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OTHER WORKING OF METAL; COMBINED OPERATIONS; UNIVERSAL MACHINE TOOLS (arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Repairing (B23P 6/00), improving the properties (B23P 9/00), connecting (B23P 5/00,B23P 11/00), manufacturing (B23P 13/00, B23P 15/00), metal-working operations (B23P 17/00) but also to the assembling (B23P 19/00, B23P 21/00) of metallic parts. It also relates to universal machine tools (B23P 23/00) and to auxiliary treating of workpieces during machining (B23P 25/00).

It is evident that the scope of the subclass B23P is so broad that a proper detailed description of the subject matter appropriate for this place is possible only at the group level, e.g. B23P 6/00 and even at subgroup level when required, e.g. B23P 6/04.

Provisions that are valid at a general level (e.g. of a kind appropriate to more than one of the main groups) are provided in the sections that follow.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

B23P is an operation oriented subclass in which the titles of the groups or even subgroups mostly do not specify the object (metal part) which undergoes the operation. It is important, in order to ensure a complete classification, that the documents are circulated to the subclass to which the object (metal part) belongs, especially if a technical feature is imparted to the object (metal part) as a result of the operation. This applies also for the search purposes.

Attention is drawn to the Notes following the title of class B23 in particular to the relations between the subclass B23P and other subclasses of this class, like B23Q, B23B, B23C and B23K.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:

Non-mechanical operations on non-metallic materials unless such operations are specially mentioned in this subclass.

Special rules of classification within this subclass
  • "combined operations" excludes the assembling of parts if it is an essential feature of the next metal-working operation, since it is not regarded as an operation PER SE.
  • "working of metal" and equivalent expressions include non-mechanical treatment of metal so far as it is not provided for in any other class or subclass, for example in C21D, C22C, C22F, C23. Thus, combinations of such non- mechanical treatment with other metal-working are classified in this subclass.
Setting gems or the like on metal parts, e.g. diamonds on tools
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for setting gems or the like in metal parts

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The majority of the documents relate to setting gems in tools (e.g. for metal machining (B23B, B23C, B24D) or earth boring (E21B). Some documents relate to setting gems to jewels (A44C).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gems setting-tools
Profiling tools for metal drawing - comprising diamond parts
Cutting tools of which the bits or tips with diamond bits
Manufacture of grinding tools
Drill bits characterised by wear resisting parts, e.g. diamond inserts
Restoring or reconditioning objects (straightening or restoring form of sheet metal, metal rods, metal tubes, metal profiles, or specific articles made therefrom B21D 1/00, B21D 3/00; repairing defective or damaged objects by casting techniques B22D 19/10; procedures or apparatus covered by a single other subclass, see the relevant subclass)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Restoring or reconditioning of damaged metallic objects or machine components by operations covered mainly by the class B23.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

In case of procedures or apparatuses covered by a single other subclass of the class B23, or by other subclasses of other classes, being of particular relevance for the scope of the repairing method these subclasses should be also considered for search and classification, e.g. welding (B23K), machining (B23B, B23C), polishing (B24B), coating (C22C), powder metallurgy (B22F), cold-working, heat treating (C21D).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Straightening, restoring form or removing local distortions of sheet metal or specific articles made therefrom
Straightening or restoring form of sheet metal, metal rods, metal tubes, metal profiles, or specific articles made therefrom
Repairing defective or damaged objects by casting techniques
Repairing of articles made from plastics or substances in a plastic state
Operations specially adapted for layered products and not otherwise provided for, e.g. repairing; Apparatus therefor
Designing, manufacturing, assembling, cleaning, maintaining, or repairing aircraft, not otherwise provided for
Special rules of classification within this group

For reasons of completeness of the search and classification, when the document refers to the repairing method of a specific object, the group where the product is classified should be consulted and the document should circulate for eventual classification within the product(s) groups.

The entries of the scheme B23P 2700/00 should be allocated together with the group B23P 6/00 for the corresponding objects, e.g. parts of combustion chambers, cooling passages of turbine components, etc being repaired.

The same applies for search purposes, in case an entry for the corresponding object exists on said scheme.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "insert" and "patch" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the expression "additive process" is often used instead of "buil[d,t]-up welding" or "cladding" which is used in the classification scheme of this group.

In patent documents the terms "repair", "refurbish", "remanufacture", "rebuild" are often used instead of "restore" or "recondition" which are used in the classification scheme of this group.

{ Repairing turbine components, e.g. moving or stationary blades, rotors, (B23P 6/045 takes precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Repairing of damaged metallic (not composite) turbine components, e.g. moving or stationary blades, casings, discs, flanges, shrouds, etc.

