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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class  73]   CLASS 73,MEASURING AND TESTING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

(1) This is the generic class for processes and apparatus for making a measurement of any kind or for making a test of any kind, and takes all such subject matter not provided for in other classes.

(2) The term "test" includes inspection, processes and apparatus for determining qualities by inspection being included where not provided for in other classes.

(3) This class is the generic class for sampling and takes all sampling apparatus and processes not otherwise provided for; see subclasses 863+ and the notes thereto.

SECTION II - NOTES TO THE CLASS DEFINITION

(1) Note. Processes and apparatus for its practice are classified together.
(2) Note. Substantially all apparatus classes have means to automatically control the operation of the apparatus. Such automatic controls usually involve some means to measure or test a condition or change of condition, the measuring or testing means then operating to control or regulate the apparatus in accordance with the results of the measurement or test. For such subject matter, the class appropriate to the type of apparatus controlled should be investigated. No attempt has been made to search note automatic controls.

SECTION III - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

Measuring and testing, per se, of the following types are found in Subclass References to the Current Class and References to Other Classes, below:

ACOUSTICAL;

BIOLOGICAL;

CHEMICAL;

ELECTRICAL;

GEOMETRICAL INSTRUMENTS;

INSPECTING;

OPTICAL (See Radiant Energy);

RADIANT ENERGY (See Optical)

SPEED MEASURING;

SURGICAL;

TIME MEASURING;

WEIGHING SCALES;

MASS SPECTROMETRY

(1) Note. For elements, not combined with means to indicate the result of a measurement or test, and not combined with means to automatically control art devices, that respond to a condition or change of condition. Also see the reference to the Radiant Energy class.
(2) Note. Art apparatus or process significantly claimed, in combination with measuring or testing is classified in general in the class providing for the art apparatus or process. The line stated for particular classes should be consulted.

SECTION IV - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

32+,for devices responsive to specific gravity of liquids. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, (1) Note, above).
54+,for devices responsive to viscosity of liquids. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
174,for feelers for gauges. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
227+,for straight line light ray type and 300+ for indicator of direction of force traversing natural media. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
279+,for pressure responsive diaphragms for volume or rate of flow meters, per se. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
322.5,for floats, per se. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, (1) Note, above).
335+,for humidity responsive elements. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
501+,for feelers for gauges. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
514.01+,for acceleration responsive elements. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
527+,through 551, for speed responsive elements. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
649+,for devices responsive to and for measuring vibrations of a body. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
741,for Bourbon tubes, per se, for fluid pressure gauges. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
861.42+,for devices responsive to differential pressures. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).

