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VEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels for all kinds of vehicles as cars, trucks, agricultural harvesters, tractors, cranes, locomotives, railcars, motorcycles, bicycles, wheelchairs, hospital beds, medical equipment and for all kinds of carts as perambulators, golf carts, pushcarts, dustbins or similar.

Wheels having specific properties or being of specific form.

Hub caps, wheel covers, wheel decorations, wheel mounted advertising panels.

Wheel hubs including wheel bearings, sealing arrangements, sensors and drive shaft/homokinetic joint arrangements in the case of driving wheels.

Castors for furniture, chairs, hospital beds, medical equipment, suitcases, pallets or similar.

Axles and wheel-axle combinations.

Apparatus for mounting/dismounting wheels, for holding wheels and for assembling/disassembling wheels.

Wheel traction/adhesion increasing means being permanently attached to the wheel or being permanently mounted to the vehicle chassis.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If the components of the wheels are only relevant by their functional features and not specially adapted, they are classified in the relevant functional subclasses and not in B60B, see for bearings (F16C 17/00 - F16C 25/00), sealings (F16J 15/00), couplings, clutches or freewheels (F16D), shafts (F16C 1/00, F16C 3/00), sensors (G01B, G01H, G01J, G01K, G01L, G01P).

There is a considerable overlap with subclasses B60C, B60G and B62D. Details are given in the relevant main-group definitions.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Making wheels or wheel parts by rolling

Making wheels or wheel parts by forging, hammering or pressing

Tracked vehicles and tracks therefore

Wheel balancing weights

Attachment means for wheel balancing weights

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Wheels for skateboards

Wheels for roller skates

Wheels for model railway vehicles

Wheels for aircrafts

Sledges with wheels

Ice boats, sailing sledges with wheels

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of wheels

Hand tools in general

B25

Tools for mounting tyres

Joining wheel units to motor vehicles or trailers during manufacturing, e.g. assembling

Special rules of classification within this subclass

In this subclass, an Indexing Scheme is used:

The Indexing Scheme is an Indexing Scheme which is used in all maingroups under the subclass B60B "VEHICLE WHEELS; CASTORS; AXLES; INCREASING WHEEL ADHESION ". This Indexing Scheme is used for indexing information which is not limited to the scope of one of the main-groups in the subclass B60B. This Indexing Scheme is used for indexing both, invention information and additional information. The use of this Indexing Scheme is obligatory for invention information.

The following main groups of an 'Indexing Scheme' are applicable:

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Castor

One or more small wheels mounted on a carrier that is rotatably mounted to an object about an axis orthogonal to the rolling axis of the wheels, typically used for office chairs.

Hub

The hub does not form part of the wheel or wheel disc but is the wheel carrier the wheel disc is mounted to by the wheel bolts.

Spoked wheels; Spokes thereof (non-metallic B60B 5/00 {; spoked wheels comprising rail-engaging elements B60B 17/001; making wheel spokes B21F 39/00})
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of wheels comprising either tension or compression spokes. The type of wheels ranging from bicycle wheels over light weight plastic wheels for strollers to heavy duty cast metal wheels.

All types of tension or compression spokes for wheels.

Attachment of spokes to the hub.

Attachment of spokes to the rim only in the case when the spoke is fastened to the rim by the use of a spoke nipple or a screw or when the filament winding to interact with the spoke nipple is concerned.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Making of wheel spokes

Spoked wheels formed by forging or deep-drawing of a semi-finished good or a metal blank having holes or openings stamped into the wheel disc, thus simulating spoked wheels

Full face disc wheels formed by joining several wheel parts where at least one part is formed by casting. The joining line being between disc and rim.

Wheels comprising a hub portion being integral with spokes extending radially outwards where at least one part is formed by casting. The joining line being between disc and rim.

Full face disc wheels formed by joining several wheel parts where at least one part is formed by casting. The joining line lying in the area of the rim cross-section.

Wheels comprising a hub portion being integral with spokes extending radially outwards where at least one part is formed by casting. The joining line lying in the area of the rim cross-section.

