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ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT OR PROPULSION OF ELECTRICALLY-PROPELLED VEHICLES; MAGNETIC SUSPENSION OR LEVITATION FOR VEHICLES; ELECTRODYNAMIC BRAKE SYSTEMS FOR VEHICLES, IN GENERAL (electric coupling devices combined with mechanical couplings of vehicles B60D 1/62; electric heating for vehicles B60H; transmitting drive from electric motors to ultimate propulsive elements in vehicles B60K; disposition of electric propulsion equipment, other than current collectors, in vehicles B60K; auxiliary generator drives on vehicles B60K; lighting for vehicles B60Q; vehicle brake control systems in general B60T; preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles B61C; railway track circuits in general B61L; lighting in general F21; H05B; switches in general H01H; coupling devices for electric connections in general H01R; dynamo-electric machines H02K; electric converters H02M; starting, controlling, braking of electric machines or converters in general H02P; electric heating in general H05B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Supply of electric power to auxiliary equipment of electrically-propelled vehicles, e.g. electric heating or lighting circuits.

Current-collectors and arrangements thereof on electrically-propelled vehicles, e.g. rollers in contact with trolley wire, pantographs or third-rail current-collectors.

Electro-dynamic brake systems for vehicles in general, e.g. electric resistor braking, electric regenerative braking or eddy-current braking.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply external to the vehicle or supplied within the vehicle.

Charging or exchange of Batteries for electric vehicles whilst the car is stopped and details of charging stations including communication between vehicle and the charging station.

Electric propulsion of vehicles with power supply from force of nature, e.g. sun or wind.

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways.

Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles.

Methods, circuits or devices for controlling the propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles.

Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration or power consumption.

Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes, e.g. dead-man’s devices, devices for limiting the current under mechanical overload conditions or for preventing excessive speed of the vehicle.

Adaptation of control equipment on electrically-propelled vehicles for remote actuation from a stationary place, from alternative parts of the vehicle or from alternative vehicles in the same vehicle train.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

This subclass is the general place for subject-matter relating to the propulsion of electrically-propelled vehicles, for control of the propulsion and for collecting electrical power therefore;

However conjoint control of two or more vehicle subunits, one of which may be an electrical propulsion unit, and subject-matter relating to control of hybrid vehicles comprising an internal-combustion motor and an electric motor, are covered in subclass B60W;

Further subject-matter relating to arrangements or mounting of electrical propulsion units, electric gearings or auxiliary drives in vehicles, are covered in subclass B60K. That includes also the transmission of drive from electric motors to the ultimate propulsive elements in vehicles and the disposition of electric propulsion equipment, other than current collectors;

Rider propulsion of wheeled vehicles is covered in subclass B62M. Construction of Cycles per se B62K;

This subclass is also the application-oriented place for subject-matter relating to electro-dynamic or dynamo-electric braking systems for vehicles. The function-oriented places for such systems are subclasses H02P and H02K;

Starting, controlling, braking of electric machines per se are covered in H02P, converters in general are covered in H02M and the construction of dynamo-electric machines is covered in H02K;

Electric heating for vehicles is covered in B60H and electric heating per se is covered in H05B;

Lighting for vehicles is covered in B60Q and lighting in general in F21 and H05B;

Vehicle brake control systems in general B60T

As for rail bound systems railway track circuits in general are covered in B61L, overhead power lines in B60M and preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles is covered in B61C;

Coupling devices for electric connections in general are covered in H01R, switches in H01H and electric converters in H02M.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Motor driven wheel chairs
Electric coupling devices combined with mechanical couplings of vehicles
Construction of electrically-powered cycles
Electric heating for vehicles
Arrangement or mounting of electrical propulsion units
Arrangement or mounting of plural diverse prime movers for mutual or common propulsion, e.g. hybrid propulsion systems comprising electric motors and internal combustion engines
Arrangements or mounting of electric gearing in vehicles
Arrangement of signalling or lighting devices, the mounting or supporting thereof or circuits therefore, for vehicles in general
Power-driven ground-engaging fittings for manoeuvring the vehicle
Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function, including control of electrical propulsion units in case the vehicle is not purely electrically-propelled.
Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. i.e. vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, all used for propulsion of the vehicle
Construction of electrically-powered cycles
Construction of dynamo-electric brakes
Starting, controlling, braking of electric machines or converters in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Auxiliary drives on vehicles
Power supply lines for supplying power to electrically-propelled vehicles
Electric locomotives or railcars
Preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles
Railway track circuits in general
Lighting in general
Switches in general
Coupling devices for electric connections in general
Conversion of electric power
Electric heating in general
Special rules of classification within this group

- "vehicle" means all vehicles except those restricted to one of the following types of vehicles: rail vehicles, waterborne vessels, aircraft, space vehicles, hand carts, cycles, animal-drawn vehicles, and sledges, which are covered by the relevant subclasses of B61 to B64.