SECTION V - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
26Textiles: Cloth Finishing,   subclass 70 for inspection and examination of cloth. (Inspecting).
26Textiles: Cloth Finishing,   (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
28Textiles: Manufacturing,   subclasses 226+ especially subclass 227 for apparatus and processes of detecting knots, bunches, or slubs in threads.
33Geometrical Instruments,   for measuring and testing involving only the determination of the characteristics and mutual relation of points, lines, angles, surfaces and solids and for mechanically guided means for describing lines. Class 73 has combinations of geometrical instruments with other measuring or testing means. (Geometrical Instruments)
33Geometrical Instruments,   subclass 501 , for feelers for gauges 227+, for straight line light ray type and 300+, for indicator of direction of force traversing natural media. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   subclass 88 for combinations having inspecting means as a part thereof. (Inspecting).
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   subclasses 88 , 89 for such apparatus combined with inspecting, indicating or testing means. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
47Plant Husbandry,   subclass 14 for apparatus and processes for ascertaining the life in seeds. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
84Music,   (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 285, 342+, for infusors and cooking devices combined with measuring and testing means. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
60Power Plants,   subclasses 527 through 531for heat actuated mechanisms producing force or motion and having no specified motion utilizing structure (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 29.1+ and 29.12+ for glassworking or treating processes including programming, timing, cycle control, inspecting, measuring, or testing; subclasses 158+ and 160+ for glassworking and treating apparatus with inspection, programming, timing, cycle control, inspecting, measuring, or testing means. (Inspecting)
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 5+ for gyroscopes. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
84Music,   subclass 409 for tuning forks. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclasses. For the line between Class 73 and Class 92, see References to Other Classes of the class definition of Class 92, under SEARCH CLASS 73. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
95Gas Separation: Processes,   for processes of gas separation, per se. Class 73 will take the combination of gas separation and significant gas analysis. The combination of gas separation and a nominal step of "analyzing" or "detecting" without further detail of the analysis or detection is insufficient to cause a patent to be placed in Class 73; that patent will be placed in Class 95. Also, if there is feedback from the analytical apparatus to control or effect a change in the gas separating operation, then classification is in Class 95. (Chemical)
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   for apparatus for gas separation, per se. Class 73 will take the combination of gas separation apparatus and significant gas analysis means. The combination of gas separation apparatus and nominal means for "analyzing" or "detecting" without further detail of the analysis or detection means is insufficient to cause a patent to be placed in Class 73; that patent will be placed in Class 96. Also, if there is feedback means from the analytical apparatus to control or effect a change in the gas separation, then classification is in Class 96. For volume or rate of flow meters combined with gas and liquid separators, see subclass 200 in Class 73. (Chemical).
101Printing,   subclasses 35+ , for selective printing machines in which the control of the printing element selected is by a gauge measuring the article printed upon and the article is other than a rectangular sheet. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
116Signals and Indicators,   for devices for giving a signal or indication other than electrical of the presence or absence of a condition, and in subclasses 200+ for nonelectrical indicating means, such as dial and pointer structure, not claimed in combination with any particular measuring or testing means provided for in Class 73. Class 73 takes the combination of measuring or testing means significantly claimed combined with a signal or indicator, and devices that respond to a condition and give a series of indications which follow or vary with the variations of the condition wherein more than a mere named operator for the signal or indicator is included. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 712+ for coating apparatus having measuring or testing features. (Inspecting)
128Surgery,   (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
128Surgery,   subclasses 630+ for methods and apparatus for diagnosing diseased or abnormal condition of the body. (Surgical)
136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   (see also Note 4), subclass 182 for batteries combined with testing or indicating means. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclass 89 for electro-optical batteries and subclass 200, for thermal sensitive batteries. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 227+ , 524 and 551+ for fluid handling means combined with an indicator register, recorder, alarm or inspection means. (See also (4) Note). (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 90 for pipe plugs having either provision for introducing a fluid into the pipe or for the attachment of a gauge. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
148Metal Treatment,   subclasses 128+ for process of heat treating metal in the solid state; and involving also a measuring, testing or sensing operation. The operation generally, is directed to control of the heat treatment. (Chemical)
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 64 and 378 for laminating processes and apparatus having measuring or testing features. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 49 , 198 and 263 for measuring and testing in combination with fiber liberation or paper making. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
166Wells,   subclasses 250+ for well processes including measuring and testing means, subclass 264 for processes of merely sampling a well fluid and appropriate subclasses for corresponding apparatus and subclasses 64, 66 and 113 for well apparatus including measuring or testing means. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
177Weighing Scales,   appropriate subclasses for a weigher, per se; for a weigher with features for making a test not specifically provided for in Class 73; and for a weigher in combination with another measuring device not provided for in Class 73. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
177Weighing Scales,   appropriate subclasses for a weigher, per se; especially subclasses 50+ for a weigher with features for making a test not specifically provided for in Class 73; and subclass 245 for a weigher in combination with another measuring device not provided for in Class 73.
181Acoustics,   subclass .5 for miscellaneous mechanical detectors for sound waves. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
181Acoustics,   subclasses 101+ , 123+ and 125 for devices analogous to "sonic" or acoustical testing apparatus of this (73) class. (Acoustical)
194Check-Actuated Control Mechanisms,   for check controlled measuring and testing devices, and subclasses 302+ for fraud preventing coin-testing devices. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   subclass 502 for a conveyor combined with load measuring means, and subclasses 504+ for a conveyor combined with a load weighing means. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   for the combination of a measuring instrument and a circuit controller when specific structure of the circuit controller is claimed. Class 73 takes the combination of a class 73 measuring instrument and a circuit controller when the circuit controller is claimed broadly. In connection with Class 200, the definitions of the subclasses of Class 73 which provide for measuring instruments combined with other structure are modified by this note. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   subclasses 1+ for a process of separatory distillation including a positive step of determining a specific characteristic for control purposes. (Chemical).
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for apparatus for performing electrolytic analysis and testing. (Chemical)
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 775+ for electrolytic analysis and testing processes. (Chemical)
209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   (see also the Class 209 reference for Inspecting), for testing and assorting of solids in accordance with physical characteristics, as by sifting materials to determine the proportion of each size in the whole; attention is called particularly to assorting in subclasses 509+ which includes means for testing or measuring objects and sorting them in accordance with their characteristics. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   subclass 702 for manual assorting involving inspecting means. (Inspecting)
221Article Dispensing,   subclass 155 for article dispensers not otherwise provided for, having transparent inspecting or viewing means so that the articles can be dispensed and may be inspected. (Inspecting)
222Dispensing,   subclasses 154+ , for inspecting devices combined with fluent material dispensers so that the material to be dispensed may be inspected. (Inspecting)
222Dispensing,   (see also Class 222 reference for Inspecting), for dispensers which involve volume measuring, and see section 6 of the main class definition of Class 222, for the line with volume or rate of flow meters. The notes to Class 222 set forth the search field for apparatus for dispensing measured quantities of material.
234Selective Cutting (e.g., Punching),   subclasses 33+ for a selective cutting device provided with stopping means responsive to detection of improper treatment of work (e.g., failure to punch in every column, or to follow a 2 - 5 code). (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
235Registers,   subclass 61 for mechanical calculators and subclass 92 for electrical counting techniques which may include testing or measuring. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   for solid comminution combined with measuring or testing of material. See section 12 of the main class definition of that class for a statement of the line. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
248Supports,   subclass 27 for means for supporting an instrument in a panel. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing)
250Radiant Energy,   for measuring and testing by radiant energy and measuring radiant energy. See particularly subclass 250 for wavemeters for radiated electro-magnetic waves, 253+ for methods and apparatus to irradiate earth material above or below the ground and testing the radiation modified or emitted as a result or irradiation by the material or testing the radiation emitted by the material, 281+ for methods and apparatus for the ionic separation or analysis of materials, 306+ for methods and apparatus for the inspection of solids or liquids by charged particles, 336.1+ for methods and apparatus including invisible radiant energy responsive electric signalling having detectors sensitive to infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, radio-active rays and neutron radiation or to a radiation source modified by a tested material: and 472.1+ for methods of detecting invisible radiation by a nonelectrical detector or invisible radiation nonelectrical detectors, per se. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references).
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 336+ for speed responsive devices using an invisible radiation source and an electric signalling device and, subclasses 459+ for speed responsive stroboscopes using invisible radiation and a luminous screen.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 71 for fluorescent detectors of ray energy, subclasses 83+ for miscellaneous detectors of ray energy. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 281+ for methods and apparatus for the ionic separation or analysis of ionic material by the mass to charge ratio of the ionic material (e.g., mass spectrometry). (Electrical)
252Compositions,   subclass 408 for chemical indicating compositions. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
252Compositions,   subclass 299.01 for liquid crystal compositions and subclass 408.1 for analytical, testing or indicating compositions involved in a physical test procedure. (Chemical).
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   for electric generating means driven by a prime mover (a motor other than an electric motor) having prime-mover controls (e.g., throttle, fuel valve, etc.) which are characteristic of controls used on prime movers. The line between Class 290 and Class 73 is as follows: Where the claimed subject matter is clearly limited to testing the prime mover, or where the generating means is designated specifically as a "dynamometer", or a generator having an absorption circuit (such as, for example, an induction disk, or a resistor across the armature circuit of the generator), original classification is in Class 73. Where the generating means is claimed merely as a "generator" or a "dynamo-electric machine" and the claim is not otherwise limited to testing, original classification is in Class 290, regardless of the specific disclosure. (Electrical)
292Closure Fasteners,   subclasses 307+ for miscellaneous seals and sealing devices, which may be employed in connection with measuring and testing devices. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclasses, for the structure of electrical generators. The line between testing means which generate electricity in Class 73 and generating means in Class 310 is as follows: Where the claimed subject matter is limited to structural details only of a dynamoelectric machine or a generator of a dynamometer, original classification is in Class 310 regardless of the title or function assigned to the structure (for example, a "dynamometer" having detailed structure set forth which pertains only to the structure of the generating mechanism, per se, is classifiable in class (310).
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 306 for pyromagnetic devices and subclass 311 for piezoelectric devices. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   see Note 3C.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 364+ , for processes and apparatus for testing such devices. (Electrical)
320Electricity: Battery and Capacitor Charging and Discharging,   subclass 48 . (Electrical)
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   appropriate subclasses, for systems of control of electric generators of general application. The line between testing means which generate electricity in Class 73 and generating systems in Class 322 is as follows: Where the claimed subject matter is limited (either positively or by necessary inference) to a system which includes a "dynamometer" or to a dynamoelectric machine having an absorption circuit (such as for example a dynamoelectric machine or generator having an eddy current disk or an induction disk or having a resistor connected across the output circuit thereof), original classification is in Class 73. Where the claimed subject matter is limited merely to an electric "generator" or to a "dynamoelectric machine" in combination with control means therefor, original classification is in Class 322, regardless of the disclosure, except as noted herein above in the reference to Class 290. (Electrical)
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   for testing to determine electrical properties by electrical means even though nonelectrical values are derived from the electrical values determined. Note particularly subclasses 323+ for ore detection by determination of electrical properties, subclass 71.5 for the determination of nonelectric properties by measuring electric properties, and subclasses 76.11+ for the measurement of electricity, per se. (Electrical)
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 68+ for electrical speed measurement. (Speed Measuring).
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 2+ for strain gauge type resistors and subclasses 13+ for resistors whose value changes in response to a condition or conditions. Also see the Electrical reference to Class 338. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 2+ includes resistors of the strain gauge type together with the device which is subject to deformation when not otherwise classifiable or with structure securing the resistor to such a device. When the meter, Wheatstone bridge connection, or other current measuring device is claimed with the resistor in the above combination, classification is in Class 73, especially subclasses 763+ and 133+. Class 338, subclasses 13+, includes resistors, per se, responsive in resistance value to a change in condition, or resistors combined with a condition sensing actuator which modifies the resistance value of the resistor, such as indented subclasses 25+ for resistors responsive to ambient temperature, subclass 33 for resistors with a float actuator, subclasses 34+ for resistors with gas, vapor, or moisture absorbing or collecting, subclasses 36+ for resistors which are fluid or gas pressure actuated, and subclass 47 for force actuated resistors. The inclusion of a meter, Wheatstone bridge or other current measuring device in series with the resistor in this combination would be sufficient for classification in Class 73, especially subclass 29 for moisture content or vapor pressure analysis, subclasses 453 and 308 for float actuated resistors with indicators, subclasses 133+ for dynamometers, and subclasses 398+ for fluid pressure gauges of the current modifying type. (Electrical)
338Electrical Resistors,   see Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 670+ for electrical speed alarms. (Speed Measuring)
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 870.01+ takes telemetric signaling means useful in transmitting a measured quantity, not limited to any particular measuring instrument provided for in other classes, while Class 73 takes such telemetric signaling means in combination with a particular measuring means of the type provided for in Class 73. (Electrical)Class 340 also, in subclasses 500+ takes electrical devices permanently associated with the object or environment being monitored for giving a signal or indication of the presence or absence of a condition but wherein no quantitative measurements may be made. Devices for making a quantitative measurement of the type provided for in Class 73 in which the instrument responds to a condition and a series of indications are given which follow or vary with the variations of the condition are in Class 73, even though employing electrical signaling means, such as lamps, to indicate visually the result. The general line is that Class 73 takes particular measuring or testing means, even though claimed in combination with electric signaling means, while Class 340 takes the signaling subcombination. (Electrical).
340Communications: Electrical,   see Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   see Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above.
342Communications: Directive, Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   appropriate subclasses, for those utilizing transmitted radio wave energy; see subclasses 1 through 205for those utilizing reflected or otherwise returned radio wave (radar) energy. (Speed Measuring)
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 1 through 205for miscellaneous apparatus and method which involve the use of a reflected and/or otherwise returned radio wave (radar) system for detecting an object, or to measure the distance, direction and/or velocity of an object, and subclasses 350+ for directional radio. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references).
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclasses 700+ for antennas. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
346Recorders,   appropriate subclass. (Speed Measuring).
346Recorders,   appropriate subclass. (Time Measuring).
346Recorders,   (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
346Recorders,   appropriate subclass. (Electrical)
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 200+ for optical eye examining and vision testing instruments such as optometers. (Optical, also see Radiant Energy References).
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   for processes and apparatus which utilize visible light to measure the optical properties of substances, test visible light for optical properties and which use visible light to test for nonoptical properties not classified elsewhere particularly subclasses 23+ for optical stroboscopes, subclasses 32+ for material strain analysis, subclasses 43+ for optical pyrometers, subclasses 124+ for lens or reflective image former testing, subclasses 213+ for photometers and subclasses 237+ for visual flaw inspection apparatus. (Optical, also see Radiant Energy References).
362Illumination,   subclasses 2 , 138 and 139 for inspection lamps. (Inspecting).
362Illumination,   (see also Class 362 reference for Inspecting), subclasses 23+ for measuring instrument dials combined with illuminating means. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 141+ for underwater vibration detectors and subclasses 178+ for geophysical vibration transducers. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   appropriate subclasses and the classes specified under "SEARCH CLASS" in the class and subclass definitions. (Time Measuring).
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 53.1 through 53.45for an indication or test of an information storage or retrieval device or element thereof. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above.)
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   see Note 4.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   for testing to determine a thermal condition or property of a specimen. (Electrical)
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 6+ for determination of distance or position by measuring a thermal quantity related thereto. (Geometrical Instruments).
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   for the combination of a thermal test and a thermal test and a nonthermal test. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 153+ for detection of radiation by an induced nuclear reaction; subclasses 207+ for means to control a nuclear reaction; subclasses 207+ for means to control a nuclear reactor which means may include measuring and testing means; and subclasses 245+ for measuring or testing means; and subclasses 245+ for measuring or testing a fission reactor condition. (Chemical)
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 50+ , 105+ and 129+ for analyzing apparatus involving means for causing, promoting, regulating, or controlling a chemical reaction. (Chemical)
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 400 through 429for structured visual or optical indicator, per se, such as a litmus paper or other chemical test papers. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above)
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 1.11+ for Class 424 compositions containing a radionuclide and subclasses 9.1+ for compositions and methods for diagnosing or testing for a body condition or determining the potency of a medicine in a living being. (Biological)
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for class defined in vivo test compositions and methods, particularly subclasses 1.11+ wherein a radionuclide or intended radionuclide is recited. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references)
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 616 for a bimetallic element, per se. (See Lines With Other Classes, Mass Spectrometry, (1) Note, above).
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 4+ for processes in which there is a direct or indirect qualitative or quantitative measurement or test of a material which contains an enzyme or microorganism as well as processes in which a material containing an enzyme or microorganism is used to perform a qualitative or quantitative measurement or test, and compositions therefor and the processes of making such compositions; and subclasses 287.1+ for an apparatus for performing the above processes. (Chemical)
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclass 35 for a test method which involves both an enzyme or microbial reaction and the use of a radioactive material and subclass 288.7 for an optical enzyme or microbial reaction measuring and testing device in combination. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references).
436Chemistry: Analytical And Immunological Testing,   subclasses 57+ for a test method (which involves both a chemical reaction (e.g., ion exchange) and a measurement of radioactivity or isotope distribution. (Radiant Energy--also see Optical references).
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 2.01 , 67.11-67.7, 115.1-115.4 and subclasses 226.1-226.4 for measuring and testing of modulated carrier wave communications.
494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   subclass 10 , for apparatus of that class provided with means for measuring or testing. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   appropriate subclasses for data processing system or calculating computer which is utilized to effect a measuring, testing, or monitoring operation on an external device or quantity, wherein the external device or quantity is only nominally claimed. When significant structure to the measuring or testing device is claimed, classification is in Class 73. (Apparatus or Process Combined With Measuring or Testing).
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 1+ for measurement system in a specific environment, subclasses 85+ for calibrating or correction system, subclasses 108+ for testing system, and subclasses 127+ for generic measurement system. Class 73 takes the combination of register claimed broadly or specifically in combination with significant measuring or testing of the type provided for in Class 73. (Electrical)
935Genetic Engineering: Recombinant DNA Technology, Hybrid or Fused Cell Technology, and Related Manipulations of Nucleic Acids,   which provides a search collection for processes of altering the genetic structure of micro-organisms; genes and methods of modifying genes and their expression; vectors and methods of modifying vectors; methods of introducing DNA into a cell; microorganisms, per se, which have had their genetic sequence altered by recombinant DNA techniques or by cell fusion or by uptake of DNA; testing; separation techniques; apparatus; and methods of use of vectors or of the genetically engineered micro-organisms; methods of gene therapy or genetic modification of living organisms. (Chemical; and Radiant Energy [and see Optical references]).

