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typewriters; selective printing mechanisms, [N: e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers], i.e. mechanisms printing otherwise than from a forme; correction of typographical errors (composing B41B; printing on special surfaces B41F; laundry marking B41K; erasers, rubbers or erasing devices B43L 19/00; fluid media for correction of typographical errors by coating C09D 10/00; recording the results of measuring g01; recognition or presentation of data, marking record carriers in digital fashion, e.g. by punching, G06K; franking or ticket-printing and issuing apparatus G07B; electric keyboard switches, in general H01H 13/70, H03K 17/94; coding in connection with keyboards or like devices, in general H03M 11/00; receivers or transmitters for transmission of digital information H04L; transmission or reproduction of documents, or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission, H04N 1/00 ; printing mechanisms specially adapted for apparatus, e.g. cash registers, weighing machines, producing records of their own performance, see the relevant subclasses)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Kinds of type-writers or selective printing mechanisms
  • Manually controlled power-operated apparatus or apparatus of this type with additional control by input of stored program instructions, e.g. on punched cards or tapes;
  • The "print-out" features of apparatus controlled by stored program instructions or electric signals in so far as these are of general interest, e.g. impression, inking, line-spacing mechanisms, printing heads;
Relationship between large subject matter areas

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shaping of 3D-objects by means of liquid-jetting
Composing
Printing on special surfaces
Laundry marking
Erasers, rubbers or erasing devices
Fluid media for correction of typographical errors by coating
Recording the results of measuring
Recognition or presentation of data, marking record carriers in digital fashion, e.g. by punching
Processing computer-generated data for printing or electrical features of apparatus controlled by record carriers or electric signals and of interest apart from the "print-out" features of said apparatus
Franking or ticket-printing and issuing apparatus
Electric keyboard switches, in general
Coding in connection with keyboards or like devices, in general
Receivers or transmitters for transmission of digital information
Transmission or reproduction of documents, or the like, e.g. facsimile transmission
Conversion of picture/colour signals for printing
Special rules of classification within this subclass

Printing mechanisms specially adapted for apparatus, e.g. cash registers, weighing machines, producing records of their own performance: see the relevant subclasses.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Printing material/media
paper or temporary record carriers from which records are transferred to a paper (not: printing masters, e.g. formes or printing plates)
Paper
printing material, including similar flexible material
Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the mounting, arrangement, or disposition of the types or dies (non-selective embossing B44B 5/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Type-writers only.
  • Publications of general interest and those not provided for in the lower sub-groups, e.g. complete machines.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dot-marking printers as ink-jet printers, dot-matrix printers, laser printers
B41J 2/00 (appropriate sub-groups)
Non-selective embossing, Machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Type-writer
device with printing elements having complete characters, thus not built up from dots
with separate or detached types or dies
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In general with additional characters

with types or dies mounted on endless bands or the like
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using type-belts.

Control circuits therefor.

with types or dies mounted on carriers rotatable for selection
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drums and wheels in general

the plane of the type or die face being perpendicular to the axis of rotation (B41J 1/60 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Daisy wheel printers and general aspects of the machine

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Details of the carriers, font change and interchangeable carriers
With types or dies on spherical, truncated-spherical, or like surfaces
the plane of the type or die face being parallel to the axis of rotation, e.g. with type on the periphery or cylindrical carriers (B41J 1/60 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With types or dies on spherical, truncated-spherical, or like surfaces
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Output mechanism with printing mechanisms, e.g. for character-at-a-time or line-at-a-time printing
with types or dies on spherical, truncated-spherical, or like surfaces
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. of the golf-ball type

Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms characterised by the printing or marking process for which they are designed (mounting, arrangement, or disposition of types or dies B41J 1/00; marking methods B41M 5/00; structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive, for recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier G11B 5/127; heads for reproducing capacitive information G11B 9/07 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers bringing liquid or particles selectively onto a printing material, either by jetting or through contact. In particular, the sub-groups contain inkjet printers and thermal printers. It covers the structure of the apparatuses used for bringing liquid or particles selectively onto a printing material, their driving/controlling methods and the methods to manufacture them.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Typewriters, This group does not cover use of selective printing mechanisms in manufacturing processes unless the printer itself has something specific(mounting, arrangement, or disposition of types or dies
Marking methods
Structure or manufacture of heads, e.g. inductive, for recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier
Heads for reproducing capacitive information
characterised by bringing liquid or particles selectively into contact with a printing material (printing by selective application of impact or pressure on a printing or impression-transfer material B41J 2/22)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ink reaches paper without forming a flying drop

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Printing by selective application of impact or pressure on a printing or impression-transfer material
[N: where an intermediate transfer member receives the ink before transferring it on the printing material]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Ink jet
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inkjet printers in general, when no details on structure is provided.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This sub group does not cover use of inkjet printers in manufacturing processes unless the printer itself has some significance

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For printing on special surfaces
generating a continuous ink jet
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heads generating a continuous stream of droplets, and selecting some to be printed while others are collected back into the ink supply system.

by vibration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

generating single droplets or particles on demand
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

On-demand inkjet heads (every formed ink droplet will be printed).

B41J 2/14 takes precedence.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnetic and electrostatic actuators
[N: Control methods or devices therefor, e.g. driver circuits, control circuits]
Special rules of classification within this group

For control methods, each document should bear at least one code specifying the type of head being controlled, chosen from B41J 2/04575 to B41J 2/04586.

[N: Block driving]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Dot-size modulation by changing the size of the drop]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Dot-size modulation by changing the number of drops per dot]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Devices for absorbing or preventing back-pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

by electric or magnetic field
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This sub-group contains documents in which an electric field causes the ejection of ink directly, without involvment of a membrane or the like.

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

involving the preliminary making of ink protuberances
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Sensors, e.g. deflection sensors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Deflection sensors for continuous ink jet printers

Cameras for jet or dot position control

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Nozzle clogging detection for cleaning reasons
Detection for compensation of nozzle failures
During manufacture or detection by means of print head drive signal response
Nozzles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group should be left empty. Classify in the lower subgroups that cover structures of on-demand inkjet heads (not only of nozzles). For nozzles and nozzle plates per se, see B41J 2/1433 and B41J 2002/14475. For manufacturing of nozzles and nozzle plates, see B41J 2/162. Heads in which an electric field causes the ejection of ink directly (thus without involvement of a membrane) are classified only in B41J 2/06 (thus not in the sub-groups of B41J 2/135).

Structure thereof [N: only for on-demand ink jet heads]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Should be understood as "structure of on-demand inkjet heads", where the head is the part comprising the chambers and actuators, and not the whole cartridge. See also B41J 2/04.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Heads in which an electric field causes the ejection of ink directly (thus without involvment of a membrane)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Generating single droplets or particles on demand
[N: Structure of acoustic ink jet print heads]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Geometrical characteristics]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Movable member in the chamber]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Plural heating elements per ink chamber]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Heater chamber separated from ink chamber by a membrane]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Electrical connections, e.g. details on electrodes, connecting the chip to the outside...]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structure dealing with thermal variations, e.g. cooling device, thermal coefficients of materials]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Current flowing through the ink]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Laser or electron beam heating the ink]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Shape]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Layer structure]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Resistor surrounding the nozzle opening]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structure of the manifold]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structures including a sensor]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structure having belt or drum with holes filled with ink]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of finger type, chamber walls consisting integrally of piezoelectric material]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

No membrane between the chamber and the piezo element.