Thus, the term "vehicle" includes:

- vehicular characteristics which are common to more than one of the above listed types;

- certain characteristics restricted to automobiles, road or cross-country trailers.

The following exceptions to the above should be noted:

  • Subclass B60B or B60C embrace all vehicle wheels and tyres, except wheels for roller skates A63C 17/22, wheels for model railway vehicles A63H 19/22, and special adaptations of wheels or tyres for aircraft B64C 25/36
  • Subclass B60C embraces the connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies in general, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles
  • Subclass B60L embraces certain electric equipment of all electrically-propelled vehicles
  • Subclass B60M embraces certain power supply for, but external to, any kind of electrically-propelled vehicle
  • Subclass B60R embraces safety belts or body harnesses used in all types of land vehicles
  • Subclass B60S relates to all kinds of vehicles, except the servicing of rail locomotives B61K 11/00, ground equipment for aircraft B64F, or cleaning apparatus peculiar to waterborne vessels B63B 57/00, B63B 59/00
  • Subclass B60T includes brake control systems of general applicability, and in this respect it is not limited to vehicles. It also includes rail-vehicle power-brake systems and some other features of rail-vehicle brake systems
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Electrodynamic braking system
An electric machine that acts as a brake. Braking is accomplished by reversing the electric fields on the machine, effectively turning it into a generator. The usage of the generated power, either in useful applications or as dissipation of heat, restrains the motor-generator and provides a braking action.As such, this term is virtually coterminous with "dynamo-electric braking system" (see below). However the term "electrodynamic" on its own is broader and less clear than the term "dynamo-electric". It means "pertaining to electric current, electricity in motion and the effects of magnetism and induction", and could theoretically encompass electrical devices other than dynamo-electric devices.
Dynamo-electric braking system
A dynamo-electric machine is a device for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy or mechanical energy into electrical energy or combinations thereof, which involve electromagnetic induction. In respect of brakes, a braking effect could be produced by converting the kinetic energy of a vehicle into electrical energy, for dissipation (e.g. by resistors or as eddy-currents) or for storage (e.g. by regenerative braking). Alternatively, electrical energy could be supplied to the device to drive it into reverse, thereby producing a braking effect.
Electric vehicle
Vehicles propelled by electric motors, these motors being mechanically connected to the drive wheels.This includes also vehicles with engine driven generators sometimes referred to a as serial hybrid vehicles
Hybrid vehicle
Vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type connected with the driven wheels, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, and that are either singularly or in combination used for propulsion of the vehicle.
Plug in Hybrid
Hybrid vehicle which utilizes rechargeable batteries that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug or other connection means to an external electric power source
Range extender
Devices to extend the range of an electric vehicles supplied by a traction battery. Most of the time the term refers to an engine driven generator. It can however also refer to fuel cells or additional energy storage for electrical energy. Range extenders have generally a lower power than the maximum output of the vehicle.
Prime mover
A machine that transforms energy from thermal, electrical or pressure form to mechanical form, typically an engine or turbine
AC motor
Motor driven by ac
AC generator
Generator providing ac
DC motor
Motor driven by dc
DC generator
Generator providing dc
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Maglev
Magnetic levitation vehicle
Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of vehicles (circuit arrangements for charging batteries H02J 7/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric circuits for cars in general
B60R1/16
Lighting in general
Circuit arrangements for charging batteries
Installations of electric cables or lines in vehicles
Special rules of classification within this group

This sub-group is only applicable to electrically propelled vehicles.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
auxiliary equipment of vehicles
aggregates not directly used for propulsion, e.g. pumps, compressors, light, heating, air-conditioning, powered steering
{to auxiliary motors, e.g. for pumps, compressors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The supply of electric energy to auxiliary motors. These auxiliary motors can be in form of actuators or used to drive all kind of equipment like pumps, compressors.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control of vans in cars
{ to power outlets}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Supply of electric energy to power outlets or sockets in or at the vehicle. Power may be provided in form of 12 V DC supply or high volt AC. Providing power to charging ports for auxiliary vehicles is also covered.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sockets for charging electrical vehicles
Providing electrical energy to the grid (V4G)
to electric heating circuits
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The provision of electric energy for the climatisation for electric cars. Climatisation covers heating, cooling and ventilation, e.g. cabin climate control.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control of heating, cooling or ventilation in cars in general
Electric heating in cars in general
Heating or cooling of batteries per se
Heating or cooling of trains
Special rules of classification within this group

Heating in this group is to be understood in the broader meaning of changing temperature including cooling and ventilating

fed by the power supply line
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles supplied by overhead contact lines.

