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Color Curly Brackets (indicating CPC extensions to IPC)

CPC
COOPERATIVE PATENT CLASSIFICATION
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MECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING ENGINES OR PUMPS
NOTE
-
Guide to the use of this subsection (classes F01 to F04)The following notes are meant to assist in the use of this part of the classification scheme.
In this subsection, subclasses or groups designating "engines" or "pumps" cover methods of operating the same, unless otherwise specifically provided for.

In this subsection, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

- "engine" means a device for continuously converting fluid
energy into mechanical power. Thus this term includes, for
example, steam piston engines or steam turbines, PER SE, or
internal-combustion piston engines, but it excludes single-
stroke devices. "Engine" also includes the fluid-motive
portion of a meter unless such portion is particularly
adapted for use in a meter;
- "pump" means a device for continuously raising, forcing,
compressing, or exhausting fluid by mechanical or other
means; thus this term includes fans or blowers;
- "machine" means a device which could equally be an engine
and a pump, and not a device which is restricted to an
engine or one which is restricted to a pump;
- "positive displacement" means the way the energy of a
working fluid is transformed into mechanical energy, in
which variations of volume created by the working fluid in
a working chamber produce equivalent displacements of the
mechanical member transmitting the energy, the dynamic
effect of the fluid being of minor importance; and VICE-
VERSA;
- "non-positive displacement" means the way the energy of a
working fluid is transformed into mechanical energy, by
transformation of the energy of the working fluid into
kinetic energy; and VICE-VERSA;
- "oscillating-piston machine" means a positive-displacement
machine in which a fluid-engaging work-transmitting member
oscillates. This definition applies also to engines and
pumps;
- "rotary-piston machine" means a positive-displacement
machine in which a fluid-engaging work-transmitting member
rotates about a fixed axis or about an axis moving along a
circular or similar orbit. This definition applies also to
engines and pumps;
- "rotary piston" means the work-transmitting member of a
rotary-piston machine and may be of any suitable form, e.g.
like a toothed gear;


- "co-operating members" means the "oscillating piston" or
"rotary piston" and another member, e.g. the working-chamber
wall, which assists in the driving or pumping action;
- "movement of the co-operating members" is to be interpreted
as relative, so that one of the "co-operating members" may
be stationary, even though reference may be made to its
rotational axis, or both may move;
- "teeth or tooth-equivalents", include lobes, projections or
abutments;
- "internal-axis type" means that the rotational axes of the
inner and outer co-operating members remain at all times
within the outer member, e.g. in a similar manner to that of
a pinion meshing with the internal teeth of a ring gear;
- "free-piston" means a piston of which the length of stroke
is not defined by any member driven thereby;
- "cylinders" means positive-displacement working chambers in
general and thus this term is not restricted to cylinders
of circular cross-section;
- "main shaft" means the shaft which converts reciprocating
piston motion into rotary motion or VICE-VERSA;
- "plant" means an engine together with such additional appa-
ratus as is necessary to run the engine. For example, a
steam engine plant includes a steam engine and means for
generating the steam;
- "working fluid" means the driven fluid in a pump and the
driving fluid in an engine. The working fluid may be in a
gaseous state, i.e. compressible, or liquid. In the former
case coexistence of two states is possible;
- "steam" includes condensable vapours in general, and
"special vapour" is used when steam is excluded;
- "reaction type" as applied to non-positive-displacement
machines or engines means machines or engines in which
pressure/velocity transformation takes place wholly or
partly in the rotor; machines or engines with no, or only
slight, pressure/velocity transformation in the rotor are
called "impulse type".

In this subsection:

- cyclically operating valves, lubricating, gas-flow silencers
or exhaust apparatus, or cooling should be classified in
subclasses F01L, F01M, F01N, F01P irrespective of their
stated application, unless their classifying features are
peculiar to their application, in which case they should be
classified only in the relevant subclass of classes F01 to
F04;
- lubricating, gas-flow silencers or exhaust apparatus, or
cooling of machines or engines should be classified in sub-
classes F01M, F01N, F01P except for those peculiar to steam
engines which should be classified in subclass F01B.

For use of this subsection with a good understanding, it is essential to remember, so far as subclasses F01B, F01C, F01D, F03B, F04B, F04C and F04D, which form its skeleton, are concerned:

- the principle which resides in their elaboration
- the classifying characteristics which they call for, and
- their complementarity
PrincipleThis concerns essentially the subclasses listed above. Other subclasses, notably those of class F02, which cover better-defined matter, are not considered here.Each subclass covers fundamentally a genus of apparatus (engine or pump) and by extension covers equally "machines" of the same kind. Two different subjects, one having a more general character than the other, are thus covered by in the same subclassSubclasses F01B, F03B, F04B, beyond the two subjects which they cover, have further a character of generality in relation to other subclasses concerning the different species of apparatus in the genus concerned. This generality applies as well for the two subjects dealt with, without these always being in relation to the same subclasses.Thus, subclass F03B, in its part dealing with "machines" should be considered as being the general class relating to subclasses F04B, F04C and in its part dealing with "engines" as being general in relation to subclass F03C.

CharacteristicsThe principal classifying characteristic of the subclass is that of genera of apparatus, of which there are three possible:

Machines; engines; pumps.
As stated above, "machines" are always associated with one of the other two genera.These main genera are subdivided according to the general principles of operation of the apparatus:

Positive displacement; non-positive displacement.
The positive displacement apparatus are further subdivided according to the ways of putting into effect the principle of operation, that is, to the kind of apparatus:

Simple reciprocating piston; rotary or oscillating
piston; other kind.
Another classifying characteristic is that of the working fluid, in respect of which three kinds of apparatus are possible, namely:

Liquid and elastic fluid; elastic fluid; liquid.

ComplementarityThis resides in association of pairs of the subclasses listed above, according to the characteristics under consideration in respect of kind of apparatus or working fluid.

The subclasses concerned with the various principles, characteristics and complementarity are shown in the following table:



______________________________________________________________________
Kind positive non- Working fluid Relations
of ____________________ posi- ______________________ of gene-
dis- rotary tive rality in
place- reci- or os- liquid respect
ment pro- cillat- and of kind
cating ing elastic elastic of dis-
piston piston other fluid fluid liquid placement
______________________________________________________________________
MACHINES
__________
X X X X F01B
X X X F01C
X X X F01D
X X F03B
X X X F04B
X X F04C
ENGINES
__________
X X X X F01B
X X X F01C
X X X F01D
X X F03B
X X X X F03C
PUMPS
__________
X X X X X F04B
X X X X F04C
X X X X F04D
______________________________________________________________________
It is seen from the table that :
- For the same kind of apparatus in a given genus, the
characteristic of "working fluid" associates:
F01B and F04B )
F01C and F04C ) Machines
F01D and F03B )
F01B and F03C )
F01C and F03C ) Engines
F01D and F03B )
- For the same kind of working fluid, the "apparatus"
characteristic relates subclasses in the same way as
considerations of relative generality.

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SUBSECTION:
Engines or pumps
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MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL (combustion engines F02; machines for liquids F03, F04); ENGINE PLANTS IN GENERAL; STEAM ENGINES
MACHINES OR ENGINES, IN GENERAL OR OF POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT TYPE, e.g. STEAM ENGINES (of rotaty-piston or oscillating-piston type F01C; of non-positive-displacement type F01D; internal-combustion aspects of reciprocating-piston engines F02B 57/00, F02B 59/00; crankshafts, crossheads, connecting-rods F16C; flywheels F16F; gearings for interconverting rotary motion and reciprocating motion in general F16H; pistons, piston rods, cylinders, for engines in general F16J)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers, with the exception of the matter provided for in subclasses F01C to F01P:
- engines for elastic fluids, e.g. steam engines;
- engines for liquids and elastic fluids;
- machines for elastic fluids;
- machines for liquids and elastic fluids.

Attention is drawn to the note preceding class F01, especially as regards the definitions of "steam" and "special vapour".

ROTARY-PISTON OR OSCILLATING-PISTON MACHINES OR ENGINES (internal-combustion aspects F02B 53/00, F02B 55/00)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
- rotary-piston or oscillating-piston engines for elastic fluids, e.g. steam;
- rotary-piston or oscillating-piston engines for liquids and elastic fluids:
- rotary-piston or oscillating-piston machines for elastic fluids;
- rotary-piston or oscillating-piston machines for liquids and elastic fluids.

In this subclass, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:
- "rotary-piston machine" includes the German expressions "Drehkolbenmaschinen",
"Kreiskolbenmaschinen" and "Umlaufkolbenmaschinen".

Attention is drawn to the Notes preceding class F01, especially as regards the definitions of "rotary-piston machine", "oscillating-piston machine", "rotary piston", "co-operating members", "movement of co-operating members", "teeth or tooth-equivalents" and "internal-axis".

NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES (machines or engines for liquids F03; non-positive displacement pumps F04D)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:

- non-positive-displacement engines for elastic fluids, e.g.
steam turbines;
- non-positive-displacement engines for liquids and elastic
fluids;
- non-positive-displacement machines for elastic fluids;
- non-positive-displacement machines for liquids and elastic
fluids.

Attention is drawn to the Notes preceding class F01, especially as regards the definitions of "reaction type", e.g. with airfoil-like blades, and "impulse type", e.g. bucket turbines.

WARNING
-

The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

STEAM ENGINE PLANTS; STEAM ACCUMULATORS; ENGINE PLANTS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; ENGINES USING SPECIAL WORKING FLUIDS OR CYCLES (gas-turbine or jet-propulsion plants F02; nuclear power plants, engine arrangements therein G21D)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01, especially as regards the definitions of "steam" and "special vapour".

CYCLICALLY OPERATING VALVES FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES (valves in general F16K)
NOTE
-
1. Groups F01L 1/00 to F01L 13/00 cover only valve-gear or valve arrangements without provision for variable fluid distribution.
2. Valve gear or valve arrangements specially adapted for steam engines are covered by groups F01L 15/00 to F01L 35/00.
3. Valve-gear arrangements specially adapted for machines or engines with variable working-fluid distribution are covered by groups F01L 15/00 to F01L 35/00.
4. Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01, especially Note (3).
5. As regards the above-mentioned Note (3), attention is drawn to F01B 3/10, F01B 15/06, F01C 21/18, F02B 53/06, F03C 1/08, F04B 1/18, F04B 7/00, F04B 39/08, F04B 39/10, and F04C 15/06, F04C 29/12.