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of film type, deformed by bending and disposed on a diaphragm]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of stacked structure type, deformed by compression/extension and disposed on a diaphragm]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of cantilever type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of tubular type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of disc type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structure of ink jet print heads with electrostatically actuated membrane]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structure of nozzle plates]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structure of ink jet print heads with thermal bend detached actuators]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Structure of ink jet print heads discharging by lowering surface tension of meniscus]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Arrangement thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

for serial printing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

for line printing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Production of nozzles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Should be understood as "production of on-demand inkjet heads". This group is used when the type of head manufactured (i.e. bubble-jet, piezo etc..) is not known or when no specific sub-group exists for said type (like for instance acoustic heads or head which work by lowering the surface tension of the meniscus). This group does not cover manufacturing of heads

in which an electric field causes the ejectiion of ink directly (without involvment of a membrane) nor manufacturing of continuous inkjet heads.

Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying a manufacturing method, at least one class ification should always be given for the type of head being manufactured (i.e. B41J 2/16 to B41J 2/162 or B41J 2/1648). A classification for each used manufacturing process (B41J 2/1623 to B41J2/M8T) should be given.

[N: Production of bubble jet print heads (B41J 2/1606, B41J 2/162 take precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group is used for bubble-jet heads when it is neither front shooter nor edge shooter (i.e. it is used when orientation is unknown or for back shooters)

[N: of the front shooter type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of the edge shooter type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Coating the nozzle area or the ink chamber]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Production of print heads with piezoelectric elements (B41J 2/1606, B41J 2/162 take precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This sub-group is used when the type of piezo electric head being manufactured in not defined.

[N: of finger type, chamber walls consisting integrally of piezoelectric material]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of film type, deformed by bending and disposed on a diaphragm]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of stacked structure type, deformed by compression/extension and disposed on a diaphragm]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of cantilever type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of tubular type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: of disc type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Fixing the piezoelectric elements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Manufacturing of the nozzle plates]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: manufacturing processes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group is not in use.

Special rules of classification within this group

When classifying a manufacturing method, at least one class should always be given for the type of head being manufactured (i.e. B41J 2/16 to B41J 2/162 or B41J 2/1648). A classification for each used manufacturing process (from B41J 2/1623 to B41J2/M8T) should be given.

[N: dividing the wafer into individual chips]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: sacrificial molding]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Production of print heads with thermal bend detached actuators]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Preventing [N: or detecting] of nozzle clogging, e.g. cleaning, capping or moistening for nozzles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preventing clogging of nozzles;

Cleaning of nozzles;

Detection of defective nozzles for cleaning

Relationship between large subject matter areas

G03G for powder toner printers

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Conditioning of ink supply systems/circuits
Cleaning of other parts than nozzles or ink supply systems of an ink jet printer
Detection of defective nozzles for compensation of them by well functioning nozzles
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "nozzles", "apertures", "print(ing) elements" and "openings" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following words " discharge/ejection failure", "defect" "non-discharge", " clogging", "defective","failing", "non-operative", "inoperative" ,"non-firing", "malperforming" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following words "cleaning", "maintenance", "recovery" and "priming" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Caps, spittoons or covers for cleaning or preventing drying out]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Caps connected to the print head itself instead of to the printer frame.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Cap/cover
to isolate the print head nozzles from the atmosphere
Spittoon
ink collector in which the print head ejects ink (it may be the cap itself)
[N: connected with the printer frame]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Line or stationary printers
Collecting waste ink, ink collectors therefor
[N: Constructions for cap positioning (B41J 2/16547 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cap and wiper on the same support
[N: Cleaning of print head nozzles (B41J 2/16505, B41J 2/1707, B41J 2/1714 take precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Caps
Waste ink/suction circuits
Line or stationary printers
Cleaning of the ink supply system
Cleaning of printhead parts not dealing with the nozzle plate
Waste ink collection tanks
Cleaning of printer parts not mentioned under
[N: Waste ink collection from caps or spittoons, e.g. by suction]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems comprising waste ink transport from a cap to a waste ink collector.

Special rules of classification within this group

Waste ink containers are classified in B41J 2/1721

[N: by applying pressure only]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquid from the inside of the print head is forced through the printing apertures by actuation of the drivers.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "idle/idly discharge/ejection", "flushing", "priming", "spitting" and "purging" are often used as synonyms.

[N: by applying vacuum only]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes and means sucking liquid from the inside of the print head through the printing apertures into a cap connected to a vacuum pump.

[N: using wiping constructions (B41J 2/16552 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Nozzle plate wipers as rollers or ribbons.

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Brushes or blades perpendicular to the nozzle plate
Special rules of classification within this group

Devices cleaning the wipers: B41J 2/16541

[N: using cleaning fluids]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Liquids or fluids for cleaning ink supply systems, nozzles or wipers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cleaning liquid compositions (Detergent compositions based essentially on surface-active compounds; Use of these compounds as a detergent)
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this group, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

Nozzles
printhead openings for passing the printing liquid
Wipers
material contacting a print head nozzle plate for removing liquid thereon.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "cleaning", "cleansing", "rinsing liquid" and "fluid" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Detection means therefor, e.g. for nozzle clogging]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Detection of and compensation for defective nozzles
Detection during manufacture or detection by means of print head drive signal response
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For monitoring ink quality
[N: for paper-width or non-reciprocating print heads]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Line heads or stationary print heads.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Page-width or stationary print head
print head not moving during printing
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "line", "page-width" and "paper-width" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following words "non-reciprocating" and "stationary"

are often used as synonyms.

characterised by ink handling
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Forced drying of ink/liquid printed onto a printing medium
Forcing ink through nozzles for cleaning nozzles
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Ink
all kinds of liquid for printing onto a printing medium, may also be colourless
[N: Conditioning of the inside of ink supply circuits, e.g. flushing during start-up or shut-down]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For removing air bubbles from ink supply circuits, cartridges or tanks
Circulating the ink in the stand-by time
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Flushing
rinsing
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "rinsing", "flushing" and "priming" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Collecting waste ink; Collectors therefor]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ink tanks collecting waste ink from caps or directly from a print head during borderless printing.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For collecting ink after ink ejection
Special rules of classification within this group

Closed waste ink collector:B41J 2002/1728

Open ink collector:B41J 2002/1742

Waste ink systems between cap and waste ink collector:B41J 2/16523

[N: Mounting within the printer]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bodily-changeable print heads or carriages
[N: electronically]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also other data transfer as remaining liquid information

[N: Ink level or ink residue control]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Remaining ink quantity measurement using floater, optical means, impedance measurements, vibration, temperature change or counting ejected dropletsLow level operation of printer

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For information data transfer therewith
For details
Ink-collectors; Ink-catchers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ink-catchers for ink jet printers of the continuous type.

