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SHAPING CLAY OR OTHER CERAMIC COMPOSITIONS, SLAG, OR MIXTURES CONTAINING CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL, e.g. PLASTER (foundry moulding B22C; working stone or stone-like material B28D; shaping of substances in a plastic state, in general B29C; making layered products not composed wholly of these substances B32B; shaping in situ, see the relevant classes of section E)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The methods and apparatus covered manufacture the shaped article at a location remote from it's intended use, i.e. a pre-fabricated article.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
The material
(a) clay or other ceramic compositions (b) slag (c) mixtures with water-setting properties given by clay, cementitious material, or slag.
Producing shaped [N: prefabricated] articles from the material (using presses B28B 3/00; shaping on moving conveyers B28B 5/00; producing tubular articles B28B 21/00; [N: producing articles with embedded elements B28B 23/00 ])
[N: assembled from preformed elements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Assembled from preformed parts
By building-up from preformed elements
To tiles, bricks or the like
Special rules of classification within this group

"The material" used to hold the assembled preformed elements together is as defined in the subclass.

[N: Devices for shaping artificial aggregates from ceramic mixtures or from mixtures containing hydraulic binder (from slag C04B 5/00; composition of artificial aggregates C04B 18/02)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Devices or processes for obtaining articles having a marble appearance (producing decorative effects B44C; design of stone surfaces, e.g. marble, B44F 9/04)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Special rules of classification within this group

Characteristic features concerning the feeding of the material should be classified in B28B 13/02.

[N: by freezing the material]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering
B freeze-casting or in a supercritical fluid
Forming processes; Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
[N: made from two or more materials having different characteristics or properties (casting for producing layered articles B28B 1/16; feeding several succesive layers, optionally of different materials B28B 13/022; coating B28B 11/04; applying material to surfaces to form a permanent layer thereon B28B 19/00)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Making a base body (11) in a conventional manner with at least one external dimension (12), smaller than a corresponding desired dimension (13), applying a compensating coating (14) to the base body or its top.

by turning or jiggering [N: in moulds or moulding surfaces on rotatable supports]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Potter's wheel and handtools associated with such a device.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or machines specially adapted for the production of tubular articles
by tamping or ramming (followed by pressing B28B 3/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tamping or ramming the material or the mould elements to produce tunular articles
[N: combined with vibrating or jolting]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by vibrating or jolting [N: (of moulding sand B22C 15/10; of concrete in general E04G 21/063)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Operating with systems involving rotary unbalanced masses

Places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Vibrating for the prodcution of tubular articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Of concrete in general
[N: Vibration-absorbing means]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: combined with a vacuum, e.g. for moisture extraction (in general E04G 21/061)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
By vibrating the composition before or during moulding
For humidifying or dehumidifying
For moisture extraction in general
[N: the vibrating moulds or cores being moved horizontally for making strands of moulded articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Slipform casting process having an extruder screw.

Slipformer technique:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus designed for railless operation
The pipes being made in situ
Special rules of classification within this group

Slipform casting process having an extruder screw also to be classified in B28B 3/224 "self-propelled screw extruders" TBC.

by means acting on the mould; [N: Fixation thereof to the mould]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the mould being placed on vibrating or jolting supports, e.g. moulding tables]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by means directly acting on the material, e.g. by cores wholly or partly immersed in the material [N: or elements acting on the upper surface of the material] ([N: B28B 1/084 takes precedence;] internal vibrators for compacting concrete in situ E04G 21/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
The vibrating moulds or cores being moved horizontally for making strands of moulded articles
Adapted to impart a smooth finish to the paving, e.g. tamping or vibrating finishers
Making use of vibrating or jolting tools acting upon the surface of the concrete, whether or not provided with parts penetrating the concrete
Special rules of classification within this group

By cores wholly or partly immersed in the material is to be classified in B28B 1/0935.