The repair operation must be carried out on the part body and not only on the coating.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wind motors with rotation axis substantially in wind direction, maintenance or repair; equipment therefor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Repairing methods or devices for blades or blade-carrying members
Articles made by soldering, welding or cutting by applying heat locally: turbines
L23K101/00B
Repairing, retrofitting or upgrading methods
Repairing fractures or cracked metal parts or products, e.g. castings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Repair methods or devices of cracks on metal parts or fractured metal parts, e.g. filling of cracks, avoiding the propagation of existing cracks.

{ of turbine components, e.g. moving or stationary blades, rotors, etc.}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Repairing of fractured or cracked metallic (not composite) turbine components, e.g. moving or stationary blades, casings, discs, flanges, shrouds, etc.

The repair operation must be carried out on the part body and not only on the coating.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wind motors with rotation axis substantially in wind direction, maintenance or repair; equipment therefor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Repairing methods or devices for blades or blade-carrying members
Articles made by soldering, welding or cutting by applying heat locally: turbines
L23K101/00B
Repairing, retrofitting or upgrading methods
Treating or finishing surfaces mechanically, with or without calibrating, primarily to resist wear or impact, e.g. smoothing or roughening turbine blades or bearings (treatment covered by a single other subclass, see the relevant subclass, e.g. B24C, C21D 7/00, C22F 1/00) ; Features of such surfaces not otherwise provided for, their treatment being unspecified
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical treatment of surfaces independently of their shape (flat, cylindrical, holes, openings, etc) in order to improve their mechanical properties, e.g. fatigue resistance, wear or impact resistance.

It also covers cases where more than one method covered by B23P 9/02 and B23P 9/04 is exemplified.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

There is a significant overlapping between this group and C21D 7/00.

Other groups for treating or finishing surfaces like B24C 1/00, B24B 39/00, B21H 5/00 and B21H 7/00 might overlap with the content of documentation of this group.

Documents relating to "autofrettage" are also present in this group.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Finishing surfaces by grinding or polishing
Finishing surfaces by blasting
Changing the physical structure of non-ferrous metals or alloys by heat treatment or by hot or cold working
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for performing "autofrettage"
Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation, by expanding tubular bodies ("autofrettage")
Treating or finishing by applying pressure, e.g. knurling (B23P 9/04 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The mechanical treatment or finishing of surfaces by applying pressure, e.g. roller burnishing, "Festwalzen" (deep-rolling), knurling and the like.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Finishing gear teeth with cylindrical outline, e.g. burnishing
Finishing bevel gear teeth, e.g. burnishing
Making grooved pins; Rolling grooves, e.g. oil grooves, in articles
Burnishing machines or devices, i.e. requiring pressure members for compacting the surface zone
Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by burnishing or the like
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Documents in this subgroup should also circulate for classification in C21D 7/00.

If device details are mentioned and the device itself is covered by other groups the document should also circulate for classification in those groups, e.g. burnishing machines (B24B 39/00 and lower). These remarks apply for search purposes as well.

{ to inner walls of holes by using axially moving tools}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes and devices for imparting beneficial stresses to inner walls of holes by using axial moving tools (mandrels).

Treating or finishing by hammering or applying repeated pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The mechanical treatment of surfaces by means of repeated pressure, e.g. impact burnishing, hammering and the like.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Laser shock processing
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods for compacting surfaces, e.g. shot-peening
Percussive tool bits
Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by shot-peening or the like
Special rules of classification within this subgroup

Documents in this subgroup should also circulate for classification in C21D 7/00.

If device details are mentioned and the device itself is covered by other group the document should also circulate for classification in those groups, e.g. impact tools. These remarks apply for search purposes as well.

Connecting metal parts or objects by metal-working techniques, not covered wholly by either B21J or B23K (connecting sheet metal or metal tubes, rods, or profiles B21D 39/00; {objects produced by methods not important per se, see the relevant subclasses dealing with the objects, e.g. B21F 15/00; B21L 19/00} ; hand tools for connecting wire or strip B25B 25/00; connecting metal parts by adhesives F16B 11/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for connecting metal parts or objects by metal-working techniques, generally involving deformation, and not covered alone by groups in the subclasses of forging (B21J) and welding (B23K).

The connections achieved by the methods covered by this group can be achieved by frictional forces "kraftshl├╝ssig" (non-positive or friction fit) and/or by the shape of the parts in the connection area "formschl├╝ssig" (positive or interlock fit).

Relationship between large subject matter areas

There is a significant overlapping between this group and B21K 25/00, F16B 17/00 and F16B 4/00.

Press fit methods and machines might also be found on B23P 19/02.