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.01]    1.01INSTRUMENT PROVING OR CALIBRATING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for (a) ascertaining (i.e., proving) the quality of a measuring device, a testing device, or a condition responsive device by testing the respective device, or (b) checking, adjusting, or standardizing systematically (i.e., calibrating) the graduations of a quantitative measuring instrument or a condition responsive device (e.g., sensors, safety valves, etc.).
(1) Note. Where the proving or calibrating is by measuring means or testing means of a kind provided for in another measuring or testing class, the subject matter is found in the other measuring or testing class. See such measuring or testing class and the Lines With Other Classes to this class definition.
(2) Note. Where more structure of a measuring device, a testing device, or a condition responsive device is recited than that which is necessary to (a) prove or calibrate or (b) identify the measuring device, the testing device, or the condition responsive device, the subject matter goes with the analyzer or the condition responsive device.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 455+ for a line condition change responsive valve.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   appropriate subclasses for mechanical switches with adjustment means.
250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for measuring invisible light combined with calibration, particularly subclass 252.1 for (a) a method for establishing a reference indication of invisible radiation or (b) a method of error determination or correction using a reference indication of invisible radiation level; and subclass 363.09 for a method of invisible radiant energy responsive electrical signalling with a radiant energy source and with calibration.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclass 48 for test or calibration structure for an active solid-state device.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 74 for testing or calibrating electric meters by purely electrical means; subclass 130 for systems for measuring, testing, or sensing electricity, per se, with self calibration; subclass 202 for calibration of magnetic measuring or testing systems; and subclass 601 for calibration of impedance, admittance, or other electrically stimulated response measuring or testing systems.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 501 for an apparatus for providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined condition (e.g., alarms) combined with calibration or compensation means and subclass 870.04 for a telemetry system combined with calibration means.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 165+ for testing or calibrating of a radar system.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for an apparatus for measuring or testing by measuring visible light combined with proving or testing means, especially subclass 6 for testing or indicating the condition of a range finder with regards to its adjustment, alignment, or calibration by measuring visible light; subclass 46 for an electric light utilizing a lamp as a standard for photometry or optical pyrometry measuring; subclass 124 for lens or reflective image former testing in general; and subclass 243 for an apparatus for measuring or testing visible light including structure for a basis for comparison with a specimen or a portion thereof under test.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 1+ for calibration or testing of a thermally responsive device.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 29 for calibrating or testing an electrical counter.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclass 207 for a testing or calibration accessory of an X-ray or gamma ray system.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclass 967 for a cross-reference art collection of standards, controls, materials (e.g., validation studies, buffer systems, etc.).
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   appropriate subclasses for the use of an electronic calculator to adjust a measurement device.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.02]    1.02Gas or liquid analyzer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device which is being proven or calibrated either (1) detects or measures the composition of, or some constituent or an identifying characteristic of a gas or gaseous mixture or (2) detects or determines the composition of, a constituent of, or a property of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23.2+,for a gas analyzer or sensor, per se, in particular subclasses 23.21+ for a gas analyzer including means for making a correction for an undesirable variation in a condition within an apparatus or in a test result due to such condition.
53.01+,for liquid testing (e.g., liquid chromatography), per se.
73+,for detecting the moisture content of a material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclass 401 for fault testing of a sensor or a component of an electrolytic analysis and testing apparatus and subclass 408 for such an analysis or testing apparatus with means for temperature or pressure compensation.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 253+ for the detection of a gas either within or emanating from the earth by invisible radiation emanating from the gas naturally or as a result of irradiation by invisible radiation; and subclasses 336.1+ for testing of a gas by utilizing an electric signalling device detecting radiation induced or emitted naturally or detecting infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, or gamma radiation or neutrons modified by the gas.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for testing an electrical property of a gas, in particular subclasses 464+ for analyzing gas using ionization effects.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 34+ for a resistor, per se, which is responsive to the condition of a gas wherein no quantitative measurements of the gas are disclosed.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 632+ for an electrical indicator providing a humanly perceptible signal representing a predetermined condition of a gas.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 402+ for gas analysis utilizing a colorimeter to determine the shade or color of the gas.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze gas.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclass 68 for a process which utilizes a chemical reaction to analyze gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.03]    1.03Reference standard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.02.  Subject matter including a means for providing a reference criterion and wherein the apparatus for proving or calibrating uses the reference criterion for comparison purposes for proving or calibrating the device.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 427+ for an electrolytic gas sample sensor, per se, combined with a gas reference material; and subclass 435 for a standard reference electrode in an electrolytic analysis or testing apparatus.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 243 for an apparatus for measuring or testing visible light including structure forming a basis for comparison with a specimen or a portion thereof under test.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   particularly subclasses 8+ for a composition for standardization, calibration, simulation, or processes of use in preparation for chemical testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.04]    1.04Permeable outlet or flawed element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.03.  Subject matter wherein the reference standard comprises (a) a barrier having interstices, pores, or micropores through which the liquid or gas diffuses or (b) a solid body having a known imperfection which is detected by the gas or liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.05]    1.05Piston, sprayer, nozzle, or orifice:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.03.  Subject matter wherein the reference standard comprises either (a) a solid cylinder or disk that fits snugly into a large cylinder and moves back and forth under fluid pressure (i.e., a piston), (b) a means for discharging a fine jet of liquid from a pressurized container (i.e., a sprayer), (c) a tube having a taper or constriction (i.e., a nozzle), or (d) an opening (i.e., an orifice).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.16+,for either (a) proving or calibrating a flowmeter having a nozzle or (b) using a flowmeter having a nozzle to prove or calibrate a device.
216,for a Weir type flowmeter having a constriction in the form of a submerged orifice or discharge nozzle.
294,for a liquid level or depth gauge having a funnel or hose nozzle.
861.61+,for a flowmeter having a pressure differential type (a) orifice or (b) flow nozzle.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   appropriate subclasses for a sprayer or a nozzle, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.06]    1.06Gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.02.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device which is being proven or calibrated is an apparatus for detecting or measuring the composition of or some constituent of a gas or gaseous mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23.2+,for a gas analyzer or sensor, per se, in particular subclasses 23.21+ for a gas analyzer including means for making a correction for an undesirable variation in a condition within an apparatus or in a test result due to such condition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for an electrochemical gas sensor, per se.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   particularly subclasses 464+ for analyzing gas using ionization effects and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   particularly subclass 68 for a process utilizing a chemical reaction for determining the gases in the blood and subclasses 161+ for chromatography.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.07]    1.07Span or zero:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.06.  Subject matter wherein the measuring, testing, or condition responsive device produces an output signal in response to a condition being sensed and wherein the device is proven or calibrated by setting a range of values or a base value for the output signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.08]    1.08Dynamometer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated measures or determines force, torque, work, or mechanical power.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass, a dynamometer may either be employed to measure an applied load or to apply a measured load (e.g., for test purposes).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

