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PRODUCING PARTICULAR ARTICLES FROM PLASTICS OR FROM SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE (making granules B29B 9/00; making preforms B29B 11/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This sub-class covers the production of particular plastic or plastic-like articles; namely:

  • articles with screw-threads;
  • elements of slide fasteners; combined making and attaching of elements of slide fasteners;
  • flat articles, e.g. films or sheets;
  • optical elements, e.g. lenses, prisms;
  • frames;
  • gear wheels or similar articles with grooves or projections, e.g. control knobs;
  • articles with corrugations;
  • carriers of records containing fine grooves or impressions, e.g. disc records for needle playback, cylinder records; record discs from master stencils;
  • buttons or semi-finished parts of buttons;
  • hair combs or similar toothed or slotted articles;
  • hollow articles;
  • tubular articles;
  • articles with hollow walls;
  • frameless domes;
  • nets or the like;
  • belts or bands;
  • pneumatic or solid tyres or parts thereof;
  • bushes for bearings;
  • footwear;
  • profiled members, e.g. beams;
  • wall or panel-like structures, e.g. for hulls, fuselages, or buildings;
  • blades or the like, e.g. blades for turbines, propellers, or wings;
  • rolling bodies, e.g. rollers, wheels, pulleys or pinions;
  • countertops;
  • plain balls;
  • rods;
  • membranes;
  • sealings;
  • floor coverings;
  • casings, e.g. accumulator cases;
  • wearing apparel, e.g. gloves, masks, bathing caps;
  • filamentary materials;
  • articles in the form of closed loops, e.g. rings;
  • honeycomb structures;
  • upholstery articles, e.g. cushions, seats;
  • closure members for containers, e.g. closure caps or stoppers.
Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass is often connected with the following subclasses, ordered decreasingly according to its incidence:

- B29C, which deals with the shaping or joining of plastics, shaping of substances in a plastic state, in general, and after-treatment of the shaped products;

- B32B, which covers layered products, i.e. products built-up of strata of flat or non-flat elements, e.g. cellular or honeycomb form, as well the method of making these products;

- G02B, which refers to optical elements, characterised by the material of which they are made, and also optical systems or apparatuses that make use thereof;

- B60C, which deals with constructional aspects of vehicle tyres or parts thereof and several aspects related to vehicle tyres, such as, tyre inflation, tyre changing, connecting valves to inflatable elastic bodies in general, devices or arrangements related to tyres;

- C08L, which contains compositions of macromolecular compounds;

- A43B, which treats of footwear or part thereof characterised by the material, shape or by the assembling of the individual parts.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Making granules
Making preforms
Shaping composites, i.e. plastics material comprising reinforcements, fillers or preformed parts, e.g. inserts
Methods and apparatuses for making layered products
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Plastic collars
Footwear or part thereof characterised by the material, shape or by the assembling of the individual parts
Seats or covers for all kinds of closets, made of plastic materials
Manufacture of rings from wire
Machines, devices or processes for grinding or polishing
Layered products, i.e. products built-up of strata of flat or non-flat elements, e.g. cellular or honeycomb form
Constructional form of tyres or parts thereof; tyre inflation; tyre changing
Connection of valves to tyres or rims
Sealing or packing elements; sealings formed by liquid or plastics material
Compositions of macromolecular compounds
Woven fabrics, methods of weaving and looms
Making nets by knotting of filamentary material, making knotted carpets or tapestries and knotting not otherwise provided for
V-belts made of plastics with reinforcement bonded by the plastic material
Driving-belts made of plastics with reinforcement bonded by the plastic material
Protection helmets made of plastics or plastic head-shield
Testing static or dynamic balance of tyres for wheeled vehicles
Optical elements, characterised by the material of which they are made; optical systems or apparatuses that make use thereof
Spectacles; sunglasses or goggles insofar as they have the same features as spectacles; contact lenses
Plastic bearings
Information storage based on relative movement between record carrier and transducer
Special rules of classification within this subclass

- The working of plastics is, as far as possible, classified primarily according to the particular shaping technique used, e.g. in subclass B29C.