[N: using only elements wholly or partly immersed in the material, e.g. cores]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

and applying pressure otherwise than by the use of presses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wherein a ram exerts pressure on the material in a moulding space; combined with vibrating or jolting
[N: this load also being actively vibrated or jolted]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by simple casting, the material being neither forcibly fed nor positively compacted (for molten material B28B 1/54)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example fo subject matter classified in this group:

for producing layered articles (coating B28B 11/04)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Special rules of classification within this group
Layered products essentially comprising a water-setting substance, e.g. concrete, plaster, asbestos cement, or like builders' material
by centrifugal or rotational casting (slip-casting involving rotation of the mould B28B 1/28; for molten material B28B 1/54)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder by centrifugal forces
Shaping glass by centrifuging
Special rules of classification within this group
  • B28B 21/00 centrifugal or rotational casting with methods or machines specially adapted for the production of tubular articles
  • B28B 23/20 centrifugal or rotational casting wherein the elements are reinforcing members
by injection moulding [N: (injection moulding of ceramic slips B28B 1/265; of tubular articles B28B 21/38)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder by injection moulding
by slip-casting, i.e. by casting a suspension or dispersion of the material in a liquid-absorbent or porous mould, the liquid being allowed to soak into or pass through the walls of the mould; Moulds therefor (B28B 1/52 takes precedence); [N: specially for manufacturing articles starting from a ceramic slip; Moulds therefor (of tubular articles B28B 21/08)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Slip casting of tubular articles
Specially adapted for producing articles from mixtures containing fibres
Special rules of classification within this group

For chemical aspects see: C04B 33/28 slipcasting of clay-wares.

For manufacturing of workpieces or articles from metallic powder see: B22F 3/22 for producing castings from a slip.

[N: Moulds therefor (absorbent moulds in general B28B 7/344)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest:

Absorbent moulds in general
[N: Means for counteracting the pressure being applied on the slip or on the moulded article in the mould, e.g. means for clamping the moulds parts together in a frame-like structure (fastening means, clamping means for mould parts in general B28B7/00B5)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fastening means, clamping means for mould parts in general
B28B7/00B5
[N: by dipping moulding surfaces in the slip (in general B28B 1/38)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dipping moulding surfaces in the slip in general
by profiling or strickling the material in open moulds or on moulding surfaces [N: (in rotary moulds B28B 1/02; by means of profiled rollers B28B 3/12, B28B 3/123)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Special rules of classification within this group

Profiling or strickling in situ: E01C 19/00 machines, tools or auxiliary devices for preparing or distributing paving materials.

by projecting, e.g. spraying (spraying in general B05B, D)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Producing tubular articles by projecting, e.g. spraying
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spraying in general
by centrifugal force [N: (centrifugally acting implements for applying plaster or the like to walls E04F 21/10)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Producing tubular articles by centrifugal moulding
by dipping (in general B05C, D; [N: shaping from synthetic resin B29C 41/14])
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Producing tubular articles by dipping
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
By dipping in general
by wrapping, e.g. winding
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Producing tubular articles by wrapping, e.g. winding
by forcing cores into filled moulds for forming hollow articles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Removing the material from the filled mould
Special rules of classification within this group

The cores being forced into the filled moulds displace the material inside the filled moulds.

by removing material from solid section preforms for forming hollow articles, e.g. by punching or boring
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

specially adapted for producing articles of expanded material, e.g. cellular concrete (chemical aspects [N: or making expanded aggregate] C04B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Special rules of classification within this group

Mixers for producing cellular concrete:

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

ALC
Autoclaved lightweight concrete
PC
Porous concrete

In the patent documents the following expressions/words are often used as synonyms:

  • "porous concrete",
  • "(autoclaved) lightweight concrete",
  • "cellular concrete",
  • "foam(ed) concrete" and
  • "aerated concrete".
[N: by delivering the materials on a conveyer of the endless-belt type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: by delivering the materials on a rotating drum, e.g. a sieve drum, from which the materials are picked up by a felt]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

specially adapted for producing articles from molten material, e.g. slag [N: refractory ceramic materials] (chemical aspects C04B; [N: from molten bituminous material B29C])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. sulfur/sulphur concrete

Producing shaped articles from the material by using presses (shaping on moving conveyers B28B 5/00); Presses specially adapted therefor (presses in general B30B)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Drive systems for presses
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacture of workpieces or articles from metallic powder characterised by the manner of compacting or sintering
Extrusion moulding of plastics
Aspects related to presses in general
[N: Pressing by means acting upon the material via flexible mould wall parts, e.g. by means of inflatable cores, isostatic presses (isostatic presses in general B30B 5/02)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Flexible or resilient parts on a press ram, i.e. foamed or rubber parts.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Attention is drawn to the following places, which mey be of interest for search:

Isostatic presses in general
Special rules of classification within this group

The flexible mould wall parts change shape due to an externally generated pressure (air, oil etc.) other than the reaction force caused by the pressing of a ram head.