Collecting ink after ejection from printers of the DOD-type.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spittoons receiving ink by idle ink ejection during maintenance
Collectors receiving ink during printing (e.g. borderless printing)
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
DOD
drop on demand (opposite to ink jet of the continuous type)
for printing a discrete number of tones (B41J 2/21 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monochrome gray levels.

Liquids of same hue but with different intensity.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Halftoning by varying the number of within a pixel (dithering) for multi-colour printers
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "gray levels", "tone levels" and "colour intensity" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following words "levels", "grayscale", "shading", "halftoning", "gradation" and "gradation value" are often used as synonyms.

[N: by dot superpositioning, e.g. multipass doubling]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

True half toning by means of superpositioning of droplets of the same colour.

[N: by the variation of dot disposition or characteristics, e.g. dot number density, dot shape]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Halftoning by a selectable number of adjacent dots of the same colour within a pixel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Halftoning by dithering dots of different colour within a pixel
[N: by ink density change]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ejecting liquids of same hue but with different intensity, e.g. light and dark magenta/cyan inks.

for multi-colour printing
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Conversion of colour signals
Colour registering
Print resolution change:
Print resolution change by print head rotation:
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "colour", "color" and "hue"

are often used as synonyms.

[N: characterised by the ink properties]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Covering dye-based inks vs pigmented inks.

Inks reactive which each other.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ink compositions
C09D11/00C
Using solid state inks
[N: Mixing of inks, solvent or air prior to paper contact]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Ejecting transparent or white coloured liquids, e.g. processing liquids (B41J 2/211 takes precedence)]
Special rules of classification within this group

B41J 2/2117: using white inks

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "processing liquid", "ink", "printing improvement liquid", and "ink" are often used as synonyms.

[N: by means of nozzle diameter selection]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: by means of energy modulation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Half-toning or colouring by ejecting an ink droplet of selectable size from nozzles by using different drive power levels.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Drive signal shaping, stabilising ejection rates e.g. by temperature measurements
B41J2/045B, B41J2/05D
[N: Print quality control characterised by dot disposition, e.g. for reducing white stripes or banding (methods for local corrections by dot omission, image edge enhancement, or multi-pass mask selection G06K 15/102; colour conversion H04N 1/40 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Multi-pass printing; Interlacing, the printed pixels printed in both fast- as slow-scan direction.

Dithering: several non-overlapping dots of different colour (C,M,Y,K) within a pixel to give the impression of one colour.

Preventing banding: white or dark stripes due to systematic dot positioning errors.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods for local corrections by dot omission, image edge enhancement, or multi-pass mask selection
Colour conversion
Error diffusion
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the output data
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Multi-pass
several movements of a print head in the main-scan direction, without a paper feed
Interlacing/interleaving
filling up the lines between the raster lines caused by the distance between two adjacent nozzles. Sometimes also used for filling up the empty pixels in a mask in the fast-scan direction
[N: Alignment of dots (adjustments by bodily moving print heads or carriages B41J 25/001)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Alignment by nozzle drive control adjustment.

Test pattern

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanical adjustment
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for controlling or analysing the entire machine
[N: Compensation for malfunctioning nozzles creating dot place or dot size errors]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compensation for malfunctioning nozzles during the process of manufacture
[N: Detection of malfunctioning nozzles (for cleaning purposes B41J 2/16579; jet deflection sensors B41J 2/125 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
During manufacture or detection by means of print head drive signal response
Sensors for jet control, e.g. deflection sensors
Detection for necessity of cleaning
using thermal heads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Direct printing type thermal head, i.e. using heat sensitive print media

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Indirect printing using intermediate ribbon
by selective transfer of ink from ink carrier, e.g. from ink ribbon or sheet
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Indirect thermal printing using ribbon between the head and the paper for printing.

Structure of thermal heads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects relating to the head itself

[N: Electrode layers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details concerning the electrodes: shape, geometry, dimension, material.

US2008100686

[N: Heater layers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Integrated circuits]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

[N: Passivation layers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of passivation layer:shape, dimension, geometry, material

WO2008081949

[N: Protective layers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the protection layer: shape, dimension, geometry, material

US2010134583

[N: Substrates]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Detail of the substrate such as architecture, material, geometry

EP0763431

[N: characterised by geometry]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Geometrical characteristic:

US2011141216

[N: characterised by dimensions]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dimension being one of the key issues of the invention

US6151054

[N: characterised by materials]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

If a specific material is used for the head.

EP1195255

[N: Corner type resistors]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heater at the corner of the substrate.

US5426451

[N: Edge type resistors]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heater on the edge of the substrate

US2006098052

[N: Surface type resistors]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heater on the surface of the substrate

US5305021

[N: Processes for assembling process heads]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method comprising steps for assembling parts of a head

WO9610490

[N: Cooling arrangements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Architecture for cooling the head itself by heat dissipation on the substrate side.

US5568176

[N: Hollow parts under the heater]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Part of the substrate or first layer above the substrate having a groove filled or not in order to dissipate heat.

JP2007083532

[N: Manufacturing processes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

EP2284010

[N: Conductors through the layered structure]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

EP1077135

characterised by selective supply of electric current or selective application of magnetism to a printing or impression-transfer material (B41J 2/005 takes precedence; electrography, magnetography G03G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Print heads only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Characterised by bringing liquid selectively into contact with a printing material
Copying machine subjects other than the print head:
[N: for direct electrostatic printing [DEP]]
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
DEP
Direct Electrostatic Printing, without the intermediate step of a latent image because the toner particles are directly driven through the holes or slits.
for heating selectively
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing by selective heating by applying an electric current to a printing medium.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Printing by contacting a printing medium by heated electrodes
Printing by heating through selective radiation
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Printing medium
e.g. a paper sheet on which is printed
characterised by selective application of radiation to a printing material or impression-transfer material (optical elements, systems, or apparatus G02B; modulation or deflection of light G02F; electrophotography G03G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Optical print heads as laser print heads

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ablation writing by laser on work pieces:
B23K26/06K
Ablative marking methods and sheet material for use therein:
Optical elements, systems, or apparatus
Modulation or deflection of light
Parts of copying machines other than the print head:
Control of optical print heads:
Special rules of classification within this group

See the appropriate lower sub-groups

[N: using lasers (ablative marking methods and sheet materials for use therein B41M 5/24; working material by laser beam in general B23K 26/00 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Laser characteristics as power, power density.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Working material by laser beam in general
Ablative marking methods and sheet materials for use therein
using arrays of radiation sources (B41J 2/475 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General lay-outs of printers with light array print heads

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Characterised by selective application of radiation to a printing material for heating selectively:
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern by application of light, e.g. using a LED array
Special rules of classification within this group

Light beam arrays are also used as light source in rotating mirror printers:

For reciprocating print head carriers: B41J 2/47

[N: using cathode ray or electron beam tubes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

characterised by using glass fibres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printers using one or more glass fibres as optical waveguide to guide light from a light source to the printing medium.

using masks, e.g. light-switching masks (photographic composing B41B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Light-switching mirrors or valves for modulating.

