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CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL PROCESSES, e.g. CATALYSIS, COLLOID CHEMISTRY; THEIR RELEVANT APPARATUS ( processes or apparatus for specific applications, see the relevant places for these processes or apparatus, e.g. F26B 3/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Granulation processes or devices, e.g. by dividing liquid material into drops, in drums, in fluidised beds, by expressing the material through sieves, making particulate materials hydrophobic
  • Chemical or physical processes or apparatus therefor concerning:
  • chemical or physical change of matter by the use of pressure
  • feed or outlet regulating devices,
  • calcining, fusing,
  • apparatus for generating gases
  • solidifying liquids
  • direct application of electric or wave energy
  • production of inert gas mixtures
  • stationary, nozzle-type reactors
  • Chemical processes involving a gas e.g. gas passing through fixed beds or fluidised beds, reacting liquid with gaseous media other than in presence of solid particles, reacting gaseous media with gaseous media, reacting gaseous media with non-particulate solids.
  • Chemical processes involving a liquid e.g. liquids passing through fixed beds or fluidised beds, reacting liquid with gaseous media, reacting liquid with liquids, reacting liquids with non-particulate solids
  • Production of colloidal materials or their solutions, e.g. making microcapsules by physical drying, spraying, coacervation, polymerisation,
  • Sorbent or filter aid compositions comprising inorganic or organic material, sorbents specially adapted for chromatography and processes for preparing or regenerating thereof
  • Catalysts:
  • catalysts containing elements or inorganic compounds, e.g. magnesium, silica, copper, noble metals, sulfides, halides, carbides
  • Raney catalysts, e.g. Raney nickel
  • catalysts comprising molecular sieves, e.g. silicalites, crystalline zeolites, clays, phosphates,
  • catalysts comprising metal hydrides, organic compounds, coordination complexes
  • catalysts characterised by their form or physical properties
  • Preparation processes, protection, activation, e.g. impregnation, coating, reducing
  • Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts
  • Ion exchange processes e.g. cation, anion, amphoteric ion-exchange; regeneration of ion-exchangers and apparatus therefor
Relationship between large subject matter areas
  • Polymerization (C08F, C08G): Apparatus used for polymerization processes should be classified in B01J since the polymer subclasses usually cover aspects of process and not of the apparatus used.

Reforming / hydrogen production (C01B): Apparatus used for reforming reactions (production of hydrogen for fuel cell applications) should be classified in B01J (mainly B01J 8/00 since very often a catalytic bed is used for catalytic reforming). C01B covers mainly the process aspects of the reforming and B01J the aspects relating to the types of apparatus used.

Water treatment (C02F): if the claims of a patent document classified in C02F do not specify which kind of fluid is treated, the document should be classified in B01J 3/00-B01J 12/00, B01J 14/00-B01J 19/00, especially regarding apparatus features (UV radiation means, baffles...).

Separation, e.g. distillation, also combined with chemical reaction, is classified in B01D

Catalysts only used as electrocatalysts are not classified in B01J but in H01M.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

CVD processes

Surface treatment of semi-conductors

Lab-on-a-chip

Examples of places where the subject matter of this class is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Treatment of milk

Separation by ion-exchangers

E.g. separation of liquids by ion-exchange adsorbents

B01D15/04

Chromatography involving ion-exchange

Separation of isotopes

Compounds per se, see the relevant classes, e.g. Extraction of metal compounds from ores or concentrates by wet processes

Treatment of water

Refining of hydrocarbon oils, in the absence of hydrogen, with solid sorbents

Purification of sugar juices

Extraction of sugar from molasses

Extraction of metal compounds from ores or concentrates by wet processes

Using ion-exchange for investigating or analysing materials

Treating radioactively contaminated material

Compounds per se, see the relevant classes, e.g.

Extraction of metal compounds from ores or concentrates by wet processes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Fuel cells / batteries similar signals

Hydrogen production

Control when application is electrically driven vehiclesControl for other applications

Heat exchange

Drying solids

Mixing

Catalyst and sorbent compositions

Exhaust gas treatment for NOx

Absorption processes

Membranes per se

Filtration

Crystallization processes in general

Single crystal growth

Water treatment

Sterilization, disinfection, deodorization

Coating for CVD CVD processesSurface treatment of semi-conductors

Combustion of solid and fluent fuelsInternal combustion engines

Gasification

Bioreactors

Ultrasonic devices per se

Microwave devices, UV devices

Electrostatic charges (removing of)

Plasma reactors per se

Pumps

Valves

High pressure vessels in generalPresses

Cyclones per se

Polymerization

Treating hazardous wastes

Treating soils

Cleaning reactors

Ammonia production

Carbon / nanocarbon

Cleaning air, conditioners

Making microstructures

Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC ), Fischer-Tropsch process

Laboratory equipment

Analysis

Combinatorial chemistry / array manufacture

Distillation

Coke oven, pyrolysis

Storage containers, bags

Electrolytic processes

Waste incineration

Preparations for medical purposes (e. g. radioelements)

Exhaust gas treating

B01D 53/86, B01D 53/94 and subgroups

Process for preparing hydrogen using catalysts

C01B 3/38 and subgroups

General methods of organic chemistry

Process for preparing acyclic or carbocyclic compounds

Preparation of hydrocarbons, such as ethylene and propylene, from one or more compounds, none of them being a hydrocarbon, starting from organic compounds containing only oxygen atoms as heteroatoms, such as methanol

Preparation of compounds having hydroxy or O-metal groups bound to a carbon atom not belonging to a six-membered aromatic ring by reduction of an oxygen containing functional group

C07C 29/132 and subgroups

Preparation of compounds having hydroxy or O-metal groups bound to a carbon atom not belonging to a six-membered aromatic ring, such as ethanol by reduction of oxides of carbon exclusively characterised by the catalyst used

C07C 29/153 and subgroups

Preparation of compounds having >C = O groups bound only to carbon or hydrogen atoms, such as (meth)acrolein, by oxidation of unsaturated hydrocarbons

Preparation of carboxylic acid esters, e.g. vinyl acetate, by reacting carboxylic acids or symmetrical anhydrides onto unsaturated carbon-to-carbon bonds with oxidation

Preparation of carboxylic acids or their salts, halides or anhydrides, , such as acrylic acid, by oxidation of saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbons

Preparation of carboxylic acid nitriles by ammoxidation of hydrocarbons or substituted hydrocarbons

C07C 253/24 and subgroups

Process for preparing heterocyclic compounds

Preparation of oxiranes, such as ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, by oxidation

Production of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures from carbon monoxide with hydrogen with the use of catalysts

C10G2/00B2 and subgroups

Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbon oils

Catalytic reforming naphtha

C10G 35/04 and subgroups

Hydrotreating, such as hydrodesulphurising, hydroisomerising and hydrogenating, hydrocarbon oils

Hydrocracking hydrocarbon oils

Hydroprocessing hydrocarbon oils

Special rules of classification within this subclass
  • The most important aspect of B01J 3/00-B01J 12/00, B01J 14/00-B01J 19/00(except B01J 19/0046) is the fact, that it covers general chemical and/or physical processes or apparatus, used in chemistry and / or physico-chemistry, mainly on industrial scale (except microreactors B01J 19/0093). It focuses on the devices, thus reactors (technical characteristics thereof, as well as equipment in cooperation therewith). In this context, devices for specific applications are normally (unless some agreements are provided between technical fields) to be classified in these more specific application fields, especially where these fields foresee classes for devices (for example devices for combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, manufacturing of semi-conductors etc.) and not in B01J 3/00-B01J 19/00. Consequently processes or apparatus for specific applications should be at a first stage classified in the relevant specific classes for these processes or apparatus. If specific aspects of these processes or apparatus could be generalized and could then be of interest for search purposes, B01J classes can also be used at a second stage for classification of these processes or apparatus.

Thus specific technical fields should not be mixed with B01J, unless agreements exist between fields (e.g.: hydrogen production).

  • Whole documents should be classified, not only the claims of a patent, but also the content of the description and of the drawings.

Indexing Code (B01J 2203/00, B01J 2208/00 and B01J 2219/00)are used to classify additional information not covered by the classes. In some cases Indexing Codes are mainly used as subdivision of a specific class (for example the microreactors or the plate type reactors), whereas in other cases the Indexing Codes are used for a whole group of classes (typical example are the Indexing Code relating to heat exchange aspects).

  • A material is classified as catalyst when
  • the application states that it is useful as catalyst (or catalyst support), and
  • when details regarding its composition, properties, preparation or regeneration are disclosed.
  • Aspects of the catalyst to be classified:

Exceptions: Catalysts only used as electrocatalysts are not classified in B01J but in H01M.

  • Catalysts comprising organic compounds, metal hydrides, organometallic compounds, and coordination complexes are classified in B01J 31/00.
  • Pure compounds or elements, are classified in the appropriate subclass for chemical compounds or elements.

Molecular sieves per se are classified in C01B

However, when it is explicitly stated or claimed that the pure compound, element, zeolite etc, in a particular form, is especially useful as a catalyst, it is additionally classified in group B01J 21/00-B01J 29/90 or B01J 32/00-B01J 35/00.

  • Multiple classification:

In addition to classifying in B01J, the uses of the catalysts are further classified in the appropriate classes of B01D, C01B, C01C, C07B, C07C, C07D, C10G, C11B and C11C.

  • Which parts of the application / patent to classify for catalysts

Each specifically disclosed embodiment, in particular each example, giving details regarding composition, properties, preparation or regeneration of the catalyst (or catalyst support) is classified, even if the application / patent does not claim a catalyst per se. In case of claims relating to a catalyst, if classification of the examples only does not suitably reflect the subject-matter of the claims, additional, general classes are given to cover the scope of the catalyst claims.

Reformed ECLA approach

In these groups new documents are classified according to the reformed ECLA approach, i.e. important (invention-related) information is identified with ECLA classification symbols, e.g. B01J 23/02, other (secondary) information with Indexing Code symbols, e.g. B01J 23/02.

"Last place rule"

In each set of groups B01J 21/00 to B01J 33/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place ("last place rule").

How to use the "last place rule" for classifying the composition of the catalyst

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Example: MoVSbOx

Antimony B01J 23/18

Vanadium B01J 23/22

Molybdenum B01J 23/28

==> classified in the last place, namely B01J 23/28

Example: MoVSbFeOx

Iron combined with Vanadium B01J 23/8472

Iron combined with Antimony B01J 23/8435

Iron combined with Molybdenum B01J 23/881

Iron combined with Molybdenum, further containing Antimony B01J 23/8876

Iron combined with Molybdenum, further containing Vanadium B01J 23/8877

==> classified in the last place, namely B01J 23/8877

Multiple classification: How to classify mixed oxides, spinels and mixed salts (e.g. hydrotalcite)

In addition to the appropriate class according to the "last place rule", mixed oxides are classified in B01J 23/002, spinels are classified in B01J 23/005 or B01J 21/005, and mixed salts (e.g. hydrotalcite) are classified in B01J 23/007.

In addition, mixed oxides (including spinels etc) containing 3 or more elements other than oxygen, are indexed using a combination class based on B01J 23/002 (see comments on B01J 23/002). This only applies to the specific mixed oxides of the working examples.

How to classify catalysts composed of separately prepared, distinguishable parts having different compositions

Such catalysts are classified in B01J 35/0006. The appropriate class for the catalyst composition as a whole is given. In addition, each part is classified as a separate catalyst.Exception: Mixtures of molecular sieves are classified in B01J 29/005 or B01J 29/80 and receive Indexing Codes chosen from groups B01J 29/03 to L01J29/89C to identify the individual constituents of these mixtures

Example: Admixture of zeolite ZSM-5 and Pt/Al2O3

Example: Zeolite ZSM-5 shaped with Al2O3 as matrix, and then impregnated with PtB01J 29/44; also assign B01J 2229/20

Example: Zeolite ZSM-5 mixed with Pt-impregnated Zeolite Y.

How to classify supported catalysts

The carrier is normally not classified, unless the inventive idea is linked to the nature of the support. In this case, the support per se is also classified, usually in B01J 21/00 If appropriate, an Indexing Code is given (additional information).

Metal catalysts or metal oxide catalysts activated or conditioned by halogens, sulfur or phosphorus, or compounds thereof are classified in the appropriate groups for metal or metal oxide catalysts (B01J 23/00) and in the groups relevant for activation / conditioning (B01J 37/00)

Heteropolyacids are classified in B01J 27/188 and subgroups

If metals are introduced into the framework of the molecular sieve already in the synthesis stage, B01J 29/86 to B01J29/89C take precedence.

The use of catalysts must also be classified in the appropriate groups, such as in C01B, C01C, C10G, C07B, C07C, C07D

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Catalyst

covers also a carrier forming part of the catalyst

Zeolites

- crystalline aluminosilicates with base-exchange and molecular sieve properties, having three dimensional, microporous lattice framework structure of tetrahedral oxide units;- compounds isomorphous to those of the former category, wherein the aluminium or silicon atoms in the framework are partly or wholly replaced by atoms of other elements, e.g. by gallium, germanium, phosphorus or boron.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Raney catalyst", "sponge-metal catalyst" and "skeletal catalyst" are often used as synonyms.