Wheels of high resiliency

Direct attachment of the spokes to the rim (without the use of e.g. spoke nipples or screws)

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Spoked wheels made of synthetic material

Spoked wheels made of wood

Spoked wheels comprising rail-engaging elements

Attaching the spokes to the rim using auxiliary means (e.g. spoke nipples, screws) in cases when the interaction of the auxiliary means with the rim is the predominant aspect.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of spoke wheels

Non-pneumatic rubber tyres

Special rules of classification within this group

B60B 1/10 concerns only spokes made of sheet metal and not spoked wheels made of sheet metal having stamped holes to simulate spokes.

Disc wheels, i.e. wheels with load-supporting disc body (non- metallic B60B 5/00; wheel cover discs B60B 7/00 {; disc wheels comprising rail-engaging elements B60B 17/0006})
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of disc wheels, where the disc body is load-supporting.

Disc being of the full face or the apertured type being either provided with small size holes or larger openings simulating spokes.

Disc wheels being made of stamped steel blanks, forged aluminium or other light alloys or cast metallic material.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Spoked wheels integrally formed by casting (wheel formed in one piece in the casting mold)

Wheel cover discs

Disc wheels with rims removably attached to the disc body

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Disc wheels made of synthetic material

Disc wheels comprising rail-engaging elements

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of wheels

Wheels of dustbins

B65F1/146

Locking devices for wheel bolts or nuts

Anti-theft devices for wheel bolts or nuts

with a single disc body integral with rim
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disc wheels where disc body and rim were joined during the forming procedure.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Spoked wheels integrally formed by casting (wheel formed in one piece in the casting mold)

Special rules of classification within this group

In case that the wheels were integrally formed by casting they are classified in addition in group B60B 3/06.

with a single disc body not integral with rim, { i.e. disc body and rim being manufactured independently and then permanently attached to each other in a second step, e.g. by welding}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disc wheels where the rim was permanently attached to the disc body in a later step after having been formed, e.g. by welding.

Wheels, spokes, disc bodies, rims, hubs, wholly or predominantly made of non-metallic material (wheel cover discs B60B 7/00; wheels of high resiliency B60B 9/00 {;wheel bodies comprising rail-engaging elements characterised by use of non-metallic material B60B 17/0003})
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of wheels being made from synthetic material as fibre reinforced resins, compound materials et. al. and wood;

Focussing on specific constructional needs when using synthetic materials;

Compositions;

Properties or manufacturing/handling of the synthetic material.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Wheel cover discs

Wheels of high resiliency

Castors

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Wheels for suitcases

Wheels comprising rail-engaging elements

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Shaping or joining of plastics

Shaping plastic materials comprising reinforcements

Indexing codes associated with B29C concerning plastic materials and condition, state or form of material used

Indexing codes associated with B29C indicating vehicle type or part of the vehicle where plastic part is used for

B29L31/30

Indexing codes associated with B29C indicating type of wheel used for

B29L31/32

Wheel cover discs, rings, or the like, for ornamenting, protecting, {venting,} or obscuring, wholly or in part, the wheel body, rim, hub, or tyre sidewall {e.g. wheel cover discs, wheel cover discs with cooling fins (wheels with cooling fins not provided on the wheel cover disc B60B 19/10; apparatus or tools for removing or attaching cover discs hub caps or the like B60B 31/06)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All elements (e.g. wheel covers, hub caps or wheel rings) removably attached at the laterally outer side of the wheel for ornamenting, protecting, venting, aerodynamically optimising or obscuring, wholly or in part, the wheel body, rim, hub, or tyre sidewall.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Masking covers used to protect the wheel as a whole or partly, e.g. when the tires or the car body are sprayed.

Wheels with cooling fins not provided on the wheel cover disc

Apparatus or tools for removing or attaching cover discs, hub caps or the like

Wheel balancing weights

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Production of wheel covers

Wheel nut covers or bolt covers

Mobile visual advertising

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Hub cap

Cover for the radially central part of the wheel where the hub of the axle is located underneath.

Wheel cover

Element covering the whole wheel disc extending to the rim of the wheel or the tire.