LUBRICATING OF MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL (lubricating in general F16N); LUBRICATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES; CRANKCASE VENTILATING
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01, specially as regards Note (3).

GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL ; GAS-FLOW SILENCERS OR EXHAUST APPARATUS FOR INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES(
{
evacuation of fumes from the area where they are produced B08B 15/00 ; arrangement of exhaust or silencing apparatus on percussive tools B25D 17/12
}
; arrangements in connection with gas exhaust of propulsion units in vehicles B60K 13/00 ,
{
on ships or other waterborne vessels B63H 21/32 , on aircraft B64D 33/04 ; arrangement of exhaust or silencing apparatus on firearms F41A 21/30 ; ground installations for reducing aircraft engine or jet noise B64F 1/26 ; silencers specially adapted for steam engines F01B 31/16 ; air-intake silencers for gas turbine or jet propulsion plants F02C 7/045 ; jet pipe or nozzles for jet propulsion plants F02K
}
; combustion-air intake silencers specially adapted for, or arranged on, internal-combustion engines F02M 35/00 ;
{
combating noise or silencing in positive displacement machines or pumps F04B 39/0027 , in rotary-piston machines or pumps F04C 29/06 , in non-positive displacement pumps F04D 29/66 ; means in valves for absorbing noise F16K 47/02 ; noise absorbers in pipe system F16L 55/02 ; conducting smoke or fumes from various locations to the outside F23J 11/00 ; means for preventing or suppressing noise in air-conditioning or ventilation systems F24F 13/24
}
; protecting against, or damping, noise in general G10K 11/16 )
NOTE
-

Attention is drawn to the notes preceding Class F01, especially as regards Note 2(b).

COOLING OF MACHINES OR ENGINES IN GENERAL; COOLING OF INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES (arrangements in connection with cooling of propulsion units in vehicles B60K 11/00; heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials C09K 5/00;
{
cooling of gas-turbine engines F02C 7/12
}
; heat exchange in general, radiators F28)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
- "air" also includes other gaseous cooling fluids;
- "liquid cooling" also includes cooling where liquid is used as the heat transferring fluid
between parts to be cooled and the air, e.g. using radiators;
- "air cooling" means direct air cooling and thus excludes indirect air cooling occurring in
liquid cooling systems as explained herefore;
- "cooling-air" includes directly or indirectly acting cooling-air.

Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01, especially as regards Note (3).

Cooling by lubricant is classified in subclass F01M when the lubrication aspect predominates and in subclass F01P when the cooling aspect predominates.

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COMBUSTION ENGINES (cyclically operating valves therefor, lubricating, exhausting, or silencing engines F01); HOT-GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT ENGINE PLANTS
INTERNAL-COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES ; COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL( plants in which engines use combustion products F02C, F02G; internal-combustion turbines F02C )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
- "positive ignition" means ignition by a source external to
the working fluid, e.g. by spark or incandescent source;
- "charging" means forcing air or fuel-air mixture into
engine cylinders and thus embraces super-charging;
- "scavenging" means forcing the combustion residues from the
cylinders other than by movement of the working pistons and
thus embraces tuned exhaust systems.

Attention is drawn to the Notes preceding class F01, specially as regards Note (1).

Engines with specified cycles or number of cylinders are classified in group F02B 75/02 or F02B 75/16 , unless other classifying features predominate.

GAS-TURBINE PLANTS; AIR INTAKES FOR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS; CONTROLLING FUEL SUPPLY IN AIR-BREATHING JET-PROPULSION PLANTS (construction of turbines F01D; jet-propulsion plants F02K; construction of compressors or fans F04; gas-turbine combustion chambers F23R; using gas turbines in compression refrigeration plants F25B 11/00; using gas-turbine plants in vehicles, see the relevant vehicle classes)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:

- combustion product or hot gas turbine plants;
- internal combustion turbines or turbine plants;
- turbine plants in which the working fluid is an unheated,
pressurised gas.

This subclass does not cover:

- steam turbine plants, which are covered by subclass F01K;
- special vapour plants, which are covered by subclass F01K.
-
{
combined cycle plants, which are covered by subclass F01K
23/00
}

In this subclass, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:

- "gas-turbine plants" covers all the subject matter of Note
(1) above and covers also features of jet-propulsion plants
common to gas-turbine plants.

Attention is drawn to the Notes preceding class F01.

CONTROLLING COMBUSTION ENGINES( cyclically operating valves for combustion engines F01L; controlling combustion engine lubrication F01M; cooling internal combustion engines F01P; supplying combustion engines with combustible mixtures or constituents thereof, e.g. carburettors, injection pumps F02M; starting of combustion engines F02N; controlling of ignition F02P; controlling gas-turbine plants, jet-propulsion plants, or combustion-product engine plants, see the relevant subclasses for these plants )
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01.

In this subclass, the following words are used with the meanings indicated:

- "Fuel injection" means the introduction of a combustible
substance into a space, e.g. cylinder, by means of a
pressure source, e.g. a pump, continuously or cyclically
acting behind the substance;
- "Supercharging" means supplying to the working space,
e.g. cylinder, combustion-air pressurised by means of a
pressure source, e.g. a pump.

CYLINDERS, PISTONS OR CASINGS, FOR COMBUSTION ENGINES ; ARRANGEMENTS OF SEALINGS IN COMBUSTION ENGINES( specially adapted for rotary-piston or oscillating-piston internal-combustion engines F02B ; specially adapted for gas-turbine plants F02C ; specially adapted for jet-propulsion plants F02K )
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01 .

In considering the relationship between class F16 and subclass F02F , class F16 will take precedence unless the subject-matter is specific to combustion engines.

HOT GAS OR COMBUSTION-PRODUCT POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT ENGINE PLANTS (steam engine plants, special vapour plants, plants operating on either hot gas or combustion-product gases together with other fluid F01K; gas-turbine plants F02C; jet-propulsion plants F02K); USE OF WASTE HEAT OF COMBUSTION ENGINES; NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01.

JET-PROPULSION PLANTS (arrangement or mounting of jet-propulsion plants in land vehicles or vehicles in general B60K; arrangement or mounting of jet-propulsion plants in waterborne vessels B63H; controlling aircraft attitude, flight direction or altitude by jet reaction B64C; arrangement or mounting of jet-propulsion plants in aircraft B64D; plants characterised by the power of the working fluid being divided between jet-propulsion and another form of propulsion, e.g. propeller, F02B, C; features of jet-propulsion plants common to gas-turbine plants, air intakes or fuel supply control of air-breathing jet-propulsion plants F02C)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:

- "jet-propulsion plants" means plants using combustion to
produce a fluid stream from which a propulsive thrust on
the plant is obtained on the reaction principle.

Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01.

SUPPLYING COMBUSTION ENGINES IN GENERAL, WITH COMBUSTIBLE MIXTURES OR CONSTITUENTS THEREOF (charging such engines F02B)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01.

In this subclass the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:
- "Carburettors" means essentially apparatus for mixing fuel with air,
the fuel being brought into mixing contact with the air by lowering the
air pressure, e.g. in a venturi;
- "Fuel injection apparatus" means apparatus for introducing fuel into a space,
e.g. engine cylinder, by pressurising the fuel, e.g. by a pump acting behind
the fuel, and thus embraces the so-called "solid fuel injection" in which
liquid fuel is introduced without any admixture of gas;
- "Low-pressure fuel injection" means fuel injection in which the fuel-air
mixture containing fuel thus injected will be substamtially compressed in
the compression stroke of the engine;
- "Pumping element" means a single piston-cylinder unit in a reciprocating-piston
fuel-injection pump or the equivalent unit in any other type of fuel-injection
pump.

WARNING
-

1. The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F02M7/23 covered by F02M 7/103
F02M51/08 " " F02M 51/06

STARTING OF COMBUSTION ENGINES( starting of free-piston combustion engines F02B 71/02 ; starting of gas-turbine plants F02C 7/26 ) ; STARTING AIDS FOR SUCH ENGINES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01.

The starting of engines which are not explicitly stated to be combustion engines will be classified in this subclass insofar as their starting is equivalent to that of combustion engines.

IGNITION, OTHER THAN COMPRESSION IGNITION, FOR INTERNAL-COMBUSTION ENGINES; TESTING OF IGNITION TIMING IN COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES (
{
anti-pollution means for internal-combustion engines F02B 17/00
}
; specially adapted for rotary-piston or oscillating-piston engines F02B 53/12;
{
ignition of gas turbine plants F02C 7/26; ignition of jet propulsion plants F02K 9/95; starting of combustion engines F02N 9/00
}
; ignition of combustion apparatus in general, glowing plugs F23Q; measuring of physical variables in general G01; controlling in general G05; data processing in general G06; electrical components in general see Section H;
{
ignition coils H01F 38/12
}
; sparking plugs H01T 13/00)
INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO TURBINES; GAS TURBINES
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only, associated with subclasses F01D, F01K, F02C and F02K, relating to turbines and gas turbines

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MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS (for liquid and gases F01; positive-displacement machines for liquids F04); WIND, SPRING WEIGHT AND MISCELLANEOUS MOTORS; PRODUCING MECHANICAL POWER; OR A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
MACHINES OR ENGINES FOR LIQUIDS (positive-displacement engines for liquid F03C; machines for liquids and gases F01; positive-displacement machines for liquids F04 , rotary fluid gearing of the hydrokinetic type F16H 41/00)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding Class F01, especially as regards the definition of "reaction type".

This subclass comprises:

- engines, other than of positive-displacement type, driven by
liquids;
- machines, other than of positive-displacement type, for
liquids.

POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT ENGINES DRIVEN BY LIQUIDS (positive- displacement engines for liquids and elastic fluids F01; positive- displacement machines for liquids F04; fluid-pressure actuators F15B; fluid gearing F16H)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01, especially as regards the meanings of "positive displacement", "rotary-piston machines", "oscillating-piston machines", "rotary-piston", "co-operating members", "movement of co-operating members", "teeth or tooth-equivalents", and "internal axis".

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F03C1/253 covered by F03C
F03C1/28 " " F03C 1/0406, F03C 1/0605
F03C1/30 " " F03C 1/0409, F03C 1/0631, F03C 1/0668
F03C1/32 " " F03C 1/0415, F03C 1/0626, F03C 1/0652
F03C1/34 " " F03C 1/0435, F03C 1/0615, F03C 1/0655
F03C1/36 " " F03C 1/0435, F03C 1/0615, F03C 1/0655
F03C1/38 " " F03C 1/0435, F03C 1/0615, F03C 1/0655
F03C1/40 " " F03C1/04N, F03C1/06K


WIND MOTORS
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following words are used with the meanings indicated:

- "Wind motor" means a mechanism for converting the energy of
natural wind into useful mechanical power, and the
transmission of such power to its point of use;
- "Rotor" means the wind-engaging parts of the wind motor and
the rotary member carrying them;
- "Rotations axis" means the axis of rotation of the rotor.

SPRING, WEIGHT, INERTIA OR LIKE MOTORS; MECHANICAL-POWER PRODUCING DEVICES OR MECHANISMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR OR USING ENERGY SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (arrangements in connection with power supply in vehicles from force of nature B60K 16/00; electric propulsion with power supply in vehicles from force of nature B60L 8/00)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

- "motors" means mechanisms for producing mechanical power from
potential energy of solid bodies.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F03G4/00 covered by F03G 7/04
F03G4/02 covered by F03G 7/04
F03G4/04 covered by F03G 7/04
F03G4/06 covered by F03G 7/04


PRODUCING A REACTIVE PROPULSIVE THRUST, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (from combustion products F02K)
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POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS FOR LIQUIDS OR ELASTIC FLUIDS (portable fire-extinguishers with manually-operated pumps A62C 11/00, with power-driven pumps A62C 25/00; charging or scavenging combustion engines by pumps F02B; engines fuel-injection pumps F02M; ion pumps H01J 41/00; electro-dynamic pumps H02K 44/02)
NOTE
-
Combinations of positive-displacement and non-positive displacement pumps are classified in subclass F04B as a general subclass for pumps and in subclasses F04C, F04D in respect of matter specific to these subclasses.

POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS; PUMPS (machines for liquids, or pumps, of rotary piston or oscillating piston type F04C; non-positive displacement pumps F04D; pumping of fluid by direct contact of another fluid or by using inertia of fluid to be pumped F04F; crankshafts, crossheads, connecting-rods F16C; flywheels F16F; gearings for interconverting rotary motion and reciprocating motion in general F16H; pistons, piston-rods, cylinders, in general F16J)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

- "piston" also covers a plunger.

Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01, especially as regards the definitions of "machines", "pumps", and "positive-displacement".

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F04B35/02 covered by F04B 9/08


ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES FOR LIQUIDS (engines F03C); ROTARY-PISTON, OR OSCILLATING-PISTON, POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01 especially as regards the definitions of "machines", "pumps", "positive displacement", "rotary-piston machines", "oscillating-piston machines", "rotary piston", "co-operating members", "movement of co-operating members", "teeth or tooth-equivalents" and "internal axis".

NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS
NOTE
-
This subclass covers non-positive-displacement pumps for liquids, for elastic fluids, or for liquids and elastic fluids whether rotary or not having pure rotation.

This subclass does not cover combinations of non-positive-displacement pumps with other pumps, which are covered by subclass F04B, except that the use of such other pumps for priming or boosting non-positive-displacement is covered by this subclass.

Attention is drawn to the Notes preceding class F01, especially as regards the definition of "pump".

PUMPING OF FLUID BY DIRECT CONTACT OF ANOTHER FLUID OR BY USING INERTIA OF FLUID TO BE PUMPES
{
(evacuating by sorption F04B)
}
; SIPHONS
{
Conveying materials in bulk by flows of gas, liquid of foam B65G 53/00
}
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the notes preceding class F01.

Combinations of pumps belonging to this subclass with other pumps are only classified in this subclass if such other pumps are fore pumps of diffusion pumps.

Collapse
Indexing Schemes relating to Engines or Pumps in various subclasses of Classes F01-F04
INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MACHINES OR ENGINES OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, TO WIND MOTORS, TO NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS, AND TO GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only.

INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO MATERIALS, MATERIAL PROPERTIES OR MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS FOR MACHINES, ENGINES OR PUMPS OTHER THAN NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only.

INDEXING SCHEME FOR ASPECTS RELATING TO NON-POSITIVE-DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, GAS-TURBINES OR JET-PROPULSION PLANTS
Collapse
SUBSECTION:
Engineering in general
Collapse
FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS; HYDRAULICS OR PNEUMATICS IN GENERAL
SYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL ; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVO-MOTORS ; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR(
{
hydraulically or pneumatically operated lifting devices for soil-working machines A01B 63/10 ; hydraulic drawing presses B21D; hydraulic or pneumatic manipulators B25J; hydraulic or pneumatic tipping devices for vehicles B60P 1/00 ; hydraulic or pneumatic remote control for railway signals B61L 7/04 ; hydraulic or pneumatic mine supports E21D 15/44
}
; motors, turbines, compressors, blowers, pumps F01 to F04;
{
fluid signal amplifiers, relays F15C
}
; fluid dynamics F15D; fluid clutches or brakes F16D; fluid springs F16F; fluid gearing F16H; pistons, cylinders packing F16J; valves, taps, cocks, actuating-floats F16K; safety valves with auxiliary fluid operation of the main valve F16K 17/10 ; fluid-operating means for valves F16K 31/12 ; pipes, pipe joints F16L; lubricating F16N )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meaning stated:
- "Telemotor" means a system or device in which a substantially constant amount of fluid is trapped between an input member
and an output member to act as a fluid link;
- "Servomotor" means a fluid-pressure actuator, e.g. a piston and cylinder, directly controlled by a valve or other device
which is responsive to operation of an initial controlling member; "Servomotor" does not cover a telemotor. The initial
controlling member may be adjacent to the servomotor or at a distance, and may be, for example a hand lever.

FLUID-CIRCUIT ELEMENTS PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR COMPUTING OR CONTROL PURPOSES (transducers F15B 5/00,
{
F15B 21/00
}
; fluid dynamics in general F15D; computer comprising fluid elements G06D, G06G;
{
electric control by means of electro-hydraulic or electro-pneumatic amplifiers G05B 7/02
}
)
FLUID DYNAMICS, i.e. METHODS OR MEANS FOR INFLUENCING THE FLOW OF GASES OR LIQUIDS (
{
nozzles, spray heads B05B; devices to decrease friction or resistance or to increase speed of ships B63B; ship rudders B63H 25/38; influencing the flow or the viscosity of fluids with chemical additives C09K 3/00, C10M; hydraulic engineering E02B
}
; fluid circuit elements F15C;
{
one-way check valves F16K 15/00
}
)
NOTE
-
This subclass comprises boundary-layer control and other arrangements and methods, not provided for in other classes, for influencing the flow of fluids relative to constraining surfaces and after leaving these surfaces, e.g. producing or removing turbulence, deflecting jets, guiding flow through bends in conduits, affecting distribution of fluid in a conduit, reducing fluid friction.

Collapse
ENGINEERING ELEMENTS AND UNITS; GENERAL MEASURES FOR PRODUCING AND MAINTAINING EFFECTIVE FUNCTIONING OF MACHINES OR INSTALLATIONS; THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
DEVICES FOR FASTENING OR SECURING CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS OR MACHINE PARTS TOGETHER, e.g. NAILS, BOLTS, CIRCLIPS, CLAMPS, CLIPS, WEDGES, JOINTS OR JOINTING
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to:
the Note following group E04B 1/38;

the following places:

A44B Buckles, slide fasteners
A47G 3/00 Ornamental heads for nails, screws, or
the like
B42F 3/00 Means, not using staples, for attaching
sheets temporarily together
{
C14B 17/08 Fastening devices, e.g. clips for leather-
stretching used in apparatus or machines
for manufacturing or treating skins,
hides, leathers or furs
}

E01B 9/10 Screws or bolts for railway sleepers
E01B 11/00 Rail joints
E04 Connections for building
E04D 13/08 Clamping means for down pipes for roof
drainage
E04G 5/04 Fastening scaffolds against buildings
E04G 7/00 Scaffolding couplings
E05C Bolts for fasteners for wings, specially
for doors or windows
F16C 29/10 Locking bearings for parts moving only
linearly
F16G 17/00 Hooks as integral parts of chains
F16L Pipe joints
F16L 3/00 Supports for pipes, cables or protective
tubing, e.g. hangers, holders, clamps,
cleats, clips, brackets
F16L 33/02 Clips for connecting hoses to rigid
members
H01F 7/00 Magnetic holding devices
H02N 13/00 Electrostatic holding devices.


Groups F16B 2/00 to F16B 47/00 take precedence over group F16B 1/00.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F16B7/08 covered by F16B 5/12, F16B 7/04, F16L 3/00
F16B7/12 " " F16B 7/105
F16B7/16 " " F16B 7/14
F16B13/10 " " F16B 13/08
F16B13/13 " " F16B 13/002, F16B 13/12
F16B21/14 " " F16B 21/12, F16B 21/125
F16B25/02 " " F16B 25/00
F16B25/04 " " F16B 25/00
F16B25/06 " " F16B 25/00
F16B25/08 " " F16B 25/00
F16B33/04 " " F16B 33/02
F16B37/10 " " F16B 37/0842, F16B 37/0871

SHAFTS; FLEXIBLE SHAFTS; ELEMENTS OR CRANKSHAFT MECHANISMS; ROTARY BODIES OTHER THAN GEARING ELEMENTS; BEARINGS
NOTE
-
In this subclass the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:

- "rotary bodies other than gearing elements" covers any
element which rotates so far as its features are affected
only by the fact that it rotates.