Processes or devices for granulating materials, {e.g. fertilisers} in general ( granulating metals B22F 9/00 , { granulating slag C21B 3/06} , ores or scrap C22B 1/14 ; mechanical aspects of working of plastics or substances in a plastic state to make granules B29B 9/00 ; processes for granulating fertilisers characterised by their chemical constitution, see the relevant groups in C05B to C05G ; chemical aspects of powdering or granulating of macromolecular substances C08J 3/12) ; Rendering particulate materials free flowing in general, e.g. making them hydrophobic
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes or devices for granulation/agglomeration, which are applicable to (more than one) different fields of application, such as food, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, fertilisers or for which no specific application is indicated.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Processes for granulating fertilisers characterised by their chemical constitution: C05B to C05G

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Crushing, pulverising or disintegrating solids

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Agglomerating or granulating milk powder

Preparing unshaped finely divided cereal products, e.g. flour

Devices or methods adapted for bringing pharmaceutical products into a particular form

Medical preparations in particulate form

Medical preparations in form of granules or agglomerates

Medical preparations obtained by tabletting processes

Processes for preparing catalysts by granulating

Granulating metals

Working of plastics or substances in a plastic state to make granules

Granulation of ammonium nitrate fertilisers

Granulation of nitrogenous fertilisers containing calcium or other cyanamides

Post-treatment of fertilisers containing urea or urea compounds

Granulation of fertiliser compounds

Chemical aspects of powdering or granulating of macromolecular substances

Granulating slag

Granulating ores or scrap

Production of ice

Special rules of classification within this group

Concepts teaching general principals of granulation / agglomeration which can be applied in different fields of application, e.g. food, pharmaceutics, fertilisers, are classified in B01J 2/00.

If a specific granulation concept is mentioned in a document without further details, an Indexing Code chosen from B01J 2/00 may be allocated.

Microencapsulation is classified in B01J 13/00

{followed by coating of the granules ( to prevent the granules sticking together B01J 2/30) }
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Processes and apparatus for applying liquids on surfaces: B05C, B05D

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preventing granules sticking together

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes for preparing solid sorbent compositions by impregnating or coating

Processes for preparing catalysts by impregnation of coating

Processes and devices for covering fertilisers

{Coating of the granules without description of the process or the device by which the granules are obtained ( to prevent the granules sticking together B01J 2/30) }
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Processes and apparatus for applying liquids on surfaces: B05C, B05D

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Making microcapsules

Preventing granules sticking together

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes for preparing solid sorbent compositions by impregnating or coating

Processes for preparing catalysts by impregnation of coating

Processes and devices for covering fertilisers

by dividing the liquid material into drops, e.g. by spraying, and solidifying the drops ( evaporating by spraying B01D 1/16)
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Spraying or apparatus, nozzles: B05B

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Evaporation by spraying to obtain dry solids

Nozzle type reactors

Processes for preparing catalysts by drying a slurry, e.g. spray drying

Drying solid materials by convection in the form of a spray

in a gaseous medium { ( if combined with suspending the material in a gas, e.g. fluidised beds B01J 2/16) }
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Spraying or apparatus, nozzles: B05B

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

If combined with suspending the material in a gas, e.g. fluidised beds

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Evaporation by spraying to obtain dry solids

Nozzle type reactors

Processes for preparing catalysts by drying a slurry, e.g. spray drying

Drying solid materials by convection in the form of a spray

in stationary drums or troughs, provided with kneading or mixing appliances
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stationary reactors having moving elements inside

in rotating drums
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Moving reactors, e.g. rotary drums

by suspending the powder material in a gas, e.g. in fluidised beds or as a falling curtain
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Chemical or physical processes with fluidised particles

using a vibrating apparatus
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

General processes employing sonic or ultrasonic vibrations

Application of shock-waves for chemical reactions or for modifying the crystal structure of substances

Special rules of classification within this group

Processes for granulating materials in general using a pressure or shock waves will be classified in B01J 2/18, B01J9/10 and B01J 3/08

by expressing the material, e.g. through sieves and fragmenting the extruded length
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of plastics by extrusion

by pressing in moulds or between rollers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of plastics by moulding

Obtaining flakes by scraping a solid layer from a surface
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of plastics by dividing preformed material

on endless conveyer belts
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Stationary reactors having moving elements inside in the form of endless belts

Processes of utilising sub-atmospheric or super-atmospheric pressure to effect chemical or physical change of matter; Apparatus therefor ( apparatus for compacting or sintering of metal powders B22F 3/00 ; pressure vessels in general F16J 12/00 ; pressure vessels for containing or storing compressed, liquefied or solidified gases F17C ; pressure vessels for nuclear reactors G21C)
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Apparatus for compacting or sintering of metal powders

Pressure vessels for containing or storing compressed, liquefied or solidified gases

Pressure vessels for nuclear reactors

Pressure vessels or autoclaves for laboratory purposes

Pressure vessels or autoclaves for sterilisation

Making single crystals

Coating metallic material

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Pressure vessels in general

Special rules of classification within this group

B01J 3/062: Indexing Code B01J 2203/0605, B01J 2203/065 and B01J 2203/0675 are used as a subdivision of this sub-group.

Feed {or outlet} devices; Feed or outlet regulating devices ( feed or outlet devices for pressure vessels B01J 3/02 ; { feeding of particles into and evacuation of particles out of the reactor B01J 8/0015} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus moving the material into or out the chemically or physically processor

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Feed or outlet devices for pressure vessels

Feeding of particles into and evacuation of particles out of the reactor

Special rules of classification within this group

This group covers the feeding devices of the reactors which are classified in B01J 19/00. A feeding device for feeding reactive fluids in a reactor classified in B01J 8/00 should not be classified in B01J 4/00 but only in B01J 8/00.

If the feeding device comprises a nozzle element, it should be classified in B01J 4/002. B01J 19/26 should be used if the reaction takes place in the nozzle device (the nozzle device is not only used for feeding purposes but also for reacting purposes).

{Heat treatments such as} Calcining; Fusing {Pyrolysis ( furnaces F27D) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Thermal treatment processes in the presence of air, fired in a kiln, or thermochemical decomposition at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Apparatus for generating gases ( production of inert gas mixtures B01J 19/14 ; for generating specific gases, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. C01B , C10J ; { in "air bags" on vehicles B60R 21/26 ; for starter gas F02C 7/26 ; blasting cartridges for producing gas under pressure F42B 3/04} )
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Production of inert gas mixtures

Feeding of particles into and evacuation of particles out of the reactor

For generating specific gases, see the relevant subclasses

For generating gases in air bags on vehicles

For starter gas

Blasting cartridges for producing gas under pressure

Chemical or physical processes in general, conducted in the presence of fluids and solid particles; Apparatus for such processes ( processes or devices for granulating material B01J 2/00 ; furnaces F27B ; { heat exchange apparatus F28C 3/10 ; F28D 13/00 , F28D 17/00 , F28D 19/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The condition for classifying a document in B01J 8/00 is that solid particles, especially catalytic particles, should be always present, at the beginning of the reaction. If a process leads to the formation of some solid particles (e. g. polymerization process), and no solid particles were present at the beginning of the process, the document should not be classified in B01J 8/00. Furthermore the feature "solid particles" does not apply only to small (catalytic or non-catalytic) particles, but also to random packing elements (e. g. Raschig rings). Random packings as such should be classified in B01J 19/30 and additionally in B01J 8/00 if an apparatus which contains these random packings is disclosed.

For the specific case of a plate-type reactor with catalytic particles between the plates, B01J 19/249 and the Indexing Code-code B01J 2219/2481 take preference.

For the specific case of a monolithic reactor with catalytic particles in the monolithic channels, B01J 19/2485 and the Indexing Code-code B01J 2219/243 take preference.

If a catalyst is present but not in granular form, appropriate classes are B01J 10/007, B01J 12/007, B01J 14/005, B01J 15/005, B01J 16/005.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Processes or devices for granulating material

Furnaces

Heat exchange apparatus

Loading and unloading vessels in general

Absorption

Adsorption

Special rules of classification within this group

For classification in B01J 8/00, a large group of Indexing Code-codes B01J 2208/00 has been created; these Indexing Code-codes are very important for search purposes and should be used extensively for classifying additional information.

B01J 8/002: a moving instrument is used for feeding or evacuating the solid particles; in B01J 8/0045 a rotary device is located in the flow channel used for introducing or evacuating the solid particles.

Moving can be also a rotary movement. If there is also a flow channel, then it's classified in B01J 8/002.

Example for B01J 8/002: reference 6 (rotating blades) Example for B01J 8/0045:

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B01J 8/0292: this subgroup should be used if some stationary packing material is embedded in a bed of some other solid particles (mixture of packing elements and other solid particles).

B01J 8/18: in this subgroup "fluidized particles" means that the particles are completely fluidized and a bed is not visible; each particle can move upwardly and downwardly independently from the movement of the other particles. It means that the speed of the fluidizing gas is higher than in case of a fluidized bed.

B01J 8/1854: for a polymerization process carried out in a tubular loop-type reactor, B01J 19/1837 or B01J 19/2435 should be used instead of B01J 8/1854 if no solid particles are present at the beginning of the reaction.

B01J 8/24: in this subgroup "fluidized bed" means that the particles are fluidized but a compact bed is still visible. The speed of the fluidized gas is lower than in the case of fluidized particles.

Chemical processes in general for reacting liquid with gaseous media other than in the presence of solid particles, or apparatus specially adapted therefor (B01J 19/08 takes precedence; separation, e.g. distillation, also combined with chemical reactions B01D , { e.g. B01D 3/009} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical processes in general for reacting liquid with gaseous media other than in the presence of solid particles, or apparatus specially adapted therefore (B01J 19/08 takes precedence).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Separation, e.g. distillation, evaporation

Special rules of classification within this group

B01J 10/00 Subgroups should be used for classification of process features. Apparatus features should be classified in the B01J 19/00 Subgroups.

B01J 10/02: for apparatus aspects, see B01J 19/1887 or B01J 19/247.

For the specific case of a plate-type reactor with plates coated with a catalytic porous coating, B01J 19/249 and the Indexing Code-codes under B01J 2219/245 take preference.

Microchannels reactors are classified in B01J 19/0093

Chemical processes in general for reacting gaseous media with gaseous media; Apparatus specially adapted therefor (B01J 3/08 , B01J 8/00 , B01J 19/08 take precedence )
Special rules of classification within this group

If an apparatus is disclosed in detail, the corresponding apparatus features should also be classified in the B01J 19/00 Subgroups.

For the specific case of a plate-type reactor with plates coated with a catalytic porous coating, B01J 19/249 and the Indexing Code-codes under B01J 2219/245 take preference.

Gas-gas reactions conducted in the presence of solid particles are classified in B01J 8/00:

Colloid chemistry, e.g. the production of colloidal materials or their solutions, not otherwise provided for; Making micro-capsules or micro-balloons ( use of substances as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam producing agents B01F 17/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for producing colloidal materials or their solutions, e.g. sols, gels, aerosols, aerogels as well as methods for producing microcapsules or microballoons.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Sols containing an elemental metal for medical purposes are classified in A61K.

Sols containing an elemental method for diagnostical purposes are classified in G01N.

Colloid mills are classified in B02C.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

The use of substances as emulsifying, wetting, dispersing or foam-producing agents

Microcapsules or microballoons for medical preparations

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Microcapsules comprising biocide, pest repellent, pest attractant, plant growth regulator

Microcapsules comprising feed

Microcapsules comprising flavouring agent

Microcapsules comprising foodstuff, foodstuff additives

Nanocapsules comprising cosmetic or similar toilet preparations

A61K8/11F

Tablets comprising microcapsules comprising drugs

Mixture of drugs of which at least one is microencapsulated

Microcapsules comprising magnetic carrier material, e.g. ferrite for drug targeting

Nanocapsules comprising medicinal preparations

Microcapsules comprising a medicinal preparation chemically bound to a non-active ingredient, e.g. polymer-drug conjugate

Nanocapsules comprising a medicinal preparation chemically bound to a non-active ingredient, e.g. polymer-drug conjugate

Microcapsules comprising X-ray contrast reagents

Nanocapsules comprising X-ray contrast reagents

Microcapsules comprising halogenated organic X-ray contrast reagents

Nanocapsules comprising halogenated organic X-ray contrast reagents

Microparticles comprising NRM contrast preparation

A61K49/18P

Microcapsules comprising gas as echographic or ultrasound imaging preparation

Microcapsules comprising radioactive substance for therapeutic use or testing in vivo

Microcapsules comprising fire-extinguishing compositions

Breaking microcapsules to make a message legible in lotto or bingo board games

Preventing evaporation or oxidation of non-metallic liquids by applying a floating layer comprising microcapsules

Moulding polymers or prepolymers comprising microcapsules comprising ingredients

Layered particles essentially comprising metal

Thermography using microcapsules

Using pressure to make a masked colour visible characterised by the use of microcapsules

Contact thermal transfer or sublimation process using microcapsules

Colloidal silica

Use of inorganic microballoons as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Use of microballoons as fillers for mortars, concrete or artificial stone

Use of porous ceramic microballoons in porous mortar, concrete, artificial stone or ceramic ware

Microcapsules comprising accelerator in order to inhibit setting of mortar, concrete, artificial stone by mechanical separation of ingredients

Working up of compositions comprising microballoons and macromolecular substance to porous or cellular materials

Microcapsules comprising dye, dies

Materials not porovided elsewhere for aerosols

Microcapsules comprising perfume

Microcapsules comprising detergent

microcapsules comprising a treating agent for the treatment of fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, fibrous goods

microcapsules added to pulp

microcapsules comprising latent heat storage material

Microcapsules as distributed sensing elements for measuring force or stress

Liposomes or microcapsules for investigating or analysing materials, immunoassay

Labelled liposomes or microcapsules for investigating or analysing materials

Photosensitive materials comprising microcapsules

Structures with microcapsules in the context of photosensitive materials for diffusion transfer processes

Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g; printing surfaces, using microcapsules

Absorbent pads, e.g. towels, swabs, tampons comprising microcapsules comprising perfume or medicaments

K61F13/15H8F2

Microcapsules comprising living eukaryotic cells

Inhalator comprising microcapsules

A61M2015/0011

Tickets of lotto or bingo board games, raffle games having a message become legible by breaking microcapsules

Material comprising microballoon fillers

L29C305/31

Shaped material comprising microcapsules

L29C305/54

Moulding polymers or prepolymers comprising microcapsules comprising ingredients

Filled microcapsules

Microcapsules comprising lubricant

Microcapsules added to pulp

Microcapsules as distributed sensing elements for measuring force or stress

Liposomes or microcapsules for investigating or analysing materials, immunoassay

Labelled liposomes or microcapsules for investigating or analysing materials

Microcapsules copiers

photosensitive materials comprising microcapsules

Structures with microcapsules in the context of photosensitive materials for diffusion transfer processes

Photomechanical, e.g. photolithographic, production of textured or patterned surfaces, e.g; printing surfaces, using microcapsules

Labels, tag tickets comprising microcapsules

Special rules of classification within this group

The following areas are not included in this group:

  • Colloid materials or solutions, microcapsules, microballoons, or other particles per se, without clear indication of the method of preparation.
  • Suspensions, dispersions, emulsions that are not colloidal and methods for producing them.
  • Methods for producing particles other than those mentioned in the title of the subclass, e.g. matrix-type microparticles.

