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PRINTING MACHINES OR PRESSES ( machines for manufacturing footwear incorporating printing or embossing apparatus A43D , e.g. A43D 8/26 , A43D 95/14 ; presses in general B30B ; making of printing surfaces B41C , B41D ; manifolding devices, office printing machines B41L ; stencilling B41L , {B44D} ; printing processes not dependent on the use of special machines B41M ; duplicating or marking by sublimation or volatilisation of design B41M 5/035 ; thermography B41M 5/26 ; embossing decorations or marks B44B 5/00 ; { applying transfers or decalcomanias B44C 1/16} ; handling thin or filamentary material B65H ; electrography, electrophotography, magnetography G03G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines or presses always include a fixed or static printing form, usually a printing plate, carrying a graphical and/or alphanumerical design forming the printing image,

after applying ink on the surface of said printing form, said inked image is applied by contact pressure onto the surface of a substrate which will form the printed matter,

machines or presses as a whole as well as all parts, details, objects and controls specifically adapted for use in such machines, e.g. drying, dampening, heating, cooling, cleaning, air blowing and suction devices,

feeding and/or handling of substrates to be printed upon is covered from the in-feed device through the whole machine down to the delivery device,

auxiliary folding, cutting, collecting and depositing specifically adapted for printing machines or presses in covered by B41F 13/54 to B41F 13/70,

machines or apparatus for printing operations in combination with other operations, e.g. embossing, are covered by B41F 19/00,

machines or apparatus for printing operations in combination with perforating operations are covered by B41G 7/00.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Manufacturing printed circuits using screen printing type machines
Apparatus or devices for printing for office or other commercial purposes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spraying or atomizing of liquids/fluids or particles, nozzles
Apparatus for applying liquids/fluids in general
Processes for applying liquids/fluids in general
Cleaning in general
Working by laser beam in general
Cutting, severing, perforating, punching, stamping-out in general
Presses in general
Manufacture or reproduction of printing surfaces in general
Apparatus for mechanical reproduction of printing surfaces in general
Shaping elastic or deformable material to printing surfaces
Apparatus for bronze or line printing, bordering, edging of sheets
Auxiliary perforating in conjunction with printing
Selective printing mechanisms which have single types or characters or selectively activated printing elements, e.g. ink jet or thermal print heads, for consecutively printing character by character and line by line;correction of typographical errors
Stamps, stamping or numbering apparatus or devices in general
Printing, duplicating marking or copying processes
Printing forms as such, e.g. printing plates, printing screens
Preparing for use and conserving printing surfaces
Layers, shells, covers, surfaces specifically adapted for use in printing machines or presses
Permanently attaching together sheets, quires or signatures
Bookbinding
Books, book covers, printed matter of special format or style not otherwise provided for
Sheets temporarily attached together, filing appliances
Implements for writing or drawing, e.g. pens
Articles for writing or drawing upon
Bureau accessories not otherwise provided for, opening and/or closing of envelopes, inserting documents into envelopes
Machines, apparatus or tools for sculpturing, carving, engraving, guilloching in general
Machines or apparatus for embossing in general
Machines, apparatus or tools for branding in general
Machines or apparatus for inlaying in general
Producing surface effects, mosaics, paperhanging in general
Painting or artistic drawing in general
Special designs or pictures in general
Label dispensers having printing equipment
Feeding and/or handling of sheet or web-like substrates in general
Coating compositions: inks, paints, varnishes, lacquers, pastes or solids for printing
Adhesives
Paper making and production of cellulose in general
Measuring, testing in general
Measurement of light, measurement of colour, colorimetry
Optical elements in general
Photomechanical production of printing surfaces in general
Electrography and electrophotography in general
Controlling, regulating in general
Electric digital data processing
Digital output to print units
Ticket printing, franking apparatus
Displaying, advertising, signs, labels
Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents
Apparatus or processes for manufacturing printed circuits in general
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Printing
always encompasses use of ink or colour
Print image or printing image
any design having any colour and or alphanumerical elements
Offset print or offset printing
using an intermediate element, most commonly a blanket cylinder, for transfer in one step of the whole inked print image on the printing element, most commonly on a printing plate, onto the surface of the substrate to be printed upon
Screen dots
very small coloured printed points on the surface of the printed substrate forming the printed image
Rotary machines
using at least one printing plate in cylindrical form
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "offset" and "lithographic" are often used as synonyms.

Platen presses, i.e. presses in which printing is effected by at least one essentially-flat pressure-applying member co-operating with a flat type-bed
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing technology having the same working principle as used since the very first printing machines made in Europe in the 15th century, e.g. from Guttenberg.

Types are almost rigid three-dimensional printing elements having on their top surface an alphanumerical or similar symbol, which latter will be inked for directly printing onto a substrate.