wherein a ram exerts pressure on the material in a moulding space; Ram heads of special form
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Using a ram exerting pressure on the material in a moulding space
[N: Ram heads of special form]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: combined with vibrating or jolting]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vibrating or jolting by means acting on the mould, i.e. vibrating tables
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Using a ram exerting pressure on the material in a moulding space, whereby the material is subjected to vibrations
[N: the pressure on the material being transmitted through flexible or resilient wall parts, e.g. flexible cushions on the ramming surface, resilient wall parts pressing as a result of deformation caused by ram pressure]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Hot pressing, e.g. of ceramic materials]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Simultaneously compacting and sintering of workpieces or articles from metallic powder
Pressure sintering
[N: using a bottom press ram actuated upwardly towards mould covers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

with two or more ram and mould sets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

with two or more rams per mould
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wherein the ram heads work in opposite directions:

[N: The juxtaposed rams working in the same direction]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: The rams working in different directions]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

each charge of material being compressed against previously formed body
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

wherein one or more rollers exert pressure on the material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

[N: on material in moulds or on moulding surfaces moving continuously underneath or between the rollers, e.g. on an endless belt]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: on material passing directly between the co-operating rollers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

with co-operating pocketed rollers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

with co-operating profiled rollers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Roller-and-ring machines, i.e. with roller disposed within a ring and co-operating with the inner surface of the ring
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

wherein the material is extruded [N: (extrusion moulding of plastics B29C 47/00)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Producing tubular articles by extruding
[N: for multi-channelled structures, e.g. honeycomb structures]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Extrusion dies for hollow (clay) bricks
by screw or worm
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Screw or worm constructions]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by reciprocating plunger
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Extrusion dies
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Extrusion dies for multi-channelled structures
B28B3/20B
[N: using lubricating means]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: using means for making hollow objects with transverse walls, e.g. hollow objects closed on all sides]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: using means for co-extruding different materials]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

[N: using means for inserting reinforcing members]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Producing shaped articles from the material in moulds or on moulding surfaces, carried or formed by, in, or on coveyers irrespective of the manner of shaping (shaping aspects see the relevant groups)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The moulds or moulding surfaces are transported along several station of activity, for example, first a mould is transported to a cleaning station followed by a casting station and finally by a demoulding station.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machines or methods for applying the material to surfaces to form a permanent layer thereon, to webs, sheets or the like
on conveyers of the endless-belt or chain type (in combination with pressing rollers B28B 3/12)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the shaped articles being of definite length]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the moulds or the moulding surfaces being individual independant units and being discontinuously fed (feeding B28B 13/0215 and sub-groups)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the moulds or the moulding surfaces being divided by separating walls and being continuously fed (feeding B28B 13/02)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the shaped articles being of indefinite length]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the moulding surfaces being of the indefinite length type, e.g. belts, and being continuously fed (feeding B28B 13/02)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the moulding surfaces being of definite length, e.g. succession of moving pallets, and being continuously fed (feeding B28B 13/02)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

in moulds moved in succession past one or more shaping stations (on turn-tables B28B 5/06)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

in moulds on a turn-table
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

intermittently rotated
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

in moulds carried on the circumference of a rotating drum
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

intermittently rotated
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds; Cores; Mandrels (specially adapted for the production of the tubular articles B28B 21/00; [N: for casting metals B22C 9/00; moulds for plastic materials in general B29C 33/00; falsework, forms or shutterings for forming buildings or parts thereof in situ E04G 9/00 to E04G 15/00])
Relationship between large subject matter areas

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Moulds or cores for casting metal
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Falsework, forms or shuttering for forming buildings or parts thereof in situ
Moulds for plastic materials in general
[N: Moulding tables or similar mainly horizontal moulding surfaces]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the sidewalls of mould and moulded article moving only past each other, e.g. box-shaped moulds which are lifted off from the moulding]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. sliding movement of the mould walls past the cast article.