- Classification according to production of particular articles in subclass B29D is restricted to:

  • aspects which are characteristic for the production of a particular article, and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C;
  • combined operations for making the particular article which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C.

- Products per se are not classified in this class. However, if a product is characterised by the way it is produced and not by its structure or composition, the production method should be classified in this class.

- In this subclass it is desirable to add the Indexing Codes of the subclass B29K.

- Inventive and additional information disclosed in documents to be classified should be identified by allocation the appropriate classification symbols provided in B29D. In particular attention should be paid to the so called break down Indexing Codes, forming a further subdivision of a group or a subgroup, which are only present at additional information level.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Plastic
is defined as a macromolecular compound or composition based on such a compound
In a plastic state
refers to a state in which the material is more or less easily deformable, locally or as a whole, by force in any direction, to assume and retain any desired shape
Bearing
a plastic device to allow constrained relative motion between two or more parts, typically rotation or linear movement
Bush
a thin plastic sleeve or tubular lining serving as a bearing or guide.
Carrier of records
a kind of plastic support that enables some information to be recorded on
Producing articles with screw-threads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of screw-threads, whereby said method is characteristic for making said screw-threads and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making screw-threads, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 1/00

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Making screw threads by injection moulding
[N: fibre reinforced]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of fibre reinforced screw-threads, whereby said method is characteristic for making said screw-threads and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making fibre reinforced screw-threads, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 1/005

Producing elements of slide fasteners; Combined making and attaching of elements of slide fasteners
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of elements of slide fasteners, whereby said method is characteristic for making said elements and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined making and attaching of elements of slide fasteners, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 5/00

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Slide fasteners per se
the fasteners having separate interlocking members
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 5/02

the interlocking members being formed by continuous meander of filamentary material
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 5/04

the interlocking members being formed by continuous helix
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 5/06

the interlocking members being formed by profiled or castellated edge of a stringer
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 5/08

the interlocking members being formed by continuous profiled strip
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 5/10

Producing flat articles, e.g. films or sheets (B29D 24/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Manufacturing of flat articles characterised by special physical or application properties (e. g. good sliding properties, high conductivity, antistatic properties, easily tearable, sealable, printable etc.)

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Shaping films or sheets by stretching
Manufacture of films or sheets characterised by the chemical composition
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Film laminates
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions "films", "sheets", "webs", "tapes", "ribbons", "slabs", "plates", "plaques" and "boards" are often used as synonyms.

Producing optical elements, e.g. lenses, prisms (grinding or polishing of optical elements B24B; constructional form of optical elements G02B; [N: optical parts of spectacles G02C 7/00])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for making optical elements of polymeric materials

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines for grinding glass optical work
Making optical elements of glass
Producing frames
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of frames, whereby said method is characteristic for making said frames and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making frames, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 12/00

FR2576839

Spectacle frames (constructional form G02C)
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of spectacle frames, whereby said method is characteristic for making said frames and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making spectacle frames, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional form of spectacle frames
Producing gear wheels or similar articles with grooves or projections, e.g. control knobs
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of gear wheels or similar articles with grooves or projections, whereby said method is characteristic for making said gear wheels and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making gear wheels, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gear wheels per se
Producing articles with corrugations (B29D 23/18 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of articles with corrugations, whereby said method is characteristic for making said articles and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making articles with corrugations, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 16/00

US5169590

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Extrusion moulding using dies or die parts movable in a closed circuit, e.g. for making corrugated articles:
Producing corrugated articles by winding and joining
Corrugating paper
Corrugating metal
Producing carriers of records containing fine grooves or impressions, e.g. disc records for needle playback, cylinder records (recording sound or other information using formed grooves or the equivalent G11B ); Producing record discs from master stencils
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of records containing fine grooves or impressions, whereby said method is characteristic for making said records and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making records containing fine grooves or impressions, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
  • producing record discs from master stencils