Provision of heating during charging of battery driven electrically propelled vehicles

using only one supply
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The provision of electrical energy to heating devices that use only one kind of supply. The origin of this group are heating devices that run on electricity, steam or hot air e.g. in trains.

with provision for using different supplies
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The provision of electrical energy to heating devices that use different supplies. This group covers not only heating devices that run on different forms of electric energy but also heating devices in trains that run additionally on steam, hot water or hot air.

to electric lighting circuits
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Provision of electric energy to electric lighting circuits for electric cars.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric lighting systems for toy vehicles
Lighting in general
fed by the power supply line
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles supplied by overhead contact lines.

{ Energy regeneration from auxiliary equipment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Energy recovering from auxiliary equipment e.g. downward movement of fork lift fork is used to regenerate energy. This procedure can also be frequently found in working vehicles.

Electric devices on electrically-propelled vehicles for safety purposes; Monitoring operating variables, e.g. speed, deceleration, power consumption (measuring in general G01)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for crash or collision prevention;

Methods and devices for detection of failure in the drive train;

Dead-man's devices;

Methods and devices for cutting of power under fault conditions;

Methods and devices for limiting traction current under mechanical overload conditions;

Methods and devices for preventing excessive speed of the vehicle;

Methods and devices for indicating wheel slip;

Methods and devices for monitoring and recording operating variables.

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Measuring in general G01

Emergency protective circuit arrangements H02H

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing of electric installations on transport means
Testing dynamo electric machines
Safety arrangements with redundant control systems
Testing dynamo electric machines in operation
Sound generating devices
{ Measures or means for preventing or attenuating collisions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices dealing with the impact or the results of a crash or a collision. This includes the disconnection of the battery or the discharge of the smoothing capacitor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Safety devices responsive to accident or emergency per se
{ Prevention of collisions}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for preventing crashes or collisions.

{ Detecting, eliminating, remedying or compensating for drive train abnormalities, e.g. failures within the drive train}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities in the drive train whilst the vehicle is in operation

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for testing of electric apparatus, lines or components for short-circuits, leakage or ground faults
Testing dynamo electric machines in operation
Avoiding failure by redundant parts
B60W50/02C1
{ relating to inverters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the inverter systems e.g. semiconductor switch failure

{ relating to sensors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with sensors e.g. motor position senor, voltage sensors or wheel speed sensors

{ relating to electric energy storage systems, e.g. batteries or capacitors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the electric energy storage e.g. battery or capacitor

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring the Battery
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Safety and protective circuits for charging batteries
{ relating to fuel cells}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with fuel cells

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Monitoring or controlling fuel cells in electric vehicles
{ relating to electrical machines}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the electrical machines of the vehicle e.g. drive motors or generators

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing dynamo electric machines in operation
{ relating to the isolation, e.g. ground fault or leak current}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with the electric isolation e.g. ground fault or leaking current

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for testing of electric apparatus, lines or components for short-circuits, leakage or ground faults
{ relating to braking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with brakes

{ relating to control modules}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and devices for detecting or overcoming abnormalities associated with control modules

{ with use of redundant elements for safety purposes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Same or similar elements are used to replace a failed component of the drive train. This can be either a supernumerary part only foreseen for this purpose or an other devices that serves originally a different propose.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Avoiding failure by redundant parts
B60W50/02C1
Dead-man`s devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Failsafe devices initiating appropriate safety measures in case that the human operator becomes incapacitated.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
dead-man's devices
Failsafe devices that are initiated by a type of human incapacitation
Cutting off the power supply under fault conditions (protective devices and circuit arrangements in general H01H; H02H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass also covers the discharge or isolation of elements with high energy content e.g. batteries under fault conditions in so far as specially adapted for electric vehicles

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Emergency protective circuit arrangements for automatic disconnection directly responsive to an undesired change from normal electric working condition are covered in H02H and H01H

Indicating wheel slip; { Correction of wheel slip}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing wheel slip by reducing power in rail vehicles
{ by indirect measurement of vehicle speed}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

When all wheels are driving wheels, none of them can be relied on to give the true vehicle speed because all wheels could be spinning. Thus the vehicle speed can not be measured directly and has to be calculated, estimated or simulated. This established vehicle speed is then compared to the measured wheel speed to determine if the wheel is blocked or if it spins.