54.39,for a viscometer measuring shearing torque between parallel surfaces wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
862+,for a dynamometer, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

177Weighing Scales,   appropriate subclasses, in particular subclass 50 for a weighing scale combined with testing wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 338 for a force responsive piezoelectric sensor combined with mechanical energy coupling means.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   appropriate subclasses for a dynamometer controlling a motor, in particular subclass 646 for a positional servo system with force or weight measuring.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 727 for piezoelectric crystal testing.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 2 through 6for strain gauges, per se, in particular subclass 5 for a dynamometer type strain gauge, and subclass 47 for a force actuated electrical resistor.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 665+ for an electrical indicating system providing a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined force or stress.
 
 GLOSSARY
 FORCE:
 

The strength or energy exerted upon or brought to bear or the cause of motion or change in motion or a state of rest.

 POWER:
 

The rate at which work is done or the rate at which energy is transferred.

 TORQUE:
 

A turning or twisting force or a force that produces or tends to produce rotation or torsion.

 WORK:
 

The transference of energy that is produced by motion at the point of application of force which is measured by multiplying the force and the displacement of its point of application in the line of action.

  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.09]    1.09Torque:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is responsive to a force couple or moment of force that induces or resists rotation of a body about a point or an axis (i.e., torque).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

862.041+,for dynamometers comprising means responsive to plural torques wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
862.08+,for a device for measuring torque, work, or power comprising sensing means responsive to a force couple or moment of force that induces or resists rotation of a body about a point or axis combined with a calibrating apparatus wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.11]    1.11Electrical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.09.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises means for having an effect resulting from the existence of stationary or moving electric charges.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.12]    1.12Wrench:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.09.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is a hand or power tool with fixed or adjustable jaws for twisting or turning an object.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

862.21+,for torque measuring wrench.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.13]    1.13Weight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated measures, tests, or is responsive to a measure of the heaviness of an object.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

177Weighing Scales,   appropriate subclasses, in particular subclass 50 for a weighing scale combined with testing wherein more structure of the force measuring device is recited than is necessary to describe the calibrating apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.14]    1.14Rotor unbalance or a roller having a smooth surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either (1) determines the amount of or the location of a mass or force causing unbalance in a rotatable body or (2) tests or measures a physical characteristic of or is responsive to a rotating cylindrical shaped body having a surface free of roughness, irregularities, or projections.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

66+,for rotor unbalance measuring or testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.15]    1.15Load cell (e.g., strain gauge or piezoelectric sensor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.08.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises a means which produces a signal in response to a force being applied thereto.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

760,for measuring a specimen stress or strain or for testing by stress or strain application.
862+,for dynamometers where strain in a part of the measuring apparatus itself is utilized as an index of power applied thereto or transmitted thereby.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

411Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed, Tool-Deformed, or Locked-Threaded Fastener,   subclasses 8+ for fastener devices having means functioning to facilitate measuring or to denote the attainment of a desired stress or strain in a fastener device in situ.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.16]    1.16Volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated determines (1) a size or extent of flow of a fluent material, (2) a rate of flow of a fluent material, (3) a rate of motion of a specific dimensional amount of a fluent material, or (4) a response of a fluent material due to an acceleration other than in the normal direction of flow of the fluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

170.01+,for fluid flow direction determination, in particular subclasses 170.11+ for fluid flow velocity determination.
861+,for volume of flowmeters or rate of flowmeters and combinations of which they are a part.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.17]    1.17Plug with leak detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter including a movable barrier for the introduction of a known flow volume combined with a means sensing an undesirable escape of a fluent material through an opening wherein the proving or the calibrating is performed by utilizing the movement of the barrier for the introduction of a known flow volume.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.18]    1.18Sphere:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein the movement of a three-dimensional surface, having all points of which are equidistant from a fixed point (e.g., a ball), is used for introducing a known flow volume.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.19]    1.19Piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein the movement of a solid cylinder or disk that fits snugly into a large cylinder and moves back and forth under fluid pressure or displaces or compresses fluid is utilized for introducing a known flow volume.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.21]    1.21With plural pistons:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.19.  Subject matter wherein the movement of more than one piston in a cylinder is utilized for introducing a known flow volume.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.22]    1.22With magnetic or optical sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.19.  Subject matter including either (a) a body having properties of attracting materials, as iron, by virtue of a surrounding field of force created by motion of its atomic electrons and the alignment of its atoms which change in response to the movement of the piston or (b) a body whose response to light changes in response to the movement of the piston.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

250Radiant Energy,   for a photocell circuit generating positional information.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 200+ for measuring using a magnetic sensor, per se, especially subclasses 207.11+ for determination of a displacement using a magnetic sensor, per se.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 372+ for optical measuring and testing by mensuration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.23]    1.23With position sensing switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.19.  Subject matter including a means for opening or closing an electrical circuit or for diverting current from one conductor to another conductor in response to a change in position of the piston.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclasses 61.04+ for a liquid level responsive switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.24]    1.24Tracer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter comprising either (a) an identification substance that can be followed through the course of a process, providing information on the pattern of events in the process or on the redistribution of parts or elements involved (i.e., a tracer substance) and a detector means wherein (1) the tracer substance is introduced into the fluid at a fixed rate and (2) the detector means is placed downstream of the fluid flow and is responsive to a concentration of a tracer substance or (b) a fixed concentration of an identification substance that can be followed through the course of a process, providing information on the pattern of events in the process or on the redistribution of parts or elements involved (i.e., a tracer substance) and a detector means wherein (1) the fixed concentration of the tracer substance is introduced into the fluid and (2) the detector means is placed downstream of the fluid flow and is responsive to the rate of introduction of the fixed concentration of the substance.
(1) Note. For the purpose of this subclass, a body or substance that moves along with the fluid flow without impeding the fluid flow is a tracer.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