[N: the sidewalls of the mould being moved only parallelly away from the sidewalls of the moulded article]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: the sidewalls of the mould being only tilted away from the sidewalls of the moulded article, e.g. moulds with hingedly mounted sidewalls]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Fastening means for mould parts, e.g. for attaching mould walls on mould tables; Mould clamps (clamping means specially adapted for counteracting a pressure being applied on a slip or on the moulded article in the mould B28B 1/266)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for attaching mould walls on mould tables]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Mould pallets; Mould panels]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Moulds, cores or mandrels with provisions concerning the elimination of superfluous material; Moulds with burr-removing means provided therein or carried thereby]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Moulds, cores or mandrels specially adapted for mechanically working moulding surfaces during moulding or demoulding, e.g. smoothing by means of mould walls driven during moulding or of parts acting during demoulding]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: with moulding surfaces simulating natural effets, e.g. wood or stone]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: with moulding surfaces simulating assembled bricks or blocks with mortar joints (B28B 7/007 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With moulding surfaces simulating natural effets
[N: with surfaces for moulding letters or marks]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: with surfaces for moulding interlocking means, e.g. grooves and ribs]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: with surfaces for moulding parallel grooves or ribs (B28B 7/0073, B28B 7/0079 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With moulding surfaces simulating assembled bricks or blocks with mortar joints
With surfaces for moulding interlocking means
[N: with surfaces for moulding chamfers]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Moulds in which at least one surface of the moulded article serves as mould surface, e.g. moulding articles on or against a previously shaped article, between previously shaped articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wherein the surface of the moulded article which serves as a mould surface either becomes part of the final product or the two or more cast articles are seperated from each other e.g. flat concrete panel which serves as a moulding surface for the next flat concrete panel to be cast.

[N: Transformable moulds allowing the change of shape of an initial moulded preform by preform deformation or the change of its size by moulding on the preform]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Press moulds; Press-mould and press-ram assemblies]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds with adjustable parts [N: specially for modifying at will the dimensions or form of the moulded article]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

one or more of the parts being pivotally mounted
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds with flexible parts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds provided with means for tilting or inverting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Tiltable moulding tables or similar moulding surfaces (specially for casting and erecting walls or parts thereof during construction work E04G 11/32)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for making double wall panels]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: using rocker or rolling means]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds with means incorporated therein, or carried thereby, for ejecting [N: or detaching] the moulded article ([N: flexible moulds bent open for ejecting B28B 7/06; ejecting by tilting or inverting the mould B28B 7/08;] devices, not forming part of the mould, for ejecting the moulded article B28B 13/06)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by fluid pressure, [N: e.g. acting through flexible wall parts or linings of the moulds]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds with means incorporated therein, or carried thereby, for cutting the moulded article into parts ([N: for expanded material B28B 1/506;] cutting means independent of the mould B28B 11/14)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds for making shaped articles with cavities or holes open to the surface, [N: e.g. with blind holes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for building blocks or similar block-shaped articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for plates, panels, or similar sheet- or disc-shaped articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for oblong articles, e.g. hollow masts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for holders or similar hollow articles, e.g. vaults, sewer pits]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

the holes passing completely through the article
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for building blocks or similar block-shaped objects]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for plates, panels or similar sheet- or disc-shaped objects, also flat oblong moulded articles with lateral openings, e.g. panels with openings for doors or windows, grated girders]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds for making shaped articles with undercut recesses, e.g. dovetails
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Moulds for making units for prefabricated buildings [N: e.i. units which each comprise an important section of at least two limiting planes of a room or space, e.g. cells (for making rooms or entire buildings in situ E04G 11/02)]; Moulds for making prefabricated stair units
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for making stairs or stair units comprising more than one step (in situ E04G 13/06)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Unitary mould structures with a plurality of moulding spaces, [N: e.g. moulds divided into multiple moulding spaces by integratable partitions, mould part structures providing a number of moulding spaces in mutual co-operation (assemblies of individually complete moulds B28B 7/26)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Detachable assemblies of mould parts providing only in mutual co-operation a number of complete moulding spaces]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for making plates, panels or similar sheet- or disc-shaped objects]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: using transportable mould batteries]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for making oblong objects, e.g. girders]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: using angle-shaped mould parts, e.g. L-parts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Assemblies of separate moulds [N: i.e. of moulds or moulding space units, each forming a complete mould or moulding space unit independently from each other]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Cores; Mandrels [N: (B28B 1/44 takes precedence; of special materials in general B28B 7/34; cores for making blind holes in situ E04G 15/04; for making recesses E04G 15/06)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Embedding lost cores, see
By forcing cores into filled moulds for forming hollow articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Of special materials in general
adjustable, collapsible, or expanding [N: (for making tubular objects B28B 21/88)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Adjustable, collapsible or expansible cores for the production of tubular articles
[N: specially for making undercut recesses or continuous cavities the inner section of which is superior to the section of either of the mouths]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: pliable or extensible]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

inflatable [N: (connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies B60C 29/00)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Using inflatable cores for the production of tubular articles
[N: specially for making moulded articles from concrete with exposed aggregate]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

For example wax paper or a retarder directly applied to the surface moulding cavity.