Light slits for focussing light beams.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Photographic composing
using the combination of scanning and modulation of light
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Light array print heads reciprocating (scanning) over the media to be printed.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Light modulation
light source intensity being set on a level corresponding with an image data map
[N: using dot sequential main scanning by means of a light deflector, e.g. a rotating polygonal mirror]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A modulated light beam from e.g. a laser diode array is directed to a rotating mirror. From there the light beam is directed through a lens and is moved (scanned) over a medium (e.g. an electrically chargeable drum).

Here the laser is neutralizing the negative charge on the photoreceptive drum to form an electrostatic image.

Source: Wikipedia

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Printer aspects other than the print head, e.g. toner powder subjects
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Optical devices or arrangements using movable or deformable optical elements for controlling the intensity, colour, phase, polarisation or direction of light
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
ROS
raster output scanner
Rotating polygon
rotating device having a plurality of mirrored facets
Scanning mirror
moving mirror, e.g. rotating
Main-scanning
here: light beam moving over e.g. a drum
Sub-scanning
drum, belt or paper movement;
Light modulation
light source intensity being set on a level corresponding with an image data map.
[N: using multiple light beams, wavelengths or colours]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

A plurality of light beams directed to the same scanning mirror (e.g. a light source array).

for heating selectively [N: by radiation or ultrasonic waves]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Thermal heads using heated electrodes contacting the material to be treated
By an electrical current between head and printing medium
[N: using thermosensitive substrates, e.g. paper]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heating for writing or erasing on print media

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Erasing by a thermal head by contacting the print media
Erasing by an electric or magnetic field
B41J2/407N
characterised by the process of building-up characters [N: or image elements] applicable to two or more kinds of printing or marking processes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Matrix printing having means to control the print result e.g. negative print, background shaded, avoiding of wearing out by selective use of print elements. E.g. use of ultra-sonic vibrations therefor.

by writing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reproducing of handwriting.

Signatures.

Pens on carriages (plotters).

by the selective combination of two or more non-identical printing elements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
With multiple print heads of different type
from an assembly of identical printing elements [N: (printers with two or more sets of printing elements B41J 3/54; Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the digital output data using matrix printers, e.g. individual print element control for printing letters G06K 15/10 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Matrix printer print quality adjustment;

Print resolution adjustment;

Interlacing for printers not being of the ink-jet type.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ink-jet subjects not having resolution change
Arrangements for producing a permanent visual presentation of the digital output data using matrix printers, e.g. individual print element control for printing letters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
With multiple print heads of different type
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Printing elements
e.g. nozzles, electrodes, LED's to form dots on a material to be printed (print media)
Identical printing elements
e.g. an array of nozzles
NLQ
Near letter quality, which means high print quality
Registration/registering
In color printing the method of correlating the overlapping colours on one single position of an image
Print resolution
printing at a predetermined dot density
Dot density
number of dots per unit of surface
Raster
line or grid with a predetermined dot density
[N: with special adaptations characterised by the ink properties (B41J 2/2107 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ink jet for multi-colour printing characterised by the ink properties
[N: with special adaptations characterised by dot size (B41J 2/2121 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Print heads other than of the ink jet type.

serial printer type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printers with a print head reciprocating over the material to be printed in order to print a single line or swath

E.g. geometry aspects as columns/rows of print elements (monochrome), functional aspects as inclination of characters (matrix printers).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Movements parallel to the plane of printing other than reciprocating:
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ink jet nozzle arrangements for serial printing
Features not dealing with the colouring process per se, e.g. construction of printers or heads, driving circuit adaptations
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Serial printer
printer with a print head reciprocating over the material in order to print a single line or swath.
Line head printer
page-width printer printing at least one raster line at the same time.
line printer type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Page-width printers printing at least one raster line at the same time.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ink jet nozzle arrangements for line printing
Movements parallel to the plane of printing other than reciprocating
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Serial printer
printer with a print head reciprocating over the material in order to print a single line or swath.
Line printer type
page-width printer printing at least one raster line at the same time.
Arrangement for printing a discrete number of tones, not covered by group B41J 2/205, e.g. applicable to two or more kinds of printing or marking process (B41J 2/525 takes precedence; for photomechanical production G03F 5/00 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Gradual grey tones
Ink jet
Arrangement for multi-colour printing, not covered by group B41J 2/21, e.g. applicable to two or more kinds of printing or marking process (for photomechanical production G03F 3/00 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ink jet printers:
Colour printing in general:
For photomechanical production
Typewriters or selective printing or marking mechanisms, [N: e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers] characterised by the purpose for which they are constructed (cryptographic typewriters G09C 3/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In particular bar code printers,flat-bed ink-jet printers,ink-jet printers for printing on bank books, passports or the like, portable printers, hand-held printers, stamp-type ink-jet printers, printers for printing on CDs or DVDs,ink-jet printers for printing on three-dimensional objects,label printers,ink-jet printers for printing on textile,printers for printing on the front and on the back of sheets or continuous material.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cryptographic typewriters
for printing downwardly on flat surfaces, e.g. of books, drawings, boxes, [N: envelopes, e.g. flat-bed ink-jet printers (B41J 3/36, B41J 3/407, B41J 3/4071, B41J 3/4073, B41J 3/4075, B41J 3/4076, B41J 3/4078 take precedence; flat page-size platens B41J 11/06; conveyor belts B41J 13/12; drawing instruments B43L 13/00, automatic draughting machines B43L 13/022 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective printing mechanisms for portability
Selective printing mechanisms for marking on special material
Selective printing mechanisms for printing on disk-shaped media, e.g. CDs
Selective printing mechanisms for printing on three-dimensional objects
Tape printers; label printers
Selective printing mechanisms for printing on rewritable, bistable "electronic paper" by a focused electric or magnetic field
Selective printing mechanisms for printing on textile
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Drawing instruments
Conveyor belts
Automatic drafting machines
Flat page-size platens
for portability [N: , i.e. hand-held printers or laptop printers (B41J 3/4075 take precedence; printers with reduced dimensions B41J 29/023; stackable printers B41J 29/026 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tape printers; label printers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printers with reduced dimensions
Stackable printers
Manually-controlled or manually-operable label dispensers having printing equipment
[N: Toy typewriters (toy imitations of typewriters A63H 33/3077 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Toy imitations of typewriters
for embossing, e.g. for making matrices for stereotypes [N: (Surface shaping, e.g. embossing B29C 59/00; mechanical deformation of paper or cardboard without removing material B31F 1/00; machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks B44B 5/00 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Surface shaping, e.g. embossing
Mechanical deformation of paper or cardboard without removing material
Machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks
for marking on special material (printing on special surfaces B41F 7/00; [N: apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits by printing or dispensing a conductive paste or ink H05K 3/1241 ])
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuitsby ink-jet printing
Methods of making colour filters, e.g. printing
[N: Printing on disk-shaped media, e.g. CDs]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recording by optical means, e.g. recording using a thermal beam of optical radiation
Guiding record carriers from consecutive-access magazine of disc records, e.g. for optically recording on CDs
[N: Printing on three-dimensional objects not being in sheet or web form, e.g. spherical or cubic objects (B41J 3/283, B41J 3/286 take precedence; building up a 3D object using individual droplets from jetting heads B29C 67/0059 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective printing mechanisms for printing on bank books or the like
Selective printing mechanisms for printing on boxes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Building up a 3D object using individual droplets from jetting heads
[N: Tape printers; Label printers (tape cartridges B41J 15/044 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tape cartridges containing continuous copy material to be printed
[N: printing on rewritable, bistable "electronic paper" by a focused electric or magnetic field (displays in which the positions of movable elements are controlled by the application of an electric field G09F 9/372, of a magnetic field G09F 9/375 ]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Displays in which the positions of movable elements are controlled by the application of an electric field
Displays in which the positions of movable elements are controlled by the application of a magnetic field
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Electrochromism means
the phenomenon displayed by some chemical species of reversibly changing colour when a burst of charge is applied (adjective: electrochromic).
[N: Printing on textile (ink-jet dying or printing processes for textile D06P 5/30; conversion of colour signals for textile printing H04N 1/54 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ink-jet dying or printing processes for textile
Conversion of colour picture signals to a plurality of signals some of which represent particular mixed colours, e.g. for textile printing
Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms having dual functions or combined with, or coupled to, apparatus performing other functions (printing mechanisms coupled to typographical composing machines B41B 27/41 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing mechanisms coupled to typographical composing machines
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation is often used:

RFID
radio frequency identification
Mechanisms producing characters by printing and also producing a record by other means [N: , e.g. printer combined with RFID writer] (punching mechanisms G06K)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods or arrangements for marking by punching
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation is often used:

RFID
radio frequency identification
the printed and recorded information being identical; using type elements with code-generating means (G06K 1/12 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or arrangements for marking the record carrier in digital fashion
with two or more sets of type or printing elements (B41J 3/60 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Selective printing or marking mechanisms with two or more sets or types of printing elements

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective printing mechanisms for printing on both faces of the printing material
[N: with multiple inkjet print heads (B41J 2/17503, B41J 2/2103 take precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ink cartridges; ink cartridges mounted on a common carriage
Construction of print heads for multi-colour ink-jet printing; multi-colour print heads mounted on a common carriage
for printing on two or more separate sheets or strips of printing material [N: being conveyed simultaneously to or through the printing zone] (B41J 3/54 take precedence [N: B41J 15/18, B41J 15/20, B41J 15/22 and B41J 15/24 take precedence])
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective printing mechanisms with two or more sets or types of printing elements
Multiple web-feeding apparatus
Multiple web-feeding apparatus for webs superimposed during printing
Multiple web-feeding apparatus for feeding webs in separate paths during printing
Multiple web-feeding apparatus with means for registering the webs with each other
Devices or arrangements for controlling character selection ([N: interpreting G06K 3/00] methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers G06K 7/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Interpreting
Methods or arrangements for sensing record carriers:
Character or syllable selected by means of keys or keyboards of the typewriter type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Keyboards for type-writers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Keyboards not for type-writers
Multiple-action keys, e.g. keys depressed by two or more amounts or movable in two or more directions to effect different functions or selections
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. repeat actions for type-writers.

Character or syllable selection controlled by recorded information
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices other than type-writers
G06F15/20
characterised by storage of recorded information
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. font or memory cartridges.

Type-selecting or type-actuating mechanisms (index setting B41J 5/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Index setting
[N: Type-selecting actions or mechanisms by unusual means, e.g. for use by physically disabled persons (control means for physically disabled persons in general A61F 4/00 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control means for physically disabled persons in general
Construction of type-levers (U-shaped levers B41J 7/12 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
U-shaped levers:
Preventing rebound or clash of levers or type members
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. print sequence control for type-writers.

Selecting arrangements applied to type-carriers rotating during impression
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. carrousel type carriers for type-writers.

Timed impression, e.g. without impact
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. accelerated or delayed impression for type-writers.

Type carrier arrested in selected position by electromagnetic means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Output mechanism with printing mechanisms
Type-face selected by combinations of two movements of type carrier
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. selection over the shortest rotation in type-writers.

Selecting arrangements including combinations, permutation, summation, or aggregation means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Apparatus or local circuits for transmitting or receiving codes wherein each character is represented by the same number of equal-length code element - at the receiving end, using aggregate motion translation
Impact adjustment; Means to give uniformity of impression (B41J 9/46, B41J 9/48 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For deciding or adjusting hammer-firing time
For deciding or adjusting hammer- drive energy
Means checking correctness of setting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. control of selected characters for type-writers

Hammer-impression mechanisms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Hammers; Arrangements thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General features.

of more than one hammer, e.g. one for each character position
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammer banks.

Means for operating hammers to effect impression
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanisms for quiet printing, mechanical means for print density adjustment.

in which mechanical power is applied under electromagnetic control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Preloaded springs.

Control for hammer-impression mechanisms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuits.

General features.

Noise reduction.

for deciding or adjusting hammer-firing time
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Flight time adjustment.

Print intensity adjustment by flight time control.

for deciding or adjusting hammer-drive energy
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Print intensity adjustment by drive energy control.

for compensating for the variations of printer drive conditions, e.g. for compensating for the variation of temperature or current supply
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also compensating for source voltage variations, paper feed variations.

for checking the operation of print hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In general: limiting the number of fired hammers.

Detection of the impact.

Preventing overheating.

