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FORGING; HAMMERING; PRESSING; RIVETING; FORGE FURNACES (rolling of metal B21B; making particular products by forging or pressing B21K; cladding or plating B23K; finishing surfaces by hammering B23P 9/04; compacting surfaces by blasting with particulate material B24C 1/10 ; general features of presses, presses for consolidating scrap B30B; furnace in general F27)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

General metal forging or pressing methods, devices and furnaces. Riveting is traditionally part of forging.

Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping in the thickness of a solid metal billet using localized compressive forces at a temperature below fusion.

This subclass subdivides into:

Methods
Machines
Furnaces; Blacksmiths requisites
Riveting
Relationship between large subject matter areas

- Both these classes comprise forging methods (B21J 1/00 to B21J 5/00 and B21K 1/00 to B21K 23/04). The forging methods of B21J relate to general aspects of forging, while the forging methods of B21K are product oriented.

Example: a forging process for manufacturing a coupling member with splines by closed-die forging, would be classified in B21K 1/762 (making a forged coupling member), in B21J 5/12 (forging profiles) and B21J 5/02 (die forging).

- B21J comprises forging machines (B21J 7/00 to B21J 13/06) and accessories for forging machines (B21J 13/08 to B21J 19/04). Further accessories are to be found in B21K (handling devices in B21K 27/00, arrangements for cooling and heating B21K 29/00, control devices specially adapted for positioning tool carriers B21K 31/00).

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Methods of forging specific products
Finishing surfaces by hammering
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rolling of metal
Bending or deep-drawing
Uniting components by forging
Handling devices for forging
Heating or cooling devices for forging
Control devices for forging
Casting
Powder metallurgy
Cladding or plating
Compacting surfaces by blasting with particulate material
Working of plastic material
B29
Presses in general
Embossing for making artistic work
Furnaces in general
F27
Preparing metal stock [N: (as pretreatment for rolling B21B 1/02, B21B 15/0035)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging processes for producing elementary billet shapes, either as rough forging or as preliminary forging; heating and cooling processes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pretreatment by rolling
Preliminary treatment of metal stock without particular shaping, e.g. salvaging segregated zones, forging or pressing in the rough (modifying the physical properties by deformation C21D 7/00, C22F 1/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for preliminary treatment of metal stock without particular shaping, e.g. salvaging segregated zones, descaling by forging, changing the material structure.

Remark: The title of this group mentions "forging in the rough", which is the subject of B21J 1/04. Thus it is considered that B21J 1/04 takes precedence.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Forging or pressing in the rough
Modifying the physical properties of iron or steel by deformation or heat treatment
Shaping in the rough solely by forging or pressing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for shaping in the rough, i.e. making basic shapes (square, round), especially for billets leaving the continuous casting line.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preliminary treatment of metal stock without particular shaping
Combination of metal rolling and forging
Heating or cooling methods or arrangements specially adapted for performing forging or pressing operations [N: (B21J 5/063 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for heating or cooling before or during forging

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for heating or cooling during forging
Friction heat forging
Forging furnaces
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cooling or heating metal sheets for or during bending or deep drawing
Lubricating during forging or pressing (lubricating in general F16N)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Processes for lubrication forging material or dies.

.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for lubricating during forging
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lubricating during pressing metal sheets
Lubricating other machines
Lubricating presses in general
Lubricants
Lubricating in general
Methods for forging, hammering, or pressing; Special equipment or accessories therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Method for forging using open dies.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Working wire by forging
Preliminary forging
Shaping in the rough
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Working metal sheet, tubes, rods, or profiles
Die forging; Trimming by making use of special dies
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

- Method for forging using closed dies.

- Trimming using dies.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Extrusion of metal
by directly applied fluid pressure or explosive action
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for forging, hammering or pressing by directly applied fluid pressure or explosive action

for performing particular operations
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for forging, hammering or pressing by performing particular operations

[N: Friction heat forging (friction heat riveting B21J 15/027 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for forming a workpiece by pressing, a portion of the workpiece being locally heated by friction against the working tool

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Friction heat riveting
Uniting components by friction heat forging
Friction stir welding
[N:Flow drilling]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for forming a hole into a workpiece by pressing a forming tool rotating at high speed, the pressed area being locally heated by friction