170.04,for determining the direction of fluid flow by use of a tracer.
861.05+,for determining a fluid flow rate by measuring the time required for a tracer placed in the fluid to travel from one position to another.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for an invisible radiation tracer for measuring fluent flow, especially subclasses 259+ for the use of tracer material in a well to test for leakage into or out of a well, subclasses 302+ for flow metering using invisible radiation type tracer methods, subclasses 306+ for rate of flow testing using charge particles, subclass 356.2 for flow metering using a radioactive tracer, and subclass 359.1 for use of invisible radio tracers for fluent material level tests.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclass 51 for X-ray devices which may include flow metering.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.25]    1.25Orifice or restriction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the proving or calibrating apparatus or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either comprises (1) an opening sending out a controlled amount of flow of the fluent material or (2) a structure allowing a controlled amount of flow of the fluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

861.52+,for utilizing an apparatus for measuring a differential device having a restriction to make a volume or rate of flow determination, especially subclasses 861.61+ for utilizing an apparatus for measuring a differential device having a restriction or orifice to make a volume or rate of flow determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.26]    1.26Nozzle or venturi:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.25.  Subject matter wherein the proving or calibrating apparatus or the device being proven or calibrated comprises (a) a tube having a taper or a constriction through which the fluent material passes or (b) a means having flared ends connected by a constricted middle through which the fluent material passes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

861.62+,for utilizing an apparatus for measuring a differential device having a restriction and a flow nozzle to make a volume or rate of flow determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.27]    1.27Turbine, geared meter, pulse activated or counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises either (1) a motor operated by water, steam, or air directed against cups, blades, or vanes on the rim of a wheel (i.e., turbine), (2) an instrument that measures fluent material passing through it via the use of rotary driven indicating members (i.e., geared meter), (3) a means having a property which changes in response to regularly occurring stimuli (i.e., pulse activated), or (4) a meter for totaling a parameter related to flow (i.e., counter).
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.28]    1.28Turbine or geared meter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.27.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a motor operated by water, steam, or air directed against cups, blades, or vanes on the rim of a wheel or (2) an instrument that measures fluent material passing through it via the use of rotary driven indicating members (i.e., geared meter).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

861.79+,for utilizing a turbine to make a volume or rate of flow determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.29]    1.29Anemometer or pitot tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a means for measuring speed of wind or (2) a means that includes a tube which is placed in a moving body of fluid and is used to measure a kinetic head.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

861.84,for utilizing anemometer to make a volume or rate of flow determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.31]    1.31With liquid level monitor or timer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter including (a) an apparatus for determining a predetermined level or depth of a body of liquid or sensing a predetermined level or depth of body of liquid or (b) an apparatus for measuring the time for travel of a fluid from one point to another.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.73+,for calibrating liquid level measuring devices.
290+,for liquid level measuring, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.32]    1.32Prover bell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.31.  Subject matter which includes a bell-shaped object for introducing a known volume into (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.33]    1.33With floating element or weighing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) an element which lies in a liquid without sinking or which is suspended in a gas or (2) an element for measuring the heaviness of the fluent material.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.34]    1.34With signal processing, span or set point adjustment (e.g., zero correction):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein the apparatus for calibrating or proving comprises means for (a) performing a significant operation on an electrical signal in accordance with an algorithm or electronic circuitry, (b) performing an arithmetical or some limited logic operation to adjust a multiplier or scale, or (c) adjusting a base value (span) or an offset (e.g., zero correction).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.88,for a proving or calibrating apparatus or a device being proven or calibrated other than a volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow involving span or zero setting.
861.01+,for a flowmeter with indirect temperature or density compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.35]    1.35With pressure measurement or plural flowmeters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated comprises (1) means for determining a force per unit area exerted by the fluid or (2) more than one means for measuring a flow of a fluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.57+,for a proving or calibrating apparatus or a device being proven or calibrated other than a volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow type and utilizing fluent pressure measurement.
700+,for a fluid pressure gauge, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.36]    1.36Metering dispenser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating a device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is a measuring means which issues out fluent material in portions.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

168,for the testing of pumps or hydraulic equipment.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.37]    1.37Speed, velocity, or acceleration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating or (b) the device being proven or calibrated detects or determines either (1) a time rate of change of position of a body (i.e., speed), (2) or a time rate of change of position of a body in a given direction (i.e., or velocity), or (3) a time rate of change of speed or velocity of a body (i.e., acceleration).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

121+,for other than purely electrically or purely optically measuring speed, velocity, or acceleration in testing a vehicle brake.
167+,for other than purely electrically or purely optically measuring speed, velocity, or acceleration in testing a projectile.
178+,for other than a purely electrically or a purely optically measuring speed, velocity, or acceleration to test navigational instrument.
488+,for utilizing an inertial element for mechanical speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring and electrical speed, velocity, or acceleration measuring other than a purely electrical or purely optical measuring type utilizing an inertial element; in particular, subclasses 514.01+ for an acceleration measuring apparatus utilizing an inertial element.
507,for comparing the speed of one device with another by measuring speed by means being other than purely electrical or purely optical.
652+,for apparatus for sensing vibrations by an inertial element.
861+,for fluid flow rate measuring other than by a purely electrical or a purely optical measuring means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 231 and 232 for straight-line-light ray sighting instruments involving speed; subclasses 300+ for direction sensing and indicating instruments which may involve speed measuring of a non-purely electrical or non-purely optical measuring type, particularly subclasses 318+ wherein a gyroscope is utilized for controlling or stabilizing purposes; and subclasses 391+ for pendulums which may respond to and be calibrated in terms of acceleration.
250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for measuring invisible light to measure speed where no manual manipulation is involved.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 160+ for purely electrical speed measuring.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for measuring visible light to determine speed.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.38]    1.38Accelerometer utilizing an inertial element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.37.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated comprises an inertial member having an intrinsic or relational property which changes in response to a time rate of change of speed or velocity of a body which can be used to measure acceleration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

491+,for an acceleration measuring apparatus or method including means retaining a reading of maximum acceleration.
503.3,for determining speed by utilizing a gyroscope for combining acceleration and time.
504.03,for using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on an inertial element to determine both angular rate and linear acceleration.
652+,for an apparatus sensing vibrations by use of an inertial member.
866.2,for a process or an apparatus for measuring a time rate of change in a sensed condition not provided for elsewhere.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   subclasses 28+ for a mechanical indicator, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to acceleration and includes no quantitative measuring means.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 329 for an inertia operated mechanical energy coupling means for a piezoelectric element or device.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 162 for a purely electrical speed measuring means including an electrical accelerometer which senses acceleration by means other than an inertial element.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 669 for an electrical indicator or alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined acceleration and provides no indication of a quantitative measurement.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   for an apparatus or a process for determining acceleration by measuring visible light and involving no mechanical manipulation.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 280+ for an acceleration responsive capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.39]    1.39Involving pendulum or impact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.38.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the inertial member either comprises or is supported by an object suspended from a fixed support so that it is free to swing back and forth or (b) the device is responsive to a force resulting from collision of one body with another.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

504.04,for a multi-sensor for determination of angular rate using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect combined with a determination of linear acceleration and including a vibratory inertial body.
504.12+,for measuring angular velocity using gyroscopic or Coriolis effect on a vibratory inertial body.
514.15,for acceleration measuring by means of a vibratory inertial mass.
514.29,for measuring acceleration by means of a vibrating sensor.
514.36,for acceleration measuring by means of a pendulum type inertial element wherein no rebalance is recited.
570+,for a vibrator, per se, used in testing or the testing of a vibrator.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.41]    1.41Optical or magnetic sensing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.37.  Subject matter comprising a sensing means whose characteristic changes in response to a light beam being modified in accordance with the change in the property of an inertial member due to the speed or velocity of the body or the sensing means comprising a body whose magnetic characteristic changes in response to the change in the property of the inertial member due to the speed or velocity of the body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

653,for an inertial type vibration sensing means having a light beam indicator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 227.14+ for a condition responsive light guide and subclasses 231.1+ for a light valve actuated by an external dynamic physical quantity.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   for a magnet or an electromagnet, per se.
336Inductor Devices,   subclass 30 for an inductor device having an acceleration responsive inductance adjusting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.42]    1.42Timing apparatus (e.g., fuse, camera, or shutter):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated measures passage of time.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.43]    1.43Chronometer (e.g., clock, watch, or watch unbalance):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.42.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated includes means providing a humanly perceptible indication of a passage of time.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   appropriate subclasses for a timer, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.44]    1.44Using antenna or radio frequency (RF):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either (1) includes a metallic device for transmitting or receiving electromagnetic waves (i.e., an antenna) or (2) utilizes a frequency lying in the range of frequencies, between about 3 kilohertz and 300 gigahertz, over which electromagnetic radiation is used in radio transmission (i.e., radio frequency).