Devices or arrangements [N: of selective printing mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers,] for supporting or handling copy material in sheet or web form ([N: printing on both faces B41J 3/60;] specially adapted for supporting or handling copy material in short lengths B41J 13/00; in continuous form B41J 15/00; holders for text to be copied B41J 29/00 [N: ; handling sheets or webs in general B65H; apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern, e.g. copying machines, G03G 15/00 ])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inventions that are independent from the length of the copy material (the copy material therefore including cut sheets and continuous webs), e.g. ink-jet printers with irradiating or cutting devices.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Specially adapted for supporting or handling copy material in short lengths
Specially adapted for supporting or handling copy material in continuous form
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing on both faces
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "recording medium", "paper to be printed" and "copy material" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Curl smoothing, i.e. smoothing down corrugated printing material, e.g. by pressing means acting on wrinkled printing material (means for tensioning webs in general B41J 15/16; tensioning webs by using redirecting rollers or redirecting nonrevolving guides B41J 15/165; smoothers in general B65H 5/36 or B65H 29/52; taking out curl from webs B65H 23/34; decurling sheets G03G 15/6576 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Means for tensioning webs in selective printing or marking devices
Smoothers in general
Taking out curl from webs in general
Article bending or stiffening arrangements
Decurling sheets after fixing process in copying machines
[N: Handling wide copy materials, (wide cut sheets B41J 13/0072 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Selective printing machines which are designed such that they allow to handle copy materials being wider than "usual" copy materials.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Selective printing machines adapted to print on wide cut sheets
[N: for treating before, during or after printing or for uniform coating or laminating the copy material before or after printing (selective coating B41J 2/2114; application of ink fixing material by inkjet printers B41M 5/0011; after-treatment of prints relating to the nature of material B41M 7/00; after-treatment of prints using protective coatings or layers B41M 7/0027 )]
Reference relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective coating, i.e. coating dot by dot
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods of application of ink fixing material by inkjet printers
Methods of after-treatment of prints relating to the nature of material
Methods of after-treatment of prints using protective coatings or layers
[N: Handling copy materials differing in thickness (B41J 11/20 AND B41J 25/308 take precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Platen adjustments for varying the strength of impression, for a varying number of papers or for alignment
Movable mechanisms for print heads with print gap adjustment mechanisms
[N: Guides for printing material (curl smoothing B41J 11/0005; platens B41J 11/02, B41J 11/06; guiding webs B41J 15/046 )]
Informative reference
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guiding webs
[N: Guides in the printing zone, e.g. guides for preventing contact of conveyed sheets with print head (guides in the printing section for copy material in short lengths B41J 13/14 )]
Informative reference
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guides in the printing section for copy material in short lengths
[N: Means for printing without leaving a margin on at least one edge of the copy material, e.g. edge-to-edge printing]
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "borderless printing", "marginless printing", “bleed printing”, “full bleed printing” and "edge-to-edge printing" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Conveyor belts or like feeding devices (conveyor belts specially adapted for handling sheets B41J 13/08; conveyor belts specially adapted for handling copy material in continuous form B41J 15/048; conveyor belts in general B65G 15/00; separating articles from piles using belts B65H 3/04; feeding articles by belts B65H 5/02 )]
Informative reference
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conveyor belts specially adapted for handling cut sheets
Conveyor belts specially adapted for handling copy material in continuous form
Conveyor belts in general
Separating articles from piles using endless belts
Feeding articles by belts
[N: Using suction for maintaining printing material flat (on rotatable drums B41J 13/226 )]
Informative reference
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using suction for maintaining copy material on rotatable drums
[N: Detecting type of paper, e.g. by automatic reading of a code that is printed on a paper package or on a paper roll or by sensing the grade of translucency of the paper (selecting type of paper B41J 11/485; investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means G01N 21/00; investigating moving sheets G01N 21/86 )
Informative reference
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Selecting type of paper
Investigating or analysing materials by the use of optical means
Investigating moving sheets
with sound-deadening devices (structure of surface B41J 11/057 )
Informative reference
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Structure of platen surface
Flat page-size platens [N: or smaller flat platens having a greater size than line-size platens (B41J 11/0085 takes precedence; flat-bed ink-jet printers B41J 3/28 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Using suction for maintaining printing material flat
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Flat-bed ink-jet printer
Platen-shift mechanisms; Driving gear therefor [N: (B41J 11/20 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Platen adjustments for varying the strength of impression, for a varying number of papers, for wear of for alignment
Platen adjustments for varying the strength of impression, for a varying number of papers, for wear or for alignment, [N: or for print gap adjustment (adjustments by moving the print head B41J 25/308, B41J 25/312 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanisms for print heads or carriages movable towards or from paper surface with print gap adjustment mechanisms
Mechanisms for print heads or carriages movable towards or from paper surface with print pressure adjustment mechanisms
Paper carriage guides or races [N: (print head carriage guides B41J 19/00 )]
Informative reference
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Print head carriage guides
Controlling [N: printing material conveyance for accurate alignment of the printing material with the print head; Print registering (controlling print head B41J 11/008; control of the transport of cut sheets B41J 13/0009 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling the print head to print on accurate positions on the copy material
Control of the transport of cut sheets
Apparatus for condensed record, tally strip, or like work using two or more papers, or sets of papers, [N: e.g. devices for switching over from handling of copy material in sheet form to handling of copy material in continuous form and vice versa or point-of-sale printers comprising means for printing on continuous copy material, e.g. journal for tills, and on single sheets, e.g. cheques or receipts (B41J 15/042 takes precedence; simultaneous conveyance of sheets or strips B41J 3/62 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Simultaneous conveyance of sheets or strips
Supporting or feeding devices for loading rolled-up continuous copy material into printers, e.g. for replacing a used-up paper roll; Point-of-sale printers with openable casings allowing access to the rolled-up continuous copy material
[N: Means for selecting a type of copy material amongst different types of copy material in the printing apparatus (detecting type of paper B41J 11/009 ) ]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Detecting type of paper
in which two or more papers or sets are separately fed in the same direction towards the printing position [N: (B41J 15/18, B41J 15/20, B41J 15/22 AND B41J 15/24 take precedence) ]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple web-feeding apparatus
Multiple web-feeding apparauts for webs superimposed during printing
Multiple web-feeding apparatus for feeding webs in separate paths during printing
Multiple web-feeding apparatus with means for registering the webs with each other
with different feed rates [N: (B41J 15/18, B41J 15/20, B41J 15/22 AND B41J 15/24 take precedence)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple web-feeding apparatus
Multiple web-feeding apparauts for webs superimposed during printing
Multiple web-feeding apparatus for feeding webs in separate paths during printing
Multiple web-feeding apparatus with means for registering the webs with each other
specially constructed to facilitate storage or transport of typewriter [N: (B41J 3/36 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Selective printing mechanisms for portability
Supply holders for sheets or fan-folded webs, e.g. shelves, tables, scrolls, pile holders [N: (B41J 13/10, B41J 13/103 AND B41J 13/106 take precedence)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sheet holders, retainers, movable guides, or stationary guides
Sheet holders, retainers, movable guides, or stationary guides for the sheet feeding section
Sheet holders, retainers, movable guides, or stationary guides for the sheet output section
Applications of cutting devices [N: (cutting in general B26D)]
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Cutting tools in general, independent from the field where the cutting tools are used: B26D1/...