Attention is drawn to the following places:

A01B 71/04 Bearings for agricultural machines
B21B 31/07 Adaptation of roll bearings for metal-rolling
mills
B61C 17/10 Connecting-rods, bearings for driving wheels of
railway locomotives
B61F 15/00 Axle-boxes for railway vehicles
B62K 21/06 Bearings for steering heads
E06B 9/174,
E06B 9/50 Bearings specially adapted for roller shutters
or for roller blinds
E21B 10/22 Bearings for drill bits
F01C 21/02 Arrangement of bearings in rotary-piston
machines or engines
F01D 25/16 Arrangement of bearings in non-positive
displacement machines or engines
F02C 7/06 Arrangement of bearings in gas-turbine plants
G01C 19/16 Bearings for gyroscopes
G01D 11/02 Bearings or suspensions for moving parts of
measuring instruments
G01G 21/02 Arrangements of bearings in weighing apparatus
G01R 1/10 Arrangements of bearings in instruments for
measuring electric variables
G01R 11/12 Arrangements of bearings for apparatus for
measuring time integral of electric power or
current
G02C 5/22 Hinges for spectacles
G04B 31/00 Bearings for clockwork
H02N 15/00 Magnetic levitation devices.

COUPLINGS FOR TRANSMITTING ROTATION ; CLUTCHES ; BRAKES
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the following places:

A01D 69/08 , A01D 69/10 Clutches or brakes of harvesting machines for grass or cereals;
A61C 1/18 Clutches in dental machines for boring or cutting;
B21B 35/14 Drive couplings for metal-rolling mills;
B30B 15/10 Brakes specially adapted for presses;
B30B 15/12 Clutches specially adapted for presses;
B41J 33/52 Braking devices for ribbon-feed devices in selective printing mechanisms;
B60K 17/00 Arrangement or location of clutches in vehicles;
B61H Brakes peculiar to rail vehicles;
B62B 5/04 Braking mechanisms for hand carts;
B62B 9/08 Braking mechanisms for children`s carriages or perambulators;
B62C 7/00 Braking mechanisms for animal-drawn vehicles;
B62L Cycle brakes;
B66D 5/00 Braking devices for lifting or hoisting gear;
E21B 17/02 Couplings for drilling rods;
H02P 3/04 Brakes for electric motors, generators, dynamo-electric converters;
H04L 13/04 Clutches for apparatus for transmission of coded digital information.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F16D3/19 covered by F16D 3/50 ;
F16D3/27 covered by F16D 3/26 B;
F16D 13/69 covered by F16D 13/52 , F16D 13/64 C, F16D 13/68 B;
F16D27/07 covered by F16D 27/06 , F16D 27/14 ;
F16D 28/00 covered by F16D 27/00 B;
F16D 41/061 covered by F16D 41/06 F;
F16D 41/063 covered by F16D 41/06 C, F16D 41/06 D;
F16D 41/064 covered by F16D 41/06 H;
F16D 41/066 covered by F16D41/06H3 , F16D41/06H3B ;
F16D 41/067 covered by F16D41/06H3C ;
F16D 41/069 covered by F16D 41/06 G;
F16D48/12 covered by B60K 23/08 B;
F16D65/35 covered by F16D 63/00 .

SPRINGS ; SHOCK-ABSORBERS ; MEANS FOR DAMPING VIBRATION
NOTE
-
This subclass covers:
- springs, shock-absorbers or vibration-dampers;
- their arrangement in, or adaptation for, particular apparatus if not provided for in the
subclasses covering said apparatus.

This subclass does not cover inventions concerning the arrangement or adaptation of springs, shock-absorbers or vibration-dampers in, or for, particular apparatus, if provided for in the subclasses concerning the said apparatus, e.g.
A47C 23/00
to A47C 27/00 Spring mattresses
{
A61F 2/00 Prostheses
}

A63C 5/075 Vibration dampers in skis
B60G Vehicle suspensions
B60R 19/24 Mounting of bumpers on vehicles
B61F Rail vehicle suspensions
B61G 11/00 Buffers for railway or tramway vehicles
B62D 21/15 Vehicle chassis frames having impact absorbing means
B62J 1/02 Resiliently mounted saddles on cycles
B62K 21/08 Steering dampers
B63H 21/30 Anti-vibration mounting of marine propulsion plant in ships
B64C 25/58 Arrangement of shock-absorbers or springs in aeroplane alighting gear
B65D 81/02 Containers, packing elements or packages with shock-absorbing means
D06F 37/20 Resilient mountings in washing machines
D06F 49/06 Resilient mountings in domestic spin-dryers
{
E04B 1/98 Protection of buildings against vibrations or shocks
}

E05D 7/086 Braking devices structurally combined with hinges
F03G 1/00 Spring motors
{
F16L 3/20 Pipe or cable supports
}

F21V 15/04 Resilient mounting of lighting devices
F41A 25/00 Gun cradles to permit recoil
F41B5/20 Vibration dampers for archery bows
G01D 11/00 Indicating or recording in connection with measuring
G01G 21/10 Weighing apparatus, e.g. arrangement of shock-absorbers in weighing apparatus
G04B Clocks, watches
G12B 3/08 Damping of movements in instruments
G21C 7/20 Disposition of shock-absorbing devices for displaceable control elements in
nuclear reactors.
{
H02G 7/14 Arrangements or devices for damping mechanical oscillations of power lines
}

Mention of "steel" or "metal" in groups F16F, unless specific mention is made otherwise, should be seen in the light of the title of group F16F 1/00 , i.e. material having low internal friction. This normally includes composite materials such as fibre-reinforced plastics.

Mention of "rubber" or "plastics" in group F16F, unless specific mention is made otherwise, should be seen in the light of the title of group F16F 1/36 , i.e. material having high internal friction. This normally does NOT include composite materials such as fibre-reinforced plastics except in the case of groups F16F 1/366 to F16F 1/3686 and F16F 15/305 .


WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F16F3/07 covered by F16F 13/00
F16F9/24 covered by F16F 9/22
F16F9/40 covered by F16F 9/00 to F16F 9/50
F16F9/508 covered by F16F 9/512
F16F11/00 covered by F16F 7/00 , F16F 9/00 , F16F 15/00
F16F13/12 covered by F16F 13/08

BELTS, CABLES, OR ROPES, PREDOMINANTLY USED FOR DRIVING PURPOSES; CHAINS; FITTINGS PREDOMINANTLY USED THEREFOR
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the following places:

B63B 21/04 Fastening equipment for chains, ropes or the
like for ships
B63B 21/20 Adaptations of chains, ropes or the like for
ships
B65G 15/30 Endless conveyer belts
B65G 17/38,
B65G 19/20 Traction chains for conveyers
F16H Gearings using flexible members
F16H 9/24 Chains specially adapted for gearings with
variable ratio
H05F Preventing or carrying-off electrostatic charges.

GEARING
{
( steering of motor vehicles by differentially driving ground-engaging elements on opposite vehicle sides B62D 11/02 )
}
NOTE
-
1. Combinations including mechanical gearings are classified in groups F16H 37/00 or F16H 47/00 , unless they are provided for in groups F16H 1/00 to F16H 35/00 .
2. In this subclass, sets of rigidly-connected members are regarded as single members.
3. In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
- "toothed gearing" includes worm gearing and other gearing
involving at least one wheel or sector provided with teeth
or the equivalent, EXCEPT gearing with chains or toothed
belts, which is treated as friction gearing;
- "conveying motion" includes transmitting energy, and means
that the applied and resultant motions are of the same
kind, though they may differ in, e.g. speed, direction
extent:
- "rotary" implies that the motion may continue indefinitely;
- "oscillating" means moving about an axis to an extent which
is limited by the construction of the gearing, and which
may exceed one revolution, the movement being alternately
forwards and backwards during continued operation of the
gearing;
- "reciprocating" means moving substantially in a straight
line, the movement being alternately forwards and backwards
during continued operation of the gearing;
- "reversing" or "reversal" means that an applied movement in
one direction may produce a resultant movement in either of
two opposed directions at will;
- "central gears" includes any gears whose axis is the main
axis of the gearing. Attention is drawn to the following places:

A01D 69/06 Gearings in harvesting machines
A63H 31/00 Gearing for toys
B21B 35/12 Toothed-weel gearing for metal-rolling mills
B60K Arrangement of transmissions in vehicles
B61C 9/00 Transmissions for railway locomotives
B62D 3/00 Vehicle steering gears
B62M Transmissions for cycles
B63H 23/00 Transmissions for marine propulsions
B63H 25/00 Marine steering gears
{
B64C 27/12 , B64C 27/58 Transmissions for helicopters
B64D 35/00 Transmissions for aircraft
}

F01 to F04 Machines, engines, pumps
F15B 15/00 Gearings associated with fluid-actuated devices
G01D 5/04 Gearing used in indicating or recording
apparatus in connection with measuring
devices
H03J 1/00 Driving arrangements for tuning resonant
circuits
H04L 13/04 Driving mechanisms for apparatus for
transmission of coded digital information.

WARNING
-
1. The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F16H 48/00 covered by F16H1/38 ;
F16H48/02 covered by B60K;
F16H48/04 covered by B60K;
F16H 48/06 covered by F16H1/38 ;
F16H 48/08 covered by F16H1/40 ;
F16H 48/10 covered by F16H1/42 ;
F16H 48/12 covered by F16H35/04 ;
F16H 48/14 covered by F16H35/04 C;
F16H 48/16 covered by F16H35/04 , F16H 41/00 ;
F16H 48/18 covered by F16H 39/40 ;
F16H 48/20 covered by F16H1/44 ;
F16H 48/22 covered by F16H1/44 ;
F16H 48/24 covered by F16H1/44 ;
F16H 48/26 covered by F16H1/45 S;
F16H 48/28 covered by F16H1/45 , F16H1/45 B, F16H1/45 C;
F16H 48/30 covered by F16H1/44 S.

