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TOOLS FOR GRINDING, BUFFING, OR SHARPENING (tools for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape B24B 13/01; grinding heads B24B 41/00; manufacture of abrasive or friction articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances C08J5/14; polishing compositions C09G 1/00; abrasives C09K 3/14)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Grinding, polishing or sharpening tools for working on any material. It covers in particular;
  • physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature or physical properties enhanced by additives, and abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their abrasive constituents, e.g. used as bonding agent;
  • bonded abrasive wheels, or wheels with inserted abrasive blocks, as well as bushings or mountings therefor
  • wheels having flexibly-acting working parts, e.g. buffing wheels, as well as mountings therefor;
  • constructional features of flexible abrasive materials and special features in the manufacture of such materials, as well as wheels or drums supporting in exchangeable arrangement a layer of such flexible abrasive material, e.g. sandpaper;
  • hand tools or other devices for non-rotary grinding, polishing, or stropping;
  • the manufacture of grinding tools, e.g. wheels, not otherwise provided for.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Subclass B24B covers predominantly the machines or devices for grinding, polishing or sharpening using tools covered by B24D, including the headstocks holding the tools. B24B covers as well the tools specially designed for the particular grinding or polishing operations of tumbling, honing or lapping. It further provides places for the tools specially adapted for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses as a particular kind of work.

Complementary to B24D 3/00, C09K 3/14 covers abrasive materials eligible as constituents of abrasive bodies or sheets and C09G 1/02 covers polishing compositions containing abrasives or grinding agents.

The manufacture of abrasive articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular substances, e.g. as bonding agent, is covered by C08J5/14.

The main group B24D 18/00 covers the manufacture of grinding tools, e.g. wheels, except for the manufacture of flexible abrasive materials, which is covered by B24D 11/001.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Abrading-bodies specially designed for tumbling apparatus, e.g. abrading-balls
Honing tools
Lapping tools

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Grinding discs or grinding worms specially adapted for use in machines for manufacturing gear teeth
Tools specially designed, e.g. bowl-like, for grinding or polishing optical surfaces on lenses or surfaces of similar shape on other work
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Headstocks as component parts of grinding machines or devices, especially grinding heads
Manufacture of abrasive articles or shaped materials containing macromolecular (polymeric) substances
C08J5/14
Polishing compositions containing abrasives or grinding agents
Abrasives
Friction linings; Attachment thereof; Selection of co-acting friction substances or surfaces
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Grinding
means machining by fixed abrasive particles in its most general sense and covers "corrective" operations, such as correction of dimension, e.g. diameter, or shape, e.g. roundness. It is characterised by a comparatively high material removal rate.
Polishing
means mechanically finishing the surface of a work so as to improve, e.g. smoothen, its surface, without substantial change of dimension or shape of the work as would occur in grinding.
Abrading
is used in its most general sense to mean mechanically removing material by a multitude of fixed or loose particles that are forced into the surface of the work so that each particle cuts away small chips of material.
Cutting
is used in the sense that an abrasive grain functions as a microscopic single-point cutting edge and shears a chip, analogous to what is conventionally called a "cut" chip.

Comments

It is noted that the above terms overlap in material removal rate and surface roughness such that a clear distinction by these parameters is not possible.

In connection with glass the terms "grinding" and "polishing" are treated as being equivalent.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words " buffing" and "polishing" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words " stropping" and "sharpening " are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "dressing" and "conditioning" are often used as synonyms.

Physical features of abrasive bodies, or sheets, e.g. abrasive surfaces of special nature; Abrasive bodies or sheets characterised by their constituents (composition of friction linings F16D 69/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Physical and chemical properties of abrasive bodies, or sheets, including also their supporting structures.

This group is subdivided in inorganic (e.g. metallic, concrete, ceramic...) and organic constituents (e.g. rubber, resin...) with close-grained or porous structure. The constituent may be used as supporting member, for pre- and after-treatment, or as bonding agent. This group covers also additives, which are used for enhancing special physical properties, e.g. wear resistance, electric conductivity, or self cleaning properties.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compositions of friction linings
[N: utilised as impregnating agent for porous abrasive bodies (after-treatments in general B24D 3/005)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
After-treatments in general
Bonded abrasive wheels, or wheels with inserted abrasive blocks, designed for acting only by their periphery; Bushings or mountings therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bonded abrasive wheels, or wheels with inserted abrasive blocks, where the grinding action is performed only by the periphery of the wheel. wheels in one piece, wheels with inserted blocks, cut-off wheels and zonally-graded wheels comprising different abrasives.