Devices or arrangements [N: of selective printing mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers,] specially adapted for supporting or handling copy material in short lengths, e.g. sheets [N: (handling sheets or webs in general B65H; apparatus for electrographic processes using a charge pattern, e.g. copying machines, G03G 15/00 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In particular selective printing mechanisms comprising devices for the control of the conveyance of sheets, paper sheet guides, rotatable drums for holding sheets by suction or by clamps

Relationship between large subject matter areas

[N: in the sheet input section of automatic paper handling systems (guides therefor B41J 13/103 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guides for the sheet feeding section
[N: in the printing section of automatic paper handling systems (rollers B41J 13/02, guides therefor B41J 13/14 )]
Informative reference
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guides for the printing section
[N: in the output section of automatic paper handling systems (rollers B41J 13/02, guides B41J 13/106)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Guides in the output section
[N: concerning sheet refeed sections of automatic paper handling systems, e.g. intermediate stackers, reversing units (printing on both faces B41J 3/60 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing on both faces
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "duplex printing", "printing on both faces" and "perfect printing" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Handling thick cut sheets larger than credit cards, e.g. greeting cards, postcards, e.g. using means for enabling or facilitating the conveyance of thick sheets (B41J 11/20, B41J 13/12, B41J 25/308 take precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Platen adjustments for varying the strength of impression, for a varying number of papers, for wear or for alignment
Devices specially adapted for small cards, envelopes, or the like, e.g. credit cards, business cards
Adjustment by moving the print head
Rollers (roller platens B41J 11/04 [N: ; rollers for conveying in general B65G 39/00; separating articles from piles using friction rollers B65H 3/06; feeding articles by rollers B65H 5/06 ])
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Roller platens
Rollers for conveying in general
Separating articles from piles using friction rollers in general
Feeding articles by rollers in general
[N: Conveyor] bands or like feeding devices [N: (B41J 11/007 takes precedence)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conveyor belts adapted both for handling copy material in sheet form and in continuous form
[N: for the sheet feeding section]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Supports and (paper feeding) cassettes for supporting articles horizontally in general
[N: for the sheet output section]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pile receivers in general
specially adapted for [N: small] cards, envelopes, or the like [N: , e.g. credit cards, cut visiting cards (handling thick cut sheets larger than credit cards B41J 13/0063 )]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Handling thick cut sheets larger than credit cards
Registering devices [N: (registering in general B65H 9/00)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Registering, e.g. orientating, articles in general
Devices or arrangements [N: of selective printing mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet printers, thermal printers,] specially adapted for supporting or handling copy material in continuous form, e.g. webs [N: (handlling sheets or webs in general B65H)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In particular selective printing mechanisms comprising devices for feeding web material and devices for tensioning web material

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Supporting, feeding, or guiding devices; Mountings for web rolls or spindles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Unwinding mechanisms not restricted to selective printing mechanisms for a continuous web depletion
[N: Conveyor belts or like feeding devices (B41J 11/007 takes precedence)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conveyor belts adapted both for handling copy material in sheet form and in continuous form
for webs superimposed during printing (machines for separating superposed webs B65H 41/00 )
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines for separating superposed webs, not restricted to selective printing mechanisms
Mechanisms for manipulating page-width impression-transfer material, e.g. carbon paper (in manifolding devices B41L)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Thermal transfer webs.

Ink donor films (IDF).

Page-wide ribbons.

IDF-identification means.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
In manifolding devices:
Sheet material for duplicating or marking:
Detachable carriers or holders for impression-transfer material mechanism
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In general cassettes

Alarms, indicators, or feed-disabling devices responsible to material breakage or exhaustion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reading the IDF

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For ribbons
For colour ribbons
for dealing with the impression-transfer material after use
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Peeling-off.

Deleting the information.

for retracting sheets for re-use
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Re-use for using all the remaining ink of the impression material

Character- or line-spacing mechanisms ([N: paper carriage guides B41J 11/22; superimposed movements for serial printing B41J 25/005;] key actions B41J 25/02 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanisms for relative movement in two directions between printing element and medium to be printed and parallel thereto:

- Type-writer carriages.

- Serial (reciprocating) or oscillating print head constructions for selective printing devices

- Print head carriage guide bar constructions.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Character-spacing mechanisms)
Positive feed character-spacing mechanisms
Special rules of classification within this group

Dot printer with continuous moving drum and serial printing head: B41J 19/16

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Character and line spacing
in type-writers generally performed by means of the paper carriage while the print element head is stationary. Character spacing is in the direction of the paper width and line spacing is in the direction of the paper sheet length
Main- and sub-scanning
In modern serial dot printers the character (dot) spacing is generally done by the movement of the print head over the width of a paper sheet (main-scanning) and the line spacing is done by paper movement (sub-scanning). If a drum is continuously rotating during printing, then this movement is called main-scanning. The step-wise movement of the print head after one revolution of the drum is then called sub-scanning
Fast-scanning
see main scanning
Slow-scanning
see sub-scanning
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "print head-carrier -shuttle or - carriage" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Cable or belt constructions for driving print, type or paper-carriages, e.g. attachment, tensioning means]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical constructions making the movement of carriages possible or easier.

Also including the electrical cables (guiding, attachment).

Sound-deadening or shock-absorbing devices or measures therein (B41J 19/38 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adapted for silent return (type-writers)
with means for effecting line or character spacing in either direction
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
X,Y-printers with a print head movable in X- and Y-direction
[N: with a reciprocating print head printing in both directions across the paper width]
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "bidirectional or rearward" and "forward/backward printing" are often used as synonyms.

Special spacing mechanisms for circular, spiral, or diagonal-printing apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Serial print head above a rotating drum (spiral printing with main-scanning in rotating direction and sub-scanning in the width direction);

A continuously rotating drum with a print head carriage movement after each drum rotation (circular dot bands).

Character-spacing or back-spacing mechanisms; Carriage return or release devices therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only type-writers.

Positive-feed character-spacing mechanisms (controlled by escapements B41J 19/52 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers.

Ink jet, matrix or optical print head carriers moving along the width of material to be printed (fast-scan direction).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Linear carriage motors
Print head movement in slow-scan direction parallel to the rotating axis of a drum or belt
Typewriters controlled by escapements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lead-screws in general
Motors and control for carriage movement in general
Print head carriage guide constructions
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "print head-carrier, -carriage, -shuttle, and -chute" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions "pitch, spacing and distance" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Drive control means for carriage movement]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expresion "main/fast-scan direction" is often used with the meaning "reciprocating movement direction of the print head carriage".

In patent documents the expresion "sub/slow-scan direction" is often used with the meaning "paper feed direction".

[N: Position or speed detectors therefor]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group

acting by friction or gripping effect
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Pawl and ratchet
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Electromagnetically-operated mechanisms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Linear motors therefor.

[N: Linear drive mechanisms for carriage movement]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printers using a linear motor instead of a cable, belt or lead screw to move the print head carrier

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group

Differential or variable-spacing arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Escapement-feed character-spacing mechanisms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Auxiliary feed or adjustment devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Carriage-release mechanisms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Carriage
a paper supporting device moving sideward during printing (opposed to a print head carriage of e.g. an ink jet printer)
Carriage-return mechanisms, e.g. manually actuated
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

with special means to maintain character-spacing or back- spacing elements in engagement during case-shift or like movement
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Line-spacing mechanisms (special line-feeds, e.g. long feeds 11/36)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Paper movement in horizontal line direction for only type-writers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Paper transport other than for type-writers
Column, tabular, or like printing arrangements; Means for centralising short lines (carrier-release mechanisms B41J 19/66; key actions B41J 25/18 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Carrier-release mechanisms therefor
Key actions for type-writers
Mechanisms for initiating, effecting, skipping, or stopping tabulation movement; Means for centralising short lines
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adjusting side margins for type-writers
characterised by denominational arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In general: decimal tabulation for type-writers.

controlled by stored information
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Memory.

