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CASTING OF METALS; CASTING OF OTHER SUBSTANCES BY THE SAME PROCESSES OR DEVICES (shaping of plastics or substances in a plastic state B29C; metallurgical processing, selection of substances to be added to metal C21, C22).
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The casting of metals and of other substances by the same processes or machines. By "other substances" is meant basically the group of non-metals, e.g. silicon.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shaping of plastics
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Processing of pig iron, e.g. refining, manufacture of wrought iron or steel
Alloys
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Core
Part of a mould used in a casting process that forms the internal shapes of a casting, which cannot be shaped by the pattern
Gate
Channel that allow the molten metal to enter the mould cavity during casting
Treatment of fused masses in the ladle or the supply runners before casting [N: (for continuous casting B22D 11/10; metallurgical processing, e.g. refining of iron or other metal C21, C22, C25C)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers :

Treatment on reduced scale of the molten metal , whether in the ladle or in the supply runners.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

This group does not cover :

Metallurgical processing of metals
Treating molten metal (during continuous casting)
Refining of metals by electrolysis of melts
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In these groups, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Runner
Portion of the gate assemby that connects the sprue with the gate
Arrangement of indicating or measuring devices, e.g. for temperature or viscosity of the fused mass.
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers :

Measuring devices for process parameters during casting, e.g. temperature or viscosity of the fused mass, thickness of a frozen shell.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring temperature in general
Measuring viscosity
Measuring liquid level in general
Special rules of classification within this group

If the measurement is part of a regulating process, then classification is also given in the relevant groups (e.g. B22D 11/16 - B22D 11/225).

Pig or like casting (equipment for conveying molten metal B22D 35/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers :

Methods, machines or plants for casting pigs.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Casting of ingots
Special rules of classification within this group

Equipment for conveying molten metal to the pig moulds is classified in B22D 35/00 - B22D 35/06.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In these groups, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Pig
A metal casting,produced in a mould provided that it is intended for remelting before use
Machine or plants for pig or like casting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers :

Machines or plants for pig casting, e.g. devuces for stacking pigs, rotary casting tables.

Casting ingots, [N: e.g. from ferrous metals] (equipment for conveying molten metal B22D 35/00).
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers :

Casting processes, machines or plants for casting of ingots in definite lengths.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

This group does not cover :

Continuous casting of ingots
Casting of pigs
Special rules of classification within this group

Equipment for conveying molten metal to the ingot moulds is classified in B22D 35/00 - B22D 35/06.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Ingot
A metal casting, produced in a mould for subsequently rolling or forging
hot top
Insulating cover placed in the upper region of an ingot mould to reduce heat loss of the solidifying metal, resulting in a longer solidification time whereby the shrinkage cavity is located higher in the ingot
Machines or plants for casting ingots
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers :

Machines or plants for top or bottom casting.

Continuous casting of metals, i.e. casting in indefinite lengths (metal drawing, metal extruding B21C)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and machines for casting metals in indefinite lengths.

B22D 11/0401 covers moulds provided at their top with a refractory heat insulating reservoir for feeding the mould.

B22D 11/0475 covers continuous casting processes wherein a ceramic ring is mounted between a molten metal holding vessel and the continuous casting mould, in order to provide a steady supply of liquid metal to the mould.

B22D 11/049 covers continuous metal casting where the cooling water flows from the underside of the mold cooling chamber and sprays directly on the ingot surface, thereby completing the solidification process.

B22D 11/1206 covers methods and machines for applying a light rolling reduction on a strand which is not completely solidified.

B22D 11/122 covers methods and machines for creating a magnetic field around a solidifying cast strand, emerged from the mould, in order to stir the molten core of the strand to obtain a homogeneous structure.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Casting of ingots in definite lengths Metal drawing, metal extruding
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lubricating injection die casting moulds
Rolls; Lubricating or cooling rolls while in use (rolling metals)
Rollers for roller conveyors (rolling metals)
Construction of glass rollers
Construction of the conveyor rolls (for glass)
Rolls; Roll arrangements (in furnaces)
Rolls; Drums; Roll arrangements (in continuous furnaces)
...with cooling
Transport or conveyor rolls for furnaces
...the conveyor being constituted by rollers
Rolling of metals
Special rules of classification within this group