Wheel ring

Ring element covering part of the wheel disc, e.g. extending either from the hub cap to the rim or covering just the area adjacent to the rim.

Wheels of high resiliency {, e.g. with conical interacting pressure-surfaces (resilient wheels comprising rail-engaging elements B60B 17/0027)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels offering resilience without using pneumatic tyres

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Wheels with resiliently mounted plate like shoes

Expansible wheels

Hubs per se

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Resilient wheels with rail engaging elements

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Non-pneumatic rubber tyres

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Resilient

Acting spring-like, but not intended to change the diameter permanently

Units comprising multiple wheels arranged side by side; Wheels having more than one rim or capable of carrying more than one tyre
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements where more than one wheel is located at one end of an axle. The arrangement consisting either of multiple wheels being mounted to one hub or by single wheels having multiple rims or carrying several tires on one rim. These arrangements predominantly serving the purpose of increased load carrying capacity, uniform distribution of load or of offering emergency running capabilities.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Collapsible tires

Tires characterised by means enabling restricted operation in damaged or deflated condition

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Suppression of vibration in systems

Testing static and dynamic balance of machines or structures

Wheels or wheel attachments designed for increasing traction (vehicle tires B60C; non-skid devices temporarily attachable to resilient tires or resiliently-tired wheels B60C)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels or wheel attachments that increase traction off-road, especially for agricultural or constructional vehicles. Wheels of the staircase negotiating type are classified under B60B 15/18.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Means for increasing wheel adhesion

Snow chains

Off-road tires

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Agricultural combines

Other agricultural machines

Tractors

Wheels characterised by rail-engaging elements ({wheel-axle combinations B60B 37/00;} of model railways A63H 19/22)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels cooperating with rails in railway, crane or other applications. Rail wheels of the solid type, comprising resilient inserts or having elastic tyres. Features to increase resiliency, reduce vibrations and to achieve insonorisation of rail-engaging wheels. This group precedes over B60B 1/00, B60B 3/00 and B60B 9/00.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Non-metallic rail wheels

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Wheels of model railways

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheel axle combinations

Locomotives

Railway vehicles

{with insonorisation means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Noise reducing measures applied on the disc portion of rail wheels comprising at least two or more axially spaced discs.

{with noise reducing means (B60B 17/0017 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Noise reducing measures applied on the disc portion of single disc wheels.

{of rubber or other non-metallic material}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rail wheels provided with noise or vibration reducing resilient inserts between the disc and the rim or tyre.

Wheels not otherwise provided for or having characteristics specified in one of the sub-groups of this group
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels being convertible, e.g. from road wheel to rail wheel;

Wheels specially designed for alternative use on road and rail;

Expansible wheels; with compartments for fluid, packing or loading material;

Buoyant wheels;

Wheels with lubricating passages, channels, or reservoirs;

Wheels with cooling fins;

Roller-type wheels (e.g. for golf-carts) and ball-type wheels.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Wheel covers with cooling fins

Castors in general

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Wheels for suitcases

Places in relation to which this group is residual:

Wheels, wheel-sets or wheel accessories

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Ball-type wheels

Spherical wheels

Ball-type wheels (B60B 19/06 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels having a spherical shape and a fixed rotation axis.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Spherical wheels being of the multi-directional type

Non-spherical wheels being of the multi-directional type

Rims (non-metallic B60B 5/00; of high resiliency B60B 9/00; capable of carrying more than one tyre B60B 11/04; multiple rims on a single wheel body B60B 11/06; of multi-part type B60B 25/00; metal tyres B60C)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheel rims or characteristics of the rim itself.