[N: Replaceable lining plates for press mould]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: with liquid material, e.g. lubricating]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Specially for making moulded articles from concrete with exposed aggregate.
characterised by means for modifying the properties of the moulding material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The properties of the moulding material are modified while the article is still in contact with the mould, core, mandrel.

for heating or cooling, e.g. steam jackets, [N: by means of treating agents acting directly on the moulding material]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Moulds with heating or cooling means for the production of tubular articles
for treating with gases or degassing, e.g. for de-aerating [N: (treating with hot gases or vapour B28B 7/42)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For chemical aspects of treating with gasses, for example treatment of concrete with CO2-gas.
for humidifying or dehumidifying
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Applying setting liquid to dry mixtures]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rapid manufacturing and prototyping of 3D objects by using a combination of solid and liquid materials
Apparatus or processes for treating or working the shaped [N: or preshaped] articles (specially adapted for tubular articles B28B 21/92; decoration or surface treatment in general B05, B44; compacting concrete in situ in connection with building E04G 21/06; drying F26)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The shaped articles being treated or worked are still in a green state.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Places excluded by precedence rules:

B28D working stone or stone like materials

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Grinding; Polishing
B24
Drying
F26
Furnaces; Kilns; Ovens; Retorts
F27
Decoration or surface treatment in general
B44, B05
[N: the shaping of preshaped articles, e.g. by bending (B28B 11/08 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
For reshaping the surface

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Methods or apparatus for reshaping tubular articles
[N: Making hollow articles or partly closed articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Plugging ceramic honeycomb filters.

and other techniques

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Honeycombs characterised by the plugs
B01D46/24F6P
for attaching appendages, e.g. handles, spouts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

for coating [N: or applying engobing layers] (glazing, engobing C04B)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

In case the coating has a decorative purpose classify also in: B28B 11/001

[N: with insulating material]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

with powdered or granular material, [N: e.g. sanding of shaped articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

for reshaping the surface, e.g. smoothing, roughening, corrugating, making screw-threads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Working the surface of a formed green article or intermediate product which can still be (partly) in the mould or which has been demoulded,

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Methods or apparatus for smoothing, roughening, corrugating of tubular articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General field for grinding and polishing
B24
[N: for profiling, e.g. making grooves]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Profiling of plates such as asbestos cement sheets
for removing parts of the articles by cutting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
By removing material from solid section preforms for forming hollow articles, e.g. by punching or boring
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cutting; details common to machines for severing
[N: Cutting-off protruding ridges, also profiled cutting]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

for dividing shaped articles by cutting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Dividing a pre-form by a cutting action in two or more products.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Separating article from each other per se
[N: for dividing block-shaped bodies of expanded materials, e.g. cellular concrete]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

for extrusion [N: or for materials supplied in long webs]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

for removing burr [(N: combined with the mould B28B 7/0058)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Methods or apparatus for removing burr from tubular articles
for cleaning
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cleaning of moulds, cores or mandrels
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning in general
for curing, setting or hardening (processes for influencing or modifying the setting or hardening ability of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions, in general C04B 40/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mould, cores and mandrels characterised by means for modifying the properties of the moulding material
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pressure vessels, e.g. autoclaves
Processes for influencing or modifying the setting or hardening ability of mortars, concrete or artificial stone compositions, in general
Drying objects by removing liquid therefrom
Furnaces; Kilns; Ovens, Retorts
F27
[N: Setting, e.g. drying, dehydrating or firing ceramic articles (B28B 11/242 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
By passing an electric current through wires, rods or reinforcing members incorporated in the article
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processing powders of inorganic compounds preparatory to the manufacturing of ceramic products
Feeding the unshaped material to moulds or apparatus for producing shaped articles; Discharging shaped articles from such moulds or apparatus (feeding or discharging devices incorporated in, or operatively associated with, a particular type of shaping apparatus, or specially designed to supply materials to a particular type of shaping apparatus, see the relevant groups for the apparatus)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Feeding material to presses
Filling moulds with powder
Feeding the unshaped material to moulds or apparatus for producing shaped articles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: supplied to the moulding device in form of a coherent mass of material, e.g. a lump or an already partially preshaped tablet, pastil or the like]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The coherent mass of material has been pre-shaped, -formed, -compacted in a seperate apparatus