The composition of the specific alloys (B22D 11/001 - B22D 11/004) is also classified in C22C (alloys).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Starter bar
A bar which plugs a mould opening at the start of the casting procedure, and which is gradually withdrawn from the mould, as the molten metal solidifies, in order to remove the cast ingot from the mould
Centrifugal casting; Casting by using centrifugal force
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Centrifugal casting or casting by using a centrifugal force to produce shallow bodies or elongated bodies in definite lengths; the necessary accessory devices, processes and machines.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Continuous rotative casting
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Casting jewelry articles
Special rules of classification within this group

The accessories for the centrifugal casting apparatus (like moulds, linings, means for feeding molten metal, removing castings) are classified in B22D 13/10 - B22D 13/108; if it is clearly from the description that they could also be used for other particular casting processes then they are also classified in those relevant groups.

Casting using a mould or core of which a part significant to the process is of high thermal conductivity, e.g. chill casting; Moulds or accessories specially adapted therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casting using a mould or core with an insert of high thermal conductivity, to locally increase the rate of heat removal during solidification of the molten metal and thereby define the structure of the casting.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Continuous casting into open-ended moulds for direct chill casting
Pressure die casting or injection die casting, i.e. casting in which the metal is forced into a mould under high pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casting in an injection casting mould, whereby the molten metal is injected into the mould under high pressure; the necessary accessory devices, processes and machines.

B22D 17/002 covers moulds which are moving outside the normal working position during each moulding cycle

B22D 17/005 covers moulds wherein two or more fixed mould parts are cooperating each with a moveable counterpart ; see WO238311-fig.1

B22D 17/007 covers a method wherein the injected metal is in a semi solid state

B22D 17/04 covers machines wherein the metal which is melted in a heated press chamber, is moved from this press chamber to the mould cavity by means of a plunger

B22D 17/06 covers machines wherein the metal which is melted in a heated press chamber, is moved from this press chamber to the mould cavity by means of air pressure

B22D 17/30 covers accessories for supplying the molten metal to the shot sleeve.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Methods and machines for injection moulding of plastics are classified in B29C.

If it is clearly stated in a document that the content also applies to injection die casting metals, then a class is also given in B22D 17/00.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Compositions for coating moulds
Accessories for reinforcing or securing moulding materials or cores
Equipment for supplying molten metal in rations
Special rules of classification within this group

All documents concerning mechanisms or devices for opening, closing or clamping pressure die casting moulds for casting metals , are also classified in the relevant groups B29C 45/64 - B29C 45/68.

B22D 17/2007 covers methods and apparatus for lubricating moulds.

If a composition is also included, then in addition a B22C 3/00 class is also given.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In these groups, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

S hot sleeve
Reservoir, containing the necessary amount of molten metal to make a casting , and from where this molten metal is pressed into the mould
Pressure casting; Vacuum casting (B22D 17/00 takes precedence; treating the metal in the mould by using pressure or vacuum B22D 27/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casting whereby a low pressure or a vacuum is used to pressurize the molten metal; the necessary machines, processes and controlling.

B22D 18/02 covers processes and machines wherein an amount of liquid metal ,required for one casting part, being introduced in the cavity of a lower mould and thereafter a convex portion of an upper mould being advanced in the cavity filled with molten metal, which metal undergoes a compression during this forging step.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Injection die casting
Aftertreating by using pressure on the metal in the mould, while it is molten or ductile
Aftertreating by using vacuum on the metal in the mould, while it is molten or ductile
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Forging
Casting in, on, or around objects which form part of the product (B22D 23/04 takes precedence; alumino-thermic welding B23K 23/00; coating by casting molten material on the substrate C23C 6/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes and devices whereby a casting is done on, in or around a body part, which forms afterwards an essential part of the product.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coating by casting molten metal on a substrate
Alumino-thermic welding
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bearings
Cylinder heads
Repairing fractures or cracked metal parts
Repairing rotor blades
Casting non-ferrous metals or metallic compounds so far as their metallurgical properties are of importance for the casting procedure; selection of compositions therefor (N: non-ferrous ingots B22D 7/005)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casting of products from non-ferrous metals wherein the metallurgical properties of the metal play an important role in the casting process.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Casting ingots from non ferrous metals
Special rules of classification within this group

Casting aluminium or magnesium is not classified in B22D 21/04 but in B22D 21/007.