Specific characteristics being transverse section profile, form of the tire seat or flanges;

Spoke attachment means (e.g. nipple/nipple seat combinations, rim/spoke configuration that allow direct attachment without the use of spoke nipples or screws);

Breaking surfaces located on the rim and accessories as lining bands;

Noise attenuating devices (helmholtz resonators).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Spoke nipples as far as the interaction with the spoke is predominant

Non-metallic rims

High-resiliency rims

Rims carrying more than one tire

Multiple rims on a single wheel body

Multi-part type rims

Connecting means for segmented rims, e.g. for rims although being made of one piece but not being seamless, for connecting the end portions

Run flat rings

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal tires

Production of wheel rims

Attaching rim to wheel body (attaching spokes to rim B60B 1/04, B60B 1/14; attaching rims resiliently to wheel body B60B 9/00; { devicess for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together F16B})
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Releasable attachment of wheel rims to the wheel disc. Permanent attachment of wheel rims to the disc or spokes by welding or integrally casting is not covered by this group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Spoked wheels with tension spokes

Attaching compression spokes to rim

Rims permanently attached to wheel discs after having been formed, e.g. by welding

Attaching rim resiliently to wheel body

Attaching tension spokes to rim

Axle units adjustable for varying track

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Rims integrally formed with spoked wheels by metal casting

Rims permanently joined to wheel during forming, e.g. by stamping, rolling, deep-drawing

Rims integrally formed with wheel disc by metal casting

Rims made of synthetic material and integrally formed with wheel body

Metal tires

Tractors of variable track width

Devices for fastening or securing constructional elements or machine parts together

Rims built up of several main parts {Locking means for the rim parts}(tools for assembling divided rims B60B 31/04)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Segmented rims (i.e. rims where the circumference is constituted by a number of segments);

Circumferentially split rims (i.e. rims where the rim is constituted of a number of annular rim elements joined along a circumferential seam);

Connecting means for segmented rims (including bicycle rims being made of one piece but not being of the seamless type and having two end portions);

Rims with dismountable flange rings, seat rings or lock rings;

Sealing means for rims built up of several main parts;

Safety arrangements to avoid dismounting when tire is still under pressure.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Tools for assembling devided rims

Friction welding methods

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Bicycle rims being made of one piece but not being of the seamless type and having two end portions

Hubs (non-metallic B60B 5/00; of high resiliency B60B 9/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheel hubs including wheel bearings, sealing arrangements, sensors and drive shaft/homokinetic joint arrangements in the case of driving wheels;

B60B 27/00 refers only to arrangements where the hub radially outer part is non-rotating and mounted to a knuckle;

Relationship between large subject matter areas

If the components of the hubs are only relevant by their functional features and not specially adapted, they are classified in the relevant functional subclasses and not in B60B 27/00, see for bearings (F16C 17/00 - F16C 25/00), sealings (F16J 15/00), couplings, clutches and freewheels (F16D), shafts (F16C 1/00, F16C 3/00), sensors (G01B, G01H, G01J, G01K, G01L, G01P).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Non-metallic hubs

Hubs of high resiliency

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pulling or pressing devices for bearings, hubs, sleeves

Hub motors e.g. electrical or hydraulical

Bicycles

Axle suspensions for mounting axles rigidly on cycle frame or fork

Propulsion of bicycles

Sealings of bearings

adapted to be fixed on axle
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hub arrangements where the radially outer part of the hub is rotating while the radially inner or center part respectively of the hub is non-rotating and could be mounted to a non-rotating fixed axle.

Apparatus or tools for mounting or dismounting wheels {(mounting of wheels at assembly lines B62D 65/12)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or tools necessary for mounting or dismounting wheels to be used in garages or by individuals. The apparatus or tools possibly comprising lifting or aligning means or being mounted on a dolly. Holding means to be used during mounting/dismounting of wheels.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Wrenches per se

Hand driven gear-operated wrenches per se

Hand driven gear-operated wrenches with torque amplification per se

Power driven nut setting or loosening tools per se

Adjustable axle units for varying track

Removing tyres from, or mounting tyres on, wheels

Mounting of wheels on assembly lines

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pulling devices for wheels

Mobile workshops in trucks

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Dolly

Rolling chassis provided with wheels or castors to allow quick and easy displacement of heavy tools or apparatus.