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 17/00

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Recording sound or other information using formed grooves or the equivalent
Producing buttons or semi-finished parts of buttons
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of buttons or semi-finished parts of buttons, whereby said method is characteristic for making said buttons and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making buttons or semi-finished parts of buttons, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 19/00

GB464736

Producing hair combs or similar toothed or slotted articles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of hair combs or similar toothed or slotted articles, whereby said method is characteristic for making said articles and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making hair combs or similar toothed or slotted articles, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 21/00

US2463894

Producing hollow articles (tubular articles B29D 23/00; pneumatic tyres B29D 30/00)
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of hollow articles, whereby said method is characteristic for making said articles and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making hollow articles, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Producing tubular articles
Producing pneumatic tyres
[N: Air springs; Air bellows (construction of fluid springs F16F 9/00)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Construction of fluid springs
[N: Ring shaped inner tubes with ends (endless inner tubes B29D 23/24)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tyre inner tubes with ends as such
Producing tubular articles (B29D 24/00 takes precedence);
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of tubular articles, whereby said method is characteristic for making said articles and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making tubular articles, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 23/00

Pleated [N: or corrugated] hoses
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Corrugated plastic hoses
Producing articles with hollow walls [N: (B29D 99/0028 takes precedence)]
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of articles with hollow walls, whereby said method is characteristic for making said articles and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making articles with hollow walls, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Producing wall or panel like structure for hulls, fuselage or buildings
General building construction: walls, e.g. partitions; roofs; floors; ceilings; insulation or other protection of buildings
[N: formed of hollow ridges or ribs, e.g. separate ridges; continuous corrugated structure (B29D 24/008 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 24/001

GB1522432

[N: the structure having joined ribs, e.g. honeycomb]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 24/005

[N: the structure having hollow ridges, ribs or cores]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 24/008

Producing frameless domes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of frameless domes, whereby said method is characteristic for making said domes and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making frameless domes, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 25/00

US3795559

Producing nets or the like, [N: e.g. meshes, lattices] (by knotting D04G)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The production of reticular products like nets, grids, meshes, lattices not limited to a specific application.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nets for protecting crops or plants
Nets for animals
Screens
Non-woven fabrics
Grids for geological applications
Producing belts or bands
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The manufacture of belts or bands, either essentially consisting or plastics (including rubber or the like), or comprising various kinds of reinforcements embedded in a matrix of plastic material, including rubber or the like.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Producing belts as tyre components
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Driving-belts
V-belts, i.e. belts of tapered cross-section
Special rules of classification within this group

In this group it is desirable to identify the type of produced belt or band by allocating the appropriate Indexing Codes as provided in the subclass B29L, e.g.:

- belts or bands: B29L29/00;

- conveyer belts: B29L31/7092;

- driving belts: B29L31/7094;

- fourdrinier belts: B29L31/733

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Belt
is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. Belts may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power, or to track relative movement.
Conveyor belt
is one application where the belt is adapted to continually carry a load between two points.
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following English words "band", "strip", "tape" and "ribbon" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following German words "riemen", "gürtel", and "band" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following French words "bande", "courroie", and "ceinture" are often used as synonyms.

Toothed driving belts
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

the manufacture of driving belts (aka synchronous belts) comprising patterns of typically tooth-shaped protruding elements. These elements mesh with the grooves of a pulley in a synchronous belt drive. Timing belts maintain constant speed during power transmission and do not slip.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Driving-belts with a contact surface of special shape, e.g. toothed
V-belts, i.e. belts of tapered cross-section, with a contact surface of special shape, e.g. toothed
[N: Double-toothed driving belts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Making of double-toothed belts

Illustrative example of double-toothed belts

Driving belts having wedge-shaped cross-section
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Making of driving belts having a wedge-shaped cross-section

Illustrative example of driving belts having a wedge-shaped cross-section

[N: Multi-ribbed driving belts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Making of multi-ribbed driving belts:

Illustrative example of multi-ribbed driving belts

[N: Cogged driving belts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Making of cogged belts being a driving belt designed to avoid slipping; a.k.a.: timing belt.