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Forming branched tubes by flow drilling
Upsetting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for increasing the cross section of an elongated workpiece by axial forging or pressing

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Upsetting presses
Piercing billets (in combination with extrusion B21C 23/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for piercing a billet using a forging or pressing tool

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Piercing presses
Piercing in combination with extrusion
Forming profiles on internal or external surfaces (making screw-thread by forging, pressing, or hammering B21K)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Methods for making profiles, e.g. grooves, splines, on internal or external surfaces of a workpiece

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods for forging screw-threads
Methods for forging gears
Methods for forging profiles on thin or sheet like metal billets
Hammers; Forging machines with hammers or die jaws acting by impact (hand hammers B25D; electrical features in section H)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging hammers. Hammers act by impact against the workpiece, each hammer stroke lasting about some milliseconds.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Forging presses
Deforming metal sheet by hammering
Hand hammers
Special design or construction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging hammers of particular design or construction

Power hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers with a drive to accelerate the fall of the tool.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Drives for power hammers
Drop hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers without a drive to accelerate the fall of the tool. Acceleration is only due to gravity.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Drives for drop hammers
with rigidly-guided hammer
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drop hammers with rigidly guided hammer.

with both drive and hammer connected to a fulcrumed lever, e.g. tail hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers characterised by the fact that drive and hammer a connected via a fulcrumed lever, e.g. tail hammer

the lever being a spring, i.e. spring hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers characterised by the fact that drive and hammer a connected via a fulcrumed lever, said fulcrumed lever being a spring, e.g. spring hammers.

Forging machines working with several hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers of the type having more than one moving hammer.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hammers with both hammer and anvil moving
[N: the hammers being driven by a rotating annular driving member]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers of the type having several radially striking hammers, actuated by the rotation of an annular member. Although this is not excluded, the hammers are usually not rotating.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hammers in rotary arrangements
in rotary arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers of the type having several radially striking hammers, actuated by their rotation inside an annular member. Although this is not excluded, the annular member is usually not rotating.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hammers actuated by a rotating member
Forging machines working with die jaws, e.g. pivoted, movable laterally of the forging or pressing direction e.g. for swaging
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hammers of the type carrying die jaws, e.g. pivoted, movable laterally of the forging or pressing direction.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Preliminary treatment by forging
Forging in the rough
for power hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for hammers of the type accelerating the tool towards the workpiece.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Power hammers
operated by steam, air, or other gaseous pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Power hammer drives of the type operated by steam, air or other gaseous pressure.

operated by internal combustion
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Power hammer drives of the type operated by internal combustion, e.g. a diesel engine.

operated by hydraulic or liquid pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Power hammer drives of the type operated by hydraulic or liquid pressure, e.g. water

operated by electro-magnets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Power hammer drives of the type operated by electro-magnets

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Power hammers operated by an electric motor
operated by rotary drive, e.g. by electric motor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Power hammer drives of the type operated by a rotary drive, e.g. by electric motor.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Power hammers operated by electro-magnets
operating both the hammer and the anvil, so-called counter-tup
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Power hammer of the type the hammer and the anvil are operated

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines working with several hammers
for drop hammers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for drop hammers, i.e. of the type lifting the hammer after the forging stroke (falling movement of the hammer is only due to gravity)

equipped with belts, ropes, cables, chains
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drop hammers operated by rotary drive, the hammer being linked to the drive via a belt rope, cable, chain or board.

Control devices specially adapted to forging hammers, not restricted to one of the preceding sub-groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control devices specially adapted to forging hammers

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Control devices for tool carriers
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Automatic controllers
Cyclically operated valves
Forging presses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging presses. Presses act on the workpiece by the sole action of pressing, a pressing stroke lasting about some seconds.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Forging hammers
Special design or construction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging presses of particular design or construction

[N: multi-stage forging presses (handling devices B21K 27/00 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging press carrying several dies, each die corresponding to a workpiece manufacturing step.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bolt, rivet, nut forging processes
Handling devices
[N: with rolling or wobbling dies]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging presses carrying rolling or wobbling dies

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Riveting machine of the wobbling type
Piercing presses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging presses specially designed for piercing workpieces

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Piercing billets
Swaging presses; Upsetting presses
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging presses specially adapted for swaging.