{ for maintaining or recovering the adhesion of the drive wheels}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Traction control systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Safety devices responsive to or preventing skidding of wheels per se
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

TCS
Traction control system
ASR
Anti slip regulation/ German: Anti- Schlupf-Regelung
{ whilst braking , i.e. ABS}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Anti-lock braking system (ABS = Antiblokiersystem) The braking torque is controlled to prevent the wheels from locking up (that is, ceasing rotation) and therefore avoiding slipping or skidding.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
ABS per se
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Gleitschutz
German synonym for ABS used only in connection with trains
Recording operating variables; { Monitoring of operating variables}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Recording, measuring and detecting operating variables of an electric vehicle

Current collectors for power supply lines of electrically-propelled vehicles (current collectors in general H01R 41/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Supply of electric current to toy vehicles through a track
Toy vehicles with overhead trolley-wire
Current collectors in general, e.g. non-rotary current collectors
Power supply lines for electrically propelled vehicles
using rollers or sliding shoes in contact with trolley wire (B60L 5/40 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Current collectors for collecting current from lines in slotted conduits
Devices for lifting and resetting the collector (B60L 5/34 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Current collectors with devices to enable one vehicle to pass another one using the same power supply line
for collecting current from conductor rails (B60L 5/40 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Current collectors for collecting current from lines in slotted conduits
from third rail
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Current collectors for vehicles on a railway track comprising two rails. The third rail is the power supply rail.

for collecting current from individual contact pieces connected to the power supply line
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Intermittent electrical power transfer to vehicle in motion.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Charging stations for electric vehicles when not moving
Electrodynamic brake systems for vehicles in general
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The electric traction motor is used as a generator and in this way slowing the vehicle. The energy produced can either be fed back into the supply, stored in a battery, dissipated in a braking resistors or used to power the engine driven generator that is used as a motor and dragging the combustion engine.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rail brakes
ABS-systems
Regenerative Braking
Vehicle brake control systems
Retarders, i.e. regenerative electric braking
Actuating mechanisms for brakes
Stopping or slowing electric motors per se
{ Dynamic electric braking by short circuiting the motor}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The electric traction motor is short circuited and produces a braking force. The energy is dissipated in the motor itself.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Braking electric DC-motors by short-circuit per se
Braking electric AC-motors by short-circuit per se
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Kurzschlussbremsen
German synonym
{ Dynamic electric braking by reversing current, i.e. plugging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric currents are applied to the motor in a way that induces a magnetic field that turns in an opposite direction to the one of the motor. The magnetic field serves to brake the motor. This method can still be applied if battery is fully charged. The main part of the energy is dissipated in the motor itself.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Gegenstrombremsen
German
Dynamic electric resistor braking (B60L 7/22 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Braking resistors are used to dissipate the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dynamic electric resistor braking combined with dynamic electric regenerative braking
for vehicles propelled by dc motors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by a dc current

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Resistor braking for DC-motors per se
for vehicles propelled by ac motors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by a ac current

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Resistor braking for AC-motors per se
Controlling the braking effect (B60L 7/04, B60L 7/06 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vehicles propelled with dc motors
Vehicles propelled with ac motors
Dynamic electric regenerative braking (B60L 7/22 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The traction battery is used to store the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Dynamic electric resistor braking combined with dynamic electric regenerative braking
for vehicles propelled by dc motors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by a dc current

for vehicles propelled by ac motors
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles propelled by motors driven by an ac current

Controlling the braking effect (B60L 7/12, B60L 7/14, B60L 7/16 take precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Regenerative braking for vehicles with dc motors
Regenerative braking for vehicles with ac motors
Regenerative braking for vehicles comprising converters
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Regenerative Braking
Braking by supplying regenerated power to the prime mover of vehicles comprising engine-driven generators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The mechanical resistance of the vehicle combustion engine is used to dissipate the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

Dynamic electric resistor braking, combined with dynamic electric regenerative braking
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The traction battery is used to store the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking. If its storage capacity is not sufficient (e.g. during peaks), braking resistors are used to dissipate the energy regenerated by electrodynamic braking.

with additional mechanical or electromagnetic braking
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electro-magnetic brakes
F16D65/14D6D
Controlling the braking effect
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Regenerative Braking
Retarders being of the electric type
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Retarders
regenerating braking in electric vehicles seem to be interpreted as retarders in B60T 13/586
Eddy-current braking
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Wear-free systems for slowing a vehicle creating eddy currents in a metal by means of induction.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Eddy-current braking
Wear free systems for slowing a vehicle creating eddy currents by in a metal by means of induction. The eddy currents produces a magnetic field opposing the first magnetic field. Opposing magnetic fields create force that reduces the vehicle velocity.
Electric propulsion with power supply from force of nature, e.g. sun, wind
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The propulsion energy of the vehicle is provided by forces of nature in or at the vehicle itself. This can be achieved e.g. by solar panels and wind mills.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Supplying electric power to auxiliary equipment of electric vehicles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements in connection with power supply from force of nature
{ Converting light into electric energy, e.g. by using photo-voltaic systems}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The electric energy used for propulsion is generated using light e.g. sun light in or at the vehicle.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Solar cells per se
Components or accessories specially adapted for PV modules
{ Converting flow of air into electric energy, e.g. by using wind turbines}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The electric energy used for propulsion of the vehicle is generated in or at the vehicle using wind energy.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Wind motors per se
Electric propulsion with power supply external to vehicle (B60L 8/00, B60L 13/00 take precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Trains, streetcars, buses or similar vehicles using overhead power lines. The vehicle is supplied with electric energy meanwhile it is in motion and as well during stops in stations. The major part of the traction energy is delivered externally to the vehicle a relative small amount of energy may be stored within the vehicle.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electric propulsion with power supply from force of nature
Electric vehicles using electrical cells in combination with power lines
Magnetic suspension or levitation
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Supply of electric current to toy vehicles through a track
Control of toy vehicles by vehicle-track interaction
Electrically-driven model locomotives
Electric toy railways
Toy vehicles with overhead trolley-wire
Electric drive mechanisms for toys
with conversion by metadyne
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Metadyne
Special form of a rotary converter with three or more brushes
using ac induction motors
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Asynchronous motor
Induction motor
Electric propulsion with power supplied within the vehicle (B60L 8/00 ,B60L 13/00 take precedence; arrangements or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsionB60K 6/20 ; control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles B60W 20/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric vehicles using electric energy stored or provided in various forms within the vehicle. The electric energy can be provided by engine driven generators, stored in electrical cells like batteries or fuel cells or converted from mechanically stored energy. This subgroup also covers electric vehicles that use auxiliary electric power supplies like capacitors

