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PLANING; SLOTTING; SHEARING; BROACHING; SAWING; FILING; SCRAPING; LIKE OPERATIONS FOR WORKING METAL BY REMOVING MATERIAL, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR (making toothed gears or the like B23F; cutting metal by applying heat locally B23K; arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Planing, slotting, shearing, broaching, sawing, filing. scraping like operations for working metal by removing metal not otherwise provided for..

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In general, although displaying sometimes a structure which can appear similar, devices which are suitable for shearing metal sheets or metal plates in the range of gauges used in industry for product manufacture are not suitable for cutting paper, plastics, fabrics etc., mainly because of blades shapes and settings. Devices for cutting paper, plastics or fabrics are mainly classified in B26D and B26F. It is observed that cutting with abrasive disks is seen as sawing, see e.g. B23D 45/00 to B23D 65/04, B27B, B28D.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Surgical saws
Sawing wood or similar material
Sawing wood or similar material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Punching, perforating, making articles by processing sheet metal, tubes or profiles
Grinding
Working rails in situ by planing
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Planing
Also called "shaping" this process relates to the removal of material in the form of chips by a relative movement of at least one tool with a geometrically defined cutting edge relative to a workpiece along a non-circular trajectory. Both the tool and the workpiece are non-rotating. The process is similar to turning (B23B) except that in turning either the tool is moved around the workpiece in a circular path or the workpiece is rotated. In turning the tool path is therefore circular with respect to the workpiece whereas in planing the toolpath is non-helical.
Slotting
The production of a slot by a process similar to planing, i.e. the removal of material in the form of chips by a relative movement of at least one tool with a geometrically defined cutting edge relative to a workpiece along a non-circular trajectory.
Shearing
To fracture material through the application of a load transverse to the material surface(s) on which the load is applied.
Broaching
Method of machining by chip removal employing a multi-toothed cutting tool in which the functional edges of the tool teeth are so related to one another that the tip of one tooth extends further than that of an adjacent tooth from a datum line interior to the tool extending parallel to the path of relative movement between tool and work and in whose operation the teeth successively engage the work, each tooth or set of teeth removing an amount of material determined by its relationship to the adjacent tooth.
Filing
Removal of material in the form of chips by a tool having multiple geometrically defined cutting edges arranged at similar distances from a datum line interior to the tool extending parallel to the path of relative movement between tool and work in order to produce a surface of predetermined form.
Rasping
Filing with a course file with multiple geometrically defined raised teeth usually formed in a sheet of metal by deformation of the sheet
Sawing
The division of a workpiece into two or more parts using a tool with a toothed, grinding or friction edge by removing material in the form of chips, dust or molten material.
Scraping
Removal of material by a tool, generally a hand tool, comprising a geometrically defined cutting edge, used primarily to alter surface characteristics of the workpiece, rather than change the geometry. Examples include deburring by scraping (i.e. removal of sharp corners) and "roughening" of ground machine tool slideways to provide oil pockets.
Like operations
Operations which remove metal through a geometrically defined cutting edge but for which no other provision exists within the entire classification scheme.
Planing or slotting machines cutting by relative movement of the tool and workpiece in a horizontal straight line only
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines and devices for planing or slotting cutting by relative movement of the tool and workpiece in a horizontal straight line only during the machining pass . The tool or workpiece may be fed in a non-linear manner between passes to produce profiled stock.

Planing/shaping machines are generally (but not necessarily) large and typically used to produce elongate products such as rails or machine tool slideways.

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rail planing machine classed in B23D 1/006

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slotting machine classed in B23D 3/02

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Both of the terms "planing" and "slotting" relate to the removal of material in the form of chips by a relative movement of at least one tool with a geometrically defined cutting edge and the workpiece along a non-circular trajectory. Both the tool and the workpiece are non-rotating. The process is similar to turning (B23B) except that in turning either the tool is moved around the workpiece in a circular path or the workpiece is rotated. In turning the tool path is therefore circular with respect to the workpiece whereas in planing or slotting the toolpath is non-helical.