Sketch of a cogged driving belt:

Producing pneumatic or solid tyres or parts thereof (producing inner tubes B29D 23/24; constructional form of tyres or parts thereof B60C; connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies B60C 29/00; testing of tyres G01M 17/02)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing pneumatic or solid tyres or parts thereof.

This group also covers the following manufacturing issues:

Most of the modern pneumatic radial tyres are manufactured according to the following main steps:

  • a carcass including the tyre beads is built either on a toroidal core (the shape of said core being substantially correspondent to the shape of the finished tyre), or on a cylindrical drum; thereafter, the carcass built on the cylindrical drum is expanded into the final toroidal shape;
  • the belt and the tread are applied to the toroidally expanded carcass;
  • the sidewalls are applied to the toroidally expanded carcass;
  • the green tyre so obtained is cured in a suitable mould.

Other tyre manufacturing techniques include casting, centrifugal casting, compression moulding, injection moulding.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Producing tyre components by a single moulding technique, not including injection moulding or centrifugal casting
Repairing of tyres
Means for sealing or repairing damaged tyres
B60C21/00
Self-sealing arrangements or agents
B60C21/08
Producing inner tubes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sealing compositions per se: see section C, e.g.
Testing of tyres
Connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies
Selectively separating reinforcements from matrix material by destroying the interface bound before desintegrating the matrix to particles or powder, e.g. from tyres or belts
Producing hollow articles
Producing tubular articles
Bags, bleeder sheets or cauls for isostatic pressing
Cores or mandrels in general, e.g. inflatable
Constructional forms of tyres or parts therof
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "This section consists of definitions for significant words or phrases found in the titles or definition statements. For more details:"Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

In this group, the following terms are used with the meaning indicated:

Tyre (also spelled as tire)
a ring-shaped, typically toroidal, covering for a wheel, usually made of rubber reinforced with cords of steel, nylon or other material. It may be either solid or hollow and inflated (see pneumatic tyre), and is mounted over the rim of a wheel to provide traction, resistance to wear and to provide flexible cushion that absorbs shock while keeping the wheel in close contact with the ground
Bias-ply tyre
a pneumatic tyre having crossed layers of ply cord running diagonally to the tread. See also: radial tyre
Green tyre
a pneumatic tyre which has not yet undergone the moulding and vulcanizing process. Since the rubber is uncured, the green tyre is tacky, soft and not capable of maintaining its shape
Pneumatic tyre
a tyre made of reinforced rubber, holding compressed air. Pneumatic tyres consist of bands of corded fabric, or "plies," coated with rubber. Bias ply tyres have the plies overlaid at an angle to the other layers. Radial tyres have all plies laid at 90 degrees to the tyre body or casing. See also: solid tyre
Radial tyre
a particular type of tyre construction which utilizes beads that run perpendicular (90 degrees) to the direction of travel, stretched from bead to bead. They are typically reinforced with steel or nylon belts. See also: bias-ply tyre
Run-Flat tyre
a type of tyre that permits travel with reduced internal pressure (deflated) for a limited mileage range at a limited speed
Solid tyre
solid tyres have no hollow center and hold no air (non-pneumatic tyre). They are typically made of plastic or a composite of rubber/plastic and are used mostly on lawnmowers, skateboards, scooters, etc. The fact that pneumatic tyres can be punctured and lose air pressure makes them unsuitable for certain applications. For instance, tyres used by the military, in construction and on forklifts are often made with solid rubber or filled with resilient foam
Studded tyre
tyre that comes with small metal studs embedded into the tread blocks, or holes where studs can be manually inserted, to provide better traction in inclement driving conditions
Tubeless tyre
a pneumatic tyre which does not require a rubber inner tube to hold the air pressure. Tubeless tyres have a stiff bead on the edges of the sidewall that form an airtight seal with the wheel, eliminating the need for an inner tube .See also: solid tyre, inner tube, inner liner
Apex (aka bead filler)
tyre component made from a very hard rubber compound, which is extruded so as to form a wedge; it is joined to bead core on its radially external surface
Bead
the innermost portion of a tyre on either side, where it seats to the rim. A bead is reinforced with concentric steel wires to ensure a tight seal against the rim. It also prevents damage to the tyre during installation and removal
Bead ring (aka bead core)
a structure composed of high tensile strength steel wire formed into hoops which function as anchors for the plies and hold the tyre assembly onto the rim of the wheel
Belt (aka breaker)
one or more layers of rubber-coated tyre cord or rubber-encased steel cords located directly beneath the tread that run circumferentially in the crown of the tyre. The belt purpose is to reinforce the tread and help maintain a tyre's shape under a wide variety of conditions including tyre pressure variations, centrifugal forces and cornering and braking forces, for example. Belts also improve tread wear and help resist damage from impacts and penetration
Bias Ply (aka as Cross-Ply)
bias ply tyres have belts that run diagonally across and on top of each other from bead to bead, typically at angles in the range of 30 to 40 degrees. This provides the advantage of allowing the tyre body more flexibility. This allows for a smoother ride over rough surfaces
Carcass (aka casing)
a typical structural part of a pneumatic tyre, comprising a network of cords or other reinforcing elements embedded in rubber, which typically gives the tyre its shape. The tread or sidewalls are not part of the carcass
Chafer
a narrow strip of rubber-coated abrasion-resistant material folded around the outside of the bead that protects the carcass cords against wear and cutting by the rim, distributes flex above the rim, and prevents dirt and moisture from getting into the tyre
Cord
a strand of fabric, typically made of nylon, steel, rayon, fiberglass, polyester, or some combination of these materials, used in the making of carcass plies, belts or other reinforcing parts
Crown
the entire outer perimeter of the contact surface of a tyre. This area houses the tread pattern of a tyre
Inner Liner
the layer of air-impervious rubber (typically butyl rubber) that coats the inside of a tubeless tyre
Inner Tube
the rubber balloon in the shape of a long circular tube which is inserted into a tyre to retain air pressure. Most automotive tyres are tubeless
Ply
a layer of fabric cord extending from bead to bead, that forms much of the body of a tyre between tread and inner lining
Retreading
the practice of applying a new tread to a used tyre casing. Most commonly used on medium and heavy commercial trucks tyres
Safety Strips (aka Overlays)
two substantially continuous reinforcing strips wound symmetrically over the lateral edges of the belt, designed to maintain the integrity of the tyre and prevent catastrophic tread separations by decreasing stresses at the belt edges
Shoulder
the upper rounded portion of the sidewall just below the tread edge and affects tyre heat behaviour and cornering characteristics
Sidewall
the portion of a tyre between the bead and the tread pattern. It is typically compounded of rubber with high flex and weather resistance to control the ride and provide support
Sipes
small slits cut into tread blocks that help evacuate water away from the crown of the tyre for improved wet traction. Sipes also provide “biting edges” for improved traction on ice- and snow-covered roads
Tread
the part of a tyre designed to make contact with the road surface. The tread is made from tough rubber for high traction and low wear
Tread blocks
individual sections of the tread separated by lateral grooves
Tread pattern
the arrangement of grooves, blocks, sipes and channels on the tread that permit water to drain away from the footprint
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following English words " tire" and "tyre" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following German words "reifen" and "luftreifen" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following French expressions "pneumatique", "pneu", and "bandage pneumatique" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Pretreatment of tyres or parts thereof, e.g. preheating, irradiation, precuring]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pretreatment, e.g. coating of, or impregnating of reinforcements or fillers
[N: Handling tyres or parts thereof, e.g. supplying, storing, conveying (B29D 30/2607 takes precedence; loading and unloading vulcanizing presses B29D 30/0603)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

manipulating, supporting, grasping, holding tyres or parts thereof (e.g. baskets or the like), with no specific relation to loading/unloading the press or the mould.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Loading/unloading the tyre curing press press
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gripping heads
Article or material handling devices associated with conveyers
Internally-expanding grippers for handling hollow articles
Storing webs, tapes, or filamentary material, e.g. on reels
[N: Accessories, details or auxiliary operations not otherwise provided for]
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

accessories, details or auxiliary operations, related to producing pneumatic or solid tyres or parts thereof, not covered by groups B29D 30/0005, B29D 30/0016, B29D 30/005, B29D 30/02, B29D 30/04 and B29D 30/06