[N: by fluid pressure acting directly on the material, e.g. using vacuum, air pressure]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Illustrative example of subject matter not classified in this group:

[N: Feeding several successive layers, optionally of different materials]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Producing layered article by simple casting
[N: by using a feed box transferring the moulding material from a hopper to the moulding cavities]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
By using feed frames or shoes with relative movement
Discharging the shaped articles ([N: discharging tubular articles after shaping B28B 21/90;] conveying systems for ceramic mouldings B65G 49/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Methods or apparatus for discharging after shaping tubular articles
Removing the shaped articles from moulds (by means incorporated in, or carried by, the moulds B28B 7/10)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

General arrangement or lay-out of plant [N: Industrial outlines, plant installations]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Mobile plants, e.g. on vehicles or on boats]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. mobile plants that can be broken-down for transport.

[N: Machines using pallets co-operating with a bottomless mould; Feeding or discharging means for pallets (Feeding pallets for making a continuous moulding surface B28B 5/025, B28B 5/028)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Plant with two or more identical shaping or moulding devices]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Details of, or accessories for, apparatus for shaping the material; Auxiliary measures taken in connection with such shaping (moulds  HYPERLINK "sfpluscla://ECLA/B28B 7/00" B28B 7/00; after-treatment  HYPERLINK "sfpluscla://ECLA/B28B 11/00" B28B 11/00; feeding or discharging  HYPERLINK "sfpluscla://ECLA/B28B 13/00" B28B 13/00; arrangements for embedding elements in the material  HYPERLINK "sfpluscla://ECLA/B28B 23/00" B28B 23/00; details, accessories, or auxiliary measures special to any one type of shaping, machine or method of shaping, see the relevant groups for such machines or methods)
[N: Separating articles from each other]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Accessories for obtaining rubblestones]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. block splitting assembly

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cutting by pressing stone or stone-like materials
[N: Cutting means, e.g. water jets]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subgroup is complementary to B28B 11/12, B28B 11/14 and subgroups.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cutting in general
[N: Tensioning devices for cutting means]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tensioning means for cutters in general
[N: Cleaning devices for cutting means]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Control arrangements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control arrangements for both product inspection and operating conditions.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring; Testing
G01
Controlling; Regulating
G05
[N: Changing the forming elements, e.g. exchanging moulds, dies]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting of dies, platens or press rams
Conditioning the material prior to shaping [N: (for mixtures containing clay or cement B28C)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mixing per se
Machines or methods for applying the material to surfaces to form a permanent layer thereon (making shaped articles on mandrels B28B 1/30; applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general B05C; glazing or engobing C04B; applying the material to walls or other fixed structures, see the relevant classes of section E)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products essentially comprising a water-setting substance
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this group, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

The material
(a) clay or other ceramic compositions; (b) slag;(c) mixtures with water-setting properties given by clay, cementitious material, or slag.
Surfaces
any kind of surface not restricted to any type of material
[N: for producing articles with exposed aggregate]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Lining the inner wall of hollow objects, e.g. pipes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Incorporating steel tubes in the production of tubular articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices or appurtenances for use in, or in connection with, pipes or pipe systems
Protection of pipes or pipe fittings against corrosion or incrustation
[N: lining the outer wall of hollow objects, e.g. pipes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Incorporating steel tubes in the production of tubular articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices or appurtenances for use in, or in connection with, pipes or pipe systems
Protection of pipes or pipe fittings against corrosion or incrustation
[N: to tiles, bricks or the like]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

See also E04C 2/041.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for handling the smaller elements or the hardenable material; bricklaying machines for prefabricated panels
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bricklaying machines in general
[N: to webs, sheets or the like, e.g. of paper, cardboard]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In case the webs, sheets or the like are also reinforcing members, also classify in:

  • B28B 23/0006 The reinforcement consisting of aligned, non-metal reinforcing elements.
  • B28B 23/02 In case of reinforcements made of metal.