PISTONS
{
(specially adapted for dampers F16F 9/32)
}
; CYLINDERS; SEALINGS
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the following places:

A47J 27/08 Pressure cookers
E04B 1/68 Sealing building joints
E05C 9/00 Multi-point fastening of wings in general
F01B Machines or engines in general or of reciprocating
type, e.g. cylinders peculiar to steam engines
F01B 31/28
F02F 1/00 Cylinders for combustion engines
F02F 3/00 Pistons for combustion engines
F04D 29/08 Sealings of non-positive displacement pumps
F17B 1/04 Sealing devices for sliding parts of gas holders
of variable capacity
F28F 9/04 Arrangements for sealing elements into header
boxes or end plates of heat-exchangers.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F16J15/53 covered by F16J 15/43

VALVES ; TAPS ; COCKS ; ACTUATING-FLOATS ; DEVICES FOR VENTING OR AERATING
{
( devices for emptying and evacuating the excess liquid in valves or conduits F16L 55/07 )
}
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the following places:
A47J 27/09 Safety devices for pressure cookers
A47J 31/46 Dispensing spouts, drain valves or like beverage-making apparatus
A61B 5/0235 Valves specially adapted for measuring pressure in heart or blood vessels
A61F 2/24 Heart valves
A61M 16/20 Valves specially adapted for medical respiratory devices
A61M 39/00 Tube connectors, tube couplings, valves or branch units specially adapted for
medical use in general
A62B 9/02 Valves for respiratory apparatus
A62B 18/10 Valves for breathing masks or helmets
A62C Fire extinguishers
{
B01D 35/04 Plug, tap, or cock filters
}

B05B Nozzles, spray heads or other discharge apparatus for spraying or atomising
B60C 29/00 Arrangements of tyre-inflating valves relative to tyres or wheel rims; Connection
of valves to wheel rims, tyres or other inflatable elastic bodies
B60G 17/048 Valves specially adapted for adjusting vehicle fluid-spring characteristics
B60T Valves specially adapted for vehicle brake control systems
B62D 5/08 Vehicle power-assisted steering characterised by the type of valve used
B63B 7/00 ,
B63C 9/00 Arrangement of inflating valves for floatable life-saving equipment
B65D 47/04 Container closures with discharging valves
B65D 90/32 Safety valves for large containers
B65D 90/54 Gates or closures on large containers
B67C 3/28 Flow control devices for bottling liquids
B67D Dispensing, delivering or transferring liquids
{
C21B 9/12 Hot-blast valves for blast furnaces
}

E02B 8/00 Details, e.g. valves, of barrages or weirs
E02B 13/02 Closures for irrigation conduits
{
E03C 1/04 Water-basin installations specially adapted for wash-basins or baths
}

{
E03C 1/05 Arrangements on wash-basins for the remote control of taps
}

E03D Flushing valves for water-closets or urinals
{
E03F 7/04 Valves for preventing return flow in sewer systems
}

E05F 3/12 Valve arrangements in door closers
E21B 21/10 Valve arrangements in drilling-fluid circulation systems
E21B 34/00 Valve arrangements for boreholes or wells
{
E21D 15/51 Arrangement of relief valves in hydraulic mine props
}

F01B 25/10 Working-fluid valves for controlling machines or engines in general or of
positive-displacement type
F01D 17/10 Final actuators for controlling non-positive displacement machines or engines
F01L Cyclically operated valves for machines or engines
F02D 9/08 Throttle valves for controlling combustion engines
F02K 9/58 Propellant feed valves for rocket-engines
F02M Carburettors, fuel injection
F02M 59/46 Valves for fuel injection pumps
F04 Pumps
F16F 9/34 Valves for shock absorbers
F16L 29/00 ,
F16L 37/28 Pipe joints or quick-acting couplings with fluid cut-off means
F16L 55/00 Arrangement of valves in pipes
F16L 55/055 Valves specially adapted to prevent or minimise the effect of water hammer
F16L 55/46 Launching devices for pigs or moles
F16N 23/00 Check valves for lubrication systems
{
F16T Draining-off liquids from steam traps
}

F17C 13/04 Arrangement of valves in pressure vessels
F22B 37/44 Arrangement of safety valves on steam boilers
F22D 5/34 Application of valves to automatic water-feed in boiler
F23L 13/00 Valves for air supply control to burners
{
F23Q 2/16 Valves for lighters with gaseous fuel and adjustable flame
}

F24C 3/12 ,
F24C 5/16 Arrangement of valves on stoves or ranges
F24F Air conditioning; Ventilation
F25B 41/04 Disposition of fluid circulation valves in refrigeration machines
G05D Controlling non-electric variables
G10B 3/06 Valves for organs
G10D 9/04 Valves for other wind-actuated musical instruments
{
G21C 9/06 Safety valves structurally associated with nuclear reactors
}

{
H01M 2/12 Vent plugs in batteries or cells
}

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F16K31/11 covered by F16K 31/06 , F16K 31/08 , F16K 31/10
F16K31/64 " " G05D
F16K31/66 " " F16K 31/06 ; H01F
F16K31/68 " " G05D
F16K31/70 " " F16K 31/002
F16K31/72 " " F16K 31/00

PIPES; JOINTS OR FITTINGS FOR PIPES; SUPPORTS FOR PIPES, CABLES OR PROTECTIVE TUBING; MEANS FOR THERMAL INSULATION IN GENERAL
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:
- "pipe" means a conduit of closed cross-section, which is sepcially adapted to convey
fluids, materials or objects;
- "hose" means a pipe, as defined above, which has flexibility as an essential
characteristic.

Attention is drawn to the following places:
A61M 39/00 Tube connectors, tube couplings or branch units, specially adapted for medical
use
B05B 1/20 Perforated pipes
{
B60T 17/04 Arrangement of piping or air hoses in brake systems
}

B63B 35/03 Pipe-laying vessels
B64D 39/04 Adaptation of hose constructions for refuelling aircraft during flight
{
B65G 51/00 Conveying articles through pipes or tubes by fluid flow or pressure
}

{
B65G 53/00 Conveying materials in bulk through pipes or tubes
}

B67D5/36 Arrangements of hoses in apparatus for transferring liquids, e.g. fuel, from bulk
to vehicles or portable containers
E01D 19/10 Fastening of pipes or cables to bridges
E03B Water supply installations
E03D 11/17 Means for connecting water-closet bowls to the flushing pipe
E03D 11/18 Siphons for water-closets
E03F 3/04 Pipes or fittings specially adapted to sewers
E04D 13/08 Down pipes for roof drainage; Clamping means therefor
E04F 17/00 Vertical ducts, channels in buildings, e.g. chimneys
E21F 1/04 Air ducts for ventilation of mines or tunnels; Connections therefor
E21F 17/02 Suspension devices for tubes or the like in mines or tunnels
F01N Gas flow silencers or exhaust apparatus for machines or engines
{
F16B 7/00 Connections of rods or tubes
}

F16N 21/00 Conduits, junctions for lubrication systems
F17C 3/02 Thermal insulation of vessels not under pressure for storing liquefied or
solidified gases, e.g. Dewar flask
{
F17D Pipe-line systems, pipe-lines
}

F22B 37/10 Water tubes of steam boilers
F23J 13/04 Joints, connections for chimneys or flues
F24H 9/12 Connecting circulation pipes to heaters
F28F 9/04 Arrangements for sealing elements into header boxes or end plates of
heat-exchangers
G21C 15/22 Structural association of coolant tubes with headers or other pipes in nuclear
reactors
H02G 3/04 Protective tubing or conduits for electric cables
H02G 3/26 Installations of electric cables or lines, or protective tubing on or in walls,
ceilings or floors.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F16L 3/21 covered by F16L3/205B, F16L3/205C;
F16L 13/013 covered by F16L 13/007;
F16L19/03 covered by F16L19/02D;
F16L59/05 covered by F16L59/02B.


FRAMES, CASINGS, OR BEDS OF ENGINES OR OTHER MACHINES OR APPARATUS NOT SPECIFIC TO AN ENGINE, MACHINE, OR APPARATUS PROVIDED FOR ELSEWHERE ; STANDS OR SUPPORTS
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the following places:

B21B 31/02 Metal-rolling stand frames
G01D 11/30 Supports specially adapted for indicating or
recording instruments.

LUBRICATING
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the following places:

A01D 69/12 Lubrication of harvesters;
B21J 3/00 Lubricating during forging or pressing;
B25D 17/26 Lubricating of portable power-driven percussive
tools;
B60R 17/00 Arrangements or adaptations of lubricating;
systems or devices in vehicles;
B61C 17/08 Lubrication systems for railway locomotives;
B62D 55/092 Vehicle endless-track units with lubrication
means;
D04B 35/28 Devices for lubricating knitting machine parts;
E05B 17/08 Lubricating devices for locks;
E05D 11/02 Lubricating arrangements for hinges;
E21B 10/22 Lubricating details of roller drill bits for earth;
drilling.

SAFETY DEVICES IN GENERAL;
{
SAFETY DEVICES FOR PRESSES
}
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the following places:

A01D 75/18 Harvesting machines
A01F 21/00 Threshing machines or baling presses
B02C 23/04 Crushing or disintegrating machines
B21B 33/00 Rolling of metal
B21D 55/00 Working sheet metal or tubes, rods or profiles
without essentially removing material
B23B 25/04 Turning-machines
B23Q 11/00 Machine tools
B24B 55/00 Grinding or polishing machines
B25J 19/06 Manipulators
B26D 7/22 Cutting machines
B27G 19/00 Wood saws
B65B 57/00 Packaging machines or apparatus
B65G 43/00 Conveyers
B65H 26/00 Web-advancing mechanisms
B65H 63/00 Handling or winding of thin or filamentary material
D01G 31/00 Treatment of fibres
D01H 13/14 Spinning or twisting
D05B 83/00 Sewing machines
F21V 25/00 Lighting devices.

CONSTRUCTIONAL ELEMENTS IN GENERAL; STRUCTURES BUILT-UP FROM SUCH ELEMENTS, IN GENERAL
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover similar elements and structures, restricted to use in the building art, which are covered by subclass E04C.