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342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   appropriate subclasses for an antenna, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.45]    1.45Using optical sensor or element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means whose optical characteristic changes in response to a stimulus.

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250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for an optical sensor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.46]    1.46With sound sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.45.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means whose characteristic changes in response to sound.

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649+,for a vibration or sound testing sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.47]    1.47Resilient element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.45.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means having the capacity of returning to an original form immediately upon the withdrawal of a force which causes compression or distortion.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.48]    1.48Using sound sensor or piezoelectric vibration sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a means having a characteristic which changes in response to sound or (2) an element which produces electricity in response to pressure being applied thereto by a detection of vibration.
(1) Note. A tick detector, unless otherwise set forth, is found here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

649+,for a vibration or sound testing sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.49]    1.49Plural watches or plural sensors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.48.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated includes at least two chronometers or transducers.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.51]    1.51Resilient element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.48.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means having a capacity of returning to an original form immediately upon the withdrawal of a force which causes compression or distortion.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.52]    1.52Plural watches:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43.  Subject matter wherein the devices being proven or calibrated includes at least two chronometers.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.53]    1.53With resilient element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.43.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the chronometer or (b) the chronometer being proven or calibrated includes a means having a capacity of returning to an original form immediately upon the withdrawal of a force which causes compression or distortion.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.54]    1.54Coil spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.53.  Subject matter wherein the resilient element is a spirally wound elastic member.

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267Spring Devices,   subclasses 166+ for coil springs, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.55]    1.55Plural coil springs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.54.  Subject matter wherein the resilient element comprises at least two spirally wound elastic members.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.56]    1.56Optical instrument (e.g., camera shutter) or optical sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.42.  Subject matter wherein the timer being proven or calibrated is either (a) an instrument which is operated by light or (b) an element whose characteristic changes in response to light.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.57]    1.57Fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated either (a) measures fluid pressure or (b) is responsive to fluid pressure.

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700+,for a fluid pressure gauge.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.58]    1.58Vacuum:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device uses subatmospheric pressure or (b) the device being proven or calibrated is responsive to or measures a subatmospheric pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.59]    1.59With signal correction or processing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57.  Subject matter including either (a) a means for (1) performing an operation on an electrical signal to or from the fluid pressure measuring device in accordance with a set of rules which result in a significant change in the signal or (2) performing an arithmetical or some limited logic operation upon or with a signal to or from the fluid pressure responsive or measuring device in a systematic manner or (b) a means for adjusting an electrical signal either from the fluid pressure responsive device or the fluid pressure measuring device to a desired value.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.61]    1.61Span:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.59.  Subject matter wherein the pressure responsive device is tested or calibrated for accuracy at least two pressures.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.62]    1.62Zero:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.59.  Subject matter wherein the pressure responsive device is adjusted or checked for accuracy by checking its response to a reference pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.63]    1.63With reference source or attachment therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.59.  Subject matter including (a) a means for providing a standard or a known pressure during the proving or calibration of either the device which (1) measures fluid pressure or (2) is responsive to fluid pressure or (b) an element adapted to be affixed to a means for providing a standard or a known pressure during the proving or calibrating of the device which either (1) measures pressure or (2) is responsive to fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.64]    1.64Varying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.63.  Subject matter wherein the provided standard or the known pressure varies during the proving or calibrating of the fluid pressure measuring or the fluid pressure responsive device.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.65]    1.65Dead weight type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57.  Subject matter including a reference pressure source comprising a known weight acting as a sole force or pressure on a known area.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.66]    1.66Varying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57.  Subject matter including means providing a standard or the known pressure which varies during the proving or calibrating of either the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.67]    1.67Using or containing liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.66.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device, (b) the pressure measuring means, or (c) the fluid pressure responsive means uses or includes a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.68]    1.68With piston and cylinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57.  Subject matter including a cylindrical solid element movable in and snugly fitted in a cylindrical housing and wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device, (b) the device for measuring the fluid pressure, or (c) the device responsive to the fluid pressure includes the solid element and the cylindrical housing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.69]    1.69Using or containing liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus proving or calibrating the fluid pressure measuring device or the fluid pressure responsive device, (b) the pressure measuring means, or (c) the fluid pressure responsive means uses or includes a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.71]    1.71Pressure activated device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.57.  Subject matter wherein the pressure responsive device which is being proven or calibrated performs a nonpressure function in response to pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.72]    1.72Valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.71.  Subject matter wherein the pressure activated device comprises a body that regulates the flow of gases, liquids, or loose materials through structure, as a pipe, or through an aperture by opening, closing, or obstructing a port or a passageway or movable control element of such body.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.73]    1.73Liquid level or volume measuring apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated measures either (1) a height of liquid contained in a body or (2) an amount of material contained in a body.

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149,for volume measuring, per se.
290+,for liquid level measuring or testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.74]    1.74Volumetric dispenser (e.g., pipette):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.73.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated deals out a fixed amount of a content of a body in portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.75]    1.75Angle, direction, or inclination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated (1) measures the figure formed by two lines diverging from a common point (i.e., angle), (2) a position to which motion or another position is referred (i.e., direction), or (3) a deviation from a horizontal or vertical reference point (i.e., inclination).

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33Geometrical Instruments,   appropriate subclasses for instruments for measuring an angle, a direction, or an inclination.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.76]    1.76Compass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.75.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated indicates direction (north, south, east or west or combinations thereof).

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33Geometrical Instruments,   appropriate subclasses for instruments for measuring an angle, a direction, or an inclination.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.77]    1.77Gyroscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.75.  Subject matter including a spinning mass, usually a disk or wheel, the spin axis of which turns between two low friction supports and maintains its angular orientation with respect to inertial coordinates when not subjected to external torques wherein the spinning mass is either (a) a part of the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 5+ for special features of gyroscope, per se, and especially subclass 5.22 as the generic place for gyroscopes combined with other structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.78]    1.78Aircraft, inertial navigation, or attitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.75.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device includes an aircraft or (b) the device being proven or calibrated either (1) is used in inertial navigation (e.g., monitoring aircraft angle, direction, or navigation), (2) is responsive to inertial navigation, or (3) is responsive to attitude.

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178+,for navigation testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.79]    1.79Displacement, motion, distance, or position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated measures a vector or magnitude of a vector, the act or process of changing location, the length of a line segment joining two points, or where an object is placed.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.81]    1.81Length, width, or height:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.79.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated measures a spatial extent.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.82]    1.82Apparatus for measuring by use of vibration or apparatus for measuring vibration (e.g., acoustic or ultrasonic):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus being proven or calibrated undergoes a rapid linear motion about an equilibrium position or (b) the apparatus being proven or calibrated, tested, or adjusted measures a rapid linear motion of a body about an equilibrium position.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.83]    1.83Liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82.  Subject matter wherein either the (a) apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated uses or includes a fluid exhibiting a readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, or relatively high incompressibility.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.84]    1.84Rotary or rotor unbalance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82.  Subject matter wherein either the (a) apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a device undergoing angular motion or (2) an apparatus for determining the amount and/or location of masses or force causing unbalance in rotatable bodies.

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66+,for measuring rotor unbalance, per se.
455+,for a propeller rotor unbalance test.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.85]    1.85Seismic (e.g., geophone) or with optical sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82.  Subject matter wherein either (a) the apparatus for proving or calibrating the device or (b) the device being proven or calibrated includes either (1) a device relating to an earthquake or earth tremor or (2) a device whose optical characteristic changes in response to sensing vibration.

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653,for a sensing apparatus having an inertial element with a light beam indicator.