Forging presses specially adapted for upsetting.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Methods of upsetting
equipped with devices for heating the work-piece (electric heating elements H05B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Forging presses specially adapted for upsetting and equipped with devices for heating the workpiece.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric heating elements
operated by hydraulic or liquid pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for forging presses operated by hydraulic or liquid pressure

in conjunction with steam or gas power
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for forging presses operated by hydraulic or liquid pressure in conjunction with steam or gas power. Are also classified there drives for forging presses operated by steam or gas power.

operated by making use of gearing mechanisms, e.g. levers, spindles, crankshafts, eccentrics, toggle-levers, rack bars
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for forging presses operated by gearing mechanisms (levers, spindles, crankshafts, eccentrics, toggle-lever, rack bars...)

Control devices specially adapted to forging presses not restricted to one of the preceding sub-groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control devices specially adapted for forging presses.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Automatic controllers
Control devices for tool carriers
Cyclically operated valves
Forging hammers combined with forging presses; Forging machines with provision for hammering and pressing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines combining aspects of forging hammers and forging presses

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Forging hammers per se
Forging presses per se
Details of machines for forging, pressing, or hammering
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of forging hammers or presses, e.g. dies, die mountings, frames, guides, hammer tups, anvils, accessories for handling work or tools.

Dies or mountings therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Particular aspects of dies, e.g. die constructions, specific features.

Die mountings
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of die mountings

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Handling of tools
Frames; Guides
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of frames of guides in forging machines.

Hammers tups; Anvils; Anvil blocks
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of hammer tups, anvils, anvil blocks.

Accessories for handling work or tools
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the accessories for handling heavy workpieces, e.g. benches.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Handling light workpieces
Handling light workpieces in multi-stage presses
[N: handling of tools]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the accessories for handling tools.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Die mountings
Manipulators (in general B25J)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of devices for manipulating heavy workpieces.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Handling light workpieces
Handling light workpieces in multi-stage presses
Manipulators in general
Turning means
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices adapted to turn heavy workpieces during forging.

Ejecting devices
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for ejecting the workpieces from the forming die.

Riveting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects of riveting. This group can be considered independent from the remaining of B21J. It is structured as follows:

Riveting methods
Riveting machines
Riveting accessories
Removing rivets

A rivet is an element(1) specially(4) designed to connect two or more(2) workpieces under plastic deformation(3) of said element. See explanations of (1)-(4) in the glossary.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Chirurgical riveting
Plastic riveting
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Buttons
Sealing
Clinching workpieces
Feeding elements
Setting pierce-nuts
Setting screw-threaded nuts
Adhesive
Rivets
Riveted connections
Electrical elements
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Element
Workpieces connected without use of an additional element are not riveted (e.g. a first metal sheet pressed into the hole of a second metal sheet is clinched, but not riveted, see picture).
Connect two or more
Elements that do not connect two or more workpieces, but still are designed to be inserted into a single workpiece by deformation of said element are normally not considered as rivets (e.g. connecting nuts, see picture).
Plastic deformation of said element
An element that does not undergo plastic deformation is not a rivet (e.g. a screw, a nail do not deform).
Specially
Elements that usually have a different use (e.g. a tube, a gear) but still are used to connect two or more workpieces by the deformation of said element are usually not considered being rivets (such connections are usually in B21K 25/00 , see picture).
Riveting procedures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Riveting procedures. The procedure mainly depend on the type of rivet. So each group from B21J 15/02 to B21J 15/08 mainly correspond to a different type of rivet.

B21J 15/02 relates to setting the “standard” rivets, i.e. solid cylindrical piece of metal having or not a head at one end thereof. These rivets are riveted by applying axial pressure to form the end(s) having no head into a head.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Solid rivets per se
[N: Setting rivets by means of swaged-on locking collars, e.g. lockbolts]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting rivets of the "lock bolt" or "swaged on locking collar" type: the rivet is made of a stem / mandrel having grooves on the periphery, and having a head at one end. A ring is pressed from the opposite side, along the cylinder body into the grooves (see figure 1a before setting, figure 1b after setting).

