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MOTOR VEHICLES; TRAILERS ( steering, or guiding on a desired track, of agricultural machines or implements A01B 69/00 ; wheels, castors, axles, increasing wheel adhesion B60B; vehicle tyres, tyre inflation or tyre changing B60C; connections between vehicles of a train or the like B60D; vehicles for use on rail and road, amphibious or convertible vehicles B60F; suspension arrangements B60G; heating, cooling, ventilating or other air treating devices B60H; windows, windscreens, non-fixed roofs, doors or similar devices, protective coverings for vehicles not in use B60J; propulsion plant arrangements, auxiliary drives, transmissions, controls, instrumentation or dashboards B60K; electric equipment or propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles B60L; power supply for electrically-propelled vehicles B60M; passenger accommodation not otherwise provided for B60N; adaptations for load transportation or to carry special loads or objects B60P; arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefor, for vehicles in general B60Q; vehicles, vehicle fittings or vehicle parts not otherwise provided for B60R; servicing, cleaning, repairing, supporting, lifting, or manoeuvring, not otherwise provided for, B60S; brake arrangements, brake control systems or parts thereof B60T; air-cushion vehicles B60V; motor-cycles, accessories therefor B62J, B62K; testing of vehicles G01M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Fittings for identifying vehicles in case of collision; Fittings for marking or recording collision areas
  • Spare wheel stowing, holding, or mounting arrangements
  • Systematic disassembly of vehicles for recovery of salvageable components, e.g. for recycling
  • Steering of motor vehicles or trailers
  • Arrangements for automatically controlling steering depending on driving conditions, e.g. control circuits therefor
  • Steering non-deflectable wheels
  • Steering endless tracks or the like
  • Steering specially adapted for trailers or for vehicles having pivotally connected frames
  • Power-assisted or power-driven steering
  • Steering control means, e.g. steering wheel or levers
  • Steering gears, e.g. means to convert control input motion to final output motion at the wheels
  • Steering linkages; Stub axles or their mountings
  • Understructures; Superstructures; Vehicle bodies
  • Combined superstructures and frame, i.e. monocoque constructions
  • Superstructures for load-carrying vehicles
  • Superstructures for passenger vehicles
  • Connections between superstructure sub-units
  • Understructures, i.e. chassis frames on which vehicle body may be mounted
  • Connections between vehicle body and frame
  • Vehicle bodies characterised by stream lining
  • Stabilising vehicle bodies without suspension arrangements, e.g. by movable masses or by aerodynamic means
  • Motor vehicles or trailers classified according to type; Parts or accessories thereof
  • Endless track vehicles
  • Motor vehicles characterised by the driver not being seated
  • Tractors
  • Tractor trailer combinations; Road trains
  • Motor vehicles or trailers predominantly for carrying passengers, e.g. omnibuses
  • Trailers with driven ground wheels
  • Motor vehicles having other propulsion or ground engaging means than wheels or endless tracks alone or in addition to wheels or endless tracks
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Emergency vehicles, unless the document concerns chassis/bodywork aspects
Armoured vehicles, unless the document concerns chassis/bodywork/track aspects
Steering, or guiding on a desired track, of agricultural machines or implements
Connections between vehicles;
Vehicles for use on rail and road, amphibious or convertible vehicles;
Passenger accommodation not otherwise provided for
Adaptations for load transportation or to carry special loads or objects
Vehicles, vehicle fittings or vehicle parts not otherwise provided for
Air-cushion vehicles
Locomotives; Motor railcars
Body details or kinds of railway vehicles
Hand-propelled vehicles, e.g. hand carts, Sledges
Motor-cycles, including quad bikes, ATVs;
Balancing machines supporting a rider; motorised skateboards and the like
Motorized wheelchairs; personal mobility vehicles

Examples of places where the subject matter of this subclass/group is covered when specially adapted, used for a particular purpose, or incorporated in a larger system:

Vehicle wheels, castors, axles, increasing wheel adhesion;
Vehicle tyres, tyre inflation or tyre changing;
Suspension arrangements
Electric equipment or propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles;
Power supply for electrically-propelled vehicles
Propulsion plant arrangements, auxiliary drives, transmissions, controls, instrumentation or dashboards
Heating, cooling, ventilating or other air treating devices
Windows, windscreens, non-fixed roofs, doors or similar devices, protective coverings for vehicles not in use
Servicing, cleaning, repairing, supporting, lifting, or manoeuvring, not otherwise provided for
Brake arrangements, brake control systems or parts thereof
Lighting, signalling
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servicing, cleaning, repairing, supporting, lifting, or manoeuvring, not otherwise provided for
Brake arrangements, brake control systems or parts thereof
Steering devices applicable only to steerable undercarriages for aircraft
Testing of vehicles
Special rules of classification within this subclass

The indexing scheme of IPC [5] associated with group B62D 6/00, relating to driving conditions sensed and responded to are not used in CPC.