STEAM TRAPS OR LIKE APPARATUS FOR DRAINING-OFF LIQUIDS FROM ENCLOSURES PREDOMINANTLY CONTAINING GASES OR VAPOURS
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STORING OF DISTRIBUTING GASES OR LIQUIDS (water supply E03B)
GAS-HOLDERS OF VARIABLE CAPACITY (self-acting gas cut-off devices A47J 27/62, G05D; flame traps A62C 4/00; gas mixers B01F, F16K 11/00, G05D 11/00; construction or assembling of bulk storage containers employing civil-engineering techniques E04H 7/00, gas compressors F04; valves F16K; damping pulsations in valves or pipes F16K, F16L; pipes F16L; stopping devices for gas mains F16L 55/10; vessels adapted for storing compressed, liquefied, or solidified gases F17C; gas distribution systems F17D 1/04; detecting leakage F17D 5/02, G01M; supervising or alarm devices F17D 5/02, G08B; control of combustion in burners F23N; gas flow or pressure regulators G05D)
VESSELS FOR CONTAINING OR STORING COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED OR SOLIDIFIED GASES; FIXED-CAPACITY GAS-HOLDERS; FILLING VESSELS WITH, OR DISCHARGING FROM VESSELS, COMPRESSED, LIQUEFIED, OR SOLIDIFIED GASES (storing fluids in natural or artificial cavities or chambers in the earth B65G 5/00; construction or assembling of bulk storage containers employing civil-engineering techniques E04H 7/00; variable-capacity gas-holders F17B; liquefaction or refrigeration machines, plants, or systems F25)
PIPE-LINE SYSTEMS; PIPE-LINES (pumps or compressors F04; fluid dynamics F15D; valves or the like F16K; pipes, laying pipes, supports, joints, branches, repairing, work on the entire line, accessories F16L; steam traps or the like F16T; fluid-pressure electric cables H01B 9/06)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, pipe-line systems are interpreted as systems described in flow sheets as well as arrangements of co-operating elements, the elements per se being covered in the relevant subclasses.

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SUBSECTION:
Lighting; heating
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LIGHTING (electric aspects or elements, see section H, e.g. electric light sources H01J, H01K, H05B)
NOTE
-
In this class, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:

- "Portable" means "intended to be carried personally"
- "Non-portable" means "not intended to be carried personally,
even if capable of being moved from place to place"

MANTLES; OTHER INCANDESCENT BODIES HEATED BY COMBUSTION (arrangements thereof F21V 36/00; burners F23D)
LIGHT SOURCES NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F21K5/04 covered by G03B 15/0457F21K5/06 " " G03B 15/0442F21K5/08 " " F21K 5/02 , G03B 15/0442F21K5/10 " " G03B 15/0442F21K5/12 " " F21K 5/023F21K5/14 " " F21K 5/026 , G03B 15/0489F21K5/16 " " G03B 15/0452F21K5/18 " " G03B 15/0452F21K5/20 " " G03B 15/0447F21K5/22 " " G03B 15/0442

Groups F21K 9/00 to F21K 9/90 do not correspond to former or current IPC groups.
Concordance CPC : IPC for these groups is as follows:
- F21K 9/00 to F21K 9/90 : F21K 99/00


LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF, BEING PORTABLE OR SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR TRANSPORTATION
NOTE
-
This subclass covers devices or systems designed or specially adapted to be carried, e.g. by hand, or otherwise transported from place to place, e.g. on wheeled supports, in order to provide illumination as and where required.

This subclass does not cover devices or systems intended for fixed installation, e.g. vehicle lighting, or for use essentially at a permanent location, which are covered by subclass F21S.

Non-electric lighting devices are classified in groups F21L 17/00-F21L 26/00 only if a special adaptation related to the use of a non-electric light source is of interest.

NON-PORTABLE LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS THEREOF( burners F23D )
NOTE
-
1. This subclass covers devices or systems intended for fixed installation, e.g. vehicle lighting, or for use at a permanent location, e.g. free-standing floor- or table-lamps.
2. This subclass does not cover devices or systems specially adapted for transportation, which are covered by subclass F21L.
3. Non-electric lighting devices or systems are classified in groups F21S 11/00 to F21S 15/00 only if a special adaptation related to the use of a non-electric light source is of interest.

DETAILS OF LIGHTING DEVICES, OF GENERAL APPLICATION
NOTE
-
1. Groups F21V 1/00-F21V 14/00 cover details of those parts involved in light emission or distribution. Groups F21V 15/00-F21V 31/00 cover details of those parts not so involved.
2. Details of non-electric lighting devices or systems are classified in groups F21V 35/00-F21V 37/00 only if a special adaptation related to the use of a non-electric light source is of interest.

In this subclass have been included only those lighting device details which were considered to be of a kind applicable to the lighting devices of more than one of the subclasses F21L, F21M, F21P, F21Q, F21S. Inventions concerned with details of the kinds provided for are to be classified in this subclass, even though they are only stated to be applied to a device of a single subclass.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F21V8/00 covered by G02B6/00L

INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO USES OR APPLICATIONS OF LIGHTING DEVICES OR SYSTEMS
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only, associated with subclasses F21L, F21M, F21P, F21Q, F21S and F21V, relating to uses or applications of lighting devices or systems.

INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO THE FORM OF THE LIGHT SOURCES
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only, associated with subclasses F21L, F21M, F21P, F21Q, F21S and F21V, relating to the form of the light sources.

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STEAM GENERATION (chemical or physical apparatus for generating gases B01J; chemical generation of gas, e.g. under pressure, Section C; removal of combustion products or residues, e.g. cleaning of the combustion contaminated surfaces of tubes of boilers, F23J; generating combustion products of high pressure or high velocity F23R; water heaters not for steam generation F24H, F28; cleaning of internal or external surfaces of heat-transfer conduits, e.g. water tubes of boilers, F28G)
NOTE
-
In this class the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

- "steam" covers also other condensable vapours, e.g. mercury,
diphenyl, diphenyl oxide.

METHODS OF STEAM GENERATION; STEAM BOILERS (steam engine plants where engine aspects predominate F01K; domestic central-heating systems using steam F24D; heat exchange or heat transfer in general F28; generation of vapour in the cores of nuclear reactors G21)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers only methods of, or apparatus for, the generation of steam under pressure for heating or power purposes

PREHEATING, OR ACCUMULATING PREHEATED, FEED-WATER ; FEED-WATER SUPPLY ; CONTROLLING WATER LEVEL ; AUXILIARY DEVICES FOR PROMOTING WATER CIRCULATION WITHIN BOILERS ( chemical treatment of water, e.g. purification, C02F ; enclosed heat-exchange apparatus in general F28D ; controlling in general G05)
SUPERHEATING OF STEAM (steam separating arrangements in boilers F22B 37/26)
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COMBUSTION APPARATUS; COMBUSTION PROCESSES
NOTE
-
In this class, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:

- "combustion" means a heat-producing sequence of chemical reactions between a burnable substance and molecular oxygen, e.g. in air, in most cases generating light in the form of flames or a glow;- "combustion chamber" means a chamber in which fuel is burned to establish a self-supporting fire or flame and which surrounds that fire or flame; - "burner" means a device by which fluent fuel is passed to a combustion space where it burns to produce a self-supporting flame; - "air" means a mixture of gases containing free oxygen and able to promote or support combustion.

METHODS OR APPARATUS FOR COMBUSTION USING ONLY SOLID FUEL (
{
for combustion of fuels that are solid at room temperatures, but burned in melted form, e.g. candle wax, C11C 5/00, F23C, F23D ; using solid fuel suspended in air F23C, F23D 1/00 ; using solid fuel suspended in liquids F23C, F23D 11/00; using solid fuel and fluent fuel simultaneously or alternately F23C, F23D 17/00; burning of low grade fuel F23G; grates F23H; feeding solid fuel to combustion apparatus F23K; combustion chambers, not otherwise provided for F23M; domestic apparatus F24; central heating boilers F24D; package boilers F24H
}
)
NOTE
-
This subclass is only concerned with the combustion of lump fuel, or of pulverulent or granulated fuel if no use is made of its fluent nature.

COMBUSTION APPARATUS USING FLUENT FUEL( combustion apparatus for solid fuel only F23B; burners F23D; constructional details of combustion chambers not otherwise provided for F23M; combustion chambers for generating combustion products of high pressure or high velocity F23R )
BURNERS (generating combustion products of high pressure or high velocity F23R)
CREMATION FURNACES; CONSUMING WASTE PRODUCTS BY COMBUSTION
NOTE
-
This subclass covers also the burning of low-grade fuel of solid, liquid, or gaseous nature.