Tools which can be used for both planing/slotting and for turning with distinctive constructional features are classed in B23B according to the functional feature. This is especially true for tool holders with replaceable indexable inserts.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Milling slots
Making gears or the like by planing or slotting
Multi stage processes involving planing/slotting and also other operations classed in B23B, B23C, B23F, making particular items.
Details of machine tools and accessories not related to the operation being performed including: - evacuation of swarf, - guarding & protective coverings - conveying workpiece into and from machine - tool changing- measuring or sensing
Adaptive control and/or computer controls for planing or slotting processes
Planing of wood
Hand planes for wood
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details of turning tools which may also be usable as planing or slotting tools
Details of turning tool holders which may also be usable as planing or slotting tool holders
Machines for milling of window frames which may include slotting tools
Planing or slotting of gear teeth
Planing or slotting tools for making gear teeth
Features of copying devices
Constructional features of machine tools in general
Special rules of classification within this group

The use of planing and slotting machines in metal working is not as widespread as it once was as a result of developments in milling machines and computer controls for milling machines. The field is therefore relatively slow-moving and classification in these groups is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings. The feed movement of B23D1/28 refers to the relative feed movement of the tool and workpiece between the linear cutting passes.

Synonyms and Keywords

In the patent documents the expression/word "planing" is often used with the meaning "shaping"

Planing or slotting machines cutting by relative movement of the tool and workpiece in a vertical or inclined straight line
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Planing or slotting machines cutting by relative movement of the tool and workpiece in a vertical or inclined straight line. The tool or workpiece may be fed in a non-linear manner between passes to produce profiled stock.

Planing or slotting machines cutting otherwise than by relative movement of the tool and workpiece in a straight line
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Planing or slotting machines cutting otherwise than by relative movement of the tool and workpiece in a straight line, i.e. in which the actual cutting stroke is not linear, so that non-prismatic surfaces can be produced..

Planing or slotting machines characterised only by constructional features of particular parts (constructional features of these parts per se B23Q)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Planing or slotting machines characterised only by constructional features of particular parts. If characterising features relate to the pillars or to the cross beam, document should be classed in B23D 7/04, rather than in B23D 7/02, as these terms are more specific than the term “frame” of B23D 7/02.

Hand-operated planing devices; Portable planing apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hand-operated planing devices; Portable planing apparatus

Planing or slotting devices able to be attached to a machine tool, whether or not replacing an operative portion of the machine tool
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Planing or slotting devices able to be attached to a machine tool that is not primarily designed for planing or slotting, whether or not replacing an operative portion of the machine tool

Tools or tool holders specially designed for planing or slotting machines (features applicable also to turning-machines B23B 27/00, B23B 29/00; for cutting gear teeth B23F 21/04)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tools or tool holders specially designed for planing or slotting machines

Shearing machines or shearing devices cutting by blades which move parallel to themselves
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Metal sheets, metal plates and metal bars or rods shearing devices comprising at least one blade which translates or roto-translates, in the latter case the blade being articulated about at least two pivoting links, the cooperating cutting edges of the shearing devices being offset or abutting.

Special rules of classification within this group

Abutting means that the cutting edges pinch the material betweeen them and the blades do not essentially cross.

Shearing machines or shearing devices cutting by blades pivoted on a single axis (on an axis parallel to the blade B23D 15/10; hand-held devices B23D 29/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Metal sheets, metal plates and metal bars or rods shearing devices comprising at least one elongated, possibly curved blade which rotates (completely or partially), or roto-translates, the blade being articulated about a single pivoting link, the cooperating cutting edges of the shearing devices being offset or abutting.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Disc blades
Special rules of classification within this group

Abutting means that the cutting edges pinch the material between them and the blades do not essentially cross.

Shearing machines or shearing devices cutting by rotary discs (by friction saw-discs B23D 45/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shearing machines or shearing devices cutting by rotary discs, the cooperating cutting edges of the shearing devices being offset or abutting.

Special rules of classification within this group

Abutting means that the cutting edges pinch the material between them and the blades do not essentially cross.