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Packaging annular articles, e.g. tyres
Solid tyres
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 30/02

US 4244413

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-inflatable or solid tyres
Resilient fillings for rubber tyres; Filling tyres therewith
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

methods of providing pneumatic tyres with a resilient filler to provide cushioning of the vehicle ride. The filler is typically a foamed elastomeric material, normally expanded in situ. This group also covers the materials used therefor

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Non-inflatable or solid tyre characterised by means for increasing resiliency
[N: the vulcanising medium being in direct contact with the tyre]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

apparatuses and methods of curing tyres, wherein the vulcanizing medium (typically steam, hot nitrogen or other hot fluids) comes directly in contact with the tyre during vulcanization; also known as "bladderless" curing: an inflatable vulcanizing bladder or core, preventing contact between the steam or the vulcanizing fluid on one side and the tyre from the other side, is not present.

[N: Loading or unloading the presses]
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

apparatuses and methods of loading the vulcanizing presses or moulds with green (i.e. uncured) tyres and to unload the cured (i.e. vulcanized) tyres from the vulcanizing presses or moulds.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Manipulating, supporting, grasping, holding tyres, e.g. baskets or the like, with no specific relation with loading or unloading the presses or the moulds
[N: Vulcanising presses characterised by moulds integral with the presses having radially movable sectors]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines (presses) comprising moulds with radially movable sectors and means for opening or closing the moulds, means for exerting pressure and means for supplying fluids and/or energy for curing the tyres including means for controlling the vulcanizing process. A mould with radially movable sectors typically comprises two substantially disc-shaped plates for moulding the tyre sidewalls and a plurality of circumferential sectors (aka segments) for moulding the tyre tread. The sectors are movable synchronously inward, to form a continuous cavity and to mould the tyre tread, and are movable synchronously outward, to allow the removal of the cured tyre from the mould.

WO03/041933 - A

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Presses in general
[N: Vulcanising moulds not integral with vulcanising presses]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

constructional features of moulds for vulcanizing tyres, e.g. details of the molding surface (ribs, grooves, sipes, venting plugs, means, porous surfaces), means for opening/closing the mould or mould segments, details of fluid circulating means (channels), sensors.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Moulds or cores, characterised by the shape of the moulding surface, e.g. ribs, grooves
[N: with radially movable sectors]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

mould with radially movable sectors typically comprising two substantially disc-shaped plates for moulding the tyre sidewalls and a plurality of circumferential sectors (aka segments) for moulding the tyre tread

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 30/0629

EP 1232843 - A

[N: After-treatment specially adapted for vulcanising tyres]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • improving tyre uniformity, e.g. by adding or removing material, or deforming the tyre; e.g. US 3017669, BE 568778, DE 4006182;
  • measuring tyre uniformity;
  • marking, labelling tyres;
  • awling, venting tyres.
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines or devices designed for grinding surfaces of revolution on work, including those which also grind adjacent plane surfaces;accessories therefor; single-purpose machines or devices; for grinding tyres
Measuring or gauging equipment for controlling the feed movement of the grinding tool or work; arrangements of indicating or measuring equipment, e.g. for indicating the start of the grinding operation, taking regard of the load; for grinding tyres
Testing static or dynamic balance of machines or structures
Determining unbalance
Compensating unbalance
Testing of vehicles; of wheeled or endless-tracked vehicles; of tyres
[N: Cooling during post cure inflation; Post cure inflators used therefor]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling in moulding processes in general
[N: Tyre-vulcanising presses with two or more moulds, e.g. stacked upon each other]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 30/065

US 3827839

[N: Flexible cores therefor, e.g. bladders, bags, membranes, diaphragms (elastic cores or mandrels for shaping of plastics B29C 33/505; bags for isostatic pressing in compression moulding B29C 43/12, B29C 43/3642)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inflatable vulcanizing bladders or corse, which are heat-resistant and are inserted inside the tyre toroidal cavity, preventing contact between the steam or the vulcanizing fluid on the one side and the tyre inner surface on the other side.