Methods for producing microcapsules by physical processes where the inventive aspect resides in the apparatus are classified in B01J 13/04 or hierarchically lower groups. Other methods for producing microcapsules by non-chemical processes are classified in B01J 13/02 or hierarchically lower groups.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Colloid

a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance. The colloidal system, which may be solid, liquid or gaseous, has a very high stability, i.e. precipitation does not occur under the influence of gravity.

Microcapsule

a core-shell particle with a stable, non-transient shell

Microballoon

a gas-filled microcapsule

Sol

a colloidal system of solid particles in a liquid medium

Non-Newtonian sol

sol displaying a decreasing viscosity with increasing shear stress

Gel

a substantially dilute cross-linked system, which exhibits no flow when in the steady-state. A gel has the appearance of a jelly-like material.

Aerosol

a colloidal system comprising fine solid particles or liquid droplets in a gaseous medium

Aerogel

a gel in which the liquid component of the gel has been replaced with a gas

Xerogel

a solid formed from a gel by drying with unhindered shrinkage

Simple coacervation

phase separation process involving only one type of hydrophilic polymer

Complex coacervation

phase separation process involving at least two types of hydrophilic polymers

Interfacial polymerization

polymerization process where the reactants (monomers) meet at an interface where the polymerization reaction occurs and the shell material if formed

In situ polymerization

polymerization process where all reactants (monomers) are present in the same phase. Also processes comprising an initiator in the other phase are in situ polymerization processes.

After-treatment of capsule walls by coating

process in which coating of the microcapsule wall results in core-multiple shell particles

Dispersant

A non-surface active polymer or a surface active substance added to a suspension to improve the separation of particles and to prevent settling or clumping

Emulsion

Two immiscible liquids mixed with small droplets of one liquid dispersed (separated and distributed throughout the space) in the other liquid

Foam

Substance that is formed from trapped gas bubbles

Fog

Collection of liquid water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air

Surface active agents(surfactants)

Substance which have the effect of reducing the surface tension of a solvent. These substances also known as wetting agents, contain a combination of polar (hydrophilic) and non-polar (hydrophobic) parts which serve to bind oil and water together. They locate at the phase boundary between the water phase and the organic phase, or if there is no room there, they will congregate together and form micelles.

HLB

Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of a surfactant. Measure of the degree to which it is hydrophilic or lipophilic.

Organosol

Finely divided or colloidal suspension of insoluble material in a suspending organic liquid

Thixotropic fluid

Fluid which takes a finite time to attain equilibrium viscosity when introduced to a step change in shear rate

O/W emulsion

Oil-in- water emulsion

W/O emulsion

Water-in-oil emusion

W/0/W emulsions

Water-in-oil-in-water multphase emulsions

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "microcapsule", "microballoon", "microsphere", "nanocapsule", "nanoballoon", "nanosphere", "core-shell particle", "microencapsulated agent" and "nanoencapsulated agent" are often used as synonyms.

Chemical processes in general for reacting liquids with liquids; Apparatus specially adapted therefor (B01J 8/00 , B01J 19/08 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical processes and apparatus specially adapted for reacting liquids with liquids other than in the presence of solid particles.

Special rules of classification within this group

Liquid-liquid reactions conducted in the presence of solid particles are classified in B01J 8/00

Chemical processes in general for reacting gaseous media with non-particulate solids, e.g. sheet material; Apparatus specially adapted therefor (B01J 19/08 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical processes and apparatus specially adapted for reacting gases with non particulate solids, e.g. sheet material

Special rules of classification within this group

Reaction of gaseous media with catalytic and inert non-particulate solids, catalytically porous plates is classified in B01J 15/005

Chemical processes in general for reacting liquids with non- particulate solids, e.g. sheet material; Apparatus specially adapted therefor (B01J 19/08 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chemical processes and apparatus specially adapted for reacting liquids with non particulate solids, e.g.sheet material

Special rules of classification within this group

Reaction of liquids with catalytic and inert non-particulate solids, catalytically porous plates is classified in B01J 16/005

Chemical, physical, or physico-chemical processes in general ( physical treatment of fibres, threads, yarns, fabrics, feathers or fibrous goods made from such materials, the relevant places for such treatment, e.g. D06M 10/00) ; Their relevant apparatus ( packings, fillings or grids specially adapted for biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage C02F 3/10 ; splashing boards or grids specially adapted for trickle coolers F28F 25/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particularly important is the general aspect of the processes and/or apparatus classified in this group. Processes or apparatus for specific applications should be classified in the relevant specific places for these processes or apparatus. An exception of this rule concerns apparatus used for polymerization which should be, in addition to the polymerization subclasses C08F, C08G, also classified in B01J 19/00 Subclasses if specific apparatus features are very relevant.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Membranes, filters, their composition are classified in B01D and C02F if they are used in water treatment. If membrane or filter is used in a general apparatus, it is classified in B01J 19/00 subgroups, e.g. B01J 19/1893, membranes reactors.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Physical treatment of fibers, threads, yarns, fabrics, feathers or fibrous goods made from such materials

Packings, fillings or grids specially adapted for biological treatment of water, waste water or sewage

Splashing boards or grids specially adapted for trickle coolers

Special rules of classification within this group

For classification in B01J 19/00, a large group of Indexing Code B01J 2219/00 has been created; these Indexing Code-codes are very important for search purposes and should be used extensively for classifying additional information.

B01J 19/0006: this subgroup is used mainly in cases where the invention concerns the whole control system, except temperature control (see B01J 19/0013). For optimisation processes see B01J 19/0033. Documents classified in B01J 19/0006 should be always circulated to G05B. For chemo-informatic applications: G06F19/00D.

B01J 19/004: if documents relate to combinatorial chemistry or array manufacture, these documents should be classified only in B01J 19/0046 and C40B (for arrays as such: C12Q168/00).

B01J19/00E: this subgroup does not cover ozone making devices (see B01J 19/088 or C01B).

B01J 19/008: if cavitation is produced by acoustic waves, B01J 19/10 takes precedence. For mixing by cavitation: B01F.

B01J19/00P: this subgroup also covers general recrystallisation processes. Specific crystallisation processes are covered by B01D 9/00- B01D 19/00.

B01J 19/0093: documents classified in this subgroup should not be classified in other subgroups, unless it is disclosed that the sizes can be scaled up. Microfluidic devices without any reaction aspect are not covered by this subgroup and should be circulated to B01L. Microdevices for analytic purposes are also not covered by B01J 19/0093 and should be circulated to G01N; micromixers should be circulated to B01F. Micro heat-exchangers should be circulated to F28D 9/00 and F28F 3/00.

B01J 19/088: electric discharge ozone generators should not be classified in B01J 19/088 but should be classified in C01B. All other devices for producing ozone, e. g. with plasma production, can be classified in both fields.

B01J 19/123: Fluid treatment with UV should be classified in B01J 19/123 if the nature of the fluid is not specified. For water treatment with UV, C02F takes precedence.

B01J 19/18: stationary reactors having moving elements inside used for the treatment of waste materials (plastic wastes, organic wastes, hazardous or toxic wastes....) should not be classified in B01J 19/18 but should be classified in the more specific fields like A62D 3/00, B09C 1/00 depending on the kind of waste treated.

B01J 19/1837 and B01J 19/2435: for a polymerization process carried out in a tubular loop-type reactor, B01J 8/1854 should be used instead of B01J 19/1837 or of B01J 19/2435 if solid particles (catalyst, polymer particles...) are present at the beginning of the reaction (the reaction is carried out from the beginning in present of solid particles).

B01J 19/30 and B01J 19/32: documents relating to C02F should be classified in B01J 19/30 or B01J 19/32 if the packing aspect, especially geometrical shapes, is relevant (the Indexing Codes B01J 2219/00 should be used).

  • Processes with catalytic granular particles are classified in B01J 8/00, unless for a plate-type reactor with catalytic particles between the plates (B01J 19/249 and Indexing Code-code: B01J 2219/2479) or a monolithic reactor with catalytic particles in the monolithic channels (B01J 19/2485 and Indexing Code-code B01J 2219/243).
{Sequential or parallel reactions, e.g. for the synthesis of polypeptides or polynucleotides; Apparatus and devices for combinatorial chemistry or for making molecular arrays ( synthesis methods per se C40B 50/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices in general for the purpose of combinatorial chemistry or the making of combinatorial arrays, e.g. biochips. This implies that a synthesis of a library is performed or is meant to be performed with a device.

It is particularly relevant to note that documents classified in this sub-group relate to general aspects of such methods and devices, such as general process steps, or the physical aspects of bio-chips.

Purely chemical or biochemical aspects, analytical aspects, as well as libraries per sé, are NOT covered by this group

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Combinatorial libraries as such, and many aspects of combinatorial libraries, including synthesis, screening and identification of library members, relating to methods as well as devices, are not covered by this sub-group, but classified in C07, C12N, C40B.

Microfluidic analysis and PCR devices are classified in B01L.

Sampling and analysis devices per se are classified in G01N.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Combinatorial libraries as such

C40B 40/00 and subgroups

General methods per se for simultaneous synthesis of five or more different organic compounds

C07B61/00L

Peptide libraries

Nucleaic acid libraries and their screening

C12N15/00C and subgroups

Nucleic acid analysis characterised by the use of probe arrays or probe chips.

Methods for sequencing involving nucleic acid arrays, e.g. Sequencing By Hybridisation

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Immunoassays; Biospecific binding assays.(on solid supports)

G01N 33/53 and sub groups ( G01N53/543 and subgroups)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds containing polynucleotide units obtained by (or as intermediates for) chemical engineering

C07H21/00C4

Preparation of peptides on supports

Special rules of classification within this group

Aspects of methods and devices for combinatorial chemistry classified in B01J 19/0046 are to be classified in the corresponding Indexing Code-codes below B01J 2219/00274

Solid sorbent compositions or filter aid compositions; Sorbents for chromatography; Processes for preparing, regenerating or reactivating thereof ( use of sorbent compositions in liquid separation B01D 15/00 , use of filter aid compositions B01D 37/02 ; use of sorbent compositions in gas separation B01D 53/02 , B01D 53/14)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Solid inorganic or organic materials and compositions useful as adsorbent, as absorbent, as filter aid, as packing or stationary phase for preparative, analytical or investigative chromatography.

Solid sorbent materials or compositions, filter aid materials or compositions, stationary phases for chromatography, in general, characterised by their form or physical properties.

Solid sorbent materials or compositions, filter aid materials or compositions and stationary phases comprising a carrier.

Processes, in general, for preparing solid sorbents, filter aids and stationary phases for chromatography.

Regenerating or reactivating such materials or compositions, in general.

In this group "solid sorbent or filter aid" includes also materials or compositions in semi-solid, paste or gel state.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Ion exchange materials or ion exchange processes

Ion-exchangers used in processes for treating water

Chromatography involving ion exchange

Using ion-exchange for investigating or analysing materials

liquid absorbents for solvent extraction processes, i.e. separating processes involving the treatment of liquids with liquid

liquid absorbents for use in the separation of gases

Compounds per se

see the relevant classes C01, C07, C08

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes and apparatus involving the treatment of liquids in general with solid sorbents.

Processes involving the treatment of water with sorbents.

Processes of filtration by addition of filter aids to the liquid being filtered.

Processes involving the treatment or separation of gases with adsorbents.

Investigating or analysing materials by separation into components using adsorption, absorption or similar phenomena or using ion-exchange, e.g. chromatography

Preparing specimens for investigating by concentrating samples using adsorption or absorption

Processes for refining hydrocarbon oils involving solid sorbents.

Processes for treating blood in an extra-corporeal blood circuits involving sorbents.

Animal litters.

Treatment of radioactively contaminated liquids using sorbents.

Purification of sugar juices using sorbents

Treatment of milk

Clarification materials used in the clarification of alcoholic beverages.

Working-up used lubricants with the use of sorbents.

Separation or purification of peptides by chromatography.

Processes for the isolation, preparation or purification of DNA or RNA

Uptaking or getter material for reversible uptake of hydrogen

Super-absorbents or liquid swellable gel forming materials used in absorbent pads.

Materials used for absorbing liquid pollutants, e.g. oil, gasoline, fat.

Purification of hydrocarbons by adsorption.

Extraction of metals from ores or concentrates by wet processes.

Gas sorbents in vessels, e.g. for storage.

CO2 capture by adsorption

Deodorant compositions containing sorbent material, e.g. activated carbon

Recovery of noble metals from waste materials from spent catalysts using solid sorbents, e.g. getters or catchment gauzes

Boiler-absorbers, i.e. boilers usable for absorption or adsorption using a solid as sorbent

Drying solid materials or objects by processes not involving the application of heat by contact with sorbent bodies, e.g. adsorbent mould; by admixture with sorbent materials

Controlling humidity by using sorbent or hygroscopic materials in arrangements for supplying and controlling air or gases for drying solid materials or objects

Removal of unwanted matter from foods or foodstuffs, e.g. deodorisation , detoxification using adsorption or absorption agents, resins, synthetic polymers , or ion exchangers

Special rules of classification within this group

Pure compounds or elements are classified in the appropriate subclass for chemical compounds or elements. When it is explicitly stated that a solid pure inorganic or organic compound or element is useful as a sorbent, filter aid, packing or stationary phase for chromatography, it is further classified in B01J 20/00-B01J20/34C.