Machines or devices for shearing or cutting tubes (by sawing, see the relevant groups for sawing machines or sawing devices; as additional equipment for deep drawing presses B21D 24/16)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for shearing (the cooperating cutting edges of the shearing devices being offset or abutting) or cutting tubes. The term tube is to be intended as a profile showing a continuous, convex, closed section.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cutting profiles
B21D23/00
Cutting by turning
Cutting by milling
Sawing devices with circular blades for cutting tubes
Special rules of classification within this group

Abutting means that the cutting edges pinch the material between them and the blades do not essentially cross.

Machines or devices for shearing or cutting profiled stock (hand-held devices B23D 29/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for shearing (the cooperating cutting edges of the shearing devices being offset or abutting) or cutting metal profiles showing a discontinuous, concave or open section, window coverings, window or door profiles.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cutting tubes
Turning
Milling
Special rules of classification within this group

Abutting means that the cutting edges pinch the material between them and the blades do not essentially cross.

Machines or arrangements for shearing stock while the latter is travelling otherwise than in the direction of the cut (controlling slack in travelling flexible stock B21C 47/10)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines or arrangements for shearing stock while the latter is travelling otherwise than in the direction of the cut, the cooperating cutting edges of the shearing devices being offset or abutting (i.e. flying shears).

Special rules of classification within this group

Abutting means that the cutting edges pinch the material between them and the blades do not essentially cross.

Machines or devices for cutting by a nibbling action
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines or devices comprising at least one punch like tool and adapted to produce a line of cut which is the result of a sequence of overlapping punching operations.

Hand-held metal-shearing or metal-cutting devices (with nibbling action B23D 27/02; hand-operated devices for metal-cutting otherwise than by shearing B26B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices in which the cooperating cutting edges of the shearing devices are offset or abutting.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hand operated shearing devices comprising abutting cutting edges
Special rules of classification within this group

Abutting means that the cutting edges pinch the material between them and the blades do not essentially cross.

Shearing machines or shearing devices covered by none or more than one of the groups B23D 15/00 to B23D 29/00; Combinations of shearing machines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In addition to combinations of similar or different shearing machines as defined in the preceding main groups, breaking machines (e.g. for rails, connecting rods, rings), demolition shears, devices for trimming deep drawn products outside the press.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Disintegrating by knives
Trimming combined with deep-drawing presses
Accessories for shearing machines or shearing devices (feeding stock to machines or removing stock B21D 43/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Feeding, holding, positioning or guiding stock directly into the operating area of the shearing machines or devices, devices for indicating the position of the cut.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indicating the position of the cut
Special rules of classification within this group

The accessories are meant to be part of the shear, a feeder of a general purpose should be classified in B21D 43/00 (see title)

Tools for shearing machines or shearing devices; Holders or chucks for shearing tools
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shapes and sections of the cutting members, means for mounting and adjusting the position of cutting members

Special rules of classification within this group

Shapes can be any shape, sections are profiles of cutting members as viewed across their sections

Control arrangements specially adapted for machines for shearing or similar cutting, or for sawing, stock which the latter is travelling otherwise than in the direction of the cut
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control means for coordinating the action between feeding means and shearing means

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control means for cutting non metallic workpieces
Broaching machines or broaching devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Broaching machines or devices. Broaching is similar to shaping/planing (B23D 1/00-B23D 13/00) except that a tool with multiple teeth is employed. The difference in height between successive teeth on a broaching tool determines the feed, and hence the chip thickness, whereas in shaping or planing the feed is determined by a relative movement between tool and workpiece between each pass.

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Broaching of cylindrical workpieces e.g. crankshafts B23D 37/005

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Horizontal broaching machine B23D 37/04

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Vertical Broaching machine for inner surface B23D 37/10

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Broaching machine with tools on chain B23D 37/18

