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APPARATUS OR DEVICES FOR MANIFOLDING, DUPLICATING, OR PRINTING FOR OFFICE OR OTHER COMMERCIAL PURPOSES; ADDRESSING MACHINES OR LIKE SERIES-PRINTING MACHINES (printing presses or machines for industrial purposes B41F; stamps, stamping or numbering devices B41K)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Manifolding devices, which comprise assembled sheets or webs and interposed pressure-sensitive layers or intermediaries usually in the form of carbon sheets or layers;

carbons and other pressure-sensitive layers or coatings specifically adapted for manifolding;

apparatus or machines for duplicating or printing, which always use a static original in the form of a sheet for duplicating thereof or a static printing form, usually a printing plate, carrying a graphical and/or alphanumerical text or picture forming the duplicating or printing image;

printing or duplicating, always encompassing the use of ink or colour;

printing apparatus or machines exclusively for special uses like office printing or commercial purposes. These special uses encompass in general an almost low number, e.g. up to hundred, of copies or printed sheets;

addressing or like series-printing machines as an example of specific commercial purpose.

Feeding or handling of substrates to be duplicated or printed is covered from the in-feed device through the whole machine down to the delivery device.

Auxiliary folding, collecting or depositing of sheets or webs specifically adapted for said specific apparatus of the present subclass (cf. B41L 43/00).

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sheet materials used for printing purposes
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing letters or types per se
Manufacture or reproduction of printing surfaces
Apparatus for mechanical reproduction of printing surfaces
Shaping elastic or deformable material to printing surfaces
Screen printing machines or presses
Apparatus for bronze or line printing, bordering or edging of sheets
Auxiliary perforating in conjunction with printing
Selective printing mechanisms which have single types or characters or selectively activated printing elements, e.g. ink jet or thermal print heads, for consecutively printing character by character and line by line;typewriters; correction of typographical errors
Printing, duplicating, marking or copying processes
Printing forms as such, e.g. printing plates, stencils
Preparing for use and conserving printing surfaces in general
Layers, shells, covers, surfaces specifically adapted for use in printing machines or presses in general
Spraying or atomizing of liquids/fluids or particles in general
Apparatus for applying liquids/fluids in general
Processes for applying liquids/fluids in general
Cleaning in general
Cutting, perforating, punching, stamping-out in general
Presses in general
Permanently attaching together sheets, quires or signatures
Bookbinding
Books, book covers, printed matter of special format or style not otherwise provided for
Sheets temporarily attached together, filing appliances
Implements for writing or drawing in general, e.g. pens
Articles for writing or drawing upon in general
Bureau accessories not otherwise provided for, opening or closing of envelopes, inserting documents in envelopes
Machines, apparatus or tools for sculpturing, carving, engraving, guilloching in general
Machines or apparatus for embossing in general
Machines, apparatus or tools for branding in general
Machines or apparatus for inlaying in general
Producing decorative effects, mosaics, paperhanging
Applying transfer pictures or the like
Painting or artistic drawing
Special designs or patterns
Label dispensers having printing equipment
Feeding or handling thin material, e.g. sheets or webs, in general
Coating compositions: inks, paints, varnishes, lacquers, pastes or solids for printing
Adhesives
Paper making, production of cellulose
Measuring, testing in general
Electrography, electrophotography, magnetography in general
Controlling, regulating in general
Electric digital data processing
Ticket printing, franking apparatus in general
Displaying, advertising, signs, labels
Scanning, transmission or reproduction of documents
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Manifolding
always encompasses use of pressure-sensitive layers or intermediaries, e.g. carbon
Hectograph or gelatine duplicator
transfer of a sheet-like original prepared with special inks including special aniline dyes onto an open pan containing gelatine,afterwards, paper copies are made by pressing a paper containing substrate against the inked and images gelatine surface
Printing or duplicating
after applying ink or colour onto the surface of the original or of the printing form, the inked image is applied by contact pressure onto the surface of a substrate, most common in the form of paper, which will form the copy of printed matter,
Print image or printing image
a coloured design having any shape, for e.g. alphanumerical characters
Offset print or offset printing
┬žusing an intermediate element, most commonly a blanket cylinder, for transfer in one step of the whole inked print image on the printing element, most commonly a printing plate, onto the surface of the substrate to be printed upon
Stencil
sheet like printing plate having cut outs defining by their openings the print or printing image
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "offset" and "lithographic" are often used as synonyms.

Devices for performing operations in connection with manifolding by means of pressure-sensitive layers or intermediaries, e.g. carbons; Accessories for manifolding purposes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for manifolding, e.g. assemblies in the form of pads or books of single sheets or in the form of continuous assemblies of webs,

devices for supplying pressure-sensitive material including carbon gloves,

devices for performing preparatory operations and

devices for performing operations subsequent to manifolding,

technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sheet materials used in connection with printing or duplicating in general
Platens or like sheet supports for manifolding using pressure-sensitive layers or intermediaries, e.g. for book-keeping purposes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Manually operable devices like flat supports, clamps or guides for moving into and holding in registered position with respect to each other of blank paper or blank forms, e.g. business forms, pressure sensitive layers or intermediaries, e.g. carbons, and duplicates.

Also auxiliary devices specifically adapted for use with said platens or supports, technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Autographic registers or like manifolding apparatus using movable strips or webs (movable strip writing or reading apparatus B42D 19/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Portable box-like devices having a writing underlay almost in form of a flat plate for filling out forms, e.g. business forms, by handwriting, and a storage compartment for storing blank paper or blank forms, e.g. business forms, together with pressure sensitive layers or intermediaries, e.g. carbons, and/or for storing duplicates.

