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MAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATION OF SOLID MATERIALS FROM SOLID MATERIALS OR FLUIDS; SEPARATION BY HIGH-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC FIELDS (filters making use of electricity or magnetism B01D 35/06; separating isotopes B01D 59/00; combinations of magnetic or electrostatic separation with separation of solids by other means B03B, B07B; separating sheets from piles B65H 3/00; magnets or magnet coils per se H01F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Magnetic separation
  • Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapour, e.g. air, by electrostatic effect
  • Separating dispersed particles from liquids by electrostatic effect
  • Separating solids from solids by electrostatic effect
  • Separation by high-voltage electrical fields
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Filters making use of electricity or magnetism
Separating isotopes
Combinations of magnetic or electrostatic separation with separation of solids by other means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separating sheets from piles
Magnets or magnet coils per se
Magnetic separation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Separation of particles out of a fluid or a stream of particles using magnetic effects.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combinations of dry separating apparatus with wet separating apparatus
Combinations of cyclones with filters, for separating particles from gases or vapours
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processes for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours by gravity, inertia or centrifugal forces
Wet separating using liquids
Filters in general
Separation in general
Processes for separation of gases or vapours or for recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases by centrifugal force
Devices for separating or removing fatty or oily substances or similar floating material from water, waste water, or sewage
Device in sewers for separating liquid or solid substances from sewage
Measuring, investigating or testing electric or magnetic properties of materials (see also IPC definition for subgroup G01N 33/50)
Materials for magnets or magnetic bodies
Special rules of classification within this group

The following Indexing Codes are used:

Indexing Code B03C 2201/16
magnetic separating gases form gases e.g. oxygen from air
Indexing Code B03C 2201/18
the particles are suspended in a liquid
Indexing Code B03C 2201/20
the particles to be separated are in solid form
Indexing Code B03C 2201/22
characterised by the magnetical field, special shape or generation
Indexing Code B03C 2201/28
parts being easily removable for cleaning purposes
Indexing Code B03C 2201/30
for use in or with vehicles
{High gradient magnetic separation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of magnetic separation method that uses a high gradient magnetic field, which is directly acting on the substance being seperated.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Magnetic separation device that uses a high gradient magnetic field acting directly on the substance being separated
High gradient magnetic separation acting on the medium
Pretreatment specially adapted for magnetic separation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnets or magnetic bodies characterised by the magnetic materials therefor; Selection of materials for their magnetic properties
Magnetic liquids
H01F1/46
by addition of magnetic adjuvants
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of magnetic adjuvants not having an advanced chemical reaction with the particles to be separated.

by chemical treatment imparting magnetic properties to the material to be separated, e.g. roasting, reduction, oxidation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of magnetic adjuvants having a chemical reaction with the particles to be separated.

High gradient magnetic separators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of magnetic separation device that uses a high gradient magnetic field

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Any type of magnetic separation method that uses a high gradient magnetic field
with circulating matrix or matrix elements (matrix elements B03C 1/034)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
The matrix elements themselves
{superconductive}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any detail about the construction of the superconductive coil.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Superconductive coils for open gradient separators
characterised by the matrix elements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any detail about the construction of the magnetic matrix of the matrix cleaning system.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
High gradient separators having (circulating) matrix elements
using superconductive coils
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details about the construction of the superconductive coil
with cylindrical material carriers (B03C 1/247 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any device whereby the material to be separated and/or the separated material is moved with cylindrical means.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Any devices with cylindrical magnetic means e.g. rotating drum
obtained by a rotating magnetic drum
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Any device whereby the material to be separated and/or the separated material is moved with cylindrical means.
with free falling material (B03C 1/035 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Open gradient magnetic separators, i.e. separators in which the gap is unobstructed, characterised by the configuration of the gap
Magnetic plugs and dipsticks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of device/method for separating particles contained in a liquid.

Special rules of classification within this subclass

The following Indexing Codes are used:

Indexing Code B03C 2201/18
the particles are suspended in a liquid
Indexing Code B03C 2201/26
for use in medical applications
Combinations with other devices, not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Typically used when the magnetic separation is part of a bigger process. However, documents should not be classified here when no (sufficient) details of the magnetic separation are disclosed

acting on the medium containing the substance being separated, e.g. magnetogravimetric-, magnetohydrostatic-, or magnetohydrodynamic separation { (sink-float separation using heavy liquids or suspensions B03B 5/30) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sink-float separation using heavy liquids or suspensions
Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapour, e.g. air, by electrostatic effect { (use of electrostatic separators in combination with exhausts of machines or internal combustion machines F01N 3/01) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any device and method using an electrostatic effect for separating. e.g., devices that use electrostatic effect for filtering air

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Use of electrostatic separators in combination with exhausts of machines or internal combustion machines
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Domestic cleaning implements functioning electro statically
Separation of gases or vapours; Recovering vapours of volatile solvents from gases; Chemical or biological purification of waste gases (e.g. engine exhaust gases, smoke, fumes, flue gases, aerosols) by electrostatic effects or by high-voltage electric fields
Cleaning by electrostatic means
Electric elements specially adapted for carrying off electrostatic charges from vehicles
Treatment of water, waste water, or sewage by electrochemical methods
Electrostatic machines
Carrying-off electrostatic charges in general
Special rules of classification within this group

When the electrostatic effect is not used for separating, it should not be classified here.