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367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclass 13 for testing, monitoring, or calibrating acoustic wave systems or devices used for electrical communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.86]    1.86Reference standard detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.82.  Subject matter including a means for providing reference criterion which is used for or intended to be used for comparison purposes in order to prove, calibrate, test, or adjust the measuring, testing, or condition responsive device and wherein significance is attributed to the means for providing the reference criterion.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 427+ for an electrolytic gas sample sensor, per se, combined with a gas reference material; and subclass 435 for a standard reference electrode in an electrolytic analysis or testing apparatus.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 243 for an apparatus for measuring or testing visible light including structure forming a basis for comparison with a specimen or a portion thereof under test.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   particularly subclasses 8+ for a composition for standardization, calibration, simulation, or processes of use in preparation for chemical testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.87]    1.87Centrifuge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated includes a sample holding device designed to rapidly rotate.

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1.02+,for (a) an apparatus for proving or calibrating a device for measuring or testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by use of a centrifuge or (b) proving or calibrating a device using a centrifuge for measuring or testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid.
53.01+,for an analysis of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by use of a centrifuge.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.88]    1.88Span or set point adjustment (e.g., zero correction):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated produces an output signal in response to a condition being sensed and wherein the proving, the calibrating, the testing, or the adjustment of the device is made by setting a range of values or a base value for the output.

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1.34,for volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow apparatus which proves or calibrates the device by establishing a span or a zero or a volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow device being proven or calibrated has a span or a zero value.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 1.89]    1.89Roughness or hardness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being proven or calibrated produces an output signal in response to a condition being sensed and wherein the proving, the calibrating, the testing or the adjustment of the device measures (a) the amount of unevenness of a surface or (b) the amount of resistance of a surface to penetration of an indentor into the surface or the amount of resistance of a surface to scratching.

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84+,for measuring or testing hardness, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 7]    7BY ABRASION, MILLING, RUBBING, OR SCUFFING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which a measurement or test is made involving any one or any combination of the operations of abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing, even though the test is employed as an index of another property, e.g., hardness. These are, in general, "wear" tests.

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9+,for analogous testing or measuring of frictional resistance, coefficient or characteristic.
862.12+,for torque absorption dynamometers of the frictional drag type.

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277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for a generic sealing means or process, subclass 321 for a seal combined with means to indicate wear, proper seating, or presence.
434Education and Demonstration,   for the demonstration of wear characteristics of materials not involving a measurement or a test feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 8]    8Wheel tread, tire, track, or roadway:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter in which any one of the following is the device tested: a wheel tread, tire, vehicle track or roadway.

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146+,for testing the same devices in other ways.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 9]    9FRICTIONAL RESISTANCE, COEFFICIENT OR CHARACTERISTICS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for measuring or determining the frictional drag or resistance between solid bodies when moved relative to one another.

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7+,for testing or measuring by abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing, i.e., "wear" tests.
862.11,through 862.18, for torque measuring dynamometers e.g., pony brakes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 10]    10Lubricant testing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter in which the effect of a lubricant upon the frictional drag between relatively movable solid bodies is determined, there being means for applying or maintaining the supply of lubricant.
(1) Note. These tests are usually termed tests of the lubricant.

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7+,for "wear" tests involving application of a lubricant.
32+,for determination of specific gravity or density of lubricants.
53.01,for determination of viscosity of lubricants and other miscellaneous tests of lubricants.

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434Education and Demonstration,   subclass 388 , for lubricant demonstration devices not involving measuring or testing features.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.01]    11.01TESTING IMPACT DELIVERING DEVICE (E.G., A HAMMER):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for testing a device which delivers an impact while in use.

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1.08+,for proving or calibrating a device responsive to force, torque, work, or mechanical power.
12.01+,for testing by impact.
167,for projectile testing, per se.
488+,for speed or acceleration measuring, per se.
862.381+,for force measuring, per se.

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346Recorders,   subclasses 7 and 129 for a record tracer movement responsive to inertial or mass inclination.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 31+ for calorimetry, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.02]    11.02Shot peener:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being tested is a means for providing an acceleration to a pellet for the purpose of impacting.

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7+,for testing by abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing, per se.
37.5,for measuring dimension, size, and shape using fluid pressure.
104,for surface testing or measuring, per se.
760+,for testing for specimen stress or strain, or testing by stress or strain application.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.03]    11.03Pile driving hammer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.01.  Subject matter wherein the device being tested comprises an impact hammer for driving a columnar structure into the earth.

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12.01+,for testing by impact, per se.
82,for an impactor for testing hardness.
84,for testing soil hardness by driving a pile into soil.
488+,for speed and acceleration measuring, per se.

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72Metal Deforming,   subclass 53 for metal deforming by shot blasting.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 232+ for a process or an apparatus for installing a pile.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.04]    11.04TESTING OF SHOCK ABSORBING DEVICE (E.G., AUTOMOBILE SHOCK ABSORBER, GUN RECOIL APPARATUS, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for testing a device whose function while it is in use is to absorb shock.

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12.01+,for testing by shock.
79,for testing for hardness by observing rebound.
117.03,for measuring or testing the suspension system of a vehicle.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 392.5 for a shock absorber for a railway vehicle.
188Brakes,   subclasses 266+ for a fluid-type shock absorber for a railway vehicle.
213Railway Draft Appliances,   subclass 1 for a one-shot shock absorber and subclass 32 for a draft gear assembly, per se.
248Supports,   appropriate subclass for support-type shock absorbers.
267Spring Devices,   appropriate subclass for spring-type shock absorbers.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for an electrical indicator which produces a humanly perceptible signal in response to the attainment of a predetermined condition; particularly, subclass 665 for a predetermined mechanical force.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.05]    11.05Torsional vibration damper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04.  Subject matter wherein the device being tested is used to lessen or reduce the amplitude of torsional vibration.

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574,for using vibration for testing for mechanical impedance, per se.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclass for subject matter of that class type combined with vibration dampers.
188Brakes,   subclasses 378+ for vibration dampers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.06]    11.06Railway draft gear:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04.  Subject matter wherein the device being tested transmits pull from one railway car to another railway car.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

213Railway Draft Appliances,   subclass 1 for a one-shot shock absorber and subclass 32 for a draft gear assembly, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.07]    11.07In situ vehicle suspension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04.  Subject matter wherein the device being tested is a structure which suspends a vehicle body on its running gear.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 784 for a vehicle frame having an impact shock absorber.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.08]    11.08By applying reciprocating or oscillating motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.07.  Subject matter wherein the testing is done by applying a periodic motion to the device.

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570+,for vibration testing, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

280Land Vehicles,   subclass 784 for a vehicle frame having an impact shock absorber.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 11.09]    11.09By applying reciprocating or oscillating motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.04.  Subject matter wherein the testing is done by applying a back-and-forth periodic motion to the device.

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570+,for vibration testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.01]    12.01TESTING BY IMPACT OR SHOCK:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for testing a specimen by subjecting it to one or more sudden blows.

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11.01,for testing an impact delivering device.
11.04,for the testing of a shock absorbing apparatus.
35.14+,for testing a body by measuring the effect of an explosion on the body.
78+,for hardness testing.
161,for spring testing, per se.
167,for testing ordnance or projectile.
570+,for testing by vibration, per se.
788+,for loading a specimen to determine shear or strain.
862+,for measuring a force or a force component.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 32 for a collision released identification tag, per se, and subclass 203 for a mechanical indicator, per se, which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to the presence or absence of an impact.
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   appropriate subclasses for an impacting device, per se.
188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses for an internal resistance motion retarder, per se.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for a fluid actuated valve, per se.
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 136+ for a resilient shock or vibration absorber, per se.
340Communications: Electrical,   for an electrical indicator or alarm which provides a humanly perceptible signal in response to a predetermined force.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.02]    12.02Resilient ball (e.g., golf ball, baseball, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01.  Subject matter wherein the specimen being tested is an elastic spherical body usually used in games or sports.

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79,for hardness testing by measuring rebound.
167,for projectile testing, per se.
865.3,for the testing of a body by subjecting it to motion, per se.

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124Mechanical Guns and Projectors,   appropriate subclass for mechanical guns and projectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.03]    12.03Typewriting ribbon or carbon paper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01.  Subject matter wherein the specimen being tested is either a typewriter ribbon or carbon paper.
(1) Note. Carbon paper is used in the popular sense of the word to mean that type of paper which transfers a surface coating when pressed against a surface, as by a typewriter key.

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150,for testing of a coating, per se.
159,for a filament testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.04]    12.04Accelerated or decelerated specimen (e.g., propelled or dropped specimen support carriage):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01.  Subject matter wherein either the specimen or the specimen and its support is subjected to a sudden change in velocity.

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167,for projectile testing, per se.
788,for applying a load to a specimen in order to test for stress or strain.
865.3,for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.05]    12.05Particle or projectile specimen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.04.  Subject matter wherein the specimen is either a particle or a projectile.