Steering controls, i.e. means for initiating a change of direction of the vehicle
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for initiating a change of driving direction of vehicles

  • External motors for turning the steering wheel; e.g. fixed to or placed on the seat.
  • Remote controllers (man held apparatus) used for steering.
  • Single steering systems added later.
  • System allowing steering with the knee or the like, e.g. specially adapted levers
  • Systems telling the vehicle driver about free parking places.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Automatic steering system used for parking
Systems for helping the driver to keep the lane
vehicle-mounted
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Foot steered vehicles.
  • Vehicles running a previously recorded program, also learning or teaching thereoff.
  • Finger-tip steering on sliding switches.
  • (mechanical) systems for blocking the steering wheel in a certain position, e.g. to allow straight driving.
  • Steering by shifting a load or by rotating seats.
  • Steering systems for vehicles with rotating cabins.
  • Steering with reign like handles.
  • Steering by moving the armrest of a seat.
{Adaptations on rotatable parts of the steering wheel for accomodation of switches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Other electric devices integrated in the steering wheel, e.g. microphones, vibrating means, (pressure) sensors, lamps, information screens.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combination of airbags with horn switch in steering wheel
Special rules of classification within this group

For the characteristics of the electric devices per se, see the relevant groups for the device as such.

Hand levers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Hand levers for steering control
  • (Multiple function) joy-sticks
Steering columns
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special features of steering columns; bearing and bearing arrangements therefor

yieldable or adjustable, e.g. tiltable ( padded linings associated with the steering column B60R 21/05)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Steering columns supported by elastic means
  • Steering columns being adjustable by the driver, e.g. for a comfortable position
  • Steering columns movable together with the dashboard, e.g. when dashboard is linked to a front door
{incorporating devices for preventing ingress of the steering column into the passengers space in case of accident}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems of actively moving steering columns in a better position to fire the airbag.

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Clarification of the definition scope; initially this group involved the movement of the steering wheel for “in case of accident”. Modern activation of airbags requires a similar design/motion of the steering column and so such systems are also classified in this group.

Steering gears ( power assisted or power driven B62D 5/00 ; steering linkages B62D 7/00 ; for non-deflectable wheels B62D 11/00 ; gearing in general F16H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means to convert the steering control input motion to final output motion at the wheels, .e.g. rack and pinion gear or the like

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Power assisted or power driven steering
B63D5/00
Steering linkages
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gearing in general
Power-assisted or power-driven steering ( { controlling steering depending on driving conditions sensed and responded to B62D 6/00 ; } for non-deflectable wheels B62D 11/00 ; fluid pressure servomotors in general F15B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Supplying power to the steering movement by electric or hydraulic means to reduce steering force at the control input
  • Changing the transfer ratio between the steering wheel and the steering output movement by variable supply of energy, e.g. by using a superposition gear
  • Telemotors for steering
  • Mechanical means or mechanism specially adapted for power assist
  • Hydraulic means, e.g. valves specially adapted for power assist
  • Electric means, e.g. motors specially adapted for power assist
  • Safety devices or back up systems for steering if hydraulic power assist function fails
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Safety devices for steer by wire
Monitoring electric power steering systems, e.g. detecting or adapting to failures
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
ontrolling steering depending on driving conditions sensed and responded to
Steering non deflectable wheels
-Fluid pressure servomotors in general
{ Mechanical aspects of steer-by-wire systems, not otherwise provided in B62D 5/00 ( hydraulic steer-by-wire systems B62D 5/091) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical steering angle limiters, e.g. catch or block to limit output movement

{Backup systems, e.g. for manual steering (B62D 5/30 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Means to allow manual steering in case of failure of power assist means
  • Repairing failure by redundant parts
{means for generating torque on steering wheel, e.g. feedback}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Means to "disturb" the turning of the steering wheel, e.g. by using a brake.
  • Tactile feedback, e.g. vibration on steering wheel
Special rules of classification within this group

"Steering wheel" means any input element.

{Changing the transfer ratio between the steering wheel and the steering gear by variable supply of energy, e.g. by using a superposition gear}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanism or control to achieve change of transfer ratio