  • In groups B01J 20/00-B01J20/34C, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.
  • In some cases, multiple classification should be applied:

In the case of documents relating to different solid sorbents, filter materials or stationary phases as alternatives or relating to compositions of several of these components, each sorbent or component should be classified in the appropriate place within B01J 20/00-B01J20/34C.

Use of solid sorbent materials or compositions are also further classified in the corresponding appropriate classes.

  • Sorbents specially useful for preparative, analytical or investigative chromatography, e.g. stationary phases, are classified in B01J 20/281-B01J 20/292.

The Indexing Code symbol L01J220/20 should also be used when the stationary phase is used for analytical or investigative chromatography.

  • B01J 20/30 is used for classifying processes for preparing sorbents. B01J 20/30 should only be used for particular processes wherein the sorbent prepared is irrelevant or not well defined. The preparation process of a well defined sorbent should be classified in the appropriate group corresponding to the sorbent B01J 20/02-B01J 20/292.
  • However, sorbents or stationary phases and their preparation involving coating, impregnating, e.g. coating, impregnating by modifying or functionalizing a carrier, should both be classified in B01J 20/32-B01J 20/3297.
  • Regeneration or reactivation of sorbents should be classified in B01J 20/34-B01J20/34C.
Catalysts comprising the elements, oxides, or hydroxides of magnesium, boron, aluminium, carbon, silicon, titanium, zirconium, or hafnium
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts comprising the elements, oxides, or hydroxides of magnesium, boron, aluminium, carbon, silicon, titanium, zirconium, or hafnium

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrocatalysts, electrodes

Special rules of classification within this group

See the Special rules of classification of B01J

Alumina
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Alumina per se

{Titanium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Titania per se

Photocatalysts

{Zirconium or hafnium; Oxides or hydroxides thereof}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zirconia per se

Clays or other mineral silicates
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Pillared clays

Regeneration or reactivation
Special rules of classification within this group

Regeneration processes may additionally be classified in B01J 38/00, if details of the regeneration process are disclosed

Catalysts comprising metals or metal oxides or hydroxides, not provided for in group B01J 21/00 (B01J 21/16 takes precedence )
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrocatalysts, electrodes

Special rules of classification within this group

See the Special rules of classification of B01J

{Mixed oxides other than spinels, e.g. perovskite}
Special rules of classification within this group

Mixed oxides containing 3 or more elements (excluding oxygen) are classified in the appropriate class, and the examples are additionally classified as B01J 2523/00+[B01J 2523/00]/...+/...., where each element constituting the exemplified mixed oxide is indexed using the relevant classification symbols of B01J 2523/00 to B01J 2523/847,in numerical order without B01J 2523/00 and preceded by the sign "+", e.g. Moa Vb Tec Ox B01J 2523/00+/55+/64+/68

{Mixed salts}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Hydroxy carbonates

Hydrotalcite per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Hydrotalcites obtained as intermediate, later converted to other structures, may be indexed using an Indexing Code.

Synonyms and Keywords

In the patent documents the following expressions/words "hydrotalcite", "anionic clay","HT" and "HTc" are often used as synonyms.

Alkali metals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts comprising magnesium

of rare earths
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Zr-Ce mixed oxides per se

with alkali- or alkaline earth metals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts comprising platinum group metals with magnesium.

with alkali- or alkaline earth metals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts comprising iron group metal or copper with magnesium.

Regeneration or reactivation
Special rules of classification within this group

Regeneration processes may additionally be classified in B01J 38/00, if details of the regeneration process are disclosed

Regeneration or reactivation relates to any type of catalyst

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts comprising metals, oxides or hydroxydes provided in groups B01J 13/02 to B01J 23/36 are classified in B01J 23/92

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts comprising metals, oxides or hydroxides of the iron group metals or copper are classified in B01J 23/94

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts comprising metals, oxides or hydroxides of the nobles metals are classified in B01J 23/96

Catalysts of the Raney type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts of the Raney type, i.e. catalysts prepared by leaching of an alloy to produce porous structure, such as by dissolving aluminium from alloy using a base such as NaOH.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrocatalysts, electrodes

Special rules of classification within this group

See the Special rules of classification of B01J

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "Raney catalyst", "sponge-metal catalyst" and "skeletal catalyst" are often used as synonyms.

Regeneration or reactivation
Special rules of classification within this group

Regeneration processes may additionally be classified in B01J 38/00, if details of the regeneration process are disclosed

Catalysts comprising the elements or compounds of halogens, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphorus or nitrogen; Catalysts comprising carbon compounds
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrocatalysts, electrodes

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Metal catalysts or metal oxide catalysts activated or conditioned by halogens, sulfur or phosphorus, or compounds thereof are classified in the appropriate groups for metal or metal oxide catalysts (B01J 23/00) and in the groups relevant for activation / conditioning (B01J 37/00).

See also special rules of classification in B01J

with chromium, molybdenum, tungsten or polonium
Special rules of classification within this group

Heteropolyacids are classified in B01J 27/188 and subgroups, even if no phosphorus is present, in which case the regular class is additionally given (e.g. H4[W12SiO40] is classified in B01J 23/30 and B01J 27/188)

Hydroxy carbonates
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mixed salts

Hydrotalcite per se

Special rules of classification within this group

Hydrotalcites are classified in B01J 23/007

Cyanides
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DMC

Double Metal Cyanide

Regeneration or reactivation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts comprising elements or compounds of halogens, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphorous, nitrogen or catalysts comprising carbon compounds

Special rules of classification within this group

Regeneration processes may additionally be classified in B01J 38/00, if details of the regeneration process are disclosed

Catalysts comprising molecular sieves { (molecular sieves per se C01B) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrocatalysts, electrodes

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Aspects of molecular sieve catalysts relating to after treatment, such as dealumination, or synthesis on support, are indexed with codes selected from B01J 2229/00

See also special rules of classification in B01J

{ Mixtures of molecular sieves comprising at least one molecular sieve which is not an aluminosilicate zeolite, e.g. from groups B01J 29/03 to B01J 29/049 or B01J 29/82 to B01J 29/89}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mixtures containing only aluminosilicate zeolites

Special rules of classification within this group

Mixtures of containing one or more molecular sieves which are not a (aluminosilicate) zeolite are classified here, and their constituents are classified individually with the corresponding B01J 29/00-Indexing Codes

Mixtures of different zeolites
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Mixtures containing one or more molecular sieves, which are not (aluminosilicate) zeolites

Special rules of classification within this group

Mixtures of (aluminosilicate) zeolites are classified here, and their constituents are classified individually with the corresponding B01J 29/00-Indexing Codes

Regeneration or reactivation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts comprising molecular sieves

Special rules of classification within this group

Regeneration processes may additionally be classified in B01J 38/00, if details of the regeneration process are disclosed

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Regeneration, Reactivation

a substance microscopically dispersed evenly throughout another substance. The colloidal system, which may be solid, liquid or gaseous, has a very high stability, i.e. precipitation does not occur under the influence of gravity.

Microcapsule

a core-shell particle with a stable, non-transient shell

Catalysts comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds (catalyst compositions used only in polymerisation reactions C08; { ( catalytic antibodies C12N 9/0002) } )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts comprising:

The meaning of the term “catalyst” within this group encompasses catalyst systems, i.e. additives essential to the catalytic function of such systems are also included in this group, e.g. co-catalysts, specific reagents, solvents or solvent mixtures.

Further covered by this group is:

Regeneration or reactivation of such catalysts, catalyst systems or constituents thereof, e.g. metal, ligand (B01J 31/40) by chemical and/or physical means, e.g. membrane separation (B01J 31/4061), extraction with special solvents (B01J 31/4069), electrochemical processes (B01J 31/4076).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A material is classified as catalyst when the application states that it is useful as catalyst (or catalyst support) and when details regarding its composition, properties, preparation or regeneration are disclosed.

Compounds per se are classified in subclasses C07C to C07F. This compound classification is also (additionally) applied in cases where multiple possible uses from distinct chemical fields are disclosed in the application, e.g. as catalysts, sorbents or medicinal agents.

Catalysts only used as electrocatalysts are not classified in B01J but in H01M.

In contrast to apparatuses used for polymerisation processes classified in C08F and C08G, the relevant catalysts should not be classified in B01J, in particular not in B01J 31/00, since these, as well as further polymerisation process features are covered in the polymer subclasses of C08. Indexing using Indexing Codes B01J 31/00 may however be made to provide non-obligatory further information of potential interest for search purposes.

Multiple classification

The intended use of the catalysts of this group is preferably classified as well, e.g. in a group of C07B to C07D.

Separately claimed ligands of metal complexes should be classified in a group of C07C to C07F.

Any part of a catalyst which is not identified by the classification according to the point above, and which is considered to represent information of interest for search, may also be classified. This can, for example, be the case when it is considered of interest to enable searching of catalysts using a combination of classification symbols. Such non-obligatory classification should be given Indexing Codes as "additional information"

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Double metal cyanide (DMC) catalysts

Examples of places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Gas treating using catalysts

Catalyst compositions used only in polymerisation reactions

Catalytic antibodies

Metal complexes as bleach catalysts in detergent compositions

Metal complexes in liquid carbonaceous fuels

Electrocatalysts

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Metal complexes as synthetic dyes

Catalysts comprising inorganic carbon compounds

Ion-exchange processes and apparatus, per se

General methods of organic chemistry

C-C cross-coupling reactions

Acyclic or alicyclic organic compounds per se, their preparation

Hydroformylation (oxo-reaction)

Preparation of metal complexes, including MOFs, containing carboxylic acid moieties

Heterocyclic organic compounds per se, their preparation

Epoxidation (preparation of oxiranes)

Organic non-metal and metal compounds per se, including organometallic compounds and complexes, of groups 1–18 of the periodic table

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)

Catalysts comprising inorganic constituents or molecular sieves

Protection of catalysts, e.g. of Raney catalysts

Catalysts characterised by their form or physical properties

General processes for catalyst preparation or activation, e.g. impregnation, coating, reducing

General processes for catalyst regeneration or reactivation

Special rules of classification within this group

In this group, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place ("last place rule"). Classification is further made according to the reformed ECLA approach, i.e. important (invention-related) information is identified with ECLA classification symbols, e.g. B01J 31/02, other (secondary) information with Indexing Code symbols, e.g. B01J 31/02, from a “mirrored” Indexing Code scheme.

The distinction between “compound” and “coordination complex” is made according to the definitions in the glossary below; in case of doubt, the more probable case can be classified with ECLA symbols, e.g. B01J 31/223, while the other case is additionally indexed with the appropriate Indexing Codes from B01J 31/00, e.g. B01J 31/0211. The wording in the application should also be considered. Thus in absence of exact identification of substances by name, formula or registry number, if reference is made exclusively to “complexes” and this designation appears correct on the basis of probability the catalyst in question should be classified as coordination complex.

In this group, if two or more aspects are of equal importance, these are each classified, e.g. two components in a catalyst system such as:

  • support and pendant or otherwise immobilised coordination complex;
  • MOF and all linking ligands;
  • coordination complex and essential additive; or
  • coordination complex and further catalytically active metal components, e.g. nanoparticles.

However, if two components, even if separately added, are described as forming, or known to form, a coordination complex, only the latter is classified, e.g. phosphine and Group 8-10 metal such as rhodium. The groups B01J 31/26 to B01J 31/38 are not to be used for the central metals in coordination complexes but rather for separately added further inorganic ingredients.

Likewise, the catalyst (system) and its regeneration method (see groups B01J 31/40), if defined in sufficient detail, would both be classified.

The further catalyst groups of B01J, i.e. B01J 21/00-B01J 38/00 can be used to classify such further aspects of materials and processes to be used, if not provided in sufficient detail in B01J 31/00, e.g. when a specially prepared inorganic support or a support with specific physical parameters or a special form is concerned. Further guidance in this respect is given in the classification rules for B01J 21/00 to B01J 29/00 and B01J 32/00 to B01J 38/00.

Each specifically disclosed alternative is separately classified, i.e. specifically disclosed by way of worked examples, specific claims and/or explicit alternatives therein. This applies even if the application does not claim a catalyst per se.

In the case of compounds of this group, and in analogy to the guidance given in subclass C07C (cf. respective classification rules), this means either real examples of claimed compounds, i.e. those which are prepared or for which physical data, preparation or regeneration details are given, and compounds which are individually named or drawn in the claims.

Conversely long lists ("shopping lists") of prophetic compounds which fall within the scope of the claims but which have not actually been prepared and characterised or at least individually claimed are not classified. Neither are individual compounds generated only via Markush enumerations of generic formulae classified.

All examples are classified individually. Even if classification of the “fully identified” compounds would lead to the assignment of a large number of subgroups, no generalisation to the next hierarchically higher level is made. However, in case the claims relate to a catalyst and if classification of the examples only does not suitably reflect the subject-matter of the claims, additional, general classes are given to cover the scope of the catalyst claims.

When classifying in B01J 31/00, additional information for the catalysts is provided as follows:

  • the specifically disclosed intended uses are indexed in B01J 2231/00;
  • general aspects of the complexes of group B01J 31/16, e.g. polynuclearity, ligand type, metal bonding mode(s) and the specifically disclosed central metal(s) therein, as well as additional information regarding any special solvents used for any catalyst system of this class are indexed in B01J 2531/00;
  • if expedient further compositional aspects of such complexes, e.g. non-coordinating substituents on the ligand described as essential and explicitly mentioned in the claims or the worked examples, are indexed in B01J 2540/00; and
  • conceptual articles, e.g. reviews, are separately indexed in B01J 2231/005 and B01J 2531/001.