Cylinder presses, i.e. presses essentially comprising at least one cylinder co-operating with at least one flat type-bed
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing technology mostly used in the 19th century.

Rotary letterpress machines { office printing machines B41L 15/00}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Letterpress or relief printing machines use the following printing forms or printing plates:

all parts of the surface of the printing plate accepting ink to form the printing image are raised above the level of the non-printing parts of the printing image not accepting ink.

Flexographic printing presses use a printing plate, wherein the raised parts forming the printing image are formed from flexible material, e.g. rubber.

Rotary lithographic machines { such office printing machines B41L 7/00}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Lithographic printing machines, which use the following printing forms or printing plates:

whole surface of the printing surface or plate is essentially even,

all parts of the surface of the printing plate forming the printing image have hydrophobic characteristics accepting ink to form the printing image,

whereas all the rest parts of the surface of said printing plate forming the non-printing part of the printing image have hydrophilic characteristics for repelling ink.

Rotary intaglio printing presses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Intaglio or heliographic printing machines, which use the following printing forms or printing plates:

all parts of the surface of the printing plate accepting ink to form the printing image are below the level, e.g. engraved, of the non-printing parts of the printing surface not accepting ink.

Rotary presses or machines having forme cylinder carrying a plurality of printing surfaces, or for performing letterpress, lithographic, or intaglio processes selectively or in combination
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rotary presses or machines, which have at least two printing units of different type or at least two printing plates of different type in one printing unit.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Screen printing apparatus or machines
Transfer printing apparatus or machines
Printing apparatus or machines of special types or for particular purposes, not otherwise provided for
Common details of rotary presses or machines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Driving devices adapted and/or used in rotary presses or machines, and their electric or hydraulic or mechanical features in form of constitutive elements, e.g. motors, gearings, couplings, clutches, rotary energy transmitters;

auxiliary devices or processes associated with the drives, e.g. vibration-dampers, noise reduction, lubrication;

driving devices associated with particular installations or situations;

brakes;

conveying or guiding webs through presses or machines including:

  • registering webs;
  • tensioning webs;
  • decurling webs.

Cylinders including forme cylinders, impression cylinders, transfer and offset cylinders and including their accessories;

cylinder registering devices;

cylinder tripping devices;

cylinder-impression adjustments;

cylinder lifting or adjusting devices;

cylinder bearings;

supports for bearings or supports for cylinders;

cylinder cooling and/or heating;

machines frames, guards and/or covers;

registering and control of registering with means for:

  • displacing forme cylinders or printing forms on a cylinder;
  • or acting on sheet or web-like substrates to be printing upon;
  • or acting on means for transporting the substrates through printing machines or presses.

Auxiliary devices for:

  • numbering;
  • folding;
  • cutting;
  • collecting;
  • or depositing.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing forms as such in general, e.g. printing plates or printing screens
Numbering apparatus in general
Portable hand-operated numbering devices in general
Registering, tensioning, smoothing or guiding webs in general
Screen printers ( for selective printing B41J 2/005)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

screen printing apparatus, which always use a perforated printing screen, the perforated parts forming the printing image.

Apparatus and machines adapted to print on sheets or webs of any material, e.g. including textiles, and

adapted to print on any substrate having any shape, e.g. filamentary, cylindrical, polyhedral, conical, spherical and all kind of irregularly shaped three-dimensional surfaces.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Stencil printing apparatus or machines
Manufacturing printed circuits
Transfer printing apparatus (apparatus or machines for applying decalcomanias B65C)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines or presses which always use a sheet or web-like coloured or preprinted transfer element,

a printing element, usually a printing plate, applying by contact pressure said transfer element onto a substrate to be printed upon.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines or presses for printing and embossing
Printing apparatus or machines of special types or for particular purposes, not otherwise provided for ( hand stamps, plier-like tools for printing or punching tickets or the like B41K; addressographs or other office printing equipment B41L; coding or marking of packaging material or of completed packages in packaging machines B65B 61/00 ; ticket printing and issuing apparatus G07B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pad printing apparatus,

textile printing apparatus,

printing apparatus using at least one printing belt,

printing apparatus for printing or numbering on non sheet- or web-like substrates having the following three-dimensional shapes:

  • filamentary
  • cylindrical of indefinite or definite length,
  • polyhedral articles having flat surfaces,
  • mainly conical,
  • essentially spherical or
  • all curved surfaces not otherwise provided for,

or printing on specific articles, e.g.