Textile inserts, e.g. cord or canvas layers, for tyres (making woven fabrics D03D); Treatment of inserts prior to building the tyre (pretreatment of inserts B29B 15/00; manufacture of layers comprising fibrous parallel reinforcements of substantial or continuous length B29C 70/20)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Coating or impregnating of reinforcements or fillers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Reinforcing cords or wires for rubber or plastic articles, the cords being characterised by an anti-corrosive or adhesion-promoting coating
Bead-rings or bead-cores (from wire B21F 37/00); Treatment thereof prior to building the tyre
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

the manufacture of bead-rings or bead-cores, typically by winding a plurality of turns of a continuous steel wire to form a substantially un-stretchable ring.

This group also covers the application of the filler rubber or apex to the bead core, unless otherwise specified.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pretreatment of reinforcements or fillers; coating or impregnating
Coating wires to promote adhesion to rubber/plastics: reinforcing cords for rubber or plastic articles; the wires being characterised by an anti-corrosive or adhesion promoting coating
Unvulcanised treads, e.g. on used tyres; Retreading (apparatus for forming [N: treads by extrusion B29C 47/00; apparatus for] vulcanising treads B29C 35/02; apparatus characterised by the means for holding wheels or parts thereof B60B 30/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- manufacturing of tyre treads;

- retreading;

- application of anti-skid spikes or studs to the tread.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tyre tread bands per se; tread patterns; anti-skid inserts
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Tread
part of the tyre which protects the carcass plies from mechanical damage and the effects of moisture. The thickest part, the section in contact with the road, has patterned projections and recesses of various sizes and shapes; the tread pattern determines the adhesion between the tyre and the road, rolling resistance, resistance to abrasion, performance under difficult road conditions, running noise, and ease of control.
Retreading
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Retreading of tyres, i.e. processes and means to fit a worn tyre with a new tread.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines or devices designed for grinding surfaces of revolution on work, including those which also grind adjacent plane surfaces; accessories therefor; single-purpose machines or devices; for grinding tyres
Measuring or gauging equipment for controlling the feed movement of the grinding tool or work; arrangements of indicating or measuring equipment, e.g. for indicating the start of the grinding operation; taking regard of the load; for grinding tyres
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions (EN)"retreading", "recapping", (DE)"runderneuerung" and (FR)"rechapage" are often used as synonyms.

Applying bands of rubber treads, i.e. applying camel backs
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

the application of uncured bands of rubber tread to the tyre casing, either during the manufacture of a new tyre or in tyre retreading. Camel back is a synonym of rubber tread (see glossary).

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

Camelback (or "camel-back" or "camel back") is a strip of uncured rubber, which becomes the tyre tread once applied on the carcass; this strip has a certain profile and a width corresponding to the tread of the tyre; usually on one side of this strip there is a link film providing adherence between tread and carcass. The expression derives from the characteristic shape of this strip having a convex curve suggesting a camel's hump.

Annular breakers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Structure or arrangement of belts or breakers, crown-reinforcing or cushioning layers
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:

The breaker is a tyre component which is designed to provide a strong bond between the carcass plies and the outermost rubber layer (the tread); it is usually made of several layers of rubberized textile or metal cord. In bias-ply tyres the cords of the breaker run at the same angle as the carcass plies; in radial-ply tyres they run at an angle of 70°–85°, thus forming an inextensible belt that carries the major portion of the forces acting on the tyres as a result of inflation pressure and external loads. Because of the combination of flexible carcass plies and a stiff breaker, radial-ply tyres have a longer life, consume less power in overcoming rolling friction, and possess other service advantages over bias-ply tyres.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "belt" and "breaker" are often used as synonyms.