Example:

A metal-organic framework would be classified in group B01J 31/1691, the principal ligands (e.g. dicarboxylate, bipyridine, pyrazine, dabco) would furthermore be classified with the appropriate groups from B01J 31/00, e.g. B01J 31/2239 for dicarboxylate linkers;

the orthogonal Indexing Code terms B01J 2531/0205 to B01J 2531/0222, would then be used to define the respective catalyst (component) further according to the respective SBU comprising the metal, e.g.:

  • tetrahedral [Zn4O] in MOF-5 and the IRMOF series => term is B01J 2531/0216 since a bi- or polynuclear complex, without metal-carbon bonds, is involved;
  • paddle-wheel [Cu2(O2CR)4], comprising a Cu-Cu bond, present in typical copper-based MOFs, e.g. [Cu2(1,4-bdc)2](4,4'-bipy) => term is B01J 2531/0219, since a bimetallic complex, without metal-carbon bonds, is involved.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Catalyst

Covers also a carrier forming part of the catalyst, specific additives and co-catalysts.

Organic compound

a compound in which carbon is bonded to - a second carbon;- at least one atom of hydrogen or halogen; or - nitrogen by a single or double bond;except cyanic acid (HOCN), cyanogen (NCCN), cyanamide (H2NCN), cyanogen halide (HalCN), hydrocyanic acid (HCN), isocyanic acid (HNCO), fulminic acid (HCNO) and metal carbides (MCCM).

Organic ligand

a carbon-containing ligand bonded to a central metal in which said carbon is bonded to - a second carbon;- at least one atom of hydrogen or halogen; or - nitrogen by a single or double bond;except cyanic acid (HO-C≡N), cyanogen (N≡C-C≡N), cyanamide (H2N-C≡N), cyanogen halide (Hal-C≡N), hydrocyanic acid (HC≡N), isocyanic acid (HN=C=O), fulminic acid (HC≡N-O), carbides (C≡C) and the respective anionic ligands derived by deprotonation (O-C≡N, N=C=N, C≡N, N=C=O, C≡N-O).

Organometallic compounds

all organic compounds wherein a metal or metalloid atom is bonded directly to a carbon fragment, the latter being formally anionic, no further neutral ligands being coordinated to the metal and the compound requiring no further cations for charge balance; e.g. M(CR3)n with M= main group metal, n= valency of metal and R= H or hydrocarbyl.

Coordination complexes

all donor-acceptor compounds or complex ions comprising organic or inorganic, anionic or neutral Lewis basic ligands, attached to a Lewis acid central metal or metal ion through one or several complexing donor atoms with at least one lone-pair of electrons, e.g. N, O, S, P, to provide at least a sigma-bond; typically the maximum number of same or different ligands according to the coordination number, spatial requirements of the ligand and electronic configuration of the metal is bound in a predictable geometry;complexes of neutral, cationic or anionic hydrocarbon ligands with delocalised charge and/or bonding site, e.g. Pd-olefin complexes or metallocenes, are also included.

Organometallic complexes

all coordination complexes comprising a M-C bond, e.g. metal carbonyls; included are furthermore complexes which are not strictly organometallic per se, e.g. comprising only N, O, S and/or P coordinated ligands, but are described as involving, or known to involve, organometallic intermediates and/or transition states during use, e.g. Group 8-10 metal complexes for a variety of catalytic reactions or steps thereof, such as oxidative addition, e.g. of ArX, hydrogenation, carbonylation, epoxidation.

Organic complexes

all coordination complexes comprising organic ligands.

Polymer

a macromolecular substance (typically M>10000 g/mol) comprising repeating units made up of one or several kinds of atoms or groups of atoms, which are identically connected to one another.

Oligomer

compound with more than two identical repeating units connected to one another and typically 500 less than M less than 10000 g/mol; grouped with the respective polymers

Ionic liquid

an organic salt in the liquid state at the reaction temperature employed, e.g. less than or equal to 100 °C or less than or equal to 20 °C (“room-temperature ionic liquid”)

Metal-organic framework

crystalline compounds consisting of metal ions or clusters coordinated to often rigid organic molecules as linkers to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures; see e.g. reviews: - O. Yaghi et al., Nature 423 (2003) 705-714 (XP2392829),- M.J. Rosseinsky, Micropor. Mesopor. Mat. 73 (2004) 15-30 (XP4522127); the linkers are often dicarboxylates, the metals often Zn, Cu, Fe or Al.

Carbenes (Carbynes)

a metal coordination complex comprising a formally divalent (trivalent) ligand with a neutral carbon atom bonded to the metal via two (three) unshared electrons, i.e. a formal derivative of the hypothetical ligand CR2 (CR), the electrons may be paired or not.

N-Heterocyclic carbene

a saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic compound comprising a neutral carbon atom with a lone electron pair (in the typical case of singlet or “nucleophilic” carbenes) adjacent to at least one nitrogen atom.

Bi- or polynuclear complex

a coordination complex comprising two or more same or different metal atoms, without M-M bonds; e.g. Cp(Lx)Zr-imidazole-Zr(Lx)Cp, [R2PCp-Fe-CpPR2]Rh(L)n, [(salen)Co(III)]SbF6, Co(II)(salen)Fe(II)Cl2.

Bimetallic complex

a discrete coord. complex comprising one or more units of two metals, same or different, with metal-metal bonds but no all-metal (M)n rings, e.g. Cr2(OAc)4, [(Mo2)4(MeOPhNCNPhOMe)8(Ph(COO)2)4], [Ph2P-X-PPh2]Pt(Cl)SnCl3, [Cp(CO)2Mn=]2Pb.

Metal cluster

a coordination complex with 3 to abt. 1000 same or different metal atoms and further comprising M-M bonds to provide (M)n rings, i.e. size range from atomic to colloid dimensions; e.g. Rhx(CO)y, [R3P=N=PR3]+[Ru3lr(CO)13]-, [Rh3(DIPAMP)3(μ3-OMe)2]BF4, Pt4(OAc)8, "Pd(OAc)2" = Pd3(OAc)6.

Synonyms and Keywords

(RT)IL

(room-temperature) ionic liquid

MOF

metal-organic framework

Acac

acetylacetonate

NHC

N-heterocylic carbene

Cp

cyclopentadienyl

Cp*

pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl

In patent documents the words "phosphanes" and "phosphines" are often used as synonyms, as are “N-heterocyclic carbene” and any member of the family of 1,3-dihydrocarbylimidazoline-2-ylidenes or its saturated imidazolidine analogue.

containing organic compounds or metal hydrides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

B01J 31/02 to B01J 31/0274: Catalysts comprising simple organic compounds as components of a catalyst system (e.g. solvent or additive) or catalysts per se (e.g. sulfonic acids), which can contain the heteroatoms (i.e. elements other than carbon or hydrogen) defined in B01J 31/0201 to B01J 31/0255 or other heteroatoms (B01J 31/0272), with the exception of metal atoms as heteroatoms (see B01J 31/12).

B01J 31/0277 to B01J 31/0298: Catalysts comprising ionic liquids, as components in catalyst systems or catalysts per se, the ionic liquid compounds being used in the molten state at the respective reaction temperature. Compounds likewise being organic onium salts but only used in the solid or dissolved state in multiphase mixtures (e.g. phase-transfer catalysts) and/or with melting points at temperatures above those normally used in organic synthesis (i.e. > 200 °C) would not be classified here but rather in the catalyst compound subgroups of B01J 31/02 to B01J 31/0274.

B01J 31/04: Catalysts comprising carboxylic acids or their salts, with the exception of multi-metal carboxylate complexes like “Pd(II)acetate”, i.e. Pd3(OAc)6 or “Cr(II)acetate”, i.e. Cr2(OAc)4 and ionic liquids with carboxylate counter-anions (see B01J 31/0277).

B01J 31/06 to B01J 31/10: Catalysts comprising polymers and/or oligomers without metal-carbon bonds, including (sulfonated) ion-exchange resins.

B01J 31/12 to B01J 31/146: Catalysts comprising organometallic compounds, including organometallic polymers and metal hydrides.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Catalysts comprising coordination complexes

Multi-metal carboxylate complexes with bridging ligands

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

B01J 31/02 to B01J 31/0274: The last place rule is applied for the catalysts of this subgroup. It is applied in the following manner when two or more different heteroatoms or functional groups are present in one compound:

  • The heteroatom furthest down in the scheme is classified first by choosing an appropriate functional group, or the generic element subgroup, i.e. B01J 31/0215, B01J 31/0234, B01J 31/0235, B01J 31/0255, B01J 31/0272 if none is available.
  • Next the respective subgroup, within the subgroups of the chosen element/functional group, designating further heteroatoms/functional groups is allocated (B01J 31/0229, B01J 31/0232, B01J 31/0271 or B01J 31/0275), should heteroatoms outside of the scope of the chosen functional group remain (e.g. subgroups B01J 31/0222 and B01J 31/0225 cover certain S-O combinations, likewise B01J 31/0245). In the case of halogen being the heteroatom furthest down in the scheme, only this group is allocated (i.e. not both B01J 31/0231 and B01J 31/0232), unless perfluorinated sulfonyl or sulfonic acid functional groups are concerned (=> groups B01J 31/0224, B01J 31/0227).
  • Next the appropriate functional group or the generic element subgroup for the second heteroatom is allocated.
  • If further heteroatoms or functional groups are present, the preceding step is repeated as often as needed, i.e. only the groups corresponding to the further functional groups/elements are added.

Additional indexing is provided for by codes B01J 2531/90 to B01J 2531/985 for special (essential) solvent (systems), e.g. supercritical solvent (mixtures), fluorinated or aqueous solvents, as well as for solvent systems used in phase-transfer catalysis. Catalysts designated as phase transfer catalysts are hence additionally indexed under B01J 2531/98 or B01J 2531/985.

B01J 31/0277 to B01J 31/0298: The last place rule is applied in the same way as for B01J 31/02 to B01J 31/0274, however starting from the appropriate cationic centre (cf. B01J 31/0278 to B01J 31/0289). Thus the symbols from B01J 31/02 to B01J 31/0274 are also used to classify multifunctional “task specific” ionic liquids. As in the case of B01J 31/02 to B01J 31/0274, the designation of further heteroatoms/functional groups is allocated only once, i.e. by way of B01J 31/0285 or B01J 31/0291. Additional subgroups should be allocated in case of a single, or at most very limited selection of, claimed counter-ions (i.e. not when “shopping lists” of explicit ions are claimed): B01J 31/0298, or when (special) supports are disclosed or claimed: B01J 31/0292 to B01J 31/0297.

B01J 31/04: If deemed expedient, carboxylate complexes to be classified in B01J 31/2226 and subgroups can additionally receive an Indexing Code symbol B01J 31/04 as additional, search relevant information.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Organic compound

a compound in which carbon is bonded to - a second carbon;- at least one atom of hydrogen or halogen; or - nitrogen by a single or double bond;except cyanic acid (HOCN), cyanogen (NCCN), cyanamide (H2NCN), cyanogen halide (HalCN), hydrocyanic acid (HCN), isocyanic acid (HNCO), fulminic acid (HCNO) and metal carbides (MCCM).

Metal amide

M+[NR2]-

Metal guanidide

M+[RNC(NR2)NR]- and isomers

Onium salt

salts of cations derived by the protonation of mononuclear parent hydrides of a pnictogen (Grp. 15), chalcogen (Grp. 16), or halogen (Grp. 17), their hydrogen substitution derivatives R, typ. organic radicals or halogens, e.g. tetramethylammonium, and further derivatives having polyvalent additions, e.g. iminium, nitrilium.

Ionic liquid

an organic, typ. onium salt in the liquid state at the reaction temperature employed, e.g. ≡ 100 °C or ≡ 20 °C (“room-temperature ionic liquid”)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation are often used:

EO

ethylene oxide, oxirane

PO, PPO

propylene oxide, methyl oxirane

OTf

triflate, trifluoromethanesulfonate

OMs

mesylate, methanesulfonate

TBAB

tetrabutylammonium bromide

(RT)IL

(room-temperature) ionic liquid

Bmim

ionic liquids: 1,3-butyl- methylimidazolium cation

Emim

ionic liquids: 1,3-ethyl- methylimidazolium cation

NTf2

ionic liquids: bistriflimide anion

HMDS

hexamethyldisilazane, Me3Si-NH-SiMe3

In patent documents the expressions “metal esters”, “metal alkoxides” and “metal ethers” are often used as synonyms.

containing polymers { ( organometallic polymers B01J 31/123 ; polymer-bound organometallic complexes B01J 31/165 ; coordination polymers B01J 31/1691) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts containing polymers and/or oligomers without metal-carbon bonds, including (sulfonated) ion-exchange resins.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In contrast to the “oligomer” definition in C07C (up to 10 repeating units), the definition used in this group is more than two repeating units and a molecular weight of between about 500 and 10 000 g/mol. Furthermore, in this group oligomers are grouped with the respective polymers, whereas in C07C they are grouped with low-molecular weight compounds.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

(Sulfonated) Ion-exchange resins

Organometallic polymers

Polymer-bound organometallic complexes

Coordination polymers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Polymers, polymerisation catalysts

Ion-exchange resins in ion-exchange per se

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

In this subgroup, oligomers are grouped with the respective polymers, i.e. with the polymers constituted of the same monomers.

Example:

An alkoxylation catalyst of the following preferred structure,

media4.png

and the definition:

“wherein t is from 1 to 15, preferably from 1 to 10, more preferably from 1 to 7. Particularly preferred ethoxylated/propoxylated species coming within Formula IV which are useful in the present invention are those wherein R1 contains from 8 to 14 carbon atoms, p is from 2 to 6 and t is from 1 to 3, most preferably from 1 to 1.5”

would overlap with the oligomer range (see Glossary), since MW of cat B = 536 (with R1 = C14 alkyl, p= 6, t= 1) => oligomer and therefore to be classified as polymer, i.e. B01J 31/068 (a polyalkylene glycol), cf. WO2007/030277.