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Broaching is similar to shaping/planing (B23D 1/00-B23D 13/00) except that a tool with multiple teeth is employed. The difference in height between successive teeth on a broaching tool determines the feed, and hence the chip thickness, whereas in shaping or planing the feed is determined by a relative movement between tool and workpiece between each pass.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Making gears or the like by broaching
Multi stage processes involving broaching and also other operations classed in B23B, B23C, B23F, making particular items.
Details of machine tools and accessories not related to the operation being performed including:
- tool changing
- conveying workpiece into and from machine
- evacuation of swarf,
- guarding & protective coverings
- measuring or sensing
Adaptive control and/or computer controls for broaching processes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Turning of crankshafts or camshafts
Milling of crankshafts
Fixation of cutting inserts in metal-removing tools
Milling of camshafts
Construction of milling tools
Broaching of gears
Broach-milling tools for making gears
Broaching tools for making gears
Manufacture of crankshafts or camshafts
Constructional features of machine tools in general
Special rules of classification within this group

B23D 37/005 for rotary broaching takes precedence over all other subgroups

Classification in this group is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups. The term “horizontally arranged” of B23D 37/02 should be understood a meaning arranged so the teeth or the broach are arranged in a generally horizontal plane and the tool moves horizontally with respect to the workpiece. Similarly the teeth of the broaching tools of B23D 37/08 are arranged in a generally vertical plane and the tool describes a generally vertical motion with respect to the workpiece.

Accessories for broaching machines or broaching devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accessories for broaching machines or broaching devices. Broaching is similar to shaping/planing (B23D 1/00-B23D 13/00) except that a tool with multiple teeth is employed. The difference in height between successive teeth on a broaching tool determines the feed, and hence the chip thickness, whereas in shaping or planing the feed is determined by a relative movement between tool and workpiece between each pass.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in this group is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Broaching machines or broaching devices characterised only by constructional features of particular parts (constructional features of these parts per se B23Q)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Broaching machines or broaching devices characterised only by constructional features of particular parts. Broaching is similar to shaping/planing (B23D 1/00-B23D 13/00) except that a tool with multiple teeth is employed. The difference in height between successive teeth on a broaching tool determines the feed, and hence the chip thickness, whereas in shaping or planing the feed is determined by a relative movement between tool and workpiece between each pass.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in this group is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Broaching tools (for cutting gear teeth B23F 21/26)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Broaching tools. Broaching is similar to shaping/planing (B23D 1/00-B23D 13/00) except that a tool with multiple teeth is employed. The difference in height between successive teeth on a broaching tool determines the feed, and hence the chip thickness, whereas in shaping or planing the feed is determined by a relative movement between tool and workpiece between each pass. Broaching tools are multi-toothed cutting tools in which the geometrically defined functional edges of the tool teeth are so related to one another that the tip of one tooth (or set of teeth) extends further than that of an adjacent tooth (or set of teeth) from a datum line interior to the tool extending parallel to the path of relative movement between the tool and the work and in whose operation the teeth successively engage the work, each tooth or set of teeth removing an amount of material determined by its relationship to the adjacent tooth (or set of teeth). In the case of rotary broaches no relative movement is necessary between the axis of the tool and the work in order to effect cutting.

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linear broach B23D 43/02

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Rotational broach B23D 43/06

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in this group is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Sawing machines or sawing devices with circular saw blades or with friction saw discs (shearing machines with rotary discs B23D 19/00 to B23D 25/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
Relationship between large subject matter areas

B23D is the main entry for sawing. Other large areas covering sawing are B27B (sawing wood or similar material) and B28D 1/02 (sawing stone). Precedence is given to B23D. Features not restricted to a particular type of saw are classified in B23D. However, such features are classified in B27B if a more specific entry exists in B27B, for example:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Safety guards or devices specially designed for saws
Constructional features of particular parts per se
Details or components, e.g. casings, bodies, of portable power-driven saws not particularly related to the operation performed
Shearing machines with rotary discs
Control of machines with circular saw blades for sawing stock while the latter is travelling otherwise than in the direction of the cut
Grinders for cutting-off