Objects produced by connecting methods not important per se, see the relevant subclasses dealing with the objects.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Connecting sheet metal or metal tubes, rods, or profiles
Connecting wire to wire or other metallic material or objects; Connecting parts by means of wire
Appurtenances for chain-making not restricted to any particular process
Hand tools for connecting wire or strip
Connecting metal parts by adhesives

Example of Places where the subject matter of this group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated into a larger system:

Connecting bearing to vehicle axles (Hubs)
Assembling camshafts (Valve-gear or valve arrangements -camshafts)
Fuel-injectors [Assembling; Disassembling; Manufacturing; Adjusting]
Rigid support of bearing units; Housings - Fixing them on the shaft
Assembling rolling-contact bearings
Couplings for rigidly connecting two coaxial shafts or other movable machine elements - involving plastic deformation
Cams; Non-rotary cams; Cam followers [construction]
Special rules of classification within this group

The entries of the scheme B23P 2700/00 should be allocated together with the group B23P 11/00, or one of its subgroups when appropriate, for the corresponding objects, e.g. camshafts, catalysts, etc. being connected.

The same applies for search purposes, in case an entry for the corresponding object exists on said scheme.

{ for mounting tools in tool holders}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Assembling and disassembling of tools (drills, mills, etc.) in tool holders by thermal shrinking.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tool holders (chucks)
Arrangements for indicating or measuring existing or desired position of tool or work
Shrinkage connections
Heating by electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic fields - tools
Making specific metal objects by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

In addition to the title above, this group covers not only manufacturing methods of metal objects covered by its subgroups but also manufacturing methods of other objects that include combined operations in the sense used on this subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The title of the group B23P 15/00 does not specify the object which undergoes the operation. It is therefore important that B23P 15/00 is not the single class that is attributed to the document and, in order to ensure a complete classification and more targeted search, that the documents are circulated to the class to which the object (metal part) belongs.

This applies of course also for the subgroups of B23P 15/00 wherein the object is specified, especially if a technical feature is imparted to the object (metal part) as a result of the operation. In those cases, the documents should also circulate and a search should be conducted into the class to which the specific object (metal part) belongs.

Special rules of classification within this group

The entries of the scheme B23P 2700/00 should be allocated together with the group B23P 15/00 for the corresponding objects, e.g. connecting rods, joints, etc. being manufactured. The same applies for search purposes, in case an entry for the corresponding object exists on said scheme.

{Enlarging pistons}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Documents relating to to enlarging (terms as expanding, resizing and reshaping are also used) pistons to compensate for wear, incorrect machining, or for any other reason.

gear parts, e.g. gear wheels
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The making of gear parts, e.g. gear wheels by operations not covered by a single other subclass or a group in this subclass.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Making gears or toothed racks (by stamping B21D; by rolling B21H; by forging or pressing B21K; by casting B22; arrangements for copying or controlling B23Q; machines or devices for grinding or polishing, in general B24B)
Metal-working operations, not covered by a single other subclass or another group in this subclass
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The main group B23P 17/00 is not widely used due to the fact that documents relating to metal-working operations and not specifying the kind of product produced by this operation are rather rare. Since in the great majority of the documentation the type of the product is mentioned and the metal working operation has its application on the particular product the main group B23P 15/00 and its subgroups have been used instead. Also since in many cases the metal working operation involves machining the main group B23P 13/00 and its subgroups are more appropriate.

The same applies for the subgroup B23P 17/02 and B23P 17/04.

Making steel wool or the like
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wire-working in the manufacture of other particular articles
B25F45/00
Reinforcing elements, e.g. for concrete; Auxiliary elements therefor, [Discrete reinforcing elements, e.g. fibres
Synonyms and Keywords

In the patent documents the following words/ expressions " steel wool "," steel fibers (fibres)" and " steel wiskers " are often used as synonyms.

Machines for simply fitting together or separating metal parts,or metal and non-metal parts, whether or not involving some deformation (connecting metal parts or objects by metal-working procedures B23P 11/00, B21J, B23K) ; Tools or devices therefor so far as not provided for in other classes (hand tools in general B25)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for simply fitting together or separating metal parts, or metal and non-metal parts, whether or not involving some deformation; Tools or devices therefor so far as not provided for in other classes.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The group generally relates to the use of machines but not hand tools which are classified in B25.

Connecting metal parts or objects by metal-working procedures, see B23P 11/00, B21J, B23K.

The subclasses of B21D and F16B also include devices for connecting parts together.

If more detailed reference to another subclass, group or subgroup of another subclass can be made, it will be made at a subgroup level.