The subgroup B01J 31/063 is reserved for polymers with a precisely defined and special microstructure.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Polymer

a macromolecular substance (typically M>10000 g/mol) comprising repeating units made up of one or several kinds of atoms or groups of atoms, which are identically connected to one another.

Oligomer

compound with more than two identical repeating units connected to one another and typically 500 less than M less than 10000 g/mol; grouped with the respective polymers

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation are often used:

PEG

poly ethyleneglycol

In patent documents the expressions “Polyethylene glycol” or PEG, “polyethylene oxide” or PEO, “polyoxyethylene” or POE and the tradename “Carbowax” are often used as synonyms.

containing organo-metallic compounds or metal hydrides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monomeric and polymeric organometallic compounds, the metals, with the exception of arsenic and antimony, including those defined in the notes under the title of section C, and furthermore include the metalloid element boron as “metal”.

In the case of organometallic polymers the metalloid elements silicon, arsenic, antimony, selenium and tellurium are furthermore covered under the term “metal”.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Organometallic monomeric compounds of antimony, arsenic

Organic monomeric compounds of silicon, selenium, tellurium

Dendrimers

Calixarenes and hetero-analogues, e.g. thiacalixarenes

Molecularly imprinted polymers

(Sulfonated) Ion-exchange resins

Polymer-bound organometallic complexes

Coordination polymers

Catalysts for the preparation of polysiloxanes, e.g. Karstedt catalysts

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Organometallic compounds per se

Special rules of classification within this group

B01J 31/123: if the organometallic polymer carries a coordination complex and that complex is covalently bound, it may be additionally classified in these groups, if appropriate (i.e. providing additional information). In any case it is to be classified in B01J 31/1675.

B01J 31/128: this subgroup is only used when at least two different species of organometallic compounds are involved, e.g. by addition of two different organometallic starting compounds.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Organometallic compounds

all organic compounds wherein a metal or metalloid atom is bonded directly to a carbon fragment, the latter being formally anionic, no further neutral ligands being coordinated to the metal and the compound requiring no further cations for charge balance; e.g. M(CR3)n with M= main group metal, n= valency of metal and R= H or hydrocarbyl.

containing coordination complexes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

B01J 31/16 to B01J 31/2495: Catalysts containing coordination complexes with inorganic or organic ligands, including organometallic complexes on an inorganic or polymer support, coordination polymers and metal-organic frameworks, as well as phosphines.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Compounds comprising only alkyl groups bonded to a metal

(Poly)Oxoacid (poly)salts

Other compounds comprising only anionic organo-nitrogen, organo-oxygen or organo-sulfur fragments with a metal bonded to these heteroatoms, e.g. Ti(OR)4

B01J 31/02 to B01J31/02E2B

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Preparation of metal complexes, including MOFs, containing carboxylic acid moieties per se

MOF's per se

C07F, in particular C07F 19/005

Special rules of classification within this group

Each coordinating atom and its respective environment is separately classified, viz. in terms of atoms or functional groups involved, unless provided for by way of specific multi-atom donor sets (e.g. B01J 31/189, B01J 31/2217, B01J 31/2221, B01J 31/2495).

All complexes are further indexed in B01J 2231/00 according to specifically disclosed intended use(s), unless already provided for otherwise (e.g. by way of complete classification in C07C) and in B01J 2531/00 according to the central metals in the complexes and further structural aspects, such as number of donor atoms, geometry, chirality, metal bonding mode, polynuclearity, as well as chemical environment aspects, such as any special solvents being used or phase-transfer systems. If appropriate, further compositional aspects such as essential non-coordinating substituents on the ligands can be indexed in B01J 2540/00.

B01J 31/1616, B01J 31/165: In these groups and their respective sub-groups B01J 31/1625 - B01J 31/1641 and B01J 31/1658 - B01J 31/1683, the coordination environment would be additionally classified as the corresponding complex wherein the solid support has been replaced by a hydrogen atom. The terms B01J 2531/0205 to B01J 2531/0222 would be likewise used to define the respective catalyst (component) further, by indexing according to the corresponding complex attached, e.g.:

mono- di- or oligomeric cobalt(salen) complex covalently bound via alkylene tether and -Si(Me)(OEt)2 groups to silica (cf. WO2010/099300 A) => term is B01J 2531/0216 since a bi- or polynuclear complex, without metal-carbon bonds, is involved (the two coordinating metals, Co(III), not shown below):

media5.png
;

copolymer of [2-Ph2PCH2-4-PPh2-1-acryloyl-pyrrolidine]Pt(Cl)SnCl3 and styrene (cf. WO 88/08835 A) => term is B01J 2531/0219 since a bimetallic complex, without metal-carbon bonds, is involved.

If a support is involved, which is not already covered by these groups (e.g. because it is only broadly defined or because there is no adequately specific classification group for it), it would be additionally classified in groups B01J 21/00, B01J 23/00 or B01J 29/00, respectively in the appropriate sub-groups of B01J 31/061 to B01J 31/068 or B01J 31/124 to B01J 31/127. Alternatively, if not essential to the invention, the support may also be so indexed with the corresponding groups B01J 21/00, B01J 23/00 or B01J 29/00, respectively in the appropriate sub-groups of B01J 31/061 to B01J 31/068 or B01J 31/124 to B01J 31/127, see also the classification rules for B01J 21/00 to B01J 29/00 and B01J 32/00 to B01J 38/00.

B01J 31/1691: In this group the principal ligands (e.g. dicarboxylate, bipyridine, pyrazine, dabco) would be classified with the appropriate groups from B01J 31/16 and subgroups, e.g. B01J 31/2239 for dicarboxylate linkers;

the orthogonal Indexing Code terms B01J 2531/0205 to B01J 2531/0222, would be used to define the respective catalyst (component) further according to the respective SBU comprising the metal, e.g.:

tetrahedral [Zn4O] in MOF-5 and the IRMOF series => term is B01J 2531/0216 since a bi- or polynuclear complex, without metal-carbon bonds, is involved;

paddle-wheel [Cu2(O2CR)4], comprising a Cu-Cu bond, present in typical copper-based MOFs, e.g. [Cu2(1,4-bdc)2](4,4'-bipy) => term is B01J 2531/0219, since a bimetallic complex, without metal-carbon bonds, is involved.

B01J 31/189: In this subgroup only those metal complex ligands are to be classified that:

are (at least) bidentate, i.e. two bonds from two different atoms to the central metal, typically as chelate (=> adjacent atoms, e.g. in R2P-NR'R'' will not form a complex with both N and P coordinating for geometrical reasons (ring strain), as is also the case for e.g. phosphites, which are known to only coordinate vie P, not via both P and O, hence at least a one-atom space is required between P and N):

  • one of these atoms is N, e.g. as amine, imine, amide; and
  • the other is P, e.g. as phosphite, phosphonite, phosphinite, phosphine;

are described as forming bidentate complexes/chelates or at least reasonably are expected to do so (criteria see above).

Typical example:

R2P-Cn-NR'2 (n ≥ 1; R= hydrocarbyl, hydrocarbyloxy, -thio, etc.; R'= hydrocarbyl-C(=O)-, hydrocarbyl; rings possible using combinations of (R)s and/or (R')s).

Typical non-examples:

R2P-NR'-PR2 (with R, R' as above: as amide derivatives of phosphites, phosphonites or phosphinites, with no coordination by N yet known, these would respectively be B01J 31/186, B01J 31/187 or B01J 31/188.);

(RO)2P-NR'2 (with R= hydrocarbyl, R' as above, ring possibilities as above: amide derivatives of phosphites, i.e. phosphoramidites, these would be B01J 31/186).

B01J 31/24: In this group, phosphines are considered to be all compounds (ligands) that have phosphorus bonded to only carbon atoms, or to both carbon and hydrogen atoms, including sp2-hybridised phosphorus compounds such as phosphabenzene, phosphole (with a P-H bond) or anionic phospholide ligands (i.e. the P-deprotonation product of phosphole). Hence complexes with the parent PH3 ligand would be classified in B01J 31/1845.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Coordination complexes

all donor-acceptor compounds or complex ions comprising organic or inorganic, anionic or neutral Lewis basic ligands, attached to a Lewis acid central metal or metal ion through one or several complexing donor atoms with at least one lone-pair of electrons, e.g. N, O, S, P, to provide at least a sigma-bond; typically the maximum number of same or different ligands according to the coordination number, spatial requirements of the ligand and electronic configuration of the metal is bound in a predictable geometry;complexes of neutral, cationic or anionic hydrocarbon ligands with delocalised charge and/or bonding site, e.g. Pd-olefin complexes or metallocenes, are also included.

Organometallic complexes

all coordination complexes comprising a M-C bond, e.g. metal carbonyls; included are furthermore complexes which are not strictly organometallic per se, e.g. comprising only N, O, S and/or P coordinated ligands, but are described as involving, or known to involve, organometallic intermediates and/or transition states during use, e.g. Group 8-10 metal complexes for a variety of catalytic reactions or steps thereof, such as oxidative addition, e.g. of ArX, hydrogenation, carbonylation, epoxidation.

Metal-organic framework

crystalline compounds consisting of metal ions or clusters coordinated to often rigid organic molecules as linkers to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures; see e.g. reviews: - O. Yaghi et al., Nature 423 (2003) 705-714 (XP2392829),- M.J. Rosseinsky, Micropor. Mesopor. Mat. 73 (2004) 15-30 (XP4522127); the linkers are often dicarboxylates, the metals often Zn, Cu, Fe or Al.

Chelating or multidentate ligands

a ligand having more than one donor (Lewis basic) centre, the centres not being on contiguous atoms and being lone electron pairs, with each of these centres connecting to a common metal centre; the prefix κ denotes these ligands, the superscript index quantifies the number of bonding atoms of the ligand involved (κ2: bidentate ligand, usually omitted if no other coordinating entities are present)

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation are often used:

MOF

metal-organic framework

Acac

acetylacetonate

Organic complexes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts comprising coordination complexes comprising organic ligands, including polynuclear carboxylate complexes such as “Pd(II)acetate”, i.e. Pd3(OAc)6, “Pt(II)acetate”, i.e. Pt4(OAc)8 or “Cr(II)acetate”, i.e. Cr2(OAc)4.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:

Complexes of organic silicon ligands

Organic coordination complexes immobilised on an inorganic support

Organic coordination complexes immobilised on a polymer support

Coordination polymers, e.g. metal-organic frameworks (MOF)

Complexes containing nitrogen, phosphorus, arsenic or antimony as complexing atoms in organic ligands, if no oxygen as additional complexing atom is present, as in the case of e.g. the phosphite / phosphonate tautomer pair

Complexes of organic phosphines

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Catalysts comprising metal carbonyls

Special rules of classification within this subgroup

B01J 31/2265 (carbenes or carbynes): when more than one carbene ligand is involved and they differ from one another, this feature is separately classified in B01J 31/2278, in addition to that regarding the structural type of carbene ligand, i.e. generic / heterocyclic carbene / NHC as classified in B01J 31/2265, B01J 31/2269 and B01J 31/2273, respectively.

Additional classification should be given in groups B01J 31/22 for those complexes referred out above if appropriate groups are found, e.g. for ligands of B01J 31/22 attached to a polymer or inorganic support or included in a coordination polymer.

Example P----O ligand (---- being a carbon-containing bridge with a P-C bond) => B01J 31/22

but

Non-example phosphate => B01J 31/1845

Non-example PNP-ligands of general structure R2P-N(R)-PR2 =>

B01J 31/188 (amide derivative of a phosphinite ligand)

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Organic ligand

a carbon-containing ligand bonded to a central metal in which said carbon is bonded to - a second carbon;- at least one atom of hydrogen or halogen; or - nitrogen by a single or double bond;except cyanic acid (HO-C≡N), cyanogen (N≡C-C≡N), cyanamide (H2N-C≡N), cyanogen halide (Hal-C≡N), hydrocyanic acid (HC≡N), isocyanic acid (HN=C=O), fulminic acid (HC≡N-O), carbides (C≡C) and the respective anionic ligands derived by deprotonation (O-C≡N, N=C=N, C≡N, N=C=O, C≡N-O).

Bridging ligand

a ligand connecting two or more metal centres in an at least binuclear complex, the metal atoms being directly bonded to another or not; the prefix μ denotes these ligands, the superscript index quantifies the number of metal centres connected (the simplest case, 2, may be omitted)

Chelating or multidentate ligands

a ligand having more than one donor (Lewis basic) centre, the centres not being on contiguous atoms and being lone electron pairs, with each of these centres connecting to a common metal centre; the prefix κ denotes these ligands, the superscript index quantifies the number of bonding atoms of the ligand involved (κ2: bidentate ligand, usually omitted if no other coordinating entities are present)

Polyhapto ligands

a ligand having a group of contiguous atoms, typ. a π-electron system, which are coordinated to a common central atom; the prefix η denotes these ligands, the superscript index quantifies the number of contiguous bonding atoms of the ligand involved (η5: pentahapto ligand, e.g. Cp)

Thiocarbamates

ligands of either one of the following isomeric structures:

media6.png

N-Heterocyclic carbene

a saturated or unsaturated heterocyclic compound comprising a neutral carbon atom with a lone electron pair (in the typical case of singlet or “nucleophilic” carbenes) adjacent to at least one nitrogen atom.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviation are often used:

NHC

N-heterocyclic carbene

Cy

cyclohexyl

Mes

mesityl = 2,4,6-trimethylphenyl

IMes

1,3-dimesitylimidazoline-2-ylidene:

media7.png

SIMes

1,3-dimesitylimidazolidine-2-ylidene (see below)

Grubbs catalyst, 1st generation or Grubbs-I

X2L2Ru[=CHR]; L= PR3, typ. PCy3 (tricyclohexyl phosphine); X= anionic ligand, typ. Cl (e.g. Benzylidene-bis(tricyclohexylphosphine)​dichlororuthenium(II):

media8.png
)

Grubbs catalyst, 2nd generation or Grubbs-II

X2L1L2Ru[=CHR]; L1= PR3, typ. PCy3; L2= NHC, typ. 1,3-dihydrocarbylimidazoline-2-ylidenes (e.g. IMes) or the corresponding imidazolidines (e.g. SIMes, see Fig); X as above (e.g. (1,3-Bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene)dichloro(phenylmethylene)​(tricyclohexylphosphine)ruthenium(II))

media9.png

Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst, 1st generation

X2LRu=CHPhOiPr; L= PR3, typ. PCy3 ; (e.g. Dichloro(o-isopropoxyphenylmethyl​ene)​​(tricyclohexyl​phosphine)​ruthenium(II):

media10.png
)

Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst, 2nd generation

X2 LRu=CHPhOiPr; L= NHC, typ. SIMes (e.g. (1,3-Bis-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-2-imidazolidinylidene)dichloro(o-isopropoxy​phenylmethylene)ruthenium(II):

media11.png
)

Cp

cyclopentadienyl

Cp*

pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl

containing in addition, inorganic metal compounds not provided for in groups B01J 31/02 to B01J 31/24
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Additionally added inorganic metal compounds, e.g. binary metal halides such as TiCl4 or FeCl3.