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electric propulsion with power supply from force of nature
Magnetic suspension or levitation
Arrangements or mounting of plural diverse prime-movers for mutual or common propulsion
Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles if propulsion other than electric is used to drive the wheels
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrically-driven model locomotives
{ using electric power supply other than engine driven generators, electrical or fuel-cells}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric vehicles using electrical energy provided by sources not covered by B60L 11/02, 60L11/16 or B60L 11/18 and the respective sub-groups; e.g. gas turbine driven generators, radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) or energy converted from energy stored pneumatically or hydraulically.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electrical energy stored in capacitors
B6M11/00B2
Electrical energy generated by humans
B6M11/00B4
{ using capacitors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric vehicles using capacitors in addition to other sources of electrical energy e.g. to accommodate short term power fluctuations

Special rules of classification within this group

This class covers only vehicles using capacitors explicitly to provide propulsion energy.

{ using auxiliary power supplied by humans}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric vehicles using human power in addition to other sources of electrical energy

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Construction of electrically-powered cycles
using engine-driven generators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric vehicles using an engine driven generator as only power supply e.g. diesel electric locomotives

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
The control of combustion engines is covered in
Control of engine driven generators
Starting engines by Motor/Generator
Charging batteries by a generator driven by a prime mover other than motor of the vehicle
Vehicles with additional power supply
Special rules of classification within this group

The attribution of motors and generators of being ac or dc is according to the form of the current used in the motor or generator

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Electric vehicle
Vehicles propelled by electric motors, these motors being mechanically connected to the drive wheels. This includes also vehicles with engine driven generators sometimes referred to a as serial hybrid vehicles
Hybrid vehicle
Vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type connected with the driven wheel, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, and that are either singularly or in combination used for propulsion of the vehicle.
AC motor
Motor driven by ac
AC generator
Generator providing ac
DC motor
Motor driven by dc
DC generator
Generator providing dc
{ using range extenders, e. g. series hybrid vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric vehicles using a range extender to increase the operating range of the battery, e.g. series hybrid vehicles.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electric vehicles using an engine driven generator as only power supply e.g. diesel- electric locomotives.
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Electric vehicle
Vehicles propelled by electric motors, these motors being mechanically connected to the drive wheels. This includes also vehicles with engine driven generators sometimes referred to a as serial hybrid vehicles
Hybrid vehicle
Vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type connected with the driven wheel, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, and that are either singularly or in combination used for propulsion of the vehicle.
Range extender
Devices to extend the range of an electric vehicles supplied by a traction battery. Most of the time the term refers to an engine driven generator. It can however also refer to fuel cells or additional energy storage for electrical energy.
{ the range extender having low power output with respect to maximum power output of the vehicle}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The engine driven generator provides not enough power to supply the maximum output power of the vehicle. If only supplied by the range extender this kind of vehicle has a reduced power output.

with provision for direct mechanical propulsion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles where under certain conditions power from the engine is directly delivered to the wheels. This includes also electric equipment for hybrid vehicles unless they are conjoinedly controlled with the combustion engine.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Conjoint control of vehicle sub-units of different type or different function, including control of electrical propulsion units in case the vehicle is not purely electrically-propelled.
Control systems specially adapted for hybrid vehicles. i.e. vehicles having two or more prime movers of more than one type, e.g. electrical and internal combustion motors, all used for propulsion of the vehicle
Special rules of classification within this group

Parallel classification in B60L 11/1809 if aspects of charging are concerned (e.g. plug in hybrid), in B60L 11/1851 if battery related problems are concerned and B60L 11/1881 if fuel cell related aspects are covered.

using power stored mechanically, e.g. in fly-wheel
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy and stored mechanically. For later use it is reconverted into electrical energy.