  • superposition gear
  • electric motor with the stator connected with one part of the steering column and the rotor with the other part of the steering column
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Calculating of desired steering angle to be reached by e.g. a superposition mechanism are classified in B62D 6/002

electrical, e.g. using an electric servo-motor connected to, or forming part of, the steering gear
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Gearings (or connections) between the power steering motor and the part, which is connected to any part of the steering system, e.g. column or rack
  • Electric power steering to be mounted additionally to the vehicle, e.g. to change manual steering into power steering
  • Cooling of electric power steering motor
  • "Non-rotating" motors, e.g. linear motors
  • Use of multiple electric motors in one power steering, see for example US2006278466.
  • Wire harness from the battery to the electric power steering, see for example FR2721875.
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combinations of electric power steering with steering locks (steering column locks)
{characterised by constructional features, e.g. common housing for motor and gear box}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Constructional features of the motors or the arrangement thereof, e.g. Double stator and one rotor
  • Interchanging the connections of two windings on a three phase motor to make it turn in the other direction, e.g. for using the same apparatus for right hand drive and left hand drive vehicles.
  • Remote controlled moving brushes of the motor.
  • Using on/off-switches to operate the motor based on steering wheel torque
{Electric motor acting on road wheel carriers}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Single drive for a single wheel, e.g. one right steering motor and one left steering motor.

Combined driving and steering units for industrial trucks.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Combined driving and steering units for industrial trucks should be also classified in B62D 7/02 and relevant subgroups

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Steering by acting on the suspension system
{characterised by clutch means between driving element, e.g. motor, and driven element, e.g. steering column or steering gear}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Mechanical overload clutches for suppressing torque peaks.

"Freewheeling clutches", e.g. operated by the power steering motor or the driver's torque.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Clutches used in steer-by-wire systems to connect the steering wheel to the steered wheel in case of failure, e.g. backup,
{Controllable friction clutches (B62D 5/0436 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Rheological fluid clutches in "normal" electric power steering
  • Viscous clutches
  • Clutches controlled by mechanical movement, e.g. pinion "rolling" on rack and by this "leaning" on friction rollers
{characterised by control features of the drive means as such ( controlling steering depending on driving conditions sensed and responded to B62D 6/00 ; determination of steering angle B62D 15/021 ; measuring torque applied to steering wheels G01L 5/221 ; control of electric motor as such H02P) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Calibrating of electric steering systems as such.

Switching off of electric power steering if not needed, e.g. standstill, see for example GB2269568.

{Controlling the motor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Controlling the motor as such, e.g. a brushless DC-Motor;
  • booster circuits to rise the voltage over the battery voltage;
  • voltage reduction circuits feeding the controller if higher battery voltage feeds the motor.
{for generating assisting torque}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling the motor as such, e.g. brushless DC-Motor
{for returning the steering wheel to neutral position}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of electric power steering motor during the time of returning the steering wheel, e.g. inertia compensation.

{End-of-stroke control}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blocking of the steered wheel due to catches, stops or curb stone

{for damping vibrations}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Reducing vehicle induced disturbances, e.g. braking, unbalanced wheels, "torque steer", etc

Counterbalancing by an additional motor (which can be the "normal" power steering motor) the reaction forces of a steering angle ratio change mechanism

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Changing the transfer ratio between the steering wheel and the steering gear by variable supply of energy, e.g. by using a superposition gear
{for reaction to failures, e.g. limp home}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recovery from (detected) failures, e.g. fixing or bridging a loose contact.

{detecting motor faults (B62D 5/0496 takes precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Detecting failure of the motor drive means, e.g. in the H-bridge.

{detecting sensor failures}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • - Detecting malfunction of sensors
  • - Includes also failures in the direct treatment of sensor signals, e.g. in a circuit for phase compensation.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Sensor
any sensing element or transducer used in or for electric power steering.
characterised by specially adapted means for varying pressurised fluid supply based on need, e.g. on-demand, variable assist
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Parametrising of hydraulic power steering systems,.

Also pump directly connected with the steering motors, e.g. reversible pump to cylinder.

Special rules of classification within this group

Control of electric motor driving a pump directly conncected with the steering motors (hydraulic gear), see also B62D 5/046 and subgroups.

This group includes controls of the hydraulic fluid supply which adjusts the pressure to facilitate the required pressure demands by the external environment, e.g. when driving on a mountainous road.

Supply of pressurised fluid for steering also supplying other consumers; {control thereof}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Supply of pressurized fluid for other consumers and also supplying the steering means

{characterised by means for actively limiting the deflection angle, e.g. depending on driving parameters ( controlling steering depending on driving conditions sensed and responded to B62D 6/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Not only "limiting", but also influencing the deflection angle, e.g. for automatic steering.

Special rules of classification within this group

See also B62D 6/02, especially for documents published before 2003.

Arrangements for automatically controlling steering depending on driving conditions sensed and responded to, e.g. control circuits ( means for initiating a change in direction B62D 1/00 ; steering valves B62D 5/06 ; combined with means for inclining the vehicle body or wheels on bends B62D 9/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Circuits or processes for controlling power steering systems, e.g. to control steering angles
  • Control of steering angle
  • Control of vehicle motion in general, e.g. yaw rate
  • Control of steering assist power depending on ambient condition
  • Control of feedback to the driver
  • Measuring or determining driver input torque
{using a measured or estimated road friction coefficient}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring or estimating the road friction coefficient using the steering system or values derived from within the steering system.