These subgroups B01J 31/26 to B01J 31/38 are only used if such inorganic additives do not give rise to in-situ formed coordination complexes (see also notes following main-group title B01J 31/00).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Catalysts comprising metal coordination complexes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Catalysts comprising the elements or inorganic compounds of carbon, halogens, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, phosphorus or nitrogen

Catalysts comprising metal nanoparticles

Special rules of classification within this group

If two components, even if separately added, are described as forming, or known to form, a coordination complex, only the latter is classified, e.g. phosphine and Group 8-10 metal such as rhodium. The groups B01J 31/26 to B01J 31/38 are not to be used for the central metals in coordination complexes The specifically disclosed central metal(s) of said complexes are indexed in B01J 2531/10 to B01J 2531/847.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Inorganic compounds

compounds other than organic compounds

Regeneration or reactivation
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Regeneration or reactivation of the catalysts, catalyst systems or constituents thereof (e.g. metal, ligand) comprising hydrides, coordination complexes or organic compounds by chemical and/or physical means, e.g. membrane separation, extraction with special solvents, electrochemical processes.

Special rules of classification within this group

These subgroups are only used if non-trivial regeneration or reactivation steps are at least disclosed, i.e. more than simple filtration and/or washing in the case of supported catalysts.

Regeneration processes may additionally be classified in B01J 38/00, if pertinent details of the regeneration process are disclosed.

Catalyst carriers in general
Special rules of classification within this group

This main group is not used. Covered by B01J 21/00 - B01J 29/00

Protection of catalysts, e.g. by coating
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any protection of catalysts ; Conditioning catalyst such that it can be stored or transported, e.g. by coating with a removable material, by passivation involving controlled exposure to oxygen or by other generally reversible

Catalysts, in general, characterised by their form or physical properties
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Catalysts characterised by their form or physical properties, e.g. particle size, pore size, surface area

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Multiple classification: All relevant groups of this main group are allocated.

Catalytic membrane is classified in B01J 35/065

{Colloids}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Nanoparticles

Special rules of classification within this group

This class is assigned to catalysts comprising nanoparticles, even if not suspended in a liquid, i.e. even if strictly speaking no colloid.

If particle size indicated, B01J 35/006 is additionally allocated

{Photocatalysts}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Coating compositions per se

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Glass coated with TiO2

Disinfection, sterilisation or deodorisation of air using a photocatalyst or photosensitiser

Treatment of water with photocatalysts

Coating compositions

FI

Foraminous structures, sieves, grids, honeycombs
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ceramic foams etc.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Honeycomb structures per se

Wall flow filters

Exhaust gas treating with catalysts

Mechanical aspects relating to exhaust gas treatment

characterised by their surface properties or porosity
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

In this group, zeolites are not classified, if the application / patent merely describes the normal properties of the zeolite. Only if the surface properties or porosity have been changed substantially, B01J 35/10 and subgroups are used for zeolites.

Processes, in general, for preparing catalysts; Processes, in general, for activation of catalysts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for preparing any type of catalysts

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrocatalysts, electrodes

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Multiple classification: All relevant groups of this main group are allocated.

{Addition of a binding agent or of material, later completely removed among others as result of heat treatment, leaching or washing, (e.g. forming of pores; protective layer, desintegrating by heat) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Use of pore forming agents including mineral oils, steric acid, polyethylene glycol polymers, carbohydrate polymers, methacrylates, cellulose polymers, and carboxylates which decompose upon being heated.

Special rules of classification within this group

When applicable, groups from B01J 35/10 are to be given additionally

{using a colloidal suspension}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

reverse micelle

{Coating}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Devices for coating, coating in general

Paints, coating compositions per se

{in several steps}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparation of multilayered catalysts

{via the gaseous phase-sublimation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

chemical vapor deposition (CVD)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Physical vapor deposition

Special rules of classification within this group

add KW 37 cvd general (B01J)

{Coatings comprising several layers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

catalysts having a multi-layer structure, such as some exhaust gas catalysts

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Multilayered exhaust gas treating catalysts

Washing { (B01J 37/0009 , B01J 37/0018 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also includes leaching or etching by acids or bases

Special rules of classification within this group

B01J 37/0009, B01J 37/0018 take precedence

Ion-exchange
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

ion exchange of zeolite (see B01J 2229/18 and subgroups)

{Ionic or cathodic spraying; Electric discharge}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

physical vapor deposition (PVD)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Physical vapor deposition in general, C23C 14/00

Special rules of classification within this group

add KW 37 pvd general (B01J) or 37 pvd sputtering (B01J)

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts, in general
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any processes, treatments to regenerate or reactivate catalysts in general, e.g. heat treatment, gas or vapour treatment, liquid treatment

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Electrocatalysts, electrodes

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Multiple classification: All relevant groups of this main group are allocated.

The regeneration of a specific catalyst composition is classified also in B01J 21/20, B01J 23/90-B01J 23/96, B01J 25/04, B01J 27/28-B01J 27/32, B01J 29/90 according to the catalyst composition.

B01J 38/00 subgroups are used in combination with the specific groups mentioned above for detailed process.

Activation of new catalysts is classified in B01J 37/00.

Re-activation of spent/used catalysts is classified in B01J 38/00

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Reactivation= regeneration of catalyst

recovery of catalytic activity, rejuvanation, renewing a catalyst or making it reusable

Liquid treating or treating in liquid phase, e.g. dissolved or suspended
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Recovery of metals from (spent) catalysts C22B

Cation exchange; Use of material as cation exchangers; Treatment of material for improving the cation exchange properties ( cation exchange chromatography processes B01D 15/362)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • processes involving solid inorganic or organic cation exchangers and uses of inorganic or organic materials as cation exchangers whereby cations are exchanged between the solid exchanger and a medium to be treated.
  • the treatment of inorganic or organic materials used as cation exchangers.
  • cation exchangers as stationary phases or packings for chromatography processes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparative chromatography processes involving cation exchange

Investigative or analytical chromatography processes involving cation exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of cation exchangers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Cation exchange relating to particular applications, or relating to treating particular compound, may be classified in the following non-exhaustive list:

Processes involving the treatment of (waste) water by ion-exchange

Treatment or purification by ion exchange of solutions obtained from the extraction of metals from ores

Treating radioactively contaminated liquids using ion exchange

Separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by ion exchange

Modifying dairy products by ion exchange

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by ion exchange chromatography

Refining of hydrocarbon oils by ion-exchange material

Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples by ion-exchange chromatography

Purification, clarification of alcoholic beverages with the aid of ion-exchange material

Purification of sugar juices using ion exchange materials

Extraction of sugar from molasses using ion exchange

Removal of unwanted matter from foods or foodstuffs using ion exchangers

Clarifying, fining of non-alcoholic beverage by ion-exchange

Use of ion exchange materials for tobacco smoke filters

Purification or separation of hydrocarbons with ion-exchangers

Ion exchange resins used as catalyst

Processes in general for preparing or activating catalysts using ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts using ion-exchange

Manufacture of shaped structures of ion-exchange resins

Special rules of classification within this group

In groups B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

The IPC group B01D15/04 is not used in the internal ECLA classification scheme. Subject-matter covered by this group is classified in B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/02.

Compositions, apparatus or processes involving at least two different types of ion exchangers, e.g. two different cation exchangers, or a cation exchanger and an anion exchanger, are classified using a combination of the corresponding classes.

For example:

  • a process involving an organic cation exchanger in the strongly acidic form and an organic cation exchanger in the weakly acidic form is classified with B01J 39/043+ B01J 39/046.
  • a process involving an inorganic cation exchanger and an inorganic anion exchanger is classified with : B01J 39/02+ B01J 41/02.
  • a process involving an organic cation exchanger in the strongly acidic form and an organic anion exchanger in the weakly basic form is classified with B01J 39/043+ B01J 41/046.
Anion exchange; Use of material as anion exchangers; Treatment of material for improving the anion exchange properties ( anion exchange chromatography processes B01D 15/363)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Processes involving solid inorganic or organic anion exchangers and uses of solid inorganic or organic materials as anion exchangers whereby anions are exchanged between the solid exchanger and a medium to be treated.
  • the treatment of inorganic or organic materials used as anion exchangers
  • anion exchangers as stationary phases or packing for chromatography processes
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparative chromatography processes involving anion exchange

Investigative or analytical chromatography processes involving anion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of anion exchangers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Anion exchange relating to particular applications, or relating to treating particular compound, may be classified in the following non-exhaustive list:

Processes involving the treatment of (waste) water by ion-exchange

Treatment or purification by ion exchange of solutions obtained from the extraction of metals from ores

Treating radioactively contaminated liquids using ion exchange

Separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by ion exchange

Modifying dairy products by ion exchange

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by ion exchange chromatography

Refining of hydrocarbon oils by ion-exchange material

Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples by ion-exchange chromatography

Purification, clarification of alcoholic beverages with the aid of ion-exchange material

Purification of sugar juices using ion exchange materials

Extraction of sugar from molasses using ion exchange

Removal of unwanted matter from foods or foodstuffs using ion exchangers

Clarifying, fining of non-alcoholic beverage by ion-exchange

Use of ion exchange materials for tobacco smoke filters

Purification or separation of hydrocarbons with ion-exchangers

Ion exchange resins used as catalyst

Processes in general for preparing or activating catalysts using ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts using ion-exchange

Manufacture of shaped structures of ion-exchange resins

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

In groups B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

The IPC group B01D15/04 is not used in the internal ECLA classification scheme. Subject-matter covered by this group is classified in B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/02.

Compositions, apparatus or processes involving at least two different types of ion exchangers, e.g. two different anion exchangers, or a cation exchanger and an anion exchanger, are classified using a combination of the corresponding classes.

For example:

  • a process involving an organic anion exchanger in the strongly basic form and an organic anion exchanger in the weakly basic form is classified with B01J 41/043+ B01J 41/046
  • a process involving an inorganic cation exchanger and an inorganic anion exchanger is classified with : B01J 39/02+ B01J 41/02.
  • a process involving an organic cation exchanger in the strongly acidic form and an organic anion exchanger in the weakly basic form is classified with B01J 39/043+ B01J 41/046.
Amphoteric ion-exchange, i.e. using ion-exchangers having cationic and anionic groups; Use of material as amphoteric ion-exchangers; Treatment of material for improving their amphoteric ion-exchange properties ( ion-exchange chromatography processes B01D 15/36)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • processes involving solid amphoteric ion exchanger materials, i.e. having cation exchanging and anion exchanging groups and uses of such materials whereby both cations and anions are exchanged between the solid exchanger and a medium to be treated.
  • the treatment of these materials used as amphoteric ion-exchangers.
  • amphoteric ion exchange materials as stationary phase or packing for chromatography processes.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparative chromatography processes involving ion exchange

Investigative or analytical chromatography processes involving ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of ion exchangers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ion exchange relating to particular applications, or relating to treating particular compound, may be classified in the following non-exhaustive list:

Processes involving the treatment of (waste) water by ion-exchange

Treatment or purification by ion exchange of solutions obtained from the extraction of metals from ores

Treating radioactively contaminated liquids using ion exchange

Separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by ion exchange

Modifying dairy products by ion exchange

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by ion exchange chromatography

Refining of hydrocarbon oils by ion-exchange material

Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples by ion-exchange chromatography

Purification, clarification of alcoholic beverages with the aid of ion-exchange material

Purification of sugar juices using ion exchange materials

Extraction of sugar from molasses using ion exchange

Removal of unwanted matter from foods or foodstuffs using ion exchangers

Clarifying, fining of non-alcoholic beverage by ion-exchange

Use of ion exchange materials for tobacco smoke filters

Purification or separation of hydrocarbons with ion-exchangers

Ion exchange resins used as catalyst

Processes in general for preparing or activating catalysts using ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts using ion-exchange

Manufacture of shaped structures of ion-exchange resins

Special rules of classification within this group

In groups B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

The IPC group B01D15/04 is not used in the internal ECLA classification scheme. Subject-matter covered by this group is classified in B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/02.