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bolts fastened by swaged-on collars per se
[N: Setting self-piercing rivets]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting rivets of the "self-piercing" type: the workpieces to be joined have no hole drilled in advance. The rivet is punched by axial pressure into the workpieces, either partially or completely.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Clinching
Setting pierce nuts
Self-piecing rivets per se
[N: Setting rivets by friction heating]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting rivets of the "friction heating" type: deformation of the rivet is obtained by pressing and turning a tool (or the rivet) to such a speed, that part of the rivet is heated above melting point.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Friction heat forging
Making connections by friction heat forging
Friction stir welding
Riveting hollow rivets mechanically
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting hollow rivets, e.g. of the type where a first hollow semi rivet is inserted from a first side of the workpieces into a second hollow semi rivet inserted into the workpieces from the opposite side.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hollow rivets, multi-parts rivets per se
[N: by pushing a drive-pin]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting hollow rivets of the type where a mandrel is pushed into a rivet in order to expand said rivet.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Blind rivets fastened by a drive-pin
[N: by pulling a mandrel]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting rivets by pulling a (usually breakable) mandrel, which deforms the head of the rivet (and usually breaks, see e.g. pop rivets). If the mandrel belongs to the machine, and can be screwed / unscrewed inside the rivet head, then these rivets belong to B25B 27/00: screw-threaded nuts.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hand tools for setting screw threaded nuts
Hollow rivets fastened by a pull-mandrel per se
[N: and swaging locking means, i.e. locking the broken off mandrel head to the hollow rivet]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting rivets using swaged locking means, usually an additional ring, or an additional part of the mandrel is expanded into the rivet body (see ring 11 in the attached figure).

[N: by edge-curling]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting rivets by "edge curling": the rivet is hollow, like a small tube, and the ends of the rivets are rolled backwards. An alternative is a hollow rivet having an end closed, said end being expanded by means of a hook.

[N: Setting self-drilling hollow rivets]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting of "self-drilling" rivets: the rivet is provided with a small drilling head, and is rotated to drill the hole it should be inserted into.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Self-drilling rivets per se
[N: Riveting hollow rivets by means of hydraulic, liquid, or gas pressure (portable riveters B21J 15/105 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Setting rivets, wherein a fluid pressure, e.g. hydraulic, liquid or gas, is fed directly inside the rivet in order to deform it.

riveting by applying heat to the end parts of the rivets to enable heads to be formed [N: (B21J 15/027 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Applying additional heat to the rivet or to the workpiece.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Setting rivets by friction heating
Electrical heating
Riveting machines (electric heating elements H05B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects relating to riveting machines.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Machines for setting pierce nuts
Machines in general
[N: Portable riveters (pliers for riveting B21J 15/386 )]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Riveting hand tools operated by hydraulic, liquid, gas, or electricity, i.e. any force which is not the force of the hand.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pliers, i.e. riveting tools actuated by the force of the hand
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Screw threaded nuts setting machines
with tools or tool parts having a movement additional to the feed movement, e.g. spin [N: (B21J 15/027 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines having an additional movement to the feed movement, e.g., vibration, rotation (wobble die).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Setting rivets by friction heating
Setting self-drilling rivets
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Forging presses with wobbling dies
specially adapted for riveting specific articles, e.g. brake lining machines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for manufacturing brake lining machines, turbines, riveting into composite, and everything relating to aerospace construction (usually machines having specific frames for airplanes or associated with a drilling tool). The picture represents typical brake lining.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Aeroplanes, helicopters
Ground or aircraft-carrier deck installations
Aerospace structures
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for manufacturing aerospace structures, mainly either machines having a working head with multiple tools (e.g. driller, riveter, sealer) or machines designed to work on large structures (e.g. riveting an airplane ring or airplane section).

Source: EP1884313; US2011119897

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Frames, beds, pillars of machine tools
Assembling or manufacturing aircrafts
Turbines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for manufacturing turbines.

Source: JP61189837

Composite articles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines for riveting composite articles.

Source: DE102009037245

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General aspects of joining of plastics
Drives for riveting machines; Transmission means therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Motors being used as drives for riveting and transmissions therefore, e.g. in machines working with chains or belts.

operated by air pressure or other gas pressure, e.g. explosion pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Air or gas motors for riveting machines.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Drives operated by gas and hydraulic or liquid pressure
[N: by explosion pressure]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Riveting by explosion.

operated by hydraulic or liquid pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for riveting using hydraulic or liquid pressure.