The corresponding compositions of the metallic compounds or alloys have also to be classified in C22C.

Casting processes not provided for in groups B22D 1/00 to B22D 21/00 (making metallic powder by casting B22F 9/08; alumino-thermic welding B23K 23/00; remelting metals C22B 9/16)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casting processes not provided for in groups B22D 1/00 to B22D 21/00, for example :

B22D 23/003 covers methods and devices for spraying molten metal on the surface of a pattern (or core); after solidification of the molten metal, the pattern (or core) is removed, leaving a cast piece.

B22D 23/02 covers methods and devices where the molten metal is poured from the top into the mould

B22D 23/04 covers methods and devices where

  • a mould is filled by submerging in a molten metal pool

or

a core is immerged in a molten metal pool; after solidification of a predetermined layer of molten metal on the core surface, the core is removed, leaving a cast piece.B22D 23/06 covers melting-down metal in the mould

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

This group does not cover :

Top casting ingots
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electroslag remelting
Making metallic powder by casting
Alumino-thermic welding
Remelting metals
Special casting characterised by the nature of the product (B22D 15/02, B22D 17/16, B22D 19/00 take precedence; casting stereotype plates B41D 3/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casting methods and apparatuses where the nature of the obtained product is characteristic; this nature could be a specific shape (like pieces of art,metal foams,jewelry)or a specific physical property (like uniform hardness).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

This group does not cover :

Casting stereotype plates
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Alloys with open or closed pores
Protection against damping, accoustic waves
Special rules of classification within this group

Documents classified in these groups need also to be classified according to their casting process (B22D 13/00 - B22D 23/00).

Treating the metal in the mould while it is molten or ductile (B22D 7/12, B22D 11/10, B22D 43/00 take precedence); [N: Pressure or vacuum casting (B22D 17/00 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This group covers :

The treatment of the molten metal after its introduction in the mould and during its solidification.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

This group does not cover :

Casting processes and apparatuses using pressure to fill the mould
Casting processes and apparatuses using vacuum to fill the mould
Casting of single crystals
Use of electric or magnetic effects in continuous casting
Exerting after-pressure on the moulding material during injection die casting
Cooling open-ended moulds
Cooling moulds with travelling walls during continuous casting
Secondary cooling in continuous casting
Controlling for cooling cast stock or mould in continuous casting
Cooling moulds in centrifugal casting
Chill casting
Cooling dies in pressure injection die casting
Treating molten metal in the continuous casting mould
Appurtenances for preventing splashing
Skimming of molten metals
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nodularising additive agents
Removing castings from moulds, not restricted to casting processes covered by a single main group; Removing cores; Handling ingots [N: (B22D 13/10, B22D 11/124, B22D 17/00 take precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The removing of castings and ingots from their moulds and the removing of cores from the cast pieces; the necessary processes, machines and accessory devices.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Treating the metal in the mould by vibrating the mould
Removing castings from centrifugal casting moulds
Evacuating cast pieces from injection die casting moulds
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cranes
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In these groups, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Flask
A metal frame used for making and holding a refractory mould
Cooling castings, not restricted to casting processes covered by a single main group (accessories for cooling cast stock in continuous casting of metals B22D 11/124; controlling or regulating processes or operations for cooling cast stock or mould in continuous casting of metals B22D 11/22; chill casting B22D 15/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cooling of castings when removed totally or partly from the moulds and where the surface of the casting is totally or partly in direct contact with a cooling fluid.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Open-ended moulds for direct chill casting
Cooling open-ended moulds
Cooling moulds with travelling walls during continuous casting
Secondary cooling in continuous casting
Controlling for cooling cast stock or mould in continuous casting
Cooling moulds in centrifugal casting
Chill casting
Cooling dies in pressure injection die casting
Influencing temperature of the metal
Cutting-off surplus material, e.g. gates; [N: Cleaning and working on castings (B22D 17/2076 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The removing of the gating systems from the castings and the subsequently cleaning of the castings, the removal of any parts of the casting/gating system, e.g. removal of risers

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cutting off equipment for sprues or ingates combined with an injection die casting machine
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Grinding or polishing
Shearing, sawing
Trimming
Special rules of classification within this group

Specific constructions of machines for removing the gates from the casting or cleaning the casting are classified in the relevant groups (B23D, B24B).