Also auxiliary devices specifically adapted for use with said registers, technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Apparatus for directly duplicating from hectographic originals, i.e. for obtaining copies in mirror image
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Apparatus for duplicating on sheets or webs,

clay or gelatine is used,

technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Apparatus for indirectly duplicating from hectographic originals by means of hectographic intermediaries or transfer surfaces, i.e. "dry duplicators"
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Flat supports or rotary cylinders carrying hectographic gelatine paper sheets of webs,

clay or gelatine is used,

technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Apparatus for directly duplicating from hectographic masters in mirror image, i.e. "wet duplicators" for producing positive copies
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Flat supports or cylinders or two cooperating rollers for carrying the master sheet,

clay or gelatine is used,

technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Stencilling apparatus for office or other commercial use (screen printing B41F 15/00; stencils, stencil materials, carriers therefor B41N 1/24)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing apparatus or machines, as a whole as well as parts thereof, using a stencil as the image forming element,

a stencil which is usually a flexible sheet having one or a plurality of cutouts defining the print image; said stencil sheet usually having a plurality of layers often including an adhesive layer in order to fix the stencil onto a carrier as part of a printing apparatus,

printing apparatus, which either dispose of a flat stencil carrier or of a curved or rotary stencil carrier,

main special parts of the stencilling apparatus, like inking units, drive means, drive gears and control means, specifically adapted for use in said apparatus,

auxiliary devices, like means for punching, cutting or severing, specifically adapted for stencilling machines.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Screen or silk-screen printing apparatus
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Feeding or handling of sheet or web-like substrates in to be printed upon in printing machines in general
Feeding or handling of sheet or web-like substrates to be printed upon in stencil printing machines
Processes for stencil printing
Stencils used as writing or drawing aids
Artistic painting or drawing using at least one stencil
Kits having at least one stencil for painting or drawing
Feeding or handling thin material, i.e. sheets or webs in general
Letterpress printing apparatus specially adapted for office or other commercial purposes (in general B41F; printing plates or foils, materials theref or B41N 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rotary letterpress machines in general
Flat type-bed letterpress machines in general
Lithographic printing apparatus for office or other commercial purposes (in general B41F; printing plates or foils, materials therefor B41N 1/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rotary lithographic printing machines in general
Flat type-bed lithographic machines in general
Duplicating or printing apparatus or machines for office or other commercial purposes, of special types or for particular purposes and not otherwise provided for (addressographs B41L 45/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Printing apparatus of special types or for particular purposes in the industries, not otherwise provided for in general
Devices for conveying sheets or webs of copy material through the apparatus or machines for manifolding, duplicating, or printing (mechanisms for conveying copy material through addressographs or like series-printing machines B41L 47/24; { feeding sheets or webs to or from printing apparatus or machines B65H; in printing presses in general B41F 21/00} )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Conveying devices for webs in printing presses in general
Conveying devices for sheets in printing machines in general
Devices for treating the surfaces of sheets, webs, or other articles in connection with printing (as a final step in the manufacture of such articles, see the relevant places, e.g. B29C 71/00, D21H 23/00 or D21H 25/00; after-treatment of prints B41M 7/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for treating the surfaces of substrates to be printed upon in connection with printing in general
Devices for damping printing surfaces, e.g. moistening printing surfaces in connection with lithograpic printing (applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces in general B05)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use.

Usual output of a low number e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for damping printing surfaces e.g. with lithographic printing in general
Inking arrangements or devices (inking units for stencilling apparatus B41L 13/18; applying liquids or other fluent materials to surfaces, in general B05)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. Less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Inking arrangements or devices in printing presses in general
Devices for attaching printing elements or formes to supports { in printing presses in general B41F 27/00}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for attaching printing elements or formes in general
Devices for removing flexible printing formes from forme cylinders
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for removing flexible printing formes in general
Pressing flexible printing formes or sheets or webs of copy material against cylinders, e.g. for smoothing purposes {in printing presses in general B41F 25/00}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use.

Usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for pressing sheets or webs against cylinders in printing presses in general
Cylinders for apparatus or machines for manifolding, duplicating, or printing for office or other commercial purposes {in printing presses in general B41F 13/08}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Cylinders and associated devices, e.g. bearings, tripping devices, adjusting devices, guards, covers, heating means, specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cylinders and associated devices for printing machines in printing presses in general
Devices for attaching coverings or make-ready devices; Guiding devices for coverings (make-ready devices B41N 6/00; blankets or like coverings B41N 10/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for attaching covers in printing presses in general
Indicating, counting, warning, control, or safety devices (ink-level control devices B41L 27/04; such devices in general, see relevant subclasses, e.g. counting in general G06M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Indicating, counting, warning, control or safety devices in printing presses in general
Cleaning arrangements or devices {for printing presses in general B41F 35/00}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning arrangements or devices in printing presses in general
Auxiliary folding, collecting, or depositing of sheets or webs (in general B65H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices specifically adapted for small scale printing apparatus suitable for office use,

usual output of a low number, e.g. less than hundred, of printed subject matter.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Auxiliary folding, collecting or depositing of sheets or webs in printing presses in general
Kinds or types of addressing machines or of like series-printing machines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines using printing plates, separate printing devices and printing surfaces carried by belts or chains,

devices for other operations, e.g. franking or collating, forming part of an addressing machine are included,

technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Details of addressographs or like series-printing machines (common details of printing machines B41F 21/00 to B41F 35/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Printing surfaces, devices for handling printing plates, printing mechanisms, devices for text or image selection, mechanisms for conveying copy material, indicating, warning, control and safety devices and auxiliary devices specifically adapted for addressographs,

technology mostly used until the year 2000.

Accessories or attachments for addressographs or like series-printing machines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accessories or attachments, e.g. counting, numbering or dating devices specifically adapted for addressographs,

technology mostly used until the year 2000.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013