{adjustable by the driver, e.g. sport mode}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Classification of the driver automatically in different groups.
  • Taking care of tired, e.g. almost sleeping, driver.
  • Classifying automatically the road driven by the driver, e.g. town, highway, or mountain road.
  • Taking into account (dynamically) changing vehicles responses due to load, tyre condition, etc.
Steering linkage; Stub axles or their mountings (B62D 13/00 takes precedence; power-assisted or power-driven steering B62D 5/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means on vehicle to deflect wheels, e.g. changing the steered wheel angle in relation to chassis or vehicle body

References relevant to classification in this subclass/group

Steering specially adapted for trailers
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

Steering linkage, stub axles and their mountings are the means which allow to deflect the wheels.

Steering deflectable wheels not otherwise provided for ( steering positon indicators B62D 15/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Residual group for subject matter not covered by previous main groups

{Emergency systems using brakes for steering}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Using differential driving or braking to deflect steered wheels

Not only using brakes, but also using torque differences on wheels driven by electric motors.

Steering non-deflectable wheels; Steering endless tracks or the like
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Steering of e.g. tanks or slip-steered wheeled vehicles or control thereof

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Where steering right or left is governed by an alteration in the rotation speed of one side of a set of tracks or wheels moving in a continuous motion. There is no associated steering angle.
Endless track steering specially adapted for vehicles having both steerable wheels and endless track
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Endless track steering depending on steering input for steerable wheels
  • Supporting steering by differential driving of non-deflectable wheels
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Differentially distributing power on deflectable wheels:
Steering specially adapted for trailers ( combined traction and steering hitches B60D)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Stability systems for tractor-trailer combinations, e.g. counter steering or braking.

Steering not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Passive indicator, "aiming" means, e.g. fingers in the car to drive along compared with a line in the outside world.

{Determination of steering angle ( sensors in general G01B) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Storing the last recorded steering angle;
  • Determination of rotation speed of steering wheel;
  • Measuring on the steering wheel, if there is no steering column;
  • Retrieving of steering angle information in special situations, e.g. during power off
  • Checking or testing of steering angle sensors (see also B62D 5/049)
  • Calibration of steering angle systems e.g. by measuring steering angle and following curvature;
  • Transmission of steering angle data to other vehicle systems including steering systems.
{on or near the connection between the steering wheel and steering column}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Combinations of steering angle sensors and rotary connectors in close proximity to steering wheel and column

Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

This group only covers rotary connectors when the rotary connector is combined with the steering angle with close proximity to the steering wheel and column.

{by measuring on the king pin}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measuring steering angle on the king pin at the deflectable wheel or on the turn-table between tractor and trailer

{Means or methods for determination of the central position of the steering system, e.g. straight ahead position}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Determination of absolute angles, e.g. absolute steering wheel angle with a relative sensor, measuring e.g. between -90° and +90°

{Automatic obstacle avoidance by steering}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Not allowing steering in the direction of obstacles.

Minimizing damages by steering in not avoidable accident

{Parking aids, e.g. instruction means}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Parking the car, e.g. parallel or perpendicular parking.
  • Leaving (pulling out) into the traffic.
  • Testing and/or finding of parking pockets.
  • Testing of (automatic) parking systems.
Special rules of classification within this group

Automatic or guided parking as such see the relevant subgroups

{Guided parking by providing commands to the driver, e.g. acoustically or optically}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Haptically or any other means

{Parking performed automatically}
Special rules of classification within this group

"Automatic parking" is also, if only the steering is done automatically.

{by overlaying a vehicle path based on present steering angle over an image without processing that image}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Projections in the windscreen or on the street ahead

Means on vehicles for adjusting camber, castor, or toe-in
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means or tools located on the vehicle to adjust the different angles of a wheel support, e.g. camber, castor or toe-in and toe-out, see examples

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Radius rods, i.e. distance members
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Levers or linkages for supporting a wheel.

Said support of wheels is considered as subject matter related to the suspension of a vehicle. Hence this group is no longer used for classifying. Classification should be given in subclass B60G instead.

Understructures, i.e. chassis frame on which a vehicle body may be mounted ( combined frame and vehicle body B62D 23/00 ; { characterised by the material thereof B62D 29/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Chassis built from frame members where the vehicle body will be mounted on, e.g.:

  • Structures comprising longitudinally or transversely arranged frame members
  • Structures of X-shaped or fork shaped construction
  • Subframes
  • Frames being adjustable
  • Structures having impact absorbing means
  • Structures assembled from readily detachable parts
Relationship between large subject matter areas

This group does not cover subject matter primarily relating to the suspension with only a nominal recitation of frame structure, i.e. the inventive subject matter is related to suspension features and are covered by subclass B60G.