[N: Riveting tools having hand operated pumps for building up the hydraulic pressure]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for riveting where the pressure comes from a hand operated pump.

operated by both hydraulic or liquid pressure and gas pressure
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for riveting combining air (or gas) and hydraulic (or liquid) pressure, usually by means of an intensifier. This combination is common in riveting hand tools, where a piston actuated by a primary pressurised air circuit (coming from pipes in the factory) is used to build pressure into a hydraulic circuit of the riveting tool, which serves to deform the rivet. The following figure discloses such an intensifier 22, 25, 26.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Drives operated by gas and hydraulic or liquid pressure
Drives operated by hydraulic or liquid pressure
operated by electro-magnets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for riveting using electromagnets (e.g. a capacitor is suddenly discharged into an electromagnet to create a sudden repulsion force of a permanent magnet). Electric actuators not belonging to B21J 15/26.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Drives for riveting using an electric motor
operated by rotary drive, e.g. by electric motor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Drives for riveters using an electric motor.

Control devices specially adapted to riveting machines not restricted to one of the preceding sub-groups
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Control devices, which are understood to be any device influencing the sequence of operation of the machine in addition to basic machine movement command. As example, control includes checking positioning of the rivet or the workipece, checking the operator's security.

[N: for controlling the rivet upset cycle]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Controls the rivet deformation parameters during setting, e.g. force vs. time, strain vs. time...

Devices for inserting or holding rivets in position with or without feeding arrangements
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for feeding rivets, anywhere from the storage bowl to the riveting head.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Feeding welding pins
Feeding articles for assembling machines
Magazines for machine tools
Feeding screws
Conveying articles through pipes
Articles attached to webs
Nails or staples formed in integral series
Devices for fastening nails, bolds or nuts
[N: using a carrier strip]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for feeding rivets, attached to a carrier strip.

Source: EP0928650

[N: Broken-off mandrel collection]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for collecting broken-off mandrels or stems.

Source: WO2004048011

for installing [N: multiple-type] tubular rivets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Feeding tubular rivets of the multiple rivet type.

Source: GB642664

Rivet sets, i.e. tools for forming heads; Mandrels for expanding parts of hollow rivets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of die forming heads or rivet forming parts.

[N: Mandrels for expanding parts of hollow rivets]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of mandrels for forming hollow rivets.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Setting rivets by means of a mandrel
Hollow rivets fastened by a pull mandrel
Accessories for use in connection with riveting, e.g. pliers for upsetting; Hand tools for riveting
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accessories in connection to riveting. Hand actuated tools and rivet removing equipments are considered accessories.

[N: Hand tools for riveting]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hand tools used for or in connection with riveting, which are actuated without energy supply: the force comes from the hand.

Source: EP0447901

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pliers for riveting
Portable riveters
[N: Pliers for riveting]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pliers for riveting, i.e. actuated without energy supply: the force comes from the hand.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Portable riveters
for forming rivet heads
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accessories for forming rivet heads.

Special clamping devices for workpieces to be riveted together, e.g. operating through the rivet holes
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Special clamping devices: specific tools to press the workpieces one against the other before riveting.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pressing device integrated into the riveting tool
Rivet hole positioners
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Riveting holes positionners to position the tool with regard to the hole.

Positioners for rivets for making tube joints
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Positionners for rivets when making tube joints.

Devices for caulking rivets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for caulking rivets, i.e. re-working the rivet head after setting, to change the shape, or push the button sides into the workpieces.

Removing or cutting devices for rivets
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Removing rivets which are installed and need to be removed, e.g. by cutting, shaving or drilling

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Jigs for drilling rivets
Removing sleeves
Hand cutting tools
B26D17/00
Forge furnaces (furnaces for heat treatment C21D 9/00 ; furnaces in general F27)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the furnaces specifically adapted for forging

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Heating or cooling methods
Furnaces for heat treatment of ferrous or non-ferrous metals or alloys
Furnaces for heat treatment
electrically heated (electric heating elements H05B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Details of the electrically heated furnaces specifically adapted for forging

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electric heating elements
Blacksmiths requisites not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Blacksmiths requisites, i.e. requisites for hand forging

Hearths; Air supply arrangements specially adapted therefor
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hearths; Air supply arrangements specially adapted therefor

[N: Tyre heaters]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Tyre heaters, e.g. for heating train wheels.

Anvils; Associated items
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Anvils and associated items

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013