GRATES (inlets for fluidisation air for fluidised bed combustion apparatus F23C 10/20); CLEANING OR RAKING GRATES
REMOVAL OR TREATMENT OF COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OR COMBUSTION RESIDUES
{
(from fluidised-bed combustion apparatus F23C 10/24)
}
; FLUES (precipitating dust from flue gases B01D; composition of fuel C10; combustion apparatus for consuming smoke or fumes, e.g. exhaust gases, F23G 7/06)
NOTE
-
This subclass covers the cleaning of external surfaces of water tubes of boilers

FEEDING FUEL TO COMBUSTION APPARATUS (fuel feeders specially adapted for fluidised-bed combustion apparatus F23C 10/22; regulating or controlling combustion F23N)
AIR SUPPLY; DRAUGHT-INDUCING; SUPPLYING NON-COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID OR GAS (air-supply arrangements for fluent fuels F23C; dampers and throat restrictors for open fire-places F24; air inlet valves for open fire fronts F24)
CONSTRUCTIONAL DETAILS OF COMBUSTION CHAMBERS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (construction or support of tube walls for steam boilers F22B; generating combustion products of high pressure or high velocity F23R)
REGULATING OR CONTROLLING COMBUSTION( control devices specially adapted for fluidised-bed combustion apparatus F23C 10/28 ; condition reponsive controls for regulating combustion in domestic stoves with open fires for solid fuel F24B 1/187 )
IGNITION (devices or installations peculiar to internal-combustion engines F02P; of cigarettes or tobacco A24F; compositions therefor, chemical igniters C06C); Extinguishing-devices
GENERATING COMBUSTION PRODUCTS OF HIGH PRESSURE OR HIGH VELOCITY, e.g. GAS-TURBINE COMBUSTION CHAMBERS (using such products for specific purposes, see the relevant classes for the purposes; chemical aspects of gas production C06D 5/00; gas-turbine plants characterised by the arrangement of the combustion chamber in the plant F02C 3/14; arrangement of afterburners in jet-propulsion plants F02K 3/10; combustion chambers of rocket-engine plants F02K 9/00)
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HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING (protecting plants by heating in gardens, orchards, or forests A01G 13/06; baking ovens and apparatus A21B; cooking devices other than ranges A47J; forging B21J, B21K; specially adapted for vehicles, see the relevant subclasses of B60 to B64; combustion apparatus in general F23; drying F26B; ovens in general F27; electric heating elements and arrangements H05B)
NOTE
-
In this class, the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:

- "stove" includes apparatus which may have an open fire, e.g.
fireplace;
- "range" means an apparatus for cooking having elements that
perform different cooking operations or cooking and heating
operations.

DOMESTIC STOVES OR RANGES FOR SOLID FUELS
OTHER DOMESTIC STOVES OR RANGES; DETAILS OF DOMESTIC STOVES OR RANGES, OF GENERAL APPLICATION (radiator stoves of the fluid-circulating type F24H)
DOMESTIC- OR SPACE-HEATING SYSTEMS, e.g. CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEMS; DOMESTIC HOT-WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS; ELEMENTS OR COMPONENTS THEREFOR (preventing corrosion C23F; water supply in general E03; using steam or condensate extracted or exhausted from steam engine plants for heating purposes F01K 17/02; steam traps F16T; domestic stoves or ranges F24B, C; water or air heaters having heat generating means F24H; combined heating and refrigeration systems F25B; heat exchange apparatus or elements F28; removing furring F28G)
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following expression is used with the meaning indicated:

- "Central heating system" means a system in which heat is
generated or stored at central sources and is distributed
by means of a transfer fluid to the spaces or areas to be
heated.

AIR-CONDITIONING, AIR-HUMIDIFICATION, VENTILATION, USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING (devices for ventilating greenhouses A01G
{
F24F9/24; air-conditioning systems for greenhouses A01G 9/246
}
; animal husbandry A01K, e.g. controlling humidity in incubators A01K 41/04; disinfecting or sterilising of air A61L; devices for reconditioning breathing air in sealed rooms or for ventilating gas-proof shelters A62B; filtering, washing or drying of gases B01D; mixing gases with vapours or liquids in general B01F 3/00; spraying B05B, B05D; removing dirt or fumes from areas where they are produced B08B 15/00; ventilation, air-conditioning or cooling, specially adapted for vehicles, see the relevant vehicle places, e.g. B60H, B61D 27/00,
{
B64D 13/00
}
; production of ozone C01B 13/10; chimneys or flues E04F 17/02, E04H 12/28, F23J 11/00, F23L 17/02; air ducts or conduits E0417/04, F16L; ventilation in doors or windows E06B 7/02; fans, blowers F04; noise-absorbing in pipes or pipe systems F16L; tops for chimneys and ventilating shafts F23L; cooling F25; details of heat-exchange or heat-transfer apparatus, of general application F28F; apparatus for generating ions to be introduced into non-enclosed gases, e.g. the atmosphere H01T 23/00)
NOTE
-
In this subclass:
- air-humidification as auxiliary treatment in air-conditioning,
i.e. in units wherein the air is also either cooled or heated,
is covered by groups F24F 1/00 or F24F 3/14;
- air-humidification per se, e.g. "room humidifiers", is
covered by group F24F 6/00.

In this subclass, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
- "air-conditioning" means the supply of air to rooms or spaces
by means which provide for the treatment of the air in at
least two of the following ways:
heating - cooling - any other kind of treatment, e.g.
humidification.

FLUID HEATERS, e.g. WATER OR AIR HEATERS, HAVING HEAT GENERATING MEANS, IN GENERAL (heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials C09K 5/00; tube furnaces for thermal non-catalytic cracking C10G 9/20; devices, e.g. valves, for venting and aerating enclosures F16K 24/00; steam traps or like apparatus F16T; steam generation F22; combustion apparatus F23; domestic stoves or ranges F24B, F24C; domestic- or space-heating systems F24D; furnaces, kilns, ovens, retorts F27; heat-exchangers F28; electric heating elements or arrangements H05B)
NOTE
-
The distinguishing feature of the air heaters covered by this subclass is that the heat is predominantly released to the air by convection, mostly by forced circulation of the air. The domestic stoves or ranges covered by subclasses F24B, F24C may also be fired or electric air heaters but they release their heat to a considerable extent by radiation and only to some extent by natural convection.

In this subclass the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:

- "Water" includes other liquids; "air" includes other gases
or gas mixtures; "water" and "air" always mean,
respectively, the liquid and gas to be heated;
- "Furnace tubes" means tubes inside the heater wherein
combustion is performed;
- "Fire tubes" means tubes inside the heater through which
flue-gases flow from a combustion chamber located outside
the tubes;
- "Heater" means apparatus including both heat generating
means and means for transferring the generated heat to
water or air.

All storage heaters are classified in group F24H 7/00.

PRODUCING OR USE OF HEAT NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (materials therefor C09K 5/00; engines or other mechanisms for producing mechanical power from heat, see the relevant classes, e.g. F03G for using natural heat)
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REFRIGERATION OR COOLING; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS; MANUFACTURE OR STORAGE OF ICE; LIQUEFACTION SOLIDIFICATION OF GASES
REFRIGERATION MACHINES, PLANTS OR SYSTEMS; COMBINED HEATING AND REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS; HEAT-PUMP SYSTEMS (
{
evaporation or evaporation apparatus for physical or chemical purposes, e.g. evaporation of liquids for gas phase reactions B01B 1/005
}
; heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, e.g. refrigerants, or materials for the production of heat or cold by chemical reactions other than by combustion C09K 5/00; pumps, compressors F04; use of heat-pumps for domestic- or space-heating or for domestic hot-water supply F24D; air-conditioning, air-humidification F24F; fluid heaters using heat pumps F24H)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to Note (2) following the title of subclass F24F.

When classifying heat pump circuits or systems, groups F25B 1/00 to F25B 25/00 and F25B 29/00 take precedence over group F25B 30/00.

PRODUCTION, WORKING, STORING OR DISTRIBUTION OF ICE (frozen sweets, including ice-cream, their production A23G 9/00; concentrating solutions by removing frozen solvents B01D 9/04; purification of water by freezing C02F 1/22; refrigeration machines, plants or systems F25B; solidification of gases or gaseous mixtures F25J; freeze drying F26B)
NOTE
-
Within the subclass, the term "ice" means any frozen liquid and is to be understood as also covering frozen semi-liquids or pasty substances.

REFRIGERATORS ; COLD ROOMS ; ICE-BOXES ; COOLING OR FREEZING APPARATUS NOT COVERED BY ANY OTHER SUBCLASS( refrigerated show cases A47F 3/04 ; thermally-insulated vessels for domestic use A47J 41/00 ; refrigerated vehicles, see the appropriate subclasses of classes B60 to B64 ; containers with thermal insulation in general B65D 81/38 ; heat-transfer, heat-exchange or heat-storage materials, e.g. refrigerants, or materials for the production of heat or cold by chemical reactions other than by combustion C09K 5/00 ; thermally-insulated vessels for liquefied or solidified gases F17C ; air-conditioning or air-humidification F24F ; refrigeration machines, plants or systems F25B ; cooling of instruments and comparable apparatus without refrigeration G12B ; cooling of engines or pumps, see the relevant classes )
NOTE
-
In this subclass, the following term is used with the meaning indicated:

- "device" means an enclosed space to be cooled; such
devices being associated either with refrigerating
machinery, e.g. in a refrigerator, or with other cold
sources, e.g. in an ice-box.

Attention is drawn to Note (2) following the title of subclass F24F .

LIQUEFACTION, SOLIDIFICATION OR SEPARATION OF GASES OR GASEOUS
{
or liquefied gaseous
}
MIXTURES BY PRESSURE AND COLD TREATMENT
{
or by bringing them into the supercritical state (cryogenic pumps F04B 37/08; gas storage vessels, gas holders F17; filing vessels with, or discharging from vessels, compressed, liquefied or solidified gases F17C; refrigeration machines, plants, or systems F25B)
}
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DRYING
DRYING SOLID MATERIALS OR OBJECTS BY REMOVING LIQUID THEREFROM( racks for drying fruit and vegetables A01F 25/12 ; drying foodstuffs A23; drying hair A45D 20/00 ; body-drying implements A47K 10/00 ; drying household articles A47L,
{
e.g. drying footwear A47L 23/20 ;
}
drying gases and vapours B01D; chemical and physical processes for dewatering or like separating liquids from solids B01D 43/00 ; centrifugal apparatus B04; drying ceramics C04B 33/30 ; drying yarns and fabrics in association with some other form of treatment D06C; drying frames for laundry without heating or positive air circulation, domestic and like spin-dryers, wringing and hot pressing laundry D06F; furnaces, kilns, ovens F27;
{
treatment including a drying step of semiconductor substrates, e.g. wafers, H01L 21/67028
}
)
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:

F26B11/06 covered by F26B 11/0486
F26B13/02 covered by F26B 13/10
F26B13/04 covered by F26B 13/10
F26B13/20 covered by F26B 13/104
F26B23/08 covered by F26B 3/34 B, F26B 3/347

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FURNACES; KILNS; OVENS; RETORTS (specially adapted for a purpose covered by a single other class and specifically mentioned in that class, see the class in question, e.g. bakery ovens A21B, glass melting furnaces C03B, coke or gas-making apparatus C10B, C10J, apparatus for cracking hydrocarbons C10G, blast furnaces C21B, converters for making steel C21C, furnaces for heat treatment of metal C21D; furnaces for electroslag or arc remelting of metals C22B 9/00; enamelling ovens C23D; combustion apparatus F23; electric heating H05B)
NOTE
-
This class deals with furnaces, kilns, ovens, retorts, open sintering apparatus, and details or accessories therefor, in general. It includes the arrangement of electrical heating elements in or on furnaces, but not the elements themselves. It is not concerned with the processes carried on within the furnaces.