Final products per se:E04C 2/043 Building elements of plaster.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods or apparatus for laminating
Methods or machines specially adapted for the production of tubular articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pipes Joints or fittings for pipes
into moulds having sliding parts (B28B 21/26 takes precedence; forms, shutterings, or falsework for making rooms as a whole, whole stories, or whole buildings in situ E04G 11/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With a packer head serving as a sliding mould or provided with guiding means for feeding the material
by slip-casting; Moulds therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

using compacting means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

one or more mould elements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

using inflatable cores, e.g. having a frame inside the inflatable part of the core (connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies B60C 29/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

using rotatable mould or core parts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

using compacting heads, rollers, or the like
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Compacting heads, rollers, or the like when driven and suspended from above

Special rules of classification within this group

Compacting heads, rollers, or the like driven from beneath or followed by a sliding mould with particular inventive emphasis classify in:

B28B 21/26 With a packer head serving as a sliding mould or provided with guiding means for feeding the material.

[N: using a horizontal compacting roller in a horizontally rotatable mould]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Centrifugal moulding for the production of tubular articles
with a packer head serving as a sliding mould or provided with guiding means for feeding the material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Centrifugal moulding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Incorporating reinforcements and applying centrifugal forces
[N: Moulding machines with vertical rotation axis]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by projecting, e.g. spraying
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by wrapping, e.g. winding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

by extruding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

incorporating reinforcements [N: or inserts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Incorporating inserts and/or reinforcing members.

[N: Gaskets]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
With elastic sealing rings between pipe and socket, placed on the socket before connection.
[N: Climbing elements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Climbing irons or the like
Winding arrangements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods, apparatus, or devices for covering or wrapping cores by winding webs, tapes, or filametary material
by building-up from preformed elements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Producing multilayer tubes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The preformed elements for producing multilayer tubes can be manufactured of any material.

with heating or cooling means, e.g. steam jackets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

adapted to centrifugal or rotational moulding
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Centrifugal moulding using compacting heads, rollers, or the like
Cores (in general B28B 7/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cores in general
[N: for wrapping]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

for impregnating or coating by applying liquids or semi-liquids
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for grooving or corrugating]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Arrangements specially adapted for the production of shaped articles with elements wholly or partly embedded in the moulding material; [N: Production of reinforced objects] (B28B 21/00 takes precedence; in units for prefabricated buildings B28B 7/22)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wherein the element which is wholly or partly embedded in the molding material can be a reinforcing member, insert, moulding material component, gaskets, or the like; not being restricted by the choise of material.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods or machines speacially adapted for the production of tubular articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Reinforcing elements in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Machines or methods for applying the material to surfaces to form a permanent layer thereon should be classified in B28B 19/00.

[N: Producing brick netting]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pavings made of prefabricated single units
[N: with gaskets or sealing elements, e.g. for tunnelings or man holes (B28B 21/563 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
[N: with anchoring or fastening elements for the shaped articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Anchoring or fastening elements in combination with means for supporting them in the mould, also classify in B28B 23/0056.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Connecting devices specially adapted for embedding in concrete
Means in or on the elements for connecting same to handling apparatus
[N: Means for inserting the elements into the mould or supporting them in the mould (B28B 23/022 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Means for inserting reinforcing members into the mould or for supporting them in the mould
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cores for anchor holes or the like
E05G15/04
[N: Embedding lost cores]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-reusable forms
[N: for decorative purposes]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Applying the material to tiles, bricks, or the like to form a permanent layer thereon
Coating with powdered or granular material
[N: Embedding aggregates to obtain particular properties]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wherein the aggrgates themselves contain particular properties.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Embedding aggregates which cause a chemical reaction to obtain particular properties
wherein the elements are reinforcing members [N: (B28B 23/0006 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Specially adapted for producing articles from mixtures containing fibres
The reinforcement consisting of aligned, non-metal reinforcing elements
[N: Means for inserting reinforcing members into the mould or for supporting them in the mould (inserting during extrusion B28B 3/2645)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting of reinforcing inserts
[N: Mould partitionning elements acting as supporting means in moulds, e.g. for elongated articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: for double - wall articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Moulds provided with means for tilting or inverting for making double wall panels
the elements being stressed
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Prestressed reinforcements in the production of tubular articles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting of reinforcing inserts; Prestressing
[N: Wire anchoring or tensioning means for the reinforcements]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

[N: Post treatment to obtain pre-stressed articles]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

e.g. reinforcing members are stressed after the hardening of the element; Reinforcing members are introduced through (a) continuous opening(s) of the hardened element, are stressed and connected to the hardened element.

for the production of elongated articles(B28B 23/06 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
The elements being stressed
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013