Examples of places where the subject matter of these main groups is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Sawing wood or similar material
Sawing stone or stone-like materials
Sawing gems, jewels, crystals with discs or wheels
Sawing gems, jewels, crystals with blades or wires
Accessories specially adapted for use with machines for sawing of gems, jewels, crystals
Accessories specially adapted for use with machines or devices for sawing stone
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Saws specially adapted for pruning or debranching
Sawing apparatus specially adapted for felling trees
Meat or bone saws
Surgical saws
Saws for dentistry
Grinders for cutting-off
Auxiliary devices facilitating proper operation of wood saws
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Feeding work
moving a workpiece into engagement with a saw blade while sawing
Conveying or transporting work
moving a workpiece before, after or between sawing operations
Discharging work
moving a workpiece away from a saw blade after sawing
{for particular purposes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Features of saws which are specific for a particular application, for example, devices for sawing venetian window blinds, railroad rails, pallets.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines for disassembling pallets
Sectioning or slitting rails, e.g. by sawing, shearing, flame-cutting
Devices or accessories for making or mounting lamellar blinds or parts thereof
{with means to attach the sawing device to the workpiece}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sectioning or slitting rails, e.g. by sawing, shearing, flame-cutting
{Radial sawing machines}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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(US2003/017288 A1)

{the saw carriage being mounted on a pivoted lever}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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(EP 1 772 221 A1)

Sawing machines or sawing devices working with circular saw blades, characterised only by constructional features of particular parts (constructional features of these parts per se B23Q; details or components, e.g. casings, bodies, of portable power-driven tools not particularly related to the operation performed B25F 5/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of particular parts per se
Circular saw blades, clamping devices therefor
Details or components, e.g. casings, bodies, of portable power-driven saws not particularly related to the operation performed
Mounting or securing circular saw blades or saw spindles
Devices for braking the circular saw blade or the saw spindle
Arrangements for adjusting the cutting depth or the amount of tilting of portable power-driven circular saws for manual operation
Guiding equipment for portable power-driven circular saws for manual operation
Guide fences
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Details; component parts; accessories for circular wood saws
Devices for damping vibrations of the circular saw blade, e.g. silencing
Machines or devices for sawing with straight reciprocating saw blades, e.g. hacksaws
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hacksaws with bows adjustable in length or height
{with wire-type frames}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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(US 1 413 182)

Pad saws { (B23D 49/105,B23D 49/11,B23D 49/16 take precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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(US 2 606 584)

{Pad sawing devices}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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(DE 10 2008 003 739 A1)

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(US 2010/0162579 A1)

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(EP 1 884 304 A1)

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(EP 1 325 790 A2)

{with means to move the saw blades in an orbital path}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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US 6 662 455 B2

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US 7 350 302 B2

{with means to adjust the guide plate or with means to adjust the plane in which the saw blade moves}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

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the saw blade being rotatable around its longitudinal axis during sawing for sawing along a curved path (DE 10 2008 001 762 A1)

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the saw being angularly adjustable relative to its foot plate

(DE 10 2007 034 529 A1)

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the saw blade being mountable in different planes (EP 2 368 659 A1)

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the saw blade being adjustable in different planes (US 2010/0154231 A1 and EP 1 884 304 A1)