Sub-frames for mounting engines or suspension means are classified in B62D 21/11.

In order to get a classification in B62D 21/15, the understructure should have features, e.g. crush zones, crash boxes etc. which enable it to deform in a controlled fashion. If the structure is merely reinforced, then it should be given the relevant classifications elsewhere.

Beam elements which form part of a self supporting vehicle body are referred out of this group to B62D 25/00, e.g. B62D 25/082 for longitudinal beams in the engine bay to which sub-frames are attached.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Combined frame and vehicle body:
Beam elements forming part of a self-supporting vehicle body
Longitudinal beams in the engine bay to which sub-frames are attached
Suspension arrangements
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Understructures characterised by the material used:
Combined superstructure and frame, i.e. monocoque constructions ( { having impact absorbing means B62D 21/15 ; } superstructure {or monocoque structure} sub-units {or parts or details thereof} B62D 25/00 ; { characterised by the material thereof B62D 29/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Self-supporting structures which do need an additional frame, the frame and the structure forms one unit
  • Spaceframes with integrated chassis in the whole shell, e.g. by using meshwork, tubes or the like
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Structures having impact absorbing means
Superstructures or monocoque sub-units or details thereof
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Superstructures or frames characterised by the material used
Connections between vehicle body and vehicle frame (B62D 23/00 , B62D 33/077 take precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fixing means for connecting vehicle body to the vehicle frame, e.g. by vibration absorbing mountings like rubber pads

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Joining plates to bars
Springs or resilient mounts per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Joining plates to bars
Springs or resilient mounts per se
Special rules of classification within this group

WARNING: Group B62D 24/00 and subgroups are not complete; see also other groups of B62D

Superstructure {or monocoque structure} sub-units; Parts or details thereof not otherwise provided for { ( having impact absorbing means B62D 21/15 ; running-boards, steps, or the like as superstructure sub-unit B60R 3/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subunits for superstructures, e.g.

  • Side panels
  • Door pillars
  • Fixed roofs
  • Front or rear portions, e.g. bonnets, lids, dashboards or mud-guards
  • Floor or bottom sub-units
Relationship between large subject matter areas

The references to other areas are particularly helpful here, particularly take note of those in B62D 25/10 and B62D 25/12 for how to treat bonnet hinges, bonnet stays, openers, etc. Cabins or superstructure of the (open or closed) load compartments of utility vehicles are classified in B62D 33/00. Mudguards do not include mudguards for cycles but do include mudguards of utility vehicles.

Structures (e.g. bonnet, wing mounts) intended to deform or collapse to absorb impact forces from a non-occupant of the vehicle (e.g. pedestrian) should also be considered for classification in B60R 21/00 or indented groups.

Deformable bonnets are usually for motor cars - such documents should be classified in B62D 25/105 even if the application it is not specifically mentioned. Active protection devices which do not serve to alter the structural properties (e.g. airbags, bonnet lifters) are not classified in this group, they should be classified in B60R 21/34 and subgroups. For vehicle doors, including rear hatchback tailgates, see B60J 5/00.

The group B62D 25/085 is intended to mean front-end modules of engine compartments.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Structures having impact absorbing means
Superstructures of utility vehicles, e.g. load compartments or cabins
Mudguards for cycles
Running-boards, steps, or the like, as superstructure sub-unit
Special rules of classification within this group

The IPC group B62D25/22 "Running-boards, steps, or the like, as superstructure sub-unit" is not used in CPC; these sub-units are referred out to group B60R 3/00 (see limiting reference in main group title).

Connections between superstructure {or understructure} sub-units { (B62D 33/0207 , B62D 33/044 take precedence; between sub-units predominently made of synthetic material B62D 29/048) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rigid, resilient or readily releasable (e.g. using screwthreads) connections between super- or understructure sub-units

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Please be aware that groups here should not be used for documents concerning connectors and connections in general, see subclass F16B. Documents concerning the building up of individual components (e.g. the welding of sheets to form a panel) are not classified here; neither are documents concerning the attachment components which are not part of the vehicle structure, e.g. fuel tanks.

Joining trim elements (e.g. headliners) to the vehicle are in the relevant subgroups of B60R 13/00; attachments of bumpers are in the group B60R 19/00.

Subgroup B62D 27/023 is especially directed towards structural nodes - e.g. several elements joined together by connecting means.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Connections between sub-units predominantly made of synthetic material
Connections of movable or detachable racks or stanchions to platforms
Enclosed load compartments built up with profiles of constant elongated shape, e.g. extruded, mechanically interconnected by coupling members, e.g. by clamping, riveting or bolting
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Joining trim elements (e.g. headliners) to the vehicle
Attachment of bumpers
Superstructures, {understructures, or sub-units thereof,} characterised by the material thereof { (B62D 33/044 , B62D 33/048 take precedence ) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Superstructures, understructures or sub-units characterised by the used material
  • characterised by combining metal and synthetic material
  • characterised by using predominatly special steel, light alloys, wood or synthetic material
  • Structures predominantly made of sythetic material and joints therefor
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Enclosed load compartments built up with flat self-supporting panels if not predominately made of synthetic material
Enclosed load compartments for refrigerated good vehicles
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents concerning the production of the material itself, or the moulding process, or metal-working process would not be given a classification here unless component details are specified.