books, manifolding sets e.g. booklets, calendars, tablets, pills, knitted fabric and hollow articles.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Platen presses
Cylinder presses
Rotary letterpress machines
Rotary lithographic machines
Rotary intaglio printing presses
Screen printers
Transfer printing apparatus
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Typewriters, selective printing mechanisms, e.g. ink-jet or thermal print heads
Stencil printing apparatus
Apparatus or machines for carrying out printing operations combined with other operations ( auxiliary perforating apparatus associated with printing devices B41G 7/00 ; coding or marking in association with packaging B65B 61/00 ; label dispensers having printing equipment B65C)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Embossing operations are herein considered to deform the substrate without colouring the substrate.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transfer printing apparatus without embossing
Machines or apparatus for embossing decorations or marks in general
Processes for applying transfer pictures, e.g. decalcomania
Pressing or stamping ornamental designs on surfaces in general
Devices for conveying sheets through printing apparatus or machines ( through platen presses B41F 1/28 ; feeding sheets to or from printing apparatus or machines B65H ; { through manifolding apparatus or the like B41L 21/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices or apparatus for conveying sheets

and devices or apparatus for guiding sheets.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices or apparatus for smoothing or de-curling sheets
Means preventing smudging of machine parts or printed articles (B41F 23/00 takes precedence )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing machine elements having specific materials or surfaces,

guiding means using air pressure.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning means for substrates to be printed upon or for printed substrates
Cleaning means for printing machines or parts thereof in general
Devices for treating the surfaces of sheets, webs, or other articles in connection with printing ( cleaning in general B08B ; as a final step in the manufacture of such articles, see appropriate subclasses, e.g. B29C 71/00 , D21H 23/00 or D21H 25/00 ; { in manifolding apparatus or the like B41L 23/00} ; surface treatment in general B44D , of metal C23G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cleaning devices for sheets or webs or other substrates to be printed upon,

dampening or heat drying or cooling devices acting before and/or after printing,

powder applying means and

print finishing devices including glossing or varnishing devices.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Spraying of liquids/fluids or particles in general, nozzles
Apparatus for applying liquids/fluids in general
Processes for applying liquids/fluids in general
Cooling in general
Drying in general
Devices for pressing sheets or webs against cylinders, e.g. for smoothing purposes ( apparatus for taking-out curl from webs in general B65H 23/34)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for acting mechanically and/or pneumatically onto the sheets or webs.

Devices for attaching printing elements or formes to supports ( attaching by chemical means B41N 6/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Registering printing elements or printing forms to supports,

feeding printing elements or printing formes to forme cylinders or type-beds,

removing printing elements or printing formes from forme cylinders or type-beds,

tensioning devices for flexible printing plates,

flexing devices for flexible printing plates

and devices for filling cylinder gaps and/or removing the filler.

Devices for attaching coverings or make-ready devices; Guiding devices for coverings ( make-ready devices B41N 6/00 ; blankets or like coverings B41N 10/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for attaching sheet-like flexible coverings, usually blankets, and/or cylindrical coverings, usually blankets

and devices for attaching underlays.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Blankets or like coverings per se in printing machines in general
Inking arrangements or devices ( inking units for platen presses B41F 1/40 ; for cylinder presses B41F 3/81 ; { for rotary intaglio printing presses B41F 9/061} ; applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general B05 ; inking arrangements or devices for typewriters or selective printing mechanisms B41J)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inking arrangements or devices including accessories specifically adapted for an inking arrangement like

driving means,

remote control of duct keys,

heating or cooling means,

recovering printing ink.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring and controlling consumption of ink
Shells for inking rollers
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Ink rail devices
two duct blades cooperating with the cylindrical surface of an inking roller having s screened surface, e.g. an anilox roller
Screen roller or anilox roller
roller having almost its whole cylindrical surface formed by a plurality of evenly distributed small engraved cells all having the same size
Indicating, counting, warning, control, or safety devices ( ink supply or metering devices B41F 31/02 ; such devices in general, see the relevant subclasses, e.g. counting in general G06M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Central control units,

programming systems to sequence of machine operations,

means for starting up the machine,

safety devices preventing damage of machine parts including web break detection,

safety devices preventing injury to the operators,

devices for scanning printing formes and/or printed matter for quality control,

measuring the thickness of liquid films,

measuring or controlling the consumption of ink,

measuring contact pressure,

sensors,

counters

and marks, e.g. registering marks, on printed material.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Tripping
removing machine parts in/out of operating position into non-operating position
Cleaning arrangements or devices { in manifolding apparatus or the like B41L 41/00}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for cleaning parts removed from a printing machine,

cleaning means being part of a printing press including:

means for cleaning adapted to a specific purpose, e.g. cleaning of inking rollers or offset cylinders,

or means for cleaning being characterised by the cleaning method or device, e.g. wiping devices, spraying devices, suction devices,

means for recovering used solvents or residues,

and selection of materials or products for cleaning.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning in general
Cleaning of printed substrates or substrates to be printed upon
This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013