Ion-exchange in which a complex or a chelate is formed; Use of material as complex or chelate forming ion-exchangers; Treatment of material for improving the complex or chelate forming ion-exchange properties ( ion-exchange chromatography processes B01D 15/36)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Processes involving solid inorganic or organic ion exchangers and use of inorganic or organic materials as ion exchangers whereby the ion exchangers forms complexes or chelates and bring about ion exchange between the solid exchanger and a medium to be treated.
  • the treatment of inorganic or organic materials used as ion exchanger in which a complex or chelate is formed.
  • Ion exchange materials in which a complex or chelate is formed, the materials being used as stationary phases or packing for chromatography processes.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparative chromatography processes or apparatus therefor involving ion exchange

Investigative or analytical chromatography processes or apparatus therefor involving ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of ion exchangers

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Ion exchange relating to particular applications, or relating to treating particular compound, may be classified in the following non-exhaustive list:

Processes involving the treatment of (waste) water by ion-exchange

Treatment or purification by ion exchange of solutions obtained from the extraction of metals from ores

Treating radioactively contaminated liquids using ion exchange

Separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by ion exchange

Modifying dairy products by ion exchange

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by ion exchange chromatography

Refining of hydrocarbon oils by ion-exchange material

Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples by ion-exchange chromatography

Purification, clarification of alcoholic beverages with the aid of ion-exchange material

Purification of sugar juices using ion exchange materials

Extraction of sugar from molasses using ion exchange

Removal of unwanted matter from foods or foodstuffs using ion exchangers

Clarifying, fining of non-alcoholic beverage by ion-exchange

Use of ion exchange materials for tobacco smoke filters

Purification or separation of hydrocarbons with ion-exchangers

Ion exchange resins used as catalyst

Processes in general for preparing or activating catalysts using ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts using ion-exchange

Manufacture of shaped structures of ion-exchange resins

Special rules of classification within this group

In groups B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

The IPC group B01D15/04 is not used in the internal ECLA classification scheme. Subject-matter covered by this group is classified in B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/02.

Ion-exchange processes in general; Apparatus therefor ( ion-exchange chromatography processes or apparatus B01D 15/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes in general involving ion-exchange and apparatus therefore, comprising cationic, anionic or amphoteric ion exchange resin

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Preparative chromatography processes or apparatus therefor involving ion-exchange

Investigative or analytical chromatography processes or apparatus therefor involving ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of ion exchangers

Processes or apparatus using semi-permeable membranes for electrodialysis, electro-osmosis; Such processes or apparatus comprising ion-exchange materials

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes involving the treatment of (waste) water by ion-exchange

Treatment of water by electrodialysis, electrodeionisation, electro-osmosis, capacitive deionisation

Arrangements or adaptation of water softeners and constructional details of the salt container or the ion exchanger in washing or rinsing machines for crockery or tableware

A47L 15/4229, A61L15/42D

Arrangements of water softeners in washing machines

Treatment or purification by ion exchange of solutions obtained from the extraction of metals from ores

Treating radioactively contaminated liquids using ion exchange

Separation of different isotopes of the same chemical element by ion exchange

Modifying dairy products by ion exchange

Extraction, separation or purification of peptides by ion exchange chromatography

Refining of hydrocarbon oils by ion-exchange material

Extracting or separating nucleic acids from biological samples by ion-exchange chromatography

Purification, clarification of alcoholic beverages with the aid of ion-exchange material

Purification of sugar juices using ion exchange materials

Extraction of sugar from molasses using ion exchange

Removal of unwanted matter from foods or foodstuffs using ion exchangers

Clarifying, fining of non-alcoholic beverage by ion-exchange

Use of ion exchange materials for tobacco smoke filters

Purification or separation of hydrocarbons with ion-exchangers

Ion exchange resins used as catalyst

Processes in general for preparing or activating catalysts using ion exchange

Regeneration or reactivation of catalysts using ion-exchange

Manufacture of shaped structures of ion-exchange resins

Special rules of classification within this group

In groups B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

The IPC group B01D15/04 is not used in the internal ECLA classification scheme. Subject-matter covered by this group is classified in B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/02.

Regeneration or reactivation of ion-exchangers; Apparatus therefor ( ion-exchange chromatography processes or apparatus B01D 15/08)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Processes or apparatus for regeneration or reactivation of ion-exchangers.
  • Reagents for regenerating or reactivating ion exchangers.
  • Cleaning or rinsing of ion exchanger beds.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Regeneration or reactivation of solid sorbents

Preparative chromatography processes or apparatus involving ion exchange

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Processes involving the treatment of (waste) water by ion-exchange

Arrangements or adaptation of water softeners and constructional details of the salt container or the ion exchanger in washing or rinsing machines for crockery or tableware

Arrangements of water softeners in washing machines

Special rules of classification within this group

In groups B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/00, in the absence of an indication to the contrary, classification is made in the last appropriate place.

The IPC group B01D15/04 is not used in the internal ECLA classification scheme. Subject-matter covered by this group is classified in B01J 39/00 to B01J 49/02.

Sequential or parallel reactions; Apparatus and devices for combinatorial chemistry or for making arrays; Chemical library technology
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This is an indexing scheme, where disclosed aspects of documents of relevance to B01J 19/0046 are classified, irrespective of whether this is invention information or additional information. As this is a(n) (deep) indexing scheme, documents usually receive multiple codes under B01J 2219/00274.

Documents may also receive codes under B01J 2219/00274 despite not having been classified in B01J 19/0046 if aspects are relevant to library technology.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Combinatorial libraries as such, and many aspects of combinatorial libraries, including synthesis, screening and identification of library members, relating to methods as well as devices, are not covered by this sub-group, but classified in C07, C12N, C40B.

Microfluidic analysis and PCR devices are classified in B01L 3/00.

Sampling and analysis devices per se are classified in G01N.

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Combinatorial libraries as such

C40B 40/00 and lower sub-groups

Peptide libraries

Nucleaic acid libraries and their screening

C12N15/00C and lower sub-groups

Nucleic acid analysis characterised by the use of probe arrays or probe chips.

Methods for sequencing involving nucleic acid arrays, e.g. Sequencing By Hybridisation

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Immunoassays; Biospecific binding assay s.(on solid supports)

G01N 33/53 and lower sub-groups ( G01N53/543 and subgroups)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

Compounds containing polynucleotide units obtained by (or as intermediates for) chemical engineering

C07H21/00C4

Preparation of peptides on supports

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This is an indexing scheme where the last-place Rule is not applied, but rather codes are given for every relevant aspect in a document. This is furthermore done regardless of whether this aspect appears in the claims, description or drawings.

Documents may receive codes under B01J 2219/00274 despite not having been classified in B01J 19/0046.

B01J 2219/00286: Reactor vessels with top and bottom openings.

This code is used for flow-through reactors in general, even if openings are, for example, at the side rather than top and bottom.

B01J 2219/00387: Applications using probes.

This code is also used for the use of pin-tools and dip-pen (nano-) lithography.

B01J 2219/00738: Organic catalysts.

This code also includes organometallic catalysts, which are then not given the code B01J 2219/00747.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

DPN

Dip Pen Nanolithography

In patent documents the expressions/words "stamping", "micro contact printing" and "soft lithography" are often used as synonyms.

Catalytic reactions performed with catalysts classified in B01J 31/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The group B01J 2231/00 is an indexing scheme, where specific catalytic reaction types of catalysts classified in B01J 31/00 are indexed according to purpose or concept. Elements from in particular C07B, C07C, C07D, C08F and C08G are incorporated. Multiple catalytic purposes are multiply indexed.

Polymerisation reactions are only indexed in groups B01J 2231/10 to B01J 2231/14 if at least a dual use of the catalyst is disclosed in the application, e.g. oligomerisation and polymerisation.

Relevant NPL publications such as review articles relating to methods of using catalyst systems are also indexed in this scheme.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

catalysts used only in polymerisation reactions

C08, M08

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:

asymmetric syntheses in general

optical isomers in general

M07M7/00

Special rules of classification within this group

In this group indexing is done according to the specific catalytic reaction. In case of multiple catalytic activities only those are indexed which are specifically exemplified, i.e. by ways of worked examples, specific claims or explicit alternatives therein.

General concepts, e.g. as presented in review articles, relating to methods of using catalyst systems are indexed in B01J 2231/005, the concept being defined by a common method or theory, e.g. microwave heating or multiple stereoselectivity

Polymerisation reactions are only indexed in groups B01J 2231/10 to B01J 2231/14 if at least a dual use of the catalyst is disclosed in the application, e.g. oligomerisation and polymerisation.

Group B01J 2231/76 includes dehydrogenative coupling, e.g. 2 CH2=CH-CH3 + O2 + 2 AcOH ---> 2 CH2=CH-CH2-OAc + 2 H2O; or H2C=CH2 + O2 + AcOH ---> H2C(vinyl acetate);

incl. H abstraction by oxidant and radical recombination, e.g. cyclohexene + tBuOOC(=O)Ph ---> cyclohexen-3-yl-OC(=O)Ph + tBuOH

Additional information regarding catalytic systems classified in B01J 31/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In this indexing scheme additional compositional aspects of the coordination complexes contained within group B01J 31/00 are indexed, e.g. polynuclearity, ligand type, metal bonding mode(s) and the specifically disclosed central metal(s) therein.

Furthermore additional information is indexed regarding any special solvent (systems) used for any catalyst system of the group B01J 31/00.

General concepts, e.g. as presented in review articles, relating to catalyst systems and methods of making them, the concept being defined by a common material or method/theory are indexed in B01J 2531/001 to B01J 2531/008.

Indexing codes B01J 2531/0202 to B01J 2531/0222 specify the presence and type of polynuclearity, as well as linkage type of the metals involved among themselves.

Indexing codes B01J 2531/0225 to B01J 2531/0283 characterise the complexes on the basis of bond-type (linkage-type) between central metal(s), thereby specifying the structural geometry of the complexes, while classification entries B01J 31/16 to B01J 31/24 are purely compositional subdivisions.

Indexing codes B01J 2531/0286 to B01J 2531/0297 broadly characterise ligands by their function.

Indexing codes B01J 2531/10 to B01J 2531/847 are used to index the individual (central) metals in the (polynuclear) complexes.

Special solvent (systems) used with any catalyst system of the group B01J 31/00 are indexed in B01J 2531/90 to B01J 2531/985.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

In this group the term "metals" refers to the central metal in the coordination complexes (B01J 31/16 to B01J 31/24), as used for the respective catalytic reaction, excluding simple carboxylates (see B01J 31/04) and other simple salts or organometallic compounds (see B01J 31/12).

As to components, only those metals or solvents are indexed which are explicitly mentioned in the claims or the worked examples.

As to compositional aspects, only those are provided for in the scheme below and are intended to be indexed, which provide additional information regarding the complexes and/or ligands classified in B01J 31/16 to B01J 31/24. Indexing codes B01J 2531/0286 to B01J 2531/0297 are only used if these aspects are described as essential.

The individual metals, the compositional aspects of complexes used and the solvents are indexed for each explicit alternative, according to the guideline above.

As to concepts, only the focus is indexed in B01J 2531/004 - B01J 2531/007 and only if groups with closely related members are concerned, e.g. N-heterocyclic carbenes (B01J 2531/004), Pd-complexes (B01J 2531/005), added halide (B01J 2531/007). Otherwise the main code B01J 2531/002 is used.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Ionic liquid

an organic salt in the liquid state at the reaction temperature employed, e.g. ≡ 100 °C or ≡ 20 °C (“room-temperature ionic liquid”)

Bi- or polynuclear complex

a coordination complex comprising two or more same or different metal atoms, without M-M bonds; e.g. Cp(Lx)Zr-imidazole-Zr(Lx)Cp, [R2PCp-Fe-CpPR2]Rh(L)n, [(salen)Co(III)]SbF6, Co(II)(salen)Fe(II)Cl2.

Bimetallic complex

a discrete coord. complex comprising one or more units of two metals, same or different, with metal-metal bonds but no all-metal (M)n rings, e.g. Cr2(OAc)4, [(Mo2)4(MeOPhNCNPhOMe)8(Ph(COO)2)4], [Ph2P-X-PPh2]Pt(Cl)SnCl3, [Cp(CO)2Mn=]2Pb.

Metal cluster

a coordination complex with 3 to abt. 1000 same or different metal atoms and further comprising M-M bonds to provide (M)n rings, i.e. size range from atomic to colloid dimensions; e.g. Rhx(CO)y, [R3P=N=PR3]+[Ru3lr(CO)13]-, [Rh3(DIPAMP)3(μ3-OMe)2]BF4, Pt4(OAc)8, "Pd(OAc)2" = Pd3(OAc)6.

Pincer-type complexes

Example (with metal-carbon bond):

media12.png

Tripodal ligand

Example (tris(pyrazolyl)borate skeleton):

media14.png

Tedicyp ligand (flexible)

media15.png

Corrole

Example:

media16.png

Phthalocyanin (parent structure)

media17.png

Porphyrin ring system

Example:

media18.png

BINAP (Ligand with axial chirality)

media19.png

DIOP (tartrate-derived ligand, example)

media20.png

Salen-ligand (parent structure)

media21.png

Ligand with affinity tag (example)

media22.png

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

(RT)IL

(room-temperature) ionic liquid

Cp

cyclopentadienyl

Cp*

pentamethyl cyclopentadienyl

Compositional aspects of coordination complexes or ligands in catalyst systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Additional information regarding catalytic systems classified in B01J 31/00 and not covered by B01J 2531/00.

In this group further compositional aspects of coordination complexes and/or ligands classified in B01J 31/16 to B01J 31/24 are indexed. Only such aspects are provided for and are intended to be indexed, which provide additional information regarding the complexes and/or ligands classified in B01J 31/16 to B01J 31/24 and indexed in B01J 2531/00, e.g. non-coordinating substituents on the ligand described as essential, and which are explicitly mentioned in the claims or the worked examples.

The primary subdivision is according to heteroatoms in such substituents, cf. indexing codes B01J 2540/10 (oxygen), B01J 2540/20 (halogen), B01J 2540/30 (sulfur), B01J 2540/40 (nitrogen), B01J 2540/50 (phosphorus). The respective lower groups define these heteroatom groups further.

A further primary subdivision is according to generic statements of function of substituent groups on the ligand, cf. B01J 2540/60. These functions must be presented as essential in the application, either in the description or the claims. The focus here is more on the groups as such, whereas the codes in B01J 2531/00, e.g. B01J 2531/028 or B01J 2531/0291 are used for the overall ligand. In case of doubt the codes of B01J 2531/00 should be used.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013