using power supply from primary cells, secondary cells, or fuel cells
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Primary cells
Secondary cells
Fuel cells
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Primary cell
Electrochemical generators in which the cell energy is present in chemical form and is not regenerated
Secondary cell
Accumulator receiving and supplying electrical energy my means of reversible electrochemical reactions
Fuel cells
Electrochemical generators wherein the reactants are supplied from outside
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Battery
In the field of vehicles the general term for energy sources is battery. However these kinds of batteries are almost exclusively rechargeable.
{combined with an external power supply}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicle supplied with electric energy from an electrical cell and additionally from the outside mostly in form of an overhead power line.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Charging electric vehicles
Vehicles powered exclusively by external power supply
B60L9/00R
{ for vehicles propelled by ac-motors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles supplied with electric energy from an electrical cell and propelled by motors driven by an AC current

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vehicles with additional extern power supply
Vehicles powered by fuel cells
{ for vehicles propelled by dc-motors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vehicles supplied with electric energy from an electrical cell and propelled by motors driven by a dc current

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Vehicles with additional external power supply
Vehicles powered by fuel cells
{Charging electric vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Charging and discharging of electric vehicles.

Aspects of

charging converter;

connection means;

automatic connection;

exchange of energy storage elements;

charging stations

Methods for

identification of vehicles;

determination of the supplied energy

measuring, billing and payment

availability of energy.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Power supply (e.g. charging) of vehicles whilst in motion
Power supply of vehicles whilst in motion using intermitting contact points along the line
Power supply for vehicles of special types using stored power
Charging Batteries per se
Power conversion systems per se
Connectors per se
H02R
Arrangements for secret or secure communication
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Inductive coupling
Optimisation of energy with GPS or similar systems
Special rules of classification within this group

The vehicles are normally not moving during the charging process. Exceptionally an inductive energy transfer may occur during the ride.

{using converters}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Measures and means for charging or discharging electric vehicles distinguished by the use of converters.

{ Physical arrangements or structures of charging converters specially adapted for charging electric vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of converters and inverters only in so far as specially adapted for charging or discharging electric vehicles.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Converters and inverters per se
H02M/00
Converters and inverters for vehicle drive trains
{ the vehicle's propulsion converter is used for charging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The propulsion converter is used as an onboard charger eliminating the need to provide a separate onboard charger.

{by conductive energy transfer, e.g. connectors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The connectors are fixed to a station or to the vehicle. The vehicle must be stopped in order to receive any charge. Communication between the station and the vehicle may be established.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Current collectors
Charging stations
Connectors per se
Installation of electric cables in vehicles
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Pilot
Wire used for communication
{ Adaptations of plugs or sockets for charging electric vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Plugs and sockets for charging electrical vehicles only in so far as specially adapted for charging or discharging electric vehicles.

{by inductive energy transfer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The energy needed to propel the vehicle is transmitted inductively from the station to the vehicle. Often, but not necessarily, the primary inductances are embedded in the floor. The vehicle normally is stopped during the charging process.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles
Inductive couplings
Circuit arrangements for charging batteries from ac-mains using non-contact coupling, e.g. inductive, capacitive
Inductive nearfield transmission for power transfer
{by exchange of energy storage elements, e.g. removable batteries}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Empty or partially empty or faulty batteries, super-capacitors or similar energy carriers are physically removed from the vehicle and replaced with charged ones. An energy carrier my also be the electrolyte that is exchanged exclusively.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Supplying batteries or removing batteries from vehicles
Cells working by exchange of electrolyte e.g. redox cells
{Details of charging stations, e.g. vehicle recognition or billing (B60L 11/1811, B60L 11/182, B60L 11/1822 take precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Charging stations for electric vehicles and there interaction/communication with the vehicle as well with the grid supplying the station are classified here. Vehicle recognition, user recognition, theft of energy prevention, measurement of transferred energy, billing of the customer, availability of charging slots for the correspondent vehicle types, recognition of battery types.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Conductive energy transfer
Inductive energy transfer
Exchange of energy storage elements
Building structures for parking
Circuits for charging batteries per se, e.g. for batteries removed from the vehicle
Arrangements for secret or secure communication
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Power lines of special types for vehicles using stored power
Optimisation of energy and GPS or similar system
Vending machines other than coins
Coin-freed apparatus with meter-controlled dispensing electricity
Arrangements for road pricing
Traffic control systems for road vehicles
Automatic parking traffic control systems
Fleet management
Charging stations for mobile units
Using battery charging as network buffer
{ Charging columns for electric vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Charging installations for electric vehicles not integrated in a building. Typically they are designed for a public environment. They can be of a stand alone type e.g. columns or integrated into other street furniture. Means for energy theft prevention associated with charging columns.