The abrasive wheels may have integrated cooling provisions. The bushings or mountings of the grinding wheels, as well as balancing means are also covered by this group.

with inserted abrasive blocks, e.g. segmental (zonally graded B24D 5/14)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bonded abrasive wheels which are zonally-graded
with cooling provisions, e.g. with radial slots
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling equipment not incorporated in grinding wheels, including devices for feeding coolant
[N: Balancing means]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Balancing means not incorporated in the bushings or wheels, but provided as distinct balancing mechanisms
Bonded abrasive wheels, or wheels with inserted abrasive blocks, designed for acting otherwise than only by their periphery, e.g. by the front face; Bushings or mountings therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bonded abrasive wheels, or wheels with inserted abrasive blocks, where the grinding action is performed otherwise than only by the periphery of the wheel, e.g. by the front face. Wheels in one piece, wheels with inserted blocks, and zonally-graded wheels comprising different abrasives.

The abrasive wheels may have integrated cooling provisions or apertures for inspecting the surface to be abraded. The bushings or mountings of the grinding wheels are also covered by this group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Saw cylinders having their cutting rim equipped with abrasive particles for working stone or glass
with inserted abrasive blocks, e.g. segmental (zonally-graded B24D 7/14)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bonded abrasive wheels which are zonally-graded
with cooling provisions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling equipment not incorporated in grinding wheels, including devices for feeding coolant
Wheels or drums supporting in exchangeable arrangement a layer of flexible abrasive material, e.g. sandpaper (wheels or drums as machine elements F16)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels or drums supporting a layer of flexible abrasive material in an exchangeable arrangement. The supporting drums may be expansible or rigid for carrying the flexible material in tubular form.

This group covers also tools having rolled strips of flexible abrasive material, as well as circular back-plates for carrying flexible material, including suction means for securing the material.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wheels having flexibly-acting working parts, e.g. buffing wheels
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wheels or drums as machine elements not intended to be used in connection with abrasive materials
Constructional features of flexible abrasive materials; Special features in the manufacture of such materials
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Constructional features of flexible abrasive materials, as well as their fabrication. This includes backings, e.g. foils, webs mesh fabrics, as well as the finishing of manufactured abrasive webs, for example by cutting or deforming. This group covers also the connection of the ends of abrasive materials, e.g. for making abrasive belts.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacture of grinding tools or other grinding devices, e.g. wheels, not otherwise provided for
Wheels having flexibly-acting working parts, e.g. buffing wheels; Mountings therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wheels having flexible working parts acting by their periphery, as well as by their front face. Flexible working parts may be flaps, strips, brushes and felted or spongy material, including also steel wool or foamed latex. This group covers also cooling provisions used in connexion with the wheels, as well as their mountings.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wheels having the flexible abrasive material in an exchangeable arrangement
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines, devices or processes for polishing or finishing surfaces on work by means of tools made of soft or flexible material, with or without the application of solid or liquid polishing agents, e.g. using buffing wheels.
[N: comprising assemblies of felted or spongy material; comprising pads surrounded by a flexible material]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Lapping pads for working plane surfaces, e.g. for wafer polishing
with cooling provisions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling equipment not incorporated in grinding wheels, including devices for feeding coolant
Hand tools or other devices for non-rotary grinding, polishing, or stropping
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hand tools or other devices for non-rotary grinding, polishing or stropping, having rigidly- or resiliently-supported operative surfaces. The hand tools may have a grip or holder to move the tool with respect to the workpiece, or the workpiece to be treated is moved by hand with respect to the tool or other manual devices. This group covers also hand tools specially designed for sharpening cutting edges, such as e.g. shaving blades, scissors, knives, skate blades or ski edges.

specially designed for sharpening cutting edges
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Motor, hand or foot driven machines
[N: for sharpening ski edges, i.e. sharp edges defined by two surfaces intersecting at an angle of substantially 90°]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machines for grinding, polishing or stropping specially designed for sharpening ski edges
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Edge-sharpeners for treating skis
Hand-held or hand-operated filing or rasping devices
Manufacture of grinding tools [N: or other grinding devices], e.g. wheels, not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Manufacture of grinding tools or other grinding devices, using different methods, such as e.g. moulds or presses, ectrolytic deposition, impregnation, impressing abrasive powder in a matrix, extrusion, application of glue or others.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Manufacture of flexible abrasive materials
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Texturing by laser
Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass [N: (B28D 1/124 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any other subject-matter related to this subclass, but not provided for in other groups of this subclass.

References relevant to classification in this group:
This subclass/group does not cover:
Saw chains; rod like saw blades; saw cables
[N: Segments of abrasive wheels]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Abrasive segments for abrasive wheels which are fixed e.g. in form of a single segment on a support member, or in form of a plurality of segments on a support member, as e.g. on a rim, plane surface or spherical surface. This group covers also cutting elements, such as shear cutter type cutting elements used in rock bits or other cutting tools, typically having a body (substrate) and an ultra hard material, where the ultra hard material forms the cutting surface.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013