Register controlled

Power drives for actions or mechanisms (B41J 9/00, [N: B41J 19/305 ], take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hammer printers
Inear motors
Special rules of classification within this group
with driven mechanism arranged to be clutched to continuously- operating power source
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Mechanism driven by cams engaging rotating roller
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Mechanism driven by through an oscillating or reciprocating member
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Mechanisms driven by a spring tensioned by power means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Continuously-cycling drives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Fluid-pressure power drives
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Electromagnetic power drives, e.g. applied to key levers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Actions or mechanisms not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers and and other selective printers.

[N: Mechanisms for bodily moving print heads or carriages parallel to the paper surface (character- or line-spacing mechanisms B41J 19/00 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. page-width print heads moving during printing for compensating for print element aberrations.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Character- or line-spacing mechanisms
[N: for changing the angle between a print element array axis and the printing line, e.g. for dot density changes (dot arrays providing selective dot disposition modes B41J 2/5056)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Serial and line print heads.

[N: for serial printing movements superimposed to character- or line-spacing movements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Serial print heads only.

E.g. mechanical alignment parallel to the printing medium

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Serial print head
reciprocating print head printing during its movement along the width of a medium to be printed (main-scanning)
Line-spacing
movement step in the length direction of the printing material, by means of a medium transport system (sub-scanning)
[N: for oscillating, e.g. page-width print heads provided with counter-balancing means or shock absorbers]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Linear drive mechanisms for carriage movement
Key actions for specified purposes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

In general: repeat actions

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For repeat keys
Special rules of classification within this group

G06F 3/02 takes precedence

Back spacing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only for type-writers, in general half-space keys.

Auxiliary type mechanisms for printing distinguishing marks, e.g. for accenting, using dead or half-dead key arrangements, for printing marks in telegraph printers to indicate that machine is receiving
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

for aligning characters for impression (in machines using index setting B41J 5/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Case-shift mechanisms (B41J 11/14 takes precedence; key actions B41J 25/08); Fount-change arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Interchangeable type-writer print heads, as disks
with print gap adjustment mechanisms [N: (by platen movement B41J 11/20 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

With print gap adjustment means on the print head carriage (e.g. for rotation around a guide bar or using a rotatable eccentric bearing).

With print gap adjustment means between the print head and its carriage.

With print gap adjustment means on the printer frame (e.g. for rotation of an eccentric carriage guide shaft).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
By platen movement:
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Print gap
Distance between print head nozzle plate and print medium;
Guide shaft/rod/bar/rails
Guiding means supporting and guiding a reciprocating print head carriage;
Print/printing medium/media
Material to be printed, e.g. a sheet of paper;
Carriage/carrier
Print head holder which is movable over the width of a print medium
Platen
Surface supporting the print medium, e.g. flat surface or a rotating drum;
with print pressure adjustment mechanisms, e.g. pressure-on-the paper mechanisms
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
By means of moving the platen
with tilting motion mechanisms relative to paper surface
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mounting in general:
Impression mechanisms in which a roller co-operates with stationary type-faces
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Type-writers only.

Bodily-changeable print heads or carriages (B41J 1/20, B41J 1/22, B41J 1/60 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Print head carriages, e.g. for ink jet.

Interchangeable type-writer print heads, as disks.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Typewriters or selective printing mechanisms with types or dies mounted on endless bands or the like
Special rules of classification within this group

For mounting an ink-jet cartridge into a carriage, see also B41J 2/1752 (only ink jet).

Inking apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inking in type-writers and desk-top printers other than of the ink-jet type.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ink supply in ink-jet printers
Ink ribbons or devices to apply ink to them
Details of, or accessories for, typewriters or selective printing mechanisms not otherwise provided for
Special supports, platforms or trolleys for supporting machines on tables
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Office furniture
Script supports connected to the typewriter or printer (tables, desks, office furniture in general A47B)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Copy holders not linked to type-writers or printers
Cleaning arrangements
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cleaning of nozzles
Conditioning of ink supply systems (inside/outside)
Devices, non-fluid media or methods for cancelling, correcting errors, underscoring or ruling
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Only type writers

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Correcting fluids, ink removers
Writing or like instruments in holders or guides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. vertical ruling.

Cooling or ventilating arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using fans or cooling liquid.

Detecting ambient temperature

Devices for controlling or analysing the entire machine; [N: Controlling or analysing mechanical parameters involving printing of test patterns]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing and reading test patterns requiring mechanical action.

Battery mounted in the printer.

Wireless communication between the carriage and the printer.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
All specific purposes (measurement of parameters and /or action to be performed, e.g. density or colour adjustment, print head/platen gap adjustment, nozzle failure detection...) Printing control, data processing
Data exchange with an external device (e.g. host device)
Ink ribbons (spools for ink ribbons B65H 75/00 ; coated or treated non-woven strips or sheets used as ink ribbons D21H); Testing or renovating ink ribbons
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spools for ink ribbons
Coated or treated non-woven strips or sheets used as ink ribbons
Page width ink ribbons
Ink-ribbon cartridges
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Contains general features about ink ribbon cartridges and those with ribbons stored on spools.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For page width ink ribbons
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnetic tape cassettes
Apparatus or arrangements for feeding ink ribbons or like character-size impression-transfer material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In general ribbon-sized impression transfer material.But in some cases also page-width impression transfer material if B41J 17/00 does not provide an appropriate entry.

[N: Ribbon spools (spools in general B65H 75/00 )]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Spools in general
For page width ink ribbons
and extending parallel to the length of the platen
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Containing in general correcting ribbons on separate holders

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mechanisms permitting the selective use of a plurality of ink ribbons
for ensuring maximum life of the ribbon (B41J 33/38 takes precedence; by adjustment of vibrator mechanisms B41J 35/14)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Slow, e.g. "creep", feed mechanisms
By adjustment of vibrator mechanisms
Other apparatus or arrangements associated with, or incorporated in, ink-ribbon mechanisms
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Iimpression transfer ribbon material.

Also covering page-width impression transfer material in the sub-groups if B41J 17/00 does not provide an appropriate entry.

In general the heating or pre-heating of ink ribbons.

adjustable, e.g. for case shift (key actions B41J 25/02 )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Key actions
Multicolour arrangements (B41J 35/10 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vibrator mechanisms; Driving gear therefor
Colour picture communication systems:
Mechanisms permitting the selective use of a plurality of ink ribbons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of correcting ribbons.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ribbons placed on separate holders
Ink-ribbon shields or backings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Avoiding "ghost printing"

Feeding the ink ribbon to waste after use
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. deleting the printed text from the ribbon or making the text illegible.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013