{ Automatic adjustment of relative position between charging device and vehicle}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Automatic positioning of the plug, the inductive transfer device or the electric vehicle in order to automatically connected to an electric power supply to the vehicle.

{ for inductive energy transfer}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Automatic positioning of the inductive charging device or the vehicle for inductively charging electric vehicles.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Inductive charging of electric vehicles per see
Special rules of classification within this group

If the vehicle is positioned the document should also be classified in B60L11/18LC4

{ with position related activation of primary coils}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The position of the vehicle to be charged is detected and primary coils are activated selectively to maximise energy transfer. The primary coils can be integrated in the floor surface or in a separate charging device. The primary coils can also be distributed along the road.

Special rules of classification within this group

If the primary coil are distributed along the road documents should also be classified in B60L 11/1837.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviates are often used:

Primary coil
The coil of an inductive transfer device that is stationary and part of the charging installation
Secondary coil
The coil of an inductive transfer device that is integrated in an electric vehicle
{ the vehicle being positioned}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The vehicle is positioned in order to allow automatic connection of a plug or charging device. The positioning can be e.g. mechanical by forcing the car in the right position, optically by guiding the driver or by automatic repositioning of the car.

{ with optical position determination, e.g. by a camera}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The position of the car is determined optically.

{Methods for the transfer of electrical energy or data between charging station and vehicle }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods ruling the exchange of energy and the respective data for charging an electric vehicle. Interaction or communication between the vehicle and the charging station or the electricity grid; e.g. availability of charging slots for the correspondent vehicle types.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Data exchange for battery identification
{ Optimising energy costs, e.g. by charging depending on electricity rates}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for optimising the cost of charging an electric vehicle; e.g. by adapting time or location depending on available energy rates

{ Energy stored in the vehicle is provided to the network, i.e. vehicle to grid (V2G) arrangements}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for providing stored energy from the vehicle to the grid. The vehicles serve e.g. as a net-buffer to stabilise the electricity net.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for balancing of the load in a network by storage of energy using batteries with converting means in general
{ the charging being dependent on network capabilities}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for adapting charging of electrical vehicles to the supply possibilities of the electricity grid, e.g. depending on network stability or limits of the network ability to provide power.

{ Identification of the vehicle}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods that allow the identification of an electric vehicle including recognition of vehicle or battery type.

{ Methods related to measuring, billing or payment}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for measuring energy transferred to and form the vehicle; Registration, billing and payment associated with the transfer of energy.

{ Fast charging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for charging vehicles considerably faster than normal charge e.g. less than 30 minutes.

{ Battery monitoring or controlling; Arrangements of batteries, structures or switching circuits therefore}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring the batteries includes the operating state of the batteries as well as controlling the drive in dependence of the detected variables. The term "batteries" is used as well for accumulators.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electric vehicles with fuel cells and batteries
Charging or depolarising batteries
H02J/00
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Monitoring and indicating circuits
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Battery
The term battery in the field of electric vehicles is to be seen as generic covering primary and secondary electrical cells
{ by battery splitting}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The battery is split in different groups of cells to achieve a desired performance; e.g. using a part for traction purposes whilst another part is recharged.

{ by series/parallel switching}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The battery is switched between series and parallel connection in order to achieve a desired performance.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Parallel/serial switching for batteries per se
{ Battery age determination}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Monitoring the aging of the battery and control methods depending on the established data.

{ Preventing deep discharging}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for prevention of a deep discharge of the battery to avoid damage to or destruction of the battery.

{ Monitoring or controlling state of charge (SOC)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The state of charge of the battery is determined and influences the control of the vehicle.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indicating measured values, displays
Testing/monitoring SOC
G01R31/36M
Testing electrical conditions of batteries
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

SOC
State of charge
{ Target range for state of charge (SOC)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of the electric vehicle is required to keep the SOC within particular range or window e.g. between 30% and 70%; e.g. to increase the live span of the battery.

{ Control of a battery packs, i.e. of a set of batteries with the same voltage}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods and means to control battery sets

{ Balancing the charge of multiple batteries or cells}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods or means to equalise the charge state or voltage of a group of battery cells to increase capacity and live span of the battery

{ Controlling two or more batteries with different voltages}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The interaction of batteries with different voltages e.g. traction battery and axillary battery.

{ Battery temperature regulation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control is affected upon the battery temperature

{ by control of electric loads}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of the electric loads is influenced in order to control the battery temperature e.g. by restricting the maximum drive power or by cutting of auxiliary drives

{ Arrangements of batteries}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements or location of batteries only in so far as specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles

{ Fuel cells monitoring or controlling; Arrangements of fuel cells, structures or switching circuits therefore}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Electric vehicles using fuel cells

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control of fuel cells
Control of failure or abnormal functionality of fuel cells
Indirect fuel cell e.g. Redox cells
Grouping of fuel cells into batteries
{ Details of fuel cells}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of fuel cells only in so far as specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fuel cells per se
{ Starting of fuel cells}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Powering up an electric vehicle using the start of the fuel cell including the fuel cell itself

{combined with battery control}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control of a fuel cell and of a battery

{ Fuel cell temperature regulation}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control is affected upon the battery temperature.

