
A61K 9/51 Nano - capsules for medicinal preparations
B05D 1/20 Langmuir-Blodgett films
C01B 31/02 Carbon nano-structures, e.g. bucky-balls, nanotubes, nanocoils, nano-doughnuts or nano-onions
G01Q Scanning probe techniques
G02F 1/017 Optical quantum wells or boxes
H01F 10/32 Nano-structured thin magnetic films
H01F 41/30 Molecular beam epitaxy [MBE]
H01L 29/775 Quantum wire FETs



The classification symbols of this subclass are not listed first when assigned to patent documents.

In this subclass, multi-aspects classification is applied, so that aspects of subject matter that are covered by more than one of its groups should be classified in each of those groups.

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/10/2013