In this class, where appropriate, the term "furnaces" is to be understood as covering kilns, ovens, or retorts.

FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS IN GENERAL; OPEN SINTERING OR LIKE APPARATUS
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the references and notes following the title of class F27 and the note (par. III) following the Contents of Section H.

WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC system. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F27B1/09 covered by F27B 1/08
F27B5/05 " " F27B 5/04
F27B14/16, F27B14/18 " " F27B 14/0806
F27B21/08 to F27B21/14 " " F27D

DETAILS OR ACCESSORIES OF FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS, OR RETORTS, IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE OF KINDS OCCURRING IN MORE THAN ONE KIND OF FURNACE (combustion apparatus F23)
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the references and Notes following the title of class F27 and the Note III following the Contents of Section H.

INDEXING SCHEME RELATING TO ASPECTS OF THE CHARGES OR FURNACES, KILNS, OVENS OR RETORTS
NOTE
-
This subclass constitutes an internal scheme for indexing only.

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HEAT EXCHANGE IN GENERAL
NOTE
-
Apparatus using heat exchange or heat transfer (as defined below) for specific purposes is classified either in subclass F28B or in the appropriate subclasses of, for example, classes F22, F24, F25, F26; if no such other subclass is appropriate, such apparatus is to be classified in F28C or F28D.

In this class the following terms are used with the meanings indicated:

- "Heat exchange" means the heating or cooling of a fluid or
fluent solid by direct or indirect contact with a heated or
cooled fluid or fluent solid;
- "Heat transfer" means the heating or cooling of a fluid or
fluent solid by direct contact with a heated or cooled
surface or body.

STEAM OR VAPOUR CONDENSERS (condensation of vapours B01D 5/00; steam engine plants having condensers F01K; liquefaction of gases F25J; details of heat-exchange and heat-transfer arrangements of general application F28F)
HEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT WITHOUT CHEMICAL INTERACTION (safety devices in general F16P; fluid heaters having heat generating means F24H; with an intermediate heat-transfer medium coming into direct contact with heat-exchange media F28D 15/00 to F28D 19/00; details of heat-exchange apparatus of general application F28F)
HEAT-EXCHANGE APPARATUS, NOT PROVIDED FOR IN ANOTHER SUBCLASS, IN WHICH THE HEAT-EXCHANGE MEDIA DO NOT COME INTO DIRECT CONTACT (fluid heaters having heat generating means and heat transferring means F24H; furnaces F27; details of heat-exchange apparatus of general)
DETAILS OF HEAT-EXCHANGE AND HEAT-TRANSFER APPARATUS, OF GENERAL APPLICATION (water and air traps, air venting F16)
CLEANING OF INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL SURFACES OF HEAT-EXCHANGE OR HEAT-TRANSFER CONDUITS, e.g. WATER TUBES OR BOILERS (cleaning pipes or tubes in general B08B 9/02; devices or arrangements for removing water, minerals, or sludge from boilers while the boiler is in operation, or which remain in position while the boiler is in operation, or are specifically adapted to boilers without any other utility F22B 37/48; removal or treatment of combustion products or combustion residues F23J; removing ice from heat-exchange apparatus F28F 17/00)
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SUBSECTION:
Weapons; Blasting
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WEAPONS
NOTE
-
This class covers also means for practice and training which may cover also means for practice and training which may have aspects of simulation, e.g. in apparatus for so-called "military games", although simulators are generally covered by class G09.

In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:

- "smallarm" means a firearm which is generally held with one
or both hands for firing, but this term also includes a
light machine-gun which may be supported on a tripod or the
like during firing;
- "gun" means any weapon having a barrel and a trigger or
firing mechanism for projecting a missile; it may be a
piece of ordnance or a smallarm. It may use combustible or
explosive propellant charges, air pressure, electromagnetism
or other propulsive forces;
- "revolver-type gun" means a gun having a revolving drum
magazine, the chambers of which are used successively as
firing chamber;
- "revolver" means a revolver-type pistol;
- "semi-automatic firearm" means a firearm from which one
shot is fired after actuation of the trigger and which then
returns to a condition for firing a subsequent shot upon
renewed actuation of the trigger;
- "automatic gun" means a gun which will continue firing so
long as the initial firing pressure is maintained on the
trigger;
- "sighting" means bringing into visual coincidence a
direction of a target;
- "aiming" means bringing a weapon to a direction differing
from the sighting direction by corrections in order that
the projectile may hit the target;
- "laying" means setting a weapon in the correct position for
hitting a mark.

Attention is drawn to the definitions of "projectile", "missile" and "rocket" given in Note 2 following the title of class F42.

FUNCTIONAL FEATURES OR DETAILS COMMON TO BOTH SMALLARMS AND ORDNANCE, e.g. CANNONS ; MOUNTINGS FOR SMALLARMS OR ORDNANCE
NOTE
-
This subclass covers those features or details which are considered to be of a kind generally applicable to, or to be concerned with intrinsic functions common to, both smallarms and ordnance.

Such features or details are classified in this subclass, even if they are stated to be applied only to smallarms or only to ordnance.

Attention is drawn to the definitions given in Note (2) following the title of class F41 .

WEAPONS FOR PROJECTING MISSILES WITHOUT USE OF EXPLOSIVE OR COMBUSTIBLE PROPELLANT CHARGE; WEAPONS NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (projectiles for fishing, e.g. fish-spears, A01K 81/00; sports implements for throwing A63B 65/00, e.g. boomerangs A63B 65/08; stationary apparatus for projecting sports balls, e.g. tennis balls, A63B 69/40; throwing or slinging toys A63H 33/18; knives, axes B26B; projectiles or missiles other than those incorporating springs as projecting means F42B 6/00)
SMALLARMS, e.g. PISTOLS, RIFLES (functional features or details common to both smallarms and ordnance, mountings therefor F41A; projecting missiles without use of explosive or combustible propellant charge F41B); ACCESSORIES THEREFOR
NOTE
-
Attention is drawn to the definitions in Note (2) following the title of class F 41.

APPARATUS FOR LAUNCHING PROJECTILES OR MISSILES FROM BARRELS, e.g. CANNONS (smallarms F41C); LAUNCHERS FOR ROCKETS OR TORPEDOES; HARPOON GUNS (functional features or details common to both smallarms and ordnance, mountings therefor F41A; projecting missiles without use of explosive or combustible propellant charge F41B)
NOTE
-
This subclass does not cover the arrangement of armaments, adaptation of mountings therefor, or arrangements of ammunition handlers on ships or aircraft, if they present a shipbuilding or aircraft-building aspect, which are covered by subclass B63G or B64D.

WEAPON SIGHTS; AIMING (optical aspects thereof G02B)
ARMOUR; ARMOURED TURRETS; ARMOURED OR ARMED VEHICLES; MEANS OF ATTACK OR DEFENCE, e.g. CAMOUFLAGE, IN GENERAL
TARGETS; TARGET RANGES; BULLET CATCHERS
{
(targets for shooting or hurling games A63F 9/0204)
}
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AMMUNITION; BLASTING
NOTE
-
This class covers also means for practice or training which may have aspects of simulation, although simulators are generally covered by class G09.

In this class, the following terms or expressions are used with the meanings indicated:
- "primer" effects the first explosive step in the sequence of explosion;
- "percussion cap" means a primer which is struck to explode;
- "igniter" effects the first spark-producing or heat-producing step but may not be
explosive;
- "firing-means" or "initiator" (used respectively in the arts of weaponry and blasting)
means a device acting directly on the primer, which device may or may not form part of
the fuze;
- "detonator" or "detonator charge" means a charge used to amplify the explosion of the
primer;
- "fuze" means an assembly or mechanism which incorporates safety and arming means in
order that the explosion can only take place under certain conditions; this assembly
or mechanism determines also the moment (instaneous or delayed) or the manner, e.g.
impact, proximity, hydrostatic pressure, of the firing;
- "ammunition" covers propulsive charge and projectile whether or not forming a single
body, unless otherwise made clear;
- "projectile", "missile" or "projectile or missile" means any body which is projected
or propelled;
- "guided missile" means projectile or missile which is guided during at least part of
its trajectory;
- "rocket" means projectile or missile which is self-propelled, during at least part of
its trajectory, by a rocket engine, i.e. by a jet-propulsion engine carrying both
fuel and oxidant therefor;
- "fuse" or "fuse cord" means a continuous train of explosive enclosed in a usually
flexible cord or cable for setting-off an explosive charge in the art of blasting.

EXPLOSIVE CHARGES, e.g. FOR BLASTING, FIREWORKS, AMMUNITION (explosive compositions C06B; fuzes F42C; blasting F42D)
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F42B5/14 covered by F42B 12/40, A01K 11/00
F42B19/10 " " F41G 7/24


AMMUNITION FUZES (blasting cartridge initiators F42B 3/10; chemical aspects C06C); ARMING OR SAFETY MEANS THEREFOR (filling fuzes F42B 33/02; fitting or extracting primers in or from fuzes F42B 33/04; containers for fuzes F42B 39/30)
BLASTING( fuses, e.g. fuse cords, C06C 5/00 ;
{
for obtaining fluid from wells E21B 43/00 ; for mining or quarring E21C 37/00 ; for making tunnels or galleries E21D 9/006
}
; cartridges F42B 3/00 )
WARNING
-
The following IPC groups are not used in the CPC scheme. Subject matter covered by these groups is classified in the following CPC groups:
F42D7/00 covered by F42D 1/00 , F42D 3/00

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Last Modified: 10/10/2013