Superstructure for passenger vehicles ( passenger vehicles specially adapted to co-operate with aircraft or terminal buildings B64F 1/31)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Superstructures for passenger vehicles, e.g. for carrying large number of passengers (omnibus)
  • Compact cars, e.g. city cars
Relationship between large subject matter areas

This main group does not include railway carriages or motorized wheelchairs or the like. Please note the definition of cycle as being a vehicle on which the operator sits (e.g. on a saddle) and has direct steering, e.g. using a steering handle.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Passenger vehicles specially adapted to co-operate with aircraft or terminal buildings
Superstructures for load-carrying vehicles ( { having impact absorbing means B62D 21/15 ; } in which a load-carrying element is movable B60P; liners B60R 13/00 ; { joining sheets or plates to one another or to strips or bars parallel to them F16B 5/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Platforms or open load compartments
  • Enclosed load compartments
  • Drivers’s cabs or cabins and their attachment, e.g. for tiltable cabins
  • Superstructures caracterised by the connection of the structure to the vehicle frame
  • Superstuctures comprising adjustable means
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Vehicle cabs, load compartments etc. are classified in this main group, but load carrying floors for commercial vehicles are classified in group B62D 25/2054. Bonnets or lids are classified in B62D 25/10 or B62D 25/12; mudguards in B62D 25/168 or B62D 25/188.

See also B60P 1/00 to B60P 7/00 concerning adaptations for load transportation or to carry special loads or objects.

Cabins for dredging or soil shifting machines (often called work machines) should be classified in E02F 9/16; other parts of the structure of soil shifting machines in group E02F 9/08.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Understuctures having impact absorbing means
Structures in which a load-carrying element is movable, e.g. to facilitate loading or unloading
Liners for load platforms or load compartments
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Superstructures of soil shifting machines
Cabins of soil shifting machines
Joining sheets or plates to one another or to strips or bars parallel to them
Vehicle bodies characterised by streamlining
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Shaping of vehicle bodies for reducing resistance to air flow
  • Devices to control or modify the boundary layer
  • Spoilers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spoilers for stabilising vehicle bodies
Fluid dynamics; Influencing flow of fluid
Special rules of classification within this group

Spoilers which have a stabilizing function should also be classified in B62D 37/02.

Devices to control or modify the boundary layer should be classified in B62D 35/00, and should be considered for further classification in the group for influencing flow of fluid F15D 1/00.

Stabilising vehicle bodies without controlling suspension arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Stabilising a vehicle body by forces generated with aerodynamic means (e.g. spoilers) or by movable masses, e.g. by using gyroscopes

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Devices to prevent vehicles toppling over are classified according to vehicle type:

for tractors B62D 49/08; for work machines E02F 9/18; for cranes B66C 23/72.

Electronic stability control operating on brakes B60T 8/1755. Stabilising means using the control of wheel suspension are not covered by this group.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spoilers for streamlining
Ground engaging vehicle fittings for supporting, lifting or manoeuvring the vehicle
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

If a document concerns a spoiler which has, explicitly, a stabilizing function, then it should be given classification in B62D 37/02 as well as in B62D 35/00

Vehicle bodies not otherwise provided for {e.g. safety vehicles ( safety equipment B60R 21/00) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Bodies for emergency vehicles or special vehicle bodies not provided for in other groups of this subclass

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Safety equipment
Fittings for identifying vehicles in case of collision; Fittings for marking or recording collision areas
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices or methods to indicate that a vehicle has been involved in a crash, the kind of crash and where the damage occurred on the vehicle. Crash recorders are not classified in this group.

Spare wheel stowing, holding, or mounting arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Stowing, holding, or mounting arrangements for spare wheels in or on the vehicle
  • Handling devices for spare wheels, e.g. for handling heavy wheels
  • Anti-theft devices for spare wheels
  • Protective coverings for spare wheels
Special rules of classification within this group

If the document concerns adaptation to the vehicle structure, a further classification may also be required in B62D 25/087 and/or B62D 25/2027.