Equipment for handling moulds
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any equipment for handling moulds after their manufacture.

B22D 33/005 covers the transport of sand moulds which have been taken out from their flask

B22D 33/06 covers equipment for placing or removing weights on the cope and drag mould parts, to prevent shifting during casting.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Making flaskless moulds
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In these groups, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Cope
the top half of a horizontally parted mould
Drag
the bottom half of a horizontally parted mould
Flaskless mould
a mould which is made in a moulding machine wherein one or more flasks forming part of the machine and where after compacting the moulding material, the mould is removed from the flask(s) and set side by side on a conveyor
Equipment for conveying molten metal into beds or moulds (B22D 37/00 to B22D 41/00 take precedence; specially adapted to particular processes or machines, see the relevant groups)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Equipment for conveying molten metal into beds or moulds, in general; heating or cooling of the molten metal in an equipement for conveying the metal into moulds or beds.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Heating/cooling of moulds is classified in B22C9/065

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Feeding centrifugal casting moulds
Supplying molten metal in pressure die casting
Means for forcing molten metal into an injection die
Supplying molten metal in ratios
Pouring nozzles
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In these groups, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Bed
a moulding sand layer (mostly on ground level) wherein a multiple mould cluster has been made
Controlling or regulating the pouring of molten metal from a casting melt-holding vessel (B22D 39/00,B22D 41/00 take precedence; specially adapted to particular processes or machines, see the relevant groups of this subclass)[N: B22D 11/10 takes precedence]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control and the shielding of the molten metal stream issuing from a vessel.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling or regulating processes for pouring in continuous casting
Supplying molten metal in ration s
Closures in casting melt-holding vessels
Equipment for supplying molten metal in rations (specially adapted to particular processes or machines, see the relevant groups of this subclass)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All kind of equipment making it possible to deliver the amount of molten metal, necessary to produce a casting.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Accessories for supplying molten metal in pressure die casting machines
Electrodynamic pumps
Special rules of classification within this group

If the equipment is adapted for a particular casting machine (B22D 13/00-B22D 25/00) it is classified in the relevant group for that casting machine and in the relevant subgroup of B22D 39/00 - B22D 39/06.

Casting melt-holding vessels, e.g. ladles, tundishes, cups or the like (B22D 39/00, B22D 43/00 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casting vessels (ladles, tundishes or cups);

Their constructionnal features like cooling or heating means, linings, pouring nozzles and closure means;

Working methods of these vessels.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Converters
Furnaces
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Refractory linings for converters
Linings for furnaces
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Impact pad
A pad or a boxlike device of erosion resistant material positioned on the floor of a melt-holding vessel to receive the incoming stream of molten metal poured into the said vessel from a higher positioned vessel
Ladle turret
A rotating tower is supporting two casting ladles in such a way that one ladle is 'on cast' (feeding the casting machine) while the other is made ready, and is switched to the casting position once the first ladle is empty.
Mechanical cleaning, e.g. skimming of molten metals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removing or holding back dirt or slag from the surface of the molten metal before or during casting.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Removing or retaining slag in furnaces
Equipment for casting, not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any kind of casting equipment for which no specific entry exists.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Removal of waste gases or dust during steel making
Extraction of waste gases in furnaces
F27D 17/00 - B22D17/00E
Controlling, supervising, not restricted to casting covered by a single main group, e.g. for safety reasons (controlling or regulating in general G05)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Any kind of controlling which is not associated with a single specific casting process.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Controlling equipment in injection die casting machines
Controlling in centrifugal casting
Controlling or regulating processes during continuous casting
Controlling pouring from a melt-holding vessel
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Controlling in general
G05
Casting plants
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The lay-out of a casting plant which may comprise a combination of machines used during the whole casting process, eventually together with the preceding moulding plant.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013