Means for holding wheels or parts thereof (spare wheel stowing, holding or mounting arrangements on vehicles B62D 43/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for holding wheels or parts thereof by gripping the wheel itself or the tire. The means possibly being mounted on a dolly. Means where the holding and not the mounting of the wheels is predominant.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Spare wheel stowing, holding or mounting arrangements on vehicles

Wheeled working platforms

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Show stands, hangers, or shelves adapted for tyres or wheels

Mounting of wheels on assembly lines

Wheel supporting trolleys for raising or lowering vehicles

Bearing support assemblies for receiving vehicle wheel in balancing machines

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Wheel holding means when used during mounting/dismounting of wheels

Removing tyres from, or mounting tyres on, wheels

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Dolly

Rolling chassis provided with wheels or castors to allow quick and easy displacement of heavy tools or apparatus.

Apparatus or tools for assembling or disassembling wheels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus or tools for assembling or disassembling wheels where the rim is not integral with the disc body, where the rim consists of several main parts, where spokes have to be mounted.

Apparatus or tools for attaching or removing wheel covers, hub caps or alike.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Removing tyres from, or mounting tyres on, wheels

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Trueing of damaged or bent areas of wheel rims, restoring form, removing local distortions

Castors in general; {Anti-clogging castors}(castors for large containers B65D 90/18)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All types of castors, i.e. one or more small wheels mounted on a carrier that is rotatably mounted to an object about an axis orthogonal to the rolling axis of the wheels; the mounting of the castors to the object; the construction of the wheels, the braking mechanisms and the swivel mechanisms; specific arrangements avoiding clogging.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Wheels for suitcases

Stretchers with wheels

Wheeled carriages for stretchers

Wheelchairs

Wheels for hospital beds

Handcarts

Perambulators

Castors for large containers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Spoked plastic wheels for e.g. strollers

Plastic wheels of the fullface type for e.g. dustbins

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "castor" and "caster" are often used as synonyms.

Ball castors {(B60B 33/0028 takes precedence)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Spherical/Ball shaped rollers with a variable rotation axis, i.e. being of the multi-directional type. Typically no real axle exists but the sphere forming the main roller is suspended by multiple guiding rollers or kept in a partial spherical shell.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Non-spherical wheels being of the multi-directional type

Spherical wheels having a fixed rotation axle.

Axle units; Parts thereof (steerable vehicle stub axles B62D){ Arrangements for lubrification of axles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dead and driven axles of constant or adjustable track;

One-piece or composite axles and axle housings predominantly for trucks, busses, constructional or agricultural vehicles.

Elements and devices for emergency repairs of broken axles (e.g. clamping arrangements for replacement axle elements) are covered by B60B 35/14.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Units comprising multiple wheels arranged side-by-side

Attachment of wheels to axles

Tandem wheel arrangements

Twist beam axles

Steerable vehicle stub axles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Agricultural combines

Other agricultural machines

Rail vehicle axle-boxes

Tractors

Bogies for endless track vehicles

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tools for axial movement of wheels on axles

Suspension of rigid axles

Joining suspensions or wheel units to other sub-units or components

Tractors with variable track width

Oiling, lubricating inserts

Wheel-axle combinations, e.g. wheel sets (units comprising multiple wheels arranged side-by-side B60B 11/00; rail vehicle axle-boxes B61F)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Axles with wheels being integrally formed with the axle, rigidly attached to the axle or one or more wheels being individually rotatable around the axle.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Units comprising multiple wheels arranged side-by-side

Tandem wheel arrangements

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Agricultural combines

Other agricultural machines

Locomotives

Railway vehicles

Rail vehicle axle-boxes

Tractors

Bogies for endless track vehicles

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Tractors of variable track width

Movable platforms comprising lifting devices

Increasing wheel adhesion (wheels, wheel attachments or tyre attachments, designed for increasing traction B60B 15/00, B60C; tyre constructions B60C; road surface conditioning to prevent slipperiness E01C)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus to increase wheel adhesion under adverse road conditions as snow, ice or water;

Vehicle chassis mounted non-skid chains;

Vehicle fittings to improve the road surface in front of the wheels by scattering or dispensing material or by directing a gas stream.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Wheels or wheel attachments designed for increasing wheel traction

Tire mounted snow chains

Off-road tires

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sanding devices for locomotives

Combined control of sanding apparatus and brakes of rail vehicles

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Temporary road surfaces

Road surface conditioning to prevent slipperiness in general

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013