Motor vehicles or trailers predominantly for carrying passengers ( superstructures B62D 31/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Vehicles for large number of passengers, e.g. omnibus
  • Vehicles which can be divided in sub-vehicles, e.g. nestable vehicles
  • Vehicles which are convertible in order to modify the number of seats
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Superstructures for passenger vehicles
Body details or kinds of railway vehicles
Motor-cycles, including quad bikes, ATVs;
Balancing machines supporting a rider; motorised skateboards and the like
Motorized wheelchairs; personal mobility vehicles
Special rules of classification within this group

B62D 47/003 means that the structure should be convertible to modify the number of seats; not that the seats should simply be removable (for removable vehicle seats see B60N 2/00). Documents which are more general and do not concern the understructure or superstructure per se or particular part thereof should be classified in this group.

{convertible in order to modify the number of seats ( foldable compact cars B62D 31/006 ; convertible from one use to a different one B60P 3/42) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles structures, which could be changed to allow different numbers of seats. Subject matter where the seats are simply removable are not covered by this group.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Compact cars, e.g. being foldable
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Vehicles convertible from one use to a different one
Tractors ( of walk type B62D 51/04 ; endless- track features B62D 55/00) { tractors for handling aircraft B64F 1/22 ; transport specially adapted for underground galleries E21F 13/02}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tractors for pushing or pulling

Tractors for semi-trailers

Tractors adapted for multi-purpose use

Tractors for all kind of tasks, e.g. modified to take lifting devices

Tractors having means for preventing overturning or tipping

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Walk type tractors
Endless track vehicles
Tractors specially adapted for handling aircraft
Transport means specially adapted for underground galleries
Special rules of classification within this group

Generally, connections between tractors and agricultural equipment or implements are classified in A01B 59/04 and subgroups. The term "Tractors" in this group is not limited to agricultural vehicles.

Specialist tractors, e.g. street cleaning tractors, snow clearance vehicles, will be classified elsewhere according to their function.

Motor vehicles characterised by the driver not being seated { ( wheeled carriers for golf bags A63B 55/08) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Load handling vehicles, e.g. pedestrian trucks
  • Walk-type tractors, i.e. the driver is walking behind
  • Vehicles where the driver is not being seated with endless tracks
  • Control devices for vehicles where the driver is not being seated
  • Transmission devices for vehicles where the driver is not being seated
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wheeled carriers for golf bags
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Balancing machines supporting a rider; motorised skateboards and the like
Motorised hand carts
Electric wheel-barrows
Special rules of classification within this group

Agricultural machines or the like where the driver walks behind the tool, e.g. lawn mower, rotary cultivator, would not typically be given a classification here, classification would be given in the related application groups for the machines. For motorised hand carts see B62B 1/00 and B62B 5/0026. For electric wheel-barrows see B62B 1/18 and B62B 5/0026.

Tractor-trailer combinations; Road trains ( traction couplings other than fifth wheel coupling B60D) { tracked vehicles comprising at least two articulated parts B62D 55/0655}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tractor-trailer combinations comprising an uniaxle tractor unit and an uniaxle trailer unit

Tractor-trailer combinations where one unit supports an essential part of the other unit’s load, e.g. semi-trailers

Fifth wheel traction couplings

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Articulated tracked vehicles comprising tracks for tractor and trailer
Traction couplings other than fifth wheel coupling
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Steering specially adapted for trailers
Couplings of service lines
Stability control acting on the braking system of tractor-trailer combinations
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents concerning road trains, i.e. tractor plus two or more trailers, are classified in B62D 53/005. B62D 53/125 should concern automatic coupling of the service lines happening during automatic coupling of the fifth-wheel coupling. For all other couplings of service lines see B60D 1/62 and B62D1/64.

Regarding subgroup B62D 53/068: if the load distribution is modified by operating on the vehicle suspension (without lifting a wheel set), then the document should be classified in the relevant groups of B60G.

Endless track vehicles ( steering aspects B62D 11/00 ; { characterised by the driver not being seated B62D 51/007} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Tracked vehicles with tracks and additional ground wheels
  • Tracked vehicles using alternatively tracks or ground wheels
  • Vehicles with tracks only
  • Endless track units, e.g. bogies, frames or tracks
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Steering aspects of endless tracked vehicles
Endless tracked vehicles characterised by the driver not being seated, e,g, walk-type tractors
Special rules of classification within this group

These endless track vehicles are also called caterpillar or crawler vehicles

If a vehicle merely has tracks, this is not a sufficient reason for classifying in B62D 55/00. For example, a mono-tracked snow mobile would only be given the classification B62D 55/07 if there were details shown of the track or track unit. Traction increasing devices which fit over individual tyres such as snow-chains are not classified here, see B60C 27/00.

Group B62D 55/253 covers flexible tracks with discrete track elements interconnected by cables or the like. Continuous tracks with embedded cables are classified in group B62D 55/242.