{ by control of electric loads}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The control of the electric loads is influenced in order to control the fuel cell temperature e.g. by restricting the maximum drive power or by cutting of auxiliary drives.

{ Arrangements of the fuel cells}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Arrangements or locations of fuel cells only in so far as specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles.

Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways; Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles ( {tracks for Maglev-type trains E01B 25/30;} electromagnets per se H01F 7/06; linear motors per se H02K 41/00)
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Tracks for magnetic suspension or levitation vehicles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electromagnets per se
Propulsion by linear motors per se
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Suspension railway
Railway in a form of elevated monorail where the vehicle is suspended from a fixed track
Rack railway
Railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "rack railway", "rack-and-pinion railway" and "cog railway" are often used as synonyms.

{Electric propulsion adapted for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways (B60L 13/03 takes precedence) }
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electric propulsion for MagLev vehicles
Methods, circuits, or devices for controlling the traction-motor speed of electrically-propelled vehicles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Controlling the speed of the traction motor implies the control of the vehicle speed itself.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Starting, controlling, braking of electric machines per se
{ for control of propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways; for control of magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles for propulsion purposes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles, rack railways or vehicles propelled by linear motors as covered by B60L 13/00

Control for magnetic suspension or levitation for propulsion purposes as covered by B60L 13/00

B60L 13/00 covers the devices, this group covers the control (method) aspects.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric propulsion for monorail vehicles, suspension vehicles or rack railways; Magnetic suspension or levitation for vehicles
{ for control of propulsion for vehicles propelled by linear motors}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control for vehicles propelled by linear motors.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric propulsion by linear motors
{ Physical arrangements or structures of drive train converters specially adapted for the propulsion motors of electric vehicles}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of converters and inverters only in so far specially adapted for the drive train of electric vehicles

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Converters and inverters per se
H02M/00
Converters and inverters for charging vehicles
{using field orientation; Vector control; Direct Torque Control (DTC)}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control for vehicles using control methods based on coordinate transfer to a coordinate system rotating with the rotor of the electric machine. By doing so the stator current of an electrical motor can be broken down into the torque and field component allowing to independently control the torque and field of an electric motor.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements or methods for the control of electric machines by vector control per se, e.g. by control of field orientation
for automatic control superimposed on human control to limit the acceleration of the vehicle, e.g. to prevent excessive motor current (electric devices for safety purposes B60L 3/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Electric devices for safety purposes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control system corrects or modifies a request from the driver
with main controller driven by a servomotor (B60L 15/18 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Automatic control without contact making or breaking
with main controller driven through a ratchet mechanism (B60L 15/18 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Automatic control without contact making or breaking
{ for braking }
Relationship between large subject matter areas

Electrodynamic braking breaking B60L 7/00

{ for braking on a slope}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Braking on a slope (ascendant and descendant);

Stopping on a slope;

Anti rollback systems on a slope;

Limiting current through motor on Lock State

Stalled state or at zero or low speed (on a slope);

Regenerative braking during low descent on a slope.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hill holding per se
{ Electric differentials, e.g. for supporting steering of vehicles (arrangement of control devices for differential gearing B60K 23/02) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Different speed of wheels on opposite sides of the vehicles whilst turning, e.g. electrical differential and systems of the like. Of particular importance for wheel motors.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical power steering
Arrangement of control devices for differential gearing
{ for optimising the use of energy}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The efficient use of energy in electric cars and strategies to achieve this.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Navigation based on energy use
{ by controlling transmissions or clutches}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control is affected upon the transmission or the clutch

{ for creeping}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods emulating the creeping state of an automatic transmission.

{ for drive off }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for accelerating the vehicle from stand still.

{ for overtaking}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods facilitating the process of overtaking.

with main controller driven through a ratchet mechanism (B60L 15/28 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control without contact making or breaking
Control or regulation of multiple-unit electrically-propelled vehicles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The joint control of multiple units. Historically this concerns mainly trains with multiple individual propelled units. However this group also covers a collective of electric vehicles that is controlled together.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Traction couplings
Adaptation of control equipment on vehicle for remote actuation from a stationary place (devices along the route for controlling devices on rail vehicles B61L 3/00; central rail-traffic control systems B61L 27/00)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Devices along the route for controlling devices on rail vehicles
Central rail-traffic control systems
Adaptation of control equipment on vehicle for actuation from alternative parts of the vehicle or from alternative vehicles of the same vehicle train (B60L 15/32 takes precedence)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control or regulation of multiple-unit electrically-propelled vehicles
This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013