Sawing machines or sawing devices working with straight blades, characterised only by constructional features of particular parts (constructional features of these parts per se B23Q; details or components, e.g. casings, bodies, of portable power-driven tools not particularly related to the operation performed B25F 5/00) ; Carrying or attaching means for tools, covered by this subclass, which are connected to a carrier at both ends
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of particular parts per se
Details or components, e.g. casings, bodies, of portable power-driven saws not particularly related to the operation performed
Straight saw blades
Guide fences
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for stretching the saw blade of hand saws without power drive for sawing wood
Machines or devices for sawing with strap saw-blades which are effectively endless in use, e.g. for contour cutting
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Band or strap sawing machines specially designed for length cutting of trunks with a plurality of band saw blades
Sawing machines or sawing devices working with strap saw blades, characterised only by constructional features of particular parts (constructional features of these parts per se B23Q)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of a shiftable or swinging work-table
Strap saw blades, for example with incorporated tensioning devices
Constructional features of particular parts per se
Guide fences
Sawing machines or sawing devices not covered by one of the preceding groups B23D 45/00 to B23D 55/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example: wire saws, chain saws, saws for sawing under water or at places accessible with difficulty.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Constructional features of particular parts per se
Saw wires
Saw chains
Details of chain saws, equipment for chain saws
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Grinders for cutting-off using a cutting wire
Accessories specially designed for sawing machines or sawing devices (lubricating or cooling machine tools in general B23Q 11/12)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices for removing chips for machine tools in general
Lubricating or cooling machine tools in general
Mounting for swivelling or tilting a circular saw blade
Arrangements for adjusting the cutting depth or the amount of tilting of portable power-driven circular saws for manual operation
Guide fences
Measuring in general
Controlling in general
Tools for sawing machines or sawing devices (tools for trepanning B23B 51/04) ; Clamping devices for these tools
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tools for trepanning
Devices for mounting straight saw blades or other tools
Cut-off wheels of bonded abrasive or with inserted abrasive blocks
Saw chains
Mounting or securing circular saw blades or saw spindles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Grinders for cutting-off using a cutting wire
Dressing the tools of sawing machines or sawing devices for use in cutting any kind of material, e.g. in the manufacture of sawing tools
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sharpening the cutting edges or saw teeth of mortise chain cutters
Heat treatment for saw blades
Making tools for sawing machines or sawing devices for use in cutting any kind of material
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Heat treatment for saw blades
Filing or rasping machines of devices (securing arrangements for files or rasps B23D 71/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filing or rasping machines or devices; Filing entails the removal of material in the form of chips by a tool having multiple geometrically defined cutting edges arranged at similar distances from a datum line interior to the tool extending parallel to the path of relative movement between tool and work in order to produce a surface of predetermined form. Rasping is a type of filing using a course file with multiple geometrically defined raised teeth usually formed in a sheet of metal by deformation of the sheet.

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Filing machine with reciprocating tool B23D 67/02 or B23D 67/04

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Rasping machine with rotary tool for rubber like materials (tyres)

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Hand held rasping machine B23D 67/12

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Filing or rasping is similar in nature to grinding, which is classified in B24B and B24D. The principal difference between grinding and rasping or filing is that in grinding material is removed by a tool having cutting edges of undefined angles. Grinding tools usually consist of abrasive particles embedded in a fixing medium. In filing or rasping the approach and rake angles of the cutting edges are usually known and determined by the configuration of the tool. Files generally have rows or fine teeth arranged in a pattern and are used for relatively precise work. Rasps are in general designed for coarser (rougher) work and may (but may not) have randomly arranged cutting edges.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sharpening saw teeth by filing
Sharpening files by etching
Methods or machines for the manufacture of files or rasps that use non-mechanical methods
subclass according to non-mechanical method
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Farriers' tools including files for horses' hooves
Personal grooming including nail files
Bone rasps and other tools for surgery
Veterinary instruments for animals' teeth including files
Constructional features of machine tools in general
Grinding machines and methods
Abrasive Blasting including sandblasting
Grinding tools
Chisels for metal
Handles for hand implements
Rasps for wood
Recovery of plastics from other materials including rasping of tyres
Retreading tyres
B29B30/54
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in ECLA group B23D 67/00 is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Filing or rasping machines or devices. characterised only by constructional features of particular parts, e.g. guiding arrangements, drives (constructional features of these parts per se B23Q) ; Accessories for filing or rasping (attached to the tool B23D 71/10)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filing or rasping machines or devices. characterised only by constructional features of particular parts, e.g. guiding arrangements, drives

Accessories for filing or rasping.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in ECLA group B23D 69/00 is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Filing or rasping tools; Securing arrangements therefor (tool holders for machine tools B23Q 3/00; handles for hand implements B25G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Filing or rasping tools and securing arrangements for filing and rasping tools. Filing tools generally have multiple geometrically defined cutting edges arranged at similar distances from a datum line interior to the tool extending parallel to the path of relative movement between tool and work in order to produce a surface of predetermined form by chip removal. A rasp is a type of course file with multiple geometrically defined raised teeth usually formed in a sheet of metal by deformation of the sheet.

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Rotary filling tool B23D 71/005

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Rasping machine with rotary tool for rubber like materials (tyres)

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Hand file B23D 71/04

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Hand rasp with single interchangeable blade B23D 71/06

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in ECLA group B23D 71/00 is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Making files or rasps
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Making files or rasps.

Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in ECLA group B23D 73/00 is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Reaming machines or reaming devices (tool holders for machine tools B23Q 3/00; handles for hand implements B25G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines specifically designed for reaming. Reaming involves enlarging the size of a previously formed hole by a small amount but with a high degree of accuracy to leave smooth sides through the removal of chips using a tool rotating relatively to a workpiece about the axis of the hole to be produced and moving along this axis relatively to the workpiece. It is to be noted that most reaming is carried out on machines also designed for drilling and tapping, which machines are not classed in B23D75/00, as they are not specifically designed for reaming.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A reaming tool usually includes a short inclined major cutting edge and a longer calibrating auxiliary edge. A reaming tool is also used such that its axis is generally coincident with the axis of the bore being reamed and the feed movement is generally along this axis. Some fine boring heads (B23B 29/03, B23B 29/034) also exhibit these properties. Conversely milling tools (B23C 5/00) generally have longer major cutting edges, shorter auxiliary cutting edges and the feed motion between tool and workpiece is transverse to the axis of rotation of the tool, except in plunge milling.

Many of the adjustment mechanisms for cutting inserts within a milling tool (B23C 5/24) would also be applicable to reaming tools.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

This groups does not cover:

Boring heads
Chucks suitable for reaming and other tools
Milling tools
Honing devices or tools
Handles for hand implements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adjustment of cutting insert in turning tool holder
Boring heads with tools adjustable radially before commencing machining
Chucks for holding tools
Drilling tools
Drilling tools with provision for cooling
Milling cutters with shafts
Milling cutters with provision for cooling
Milling cutters having adjustable bits or teeth
Constructional details of machine tools in general not particularly related to the operation being performed
Provision of cooling within machine tools
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in ECLA group B23D 75/00 is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Reaming tools
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reaming tools. Reaming involves enlarging the size of a previously formed hole by a small amount but with a high degree of accuracy to leave smooth sides through the removal of chips using a tool rotating relatively to a workpiece about the axis of the hole to be produced and moving along this axis relatively to the workpiece. A reaming tool usually (but not necessarily) includes a short inclined primary cutting edge and a longer calibrating auxiliary edge.

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Reamer. Nomenclature of reamer shown B23D 77/00

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Reamer with unequal distribution of flutes to prevent chatter (vibration) B23D 77/003

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securing arrangement for insert in reamer B23D 77/025

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Adjustment of diameter by oblique planes (15,22) B23D 77/042

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Adjustment of diameter by screws B23D 77/044

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adjustment of diameter by radial cams B23D 77/046

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Adjustment of diameter by conical screws B23D 77/048

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Expandable reamer with slots B23D 77/08

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Expandable reamer without slots B23D 77/10

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Tapered reamer B23D 77/12

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A reaming tool usually includes a short inclined major cutting edge and a longer calibrating auxiliary edge. A reaming tool is also used such that its axis is generally coincident with the axis of the bore being reamed and the feed movement is generally along this axis. Some fine boring heads (B23B 29/03, B23B 29/034) also exhibit these properties though usually boring heads do not have a calibrating auxiliary cutting edge. Conversely milling tools (B23C 5/00) generally have longer major cutting edges, shorter auxiliary cutting edges and the feed motion between tool and workpiece is transverse to the axis of rotation of the tool, except in plunge milling.

Many of the adjustment mechanisms for cutting inserts within a milling tool (B23C 5/24) would also be applicable to reaming tools.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Boring heads
Chucks suitable for reaming and other tools
Milling tools
Honing devices or tools
Handles for hand implements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adjustment of cutting insert in turning tool holder
Boring heads with tools adjustable radially before commencing machining
Chucks for holding tools
Drilling tools
Drilling tools with provision for cooling
Milling cutters with shafts
Milling cutters with provision for cooling
Milling cutters having adjustable bits or teeth
Constructional details of machine tools in general not particularly related to the operation being performed
Provision of cooling within machine tools
Special rules of classification within this group

For B23D 77/00 and subgroups a 2000-series Indexing Code system is present (L23D2277/00). Indexing Codes this series should be allocated at every opportunity. When classifying reaming tools particular attention should be paid to the Indexing Codes. Indexing Codes should also be added routinely to give details of the workpiece or tool configuration, when this is not implicit in the ECLA system.