The following Indexing Codes are used:

Indexing Code B03C 2201/14
The gas is moved electro-kinetically
Indexing Code B03C 2201/24
measuring or calculating parameters, efficiency, etc.
Indexing Code B03C 2201/26
for use in medical applications
Indexing Code B03C 2201/30
for use in or with vehicles
Indexing Code B03C 2201/32
checking the quality of the result or the well-functioning of the device
Indexing Code B03C 2201/12
Cleaning the device by burning the trapped particles.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

"Separating" means dimensional modifications of particle-liquid distributions, e.g. particle immobilisation, caging, translational or rotational motion.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ESP
electrostatic precipitator
DEP
di-electrophoresis
nDEP or pDEP
negative di-electrophoresis or positive di-electrophoresis
Prefiltering; Flow controlling
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical filtering or flow control before the actual ESP filter.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanical filtering combined with the ESP filter
Combinations of electrostatic separators, e.g. in parallel or in series, stacked separators, dry-wet separator combinations
Flow control in the ESP filter
Addition of water; Heat exchange, e.g. by condensation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Adding water for the purpose of changing the characteristics of the gas mixture to be treated.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wet type ESP
Cleaning the electrodes by washing
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid electrodes
Combinations of electrostatic separation with other processes, not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Typically used when the electrostatic separation is part of a bigger process. However, documents should not be classified here when no (sufficient) details of the electrostatic separation are disclosed

Post-treatment of gases
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical filtering or flow control after the actual ESP filter.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanical filtering combined with the ESP filter
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Combinations of electrostatic separators, e.g. in parallel or in series, stacked separators, dry-wet separator combinations
Plant or installations having external electricity supply (electrode constructions B03C 3/40)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrode constructions
characterised by presence of stationary tube electrodes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any type of device where a bundle of tube electrodes is used.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of the electrodes themselves
Constructional details of tubular collecting electrodes
characterised by presence of stationary flat electrodes arranged with their flat surfaces at right angles to the gas stream
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any device where the gas stream is forced to change direction to flow between the flat electrodes or where the gas stream is passing through the electrodes e.g. grid-electrodes

characterised by the additional use of mechanical effects, e.g. gravity (B03C 3/32 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Transportable units, e.g. for cleaning room air
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separating particles from gases by gravity
Centrifugal forces
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Centrifuges in general
Separating particles from gases by centrifuges
Selective separation of solid materials carried by, or dispersed in, gas currents using centrifugal force
Filtration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical filtering combined with the actual ESP filter.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanical filtering before the actual ESP filter
Mechanical filtering after the actual ESP filter
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Combinations of electrostatic separators, e.g. in parallel or in series, stacked separators, dry-wet separator combinations
wet type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any device where the added liquid (e.g. water) is not completely absorbed by the treated gas

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adding water for the purpose of changing the characteristics of the gas mixture to be treated.
Cleaning the electrodes by washing
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid electrodes
Transportable units, e.g. for cleaning room air (room air-conditioners having an electrostatic separating stage F24F)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Room air-conditioners having an electrostatic separating stage
Controlling flow of gases or vapour
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Flow control in the actual ESP filter.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanical filtering combined with the ESP filter
Combinations of electrostatic separators, e.g. in parallel or in series, stacked separators, dry-wet separator combinations
Flow control in before the ESP filter
Flow control in after the ESP filter
{located before the filter}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The flow control is located at the entrance of the ESP

{located after the filter}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The flow control is located at the exit of the ESP

Particle charging or ionising stations, e.g. using electric discharge, radioactive radiation, flames (electrode constructions B03C 3/40; ionising gases H05H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any device where particles are electro statically charged for the purpose of separating them.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrode constructions
Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air by ionisation
Air-conditioning systems applying an electrostatic field
Apparatus for generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases
Ionising gases
Electrode constructions
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrode-carrying means
Ionising-electrodes
Special rules of classification within this group

Indexing Codes B03C 2201/02 - B03C 2201/10 have to be given in order to describe the type of electrode

The following Indexing Codes are used:

Ionising electrode being a wire
Indexing Code B03C 2201/04
Ionising electrode being a needle
Indexing Code B03C 2201/06
Ionising electrode being a rod
Indexing Code B03C 2201/08
Ionising electrode has multiple serrated ends or parts.
Indexing Code B03C 2201/10
{specially adapted for heat exchange with the gas stream (B03C 3/53 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Liquid, or liquid-film, electrodes
flat, e.g. plates, discs, gratings
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
ESP having stationary flat electrodes arranged with their flat surfaces parallel to the gas stream
ESP having stationary flat electrodes arranged with their flat surfaces at right angles to the gas stream
tubular { (B03C 3/455 takes precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The details of the electrodes themselves

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Collecting electrodes specially adapted for heat exchange with the gas stream
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Any type of device where a bundle of tube electrodes is used
Liquid, or liquid-film, electrodes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cleaning the electrodes by washing
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wet type ESP
Control systems therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details about the electrical power supply of the ESP, except the emergency control aspects.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electricity supply or control systems for cleaning the electrodes
Emergency control systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Power supply for an electrostatic spraying apparatus
insulating in electric separators (B03C 3/53 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Liquid, or liquid-film, electrodes
Electrode-carrying means
Protective coatings of housings
Use of special materials other than liquids for collecting electrodes
Emergency control systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Emergency protective circuit arrangements in general
Cleaning the electrodes
Special rules of classification within this group

This subclass does not only cover the cleaning of the electrodes but also all details about cleaning the interior of the ESP.

The following Indexing Codes are used:

Indexing Code B03C 2201/12
Cleaning the device by burning the trapped particles.
Indexing Code B03C 2201/28
Parts being easily removable for cleaning purposes
Indexing Code B03C 2201/24
measuring or calculating parameters, efficiency, etc.
Indexing Code B03C 2201/32
checking the quality of the result or the well-functioning of the device
{Electricity supply or control systems therefor}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electricity supply or control systems of the ESP
{Electricity supply or control systems therefor}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electricity supply or control systems of the ESP
by washing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any device using a liquid where the purpose of the liquid is to clean.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wet type ESP
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Liquid, or liquid-film, electrodes
Housings
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrode-carrying means
Protective coatings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any coating or special layer of the housing not of the electrodes

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrode constructions
Electrode-carrying means (B03C 3/40 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any detail about the (mechanical) fixation of the electrodes (including the electrical isolators).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrode constructions
Protective coatings of housings
Use of special materials other than liquids for collecting electrodes
Cleaning-out collected particles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any detail about the removal of particles that have already been removed from the electrodes and/or walls.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning of the electrodes
Separating dispersed particles from liquids by electrostatic effect ( {flocculation or agglomeration of electric particles induced by electric field B01D 21/0009; microreactors B01J 19/0093} ; combined with centrifuges B04B 5/10; {treatment of microorganisms and apparatus therefor C12M 1/42, C12N 13/00, C12Q 1/24; analysis of biomaterial by electrical means G01N 33/48707} )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flocculation or agglomeration of electric particles induced by electric field
Separation, other than separation of solids, not fully covered by a single other group or subclass, (e.g. B03C) by electrophoresis
Combined with centrifuges
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Microreactors
Treatment of microorganisms and apparatus therefor
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of electric, electro-chemical, or magnetic means using electrophoresis
Special rules of classification within this group

The following Indexing Codes are used:

Indexing Code B03C 2201/24
measuring or calculating parameters, efficiency, etc.
Indexing Code B03C 2201/26
for use in medical applications
Indexing Code B03C 2201/32
checking the quality of the result or the well-functioning of the device
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ESP
electrostatic precipitator
DEP
di-electrophoresis
nDEP or pDEP
negative di-electrophoresis or positive di-electrophoresis
{Dielectrophoresis, i.e. dielectric particles migrating towards the region of highest field strength (B03C 5/02 takes precedence; electrophoresis B01D 57/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any method using di-electrophoresis for separating particles from a fluid. Separating fluids from fluids is in B03C 11/00

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Any device using di-electrophoresis for separating particles from a fluid.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrophoresis
Separators
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Any method using di-electrophoresis for separating particles from a fluid
Any method not using di-electrophoresis for separating particles from a fluid
Electrostatic separation not provided for in a single preceding main group
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other types of electrostatic separation except for electro-statically separating liquids from liquids

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Magnetic separation
Separating dispersed particles from gases or vapour
Separating dispersed particles from liquids by electrostatic effect
Separating solids from solids by electrostatic effect
Electro-statically separating liquids from liquids
Separation by high-voltage electrical fields, not provided for in other groups of this subclass
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group is used for electro-statically separating liquids from liquids

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separation of liquids from each other by electricity
Refining of hydrocarbons oils by electric or magnetic mean
Separation of liquids with coalescers
Filters [N: i.e. particle separators] or filtering processes specially modified for separating dispersed particles from gases or vapours including coalescing means for the separation of liquid]
Special rules of classification within this group

The following Indexing Codes are used:

Indexing Code B03C 2201/02
Electro-statically separating liquids from liquids
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013