Side-walls
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tyre sidewalls
Decorating or marking the sidewalls
Protecting the sidewalls against exterior elements
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following words "side-wall" and "sidewall" are often used as synonyms.

Producing bushes for bearings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of bushes for bearings, whereby said method is characteristic for making said bushes and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making bushes for bearings, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 33/00

Producing footwear
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Producing a footwear or a part of it using moulding technique.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

A43B relating to footwear itself, part of it, shape and use of it, etc...

A43C relating to attachments for footwear, including the lace and the studs.

A43D relating to machines to produce footwear (with the exception of B29D 35/00 dedicated to the moulding)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Relating respectivelly in case of injection moulding or compression moulding is used in the procecess of producing a footwear (meaning also part of it)
When the whole shoe is moulded in one piece
When the sole is moulded to the upper assembly
In case part of the footwear is produced, and also if the mould is of interest
[N: by injection moulding; Apparatus therefor]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Producing a footwear (meaning also part of it) using injection moulding.

[N: by compression moulding, vulcanising or the like; Apparatus therefor]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Producing a footwear (meaning also part of it) using compression moulding/vulcanisation.

made in one piece using a moulding technique, e.g. by injection moulding or casting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Complete whole shoes moulded in one piece.

having soles or heels formed and joined on to preformed uppers using a moulding technique, e.g. by injection moulding, pressing and vulcanising
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Footwear where the sole is moulded to the upper assembly.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:

Footwear assembled by cementing/gluing a sole to an upper assembly.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
When the preformed sole is moulded to the upper assembly
having preformed soles or heels joined on to preformed uppers using a moulding technique, e.g. by feeding or injecting plastics material between the parts to be joined
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Footwear made by moulding a preformed sole to the upper assembly.

Producing parts thereof, e.g. soles, heels, uppers, by a moulding technique
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Parts of the footwear produced by moulding, and also the moulds thereof.

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass (not used);
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods of making articles as provided in the subgroups only

Special rules of classification within this group

The main group B29D 99/00 is not used for classification. Classification in B29D 99/00 is limited to its subgroups.

[N: provided with ridges or ribs, e.g. joined ribs]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of wall or panel-like structures provided with ribs, whereby said method is characteristic for making said structures and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making wall or panel-like structures provided with ribs, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in B29D 99/0014

DE1020090600706

[N: Producing blades or the like, e.g. blades for turbines, propellers, or wings]
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of blades or the like, whereby said method is characteristic for making said blades and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making blades, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Blades for propellers
Blades for rotors
Blades of composite material
Construction of rotors of wind motors
[N: hollow blades]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hollow blades
[N: rollers or cylinders having an axial length of several times the diameter, e.g. for embossing, pressing, or printing]
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of rolling bodies, the rollers or cylinders having an axial length of several times the diameter, whereby said method is characteristic for making said rolling bodies and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making rolling bodies, the rollers or cylinders having an axial length of several times the diameter, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Moulding shells for rollers of printing machines
[N: Producing honeycomb structures (consisting of porous ceramic ware C04B 38/0006)]
HYPERLINK "http://babylon/projects/babylon/clasoqc.nsf/0/E24F974E720B1667C125785A004EC885?OpenDocument" \o "The scope of the definition statement and of the title should essentially be the same and should mention categories of invention not explicitly mentioned by its title. A complete technical explanation should be used. Graphics may be used. More details:"Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • the production of honeycomb structures, whereby said method is characteristic for making said structures and not classifiable in subclass B29B or B29C
  • combined operations for making honeycomb, which are not fully classifiable in subclass B29C
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Honeycomb structures of porous ceramic ware and the preparation thereof
Making honeycomb structures of papers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Honeycomb filters
Filtering structures for exhaust or silencing apparatus
This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013