For example a document showing a particular reaming tool having a particular configuration of adjustment mechanism for the cutting blade and showing explicit provision for coolant may be given a class in the ECLA only for the details of the adjustment mechanism as this forms the subject of the invention. Such a document should also be allocated Indexing Codes relating to the provision of coolant and/or further details of the reaming tool itself to allow easy retrieval.

The 200-series Indexing Codes relating to the material of tool or workpiece should also be routinely allocated where available. However in this instance, where a material is generally used for a particular part (e.g. tungsten carbide for an cutting insert or blade, steel for a reaming cutter body), the Indexing Code for the material concerned should only be allocated if further details of the material itself are present in the document.

Classification in ECLA groups B23D 75/00 to B23D 77/14 is simply according to a literal interpretation of the group and subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Methods, machines, or devices not covered elsewhere, for working metal by removal of material (by combined operations B23D 81/00; cutting by electron-beam B23K 15/00, by laser beam B23K 26/00; by electro-erosion B23H; tool holders for machine tools B23Q 3/00; handles for hand implements B25G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods, machines, or devices not covered elsewhere, for working metal by removal of material.

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Thermal deburring of workpiece (2) in a chamber (14) by igniting a mixture of gas (from supply 19) and oxygen (from supply 23) using a spark providing device (16). This type of device is commonly used to deburr inaccessible intersections of drilling within workpieces. B23D 79/005

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Scraping (deburring) device to remove dross from

end of cut metal workpiece B23D 79/02

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Hand scraping device for deburring and/or cleaning B23D 79/02

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Removal of internal bead from pipe by scraping B23D 79/023

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Removal of internal pipe bead with additional

equipment (hot gas31) B23D 79/025

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Scraping device with rotating cutting tool B23D 79/04

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Scraping devices with reciprocating tool B23D 79/06

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Hand scraping device for deburring B23D 79/08

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Bar peeling device not working by turning B23D 79/12

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This groups is only used when the removal of metal cannot be classed in a more suitable field elsewhere in ECLA.

Attention is also drawn to the notes for B23, which define the term "metal" as including other materials unless the context determines otherwise. In this group the inclusion of the word "metal" indicates that this group should not be used for the removal of materials other than metal.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cleaning using scrapers
Removal of material by turning, boring, drilling; in particular:Deburring by use of a drilling tool
Chucks suitable to hold scraping and other tools
Removal of material by milling; in particular: Deburring by milling
Removal of material by planing (shaping), slotting, shearing, broaching, sawing, filing, rasping or reaming
Removal of material by combined operations all classed within B23D
Removal of material by combined operations not all classed within B23D
B23P 13/00B23P23/23
Cutting using flames (e.g. oxy-acetylene)
Cutting (including deburring) using an arc
Cutting (including deburring) using Plasma
Cutting (including deburring) by electron-beam
Cutting (including deburring) by laser beam
Cutting (including deburring) by electro-erosion (EDM) or electro-chemical machining (ECM)
Constructional details of machine tools not particularly related to the operation being performed
Work holding devices for machine tools
Removal of material by grinding; in particular:Deburring or cleaning by grinding
Cutting using liquid jets containing abrasiveDeburring using liquid jets using liquid without abrasive particles
Handles suitable for hand scraping implements
Severing using a liquid jet, not containing abrasive particles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines or devices for chamfering the ends of bars or tubes
Auxiliary devices for flash removal after welding
Special rules of classification within this group

Classification in ECLA group B23D 79/00 is simply according to a literal interpretation of the subgroup headings, taking into account the notes concerning precedence and the references contained within the subgroups.

Methods, machines, or devices for working metal, covered by more than one main group in this subclass (in combination with other metal-working operations B23P 13/00, B23D 23/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods, machines, or devices for working metal, covered by more than one main group in B23D 1/00 to B23D 79/12.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Making metal objects by operations essentially involving machining but not covered by a single other subclass
Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass
Machines or arrangements of machines for performing specified combinations of different metal-working operations not covered by a single other subclass
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013