Although the hand tools are in principle in B25, an overlapping with this group and the class B25 is to be expected, since there are aspects that are common in hand tools and automatic machines. Therefore reference to groups of B25 (in particular of B25B) relevant for search is stated at the subgroup level definitions.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hand tools, specially adapted for fitting together or separating parts or objects whether or not involving some deformation, not otherwise provided for
Joining of preformed plastic parts
{Article feeders for assembling machines (screws or nuts being carried by a disposable strip or disc B25B 23/045) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Screws or nuts being carried by a disposable strip or disc
Bolts, screws, or nuts formed in integral series but easily separable, particularly for use in automatic machines
for connecting objects by press fit or for detaching same
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hand tools for connecting objects by press fit or detaching same
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Connecting metal parts or objects by metal-working technique
Press fits, force fits, interference fits, i.e. fits without heat or chemical treatment
using vibration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatuses that use physical means for causing parts to vibrate in a manner to as to connect the parts in a press fitting manner, or to detach parts from one another that were press fitted.

Other physical means used for the same purposed, i.e. for causing parts to vibrate, can also be covered within this subgroup, e.g. electromagnetic forces and water, etc.

for assembling or disassembling parts
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatuses used for assembling or disassembling operations when the operation is performed by a device (not by an operator).

{for flexible profiles, e.g. sealing or decorating strips in grooves or on other profiles by devices moving along the flexible profile (hand tools therefor B25B 27/0092) }
References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Hand tools moving along strips, e.g. decorating or sealing strips, to insert them in, or remove them from, grooves or profiles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Assembling sealing arrangements with vehicle parts
Joining weather strips or seals
B62D65/08
Implements for finishing work on buildings
Screw or nut setting or loosening machines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for screwing or unscrewing screws or nuts.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Hand tools for screw and nut setting or loosening machines are in B25B.

{for pipes or pipe-couplings}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Connecting or disconnecting pipe couplings or joints
Screw-threaded joints
{Pierce nut setting machines}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for assembling fastening elements to metal sheets. Although the title only mentions pierce nuts, other elements, e.g. studs, bolts are included.

The method of connection can be by deforming a fastening element portion, a metal sheet portion or both, wherein a pre-pierced hole may or may not exist in the metal sheet, i.e. the fastening element may or may not pierce itself the metal sheet.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nuts or like thread-engaging members [N: by means of riveting]
{Bolt tensioners (for hand tools B25B 29/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for axially tensioning (elongating) a bolt. A nut is tightened while the bolt is in the elongated tensioned state; consequently a pre-stressed bolted connection is achieved.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Bolt tensioners (for hand tools)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Flange connections; Bolting arrangements
Prestressed connections tensioned by means of liquid, grease, rubber, explosive charge, or the like
{for placing resilient or flexible rings, e.g. O-rings, circlips}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Inserting or withdrawing split pins or circlips
{ Non-metallic protective bellows}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mounting or demounting piston rings
{ using remote centre compliance devices}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compliance devices
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

RCC
Remote Center Compliance
Machines for assembling a multiplicity of different parts to compose units, with or without preceding or subsequent working of such parts, e.g. with programme control
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for assembling, assembly cells, assembly lines or combinations thereof, when it is not covered alone by other groups of other subclasses, e.g. B62D 65/00, H05K 13/00.

Conveyance means is usually present.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

The subject-matter covered by this group can in some cases or overlap with the groups of automobiles (B62D 65/00) and electronic assembling lines (H05K 13/00) when general aspects of the assembling machines are covered, e.g. layouts, modularity, flexible assembling, etc.

References relevant to classification in this subgroup
This subclass/group does not cover:
Designing, manufacturing, e.g. assembling, facilitating disassembly, or structurally modifying motor vehicles or trailers, not otherwise provided for
Total factory control, i.e. centrally controlling a plurality of machines, e.g. direct or distributed numerical control (DNC), flexible manufacturing systems (FMS), integrated manufacturing systems (IMS), computer integrated manufacturing (CIM)
Apparatus or processes specially adapted for manufacturing or adjusting assemblages of electric components
Machines or arrangements of machines for performing specified combinations of different metal-working operations not covered by a single other subclass (if the particular kinds of operation are not essential B23Q 37/00 to B23Q 41/00; { working by laser beam combined with other working of metal B23K 26/0093} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines or arrangements of machines for performing specified combinations of different metal-working operations not covered by a single other subclass.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

There is a significant overlapping between this group and its subgroups with the subclass B23Q. This applies for search and classification purposes.

In case the particular kinds of operation are not essential, see B23Q 37/00 to B23Q 41/00 take precedence.

Features relating to operations covered by a single subclass, see the relevant subclass for the operation.

Auxiliary treatment of workpieces, before or during machining operations, to facilitate the action of the tool or the attainment of a desired final condition of the work, e.g. relief of internal stress
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Auxiliary treatment of workpieces, before or during machining operations, to facilitate the action of the tool or the attainment of a desired final condition of the work, e.g. relief of internal stress.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

There is a significant overlapping between this group and its subgroups with the subclass B23Q, B23B and B23C. This applies for search and classification purposes

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013