Vehicles characterised by having other propulsion or other ground- engaging means than wheels or endless track, alone or in addition to wheels or endless track ( sledges B62B ; motor sledges B62M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Vehicles with ground engaging propulsion means other than wheels or endless tracks, e.g. walking members
  • Vehicles having propulsion means which do not engage the ground
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Humanoid robots are not systematically classified in this group. Possible areas for this subject matter are program controlled manipulators B25J 9/00; gripping heads in B25J 15/00; manipulators in general B25J.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Motorised sledges
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Endless-track vehicles for ascending or decending stairs
Hand carts; Sledges
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

If necessary it is permissible to classify a document in both B62D 55/00 and B62D 57/00.

Please note that there are some documents concerning tracked vehicles with walking members to assist ascending stairs. These would not be classified in B62D 57/00, but in B62D 55/075 because the primary propulsion is by tracks, and due to the reference in B62D 57/024 pointing to group B62D 55/075.

The ground engaging propulsion means (e.g. walking members) are classified in the subgroup B62D 57/02.

Trailers with driven ground wheels or the like
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Trailers with driven ground wheels or tracks, the propulsion unit being arranged either on the trailer or remote from the trailer

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ground engaging, power driven vehicle manoeuvring fittings fixed on the vehicle, e.g. fittings using additional wheel driven by an auxiliary motor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tractor-trailer combinations comprising uniaxial tractor and uniaxial trailer unit with a transmission shaft passing through the coupling joints
Vehicle manoeuvring devices separate from the vehicle
Special rules of classification within this subclass/group

B62D 59/00 concern trailers with driven wheels for moving the trailer when uncoupled from the tractor, e.g. for parking, manoeuvring. However, in some documents the driven trailer means are used as an auxiliary drive or alternative drive and should be (also) classified in

Motor vehicles or trailers, characterised by the arrangement or number of wheels, not otherwise provided for, e.g. four wheels in diamond pattern
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Motor vehicles or trailers characterised by the arrangement or number of wheels not covered by previous groups, e.g. with variable number of ground engaging wheels or with more than four wheels

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This group does not include cycles or motorised wheelchairs or the like. Please note the definition of cycle as being a vehicle on which the operator sits (e.g. on a saddle) and has direct steering, e.g. bicycle, tricycle or quad.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Wheelchairs, Transport devices for disabled people
Cycles, motor cycles, ATVs, quad bikes
Personal mobility vehicles
Motor vehicles or trailers not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Modular vehicles
  • Foldable, yieldable or extensible trailers
  • Trailers with one axle or two wheels
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Trailer chassis
Semi-trailers
Adaptations of trailers for specific purposes
Trailer or vehicle features which are covered adequately elsewhere (this is a residual group!)
Special rules of classification within this group

Motor vehicles: modular vehicles does not mean vehicle with exchangeable modules for repair or change in function of the vehicle.

Designing, manufacturing, e.g. assembling, facilitating disassembly, or structurally modifying motor vehicles or trailers, not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Assembling, facilitating disassembly, or structurally modifying motor vehicles or trailers, not covered by other groups of this subclass
  • Transportation, conveyor or haulage systems specially adapted for vehicle assembly lines
  • Inspecting and control devices for assembly
  • Joining sub-units or components to body shell or other sub-units
  • Positioning of sub-units or components to body shell or to other sub-units, the subunits or components being doors, windows, openable roofs, lids, bonnets or weather strips
  • Joining pre-assembled modular units
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Very important is the residual character of this group "not otherwise provided for". Documents concerning the assembly or production or formation of individual components, e.g. doors, roofs, side panels, bonnets, engines, gearboxes, etc. should not be classified here, but their attachment to the body shell. This group concerns further the positioning and assembling of the body shell to the chassis.

For management of production lines, e.g. for resource allocation, planning or scheduling G06Q10/00C; for inventory, storage or labelling of parts, ordering of new parts, Just-In-Time delivery G06Q10/00E.

For control of productions lines [i.e. direct connections to machines] see G05B 19/418 or see the relevant technology, for instance B23 or B05, and as well for the details of the processes.

Concerning B62D 65/024 "Positioning of sub-units or components with respect to body shell or other sub-units or components": when the centring is achieved by features of the component itself, then the document should be classified according to the component; the classification B62D 65/024 and lower is given in addition to the groups B62D 65/04 to B62D 65/16 where the component is specified.

Special rules of classification within this group

The IPC group B62D65/08 (IPC 7) 'Weather strips or seals' is not used in ECLA. The documents are classified in application group B60J 10/0088.

Systematic disassembly of vehicles for recovery of salvageable components, e.g. for recycling ( for disposal of vehicles by destroying or transformation B09B 3/00 , B09B 5/00 { ; General arrangement of separating plants B03B 9/00 ; Recovery of plastics B29B 17/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Disassembly lines or processes in reverse, not for recycling of individual components or recycling of construction materials.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Disposal of vehicles by destroying or transformation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General arrangement of separating plants
Recovery of plastics
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013