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167,for other types of testing of projectiles.
570+,for applying a load to a specimen in order to test for stress or strain.
865.3,for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.06]    12.06Dropped:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.04.  Subject matter wherein the change in velocity of the specimen is caused by dropping the specimen or the specimen and its support onto a fixed surface.

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79,for testing for hardness using rebound.
760+,for applying a load to a specimen in order to test for stress or strain.
865.3,for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.07]    12.07By hydraulic or pneumatic forces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.04.  Subject matter wherein the change in velocity of the specimen is caused by either (a) liquid pressure or (b) air pressure.

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82,for hydraulically driven impact-type hardness testing.
167,for other types of testing of projectiles.
760+,for applying a load to a specimen by hydraulic or pneumatic loading means in order to test for stress or strain.
865.3,for testing by imparting motion to a specimen.

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124Mechanical Guns and Projectors,   subclass 73 for fluid pressure actuated guns and projectors.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclass for valve and fluid actuated valves, per se.
406Conveyors: Fluid Current,   appropriate subclass for a fluid current conveyor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.08]    12.08Specimen directly subjected to a fluid pressure pulse or wave:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01.  Subject matter wherein the source of the blow to the specimen is a fluid pressure pulse or wave.

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406Conveyors: Fluid Current,   appropriate subclass for a fluid current conveyor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.09]    12.09Specimen impactor detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the device which subjects a specimen to a blow.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.11]    12.11Particle or projectile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.09.  Subject matter wherein the impactor is either a particle or a projectile.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.12]    12.12Reciprocating or oscillating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.09.  Subject matter wherein the impactor moves towards and away from the specimen in such a fashion so as to apply periodic blows to the specimen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

570+,for vibration testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.13]    12.13Dropped:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.09.  Subject matter wherein the impactor is released above the specimen and accelerated by gravity until it strikes the specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 12.14]    12.14Pivoted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.13.  Subject matter wherein the impactor swings about a fixed axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.01]    19.01GAS CONTENT OF A LIQUID OR A SOLID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for determining the nature or amount of gas in a substance other than gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23.2+,for a process or apparatus for analyzing gas.
73+,for a process or apparatus for determining the moisture content of materials.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

95Gas Separation: Processes,   for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps).
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for an apparatus which utilizes electrolytic action for analysis or testing.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 68+ for an apparatus which utilizes a chemical reaction to determine the gas content of a liquid or solid.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   for a process which utilizes a chemical reaction to determine the gas content of a liquid or a solid, particularly subclass 68 for determining the gas content of blood.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.02]    19.02By gas chromatography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the effluent of a mixture of gases, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components, is successively tested to determine the quantity, quality or identity of a component of the effluent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23.35+,for gas analysis using gas chromatography, and particularly subclass 23.4 for a gas detector which uses gas chromatography to analyze gas.
53.01+,for liquid testing, (e.g., liquid chromatography).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

95Gas Separation: Processes,   subclasses 82+ for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps), using chromatography.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 101+ for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means), of the chromatographic type.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for electrochemical gas sensors, per se.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 660+ for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption, particularly subclasses 656+ for selective sorptions (e.g., chromatography) subclasses 85+ for a liquid separator with recorder or register and subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   particularly subclasses 464+ for analyzing gas using ionization effects, and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   appropriate subclasses for a process of gas analysis which utilizes a chemical reaction to determine the gas content of a liquid or a solid, and particularly subclass 68 for determining the gas content of blood, and subclasses 161+ for chromatography.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.03]    19.03By vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the liquid or solid is subjected to vibratory forces to determine its gas content.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

24.01+,for detection of gas, per se, by measuring the effect of the gas being tested on vibration.
570+,for testing, per se, using vibration.
861.18,for measuring the volume or rate of flow of fluent material by sensing vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.04]    19.04By rate of flow of the gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the gas content of the liquid or solid is determined by measuring the rate of flow of the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.16+,for calibration of flow meters.
155,for determining fluid flow in bore holes.
170.07,and 170.11, for determining the rate of flow and direction of flow of fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
181+,for determining the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861+,for measuring the flow of fluent material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   subclasses 180.1+ for metering and mixing two gases where one is a fuel.
116Signals and Indicators,   for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon occurrence of fluid flow.
128Surgery,   subclasses 630+ for flow-measuring means with structure particularly adapted for placement on or in a living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 98+ for a self-proportioning flow system; and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 48 for measuring the rate of flow drilling fluid.
222Dispensing,   particularly subclasses 14+ , 59+ and 71+ for volume or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250Radiant Energy,   particularly subclasses 258 , 259+, 302+, 356.1, and 432+ for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 606+ for electric means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as flow of a fluid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 27+ for flow-measuring means employing lasers.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 282 through 285for flow control.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.05]    19.05By pressure of the gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the gas content of the liquid is determined by measuring the pressure of the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

24.04,for measuring vapor pressure of gas by vibration.
25.04,for measuring vapor pressure of gas by measuring a thermal property of the gas.
29.01+,for determining the vapor pressure of gas being tested.
31.04,for analyzing gas by pressure measurement, per se.
37+,for a testing apparatus or process for subjecting a specimen directly to fluid pressure (positive or negative) to determine a property of the specimen.
78+,for a device for measuring hardness as an index of fluid pressure, particularly subclass 80 for a tonometer and subclass 81 for a tire hardness gauge.
299+,for a hydrostatic pressure type of liquid level or depth gauge.
384,for a barometer.
700+,for measurement of the pressure of fluent material.
861.42+,for a pressure differential measuring device for determining volume or rate of flow.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

128Surgery,   subclasses 672+ for a blood pressure measuring device.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 26+ , for a device of that class type combined with pressure compensator.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclasses 81+ for a fluid pressure operated switch.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 201+ for an expanding fluid type thermometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.06]    19.06Of a beverage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.05.  Subject matter wherein the gas content of a potable liquid (i.e., a liquid suitable for consumption by a human being) is determined.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.07]    19.07Of metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being determined is a metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.08]    19.08Of concrete, mortar, or plastic while in a fluent state:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being determined is concrete, mortar, or plastic while capable of flowing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.09]    19.09Of mud:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being determined is a mixture of soil with a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.1]    19.1Of a liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein the substance whose gas content is being determined is a substance which exhibits a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, and relatively high incompressibility.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

19.06,for determining the gas content of a beverage by measuring the pressure of the gas.
53.01+,for testing of a liquid or liquid suspension of solids.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.11]    19.11Lubricant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.1.  Subject matter wherein the liquid whose gas content is being determined is a substance capable of reducing friction, heat and wear when introduced as a film between solid surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 19.12]    19.12Particular separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for separating the gas from the liquid or solid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

31.07,for a particular separator used in gas analysis, per se.
863.21+,for a sampler, per se, which separates constituents of the sample.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

95Gas Separation: Processes,   for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps).
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.2]    23.2GAS ANALYSIS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for detecting or measuring the composition of, or some constituent of, a gas or gaseous mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 253+ for the detection of a gas within or emanating from the earth by invisible radiation emanating from the gas naturally or as a result of irradiation by invisible radiation, subclasses 336.1+ for testing of a gas by utilizing an electric signalling device detecting radiation induced or emitted naturally, or detecting infrared, ultraviolet, X-ray, or gamma radiation or neutrons modified by the gas.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for testing and electrical property of a gas.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 34+ for a resistor, per se, which is responsive to the condition of a gas wherein no quantitative measurements of the gas are disclosed.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 632+ for an electrical indicator providing a humanly perceptible signal representing a predetermined condition of a gas.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 402+ for gas analysis utilizing a colorimeter to determine the shade or color of the gas.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze gas.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclass 68 for a process which utilizes a chemical reaction to analyze gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.21]    23.21With compensation detail (for error or drift correction, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter including means for making a correction for an undesirable variation in a condition within an apparatus or in a test result due to such condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.22]    23.22For gas chromatography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.21.  Subject matter in which the effluent of a mixture of gases, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components, is successively tested to determine the quantity, quality or identify of a component of the effluent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23.35,through 23.4, for a gas analysis detector, per se, which may be used in gas chromatography.
53.01+,for liquid testing (e.g., liquid chromatography).
863+,for sample preparation or sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

95Gas Separation: Processes,   subclasses 82+ for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps), using chromatography.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 101+ for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means), of the chromatographic type.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for an electrochemical gas sensor, per se.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 660+ for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption, particularly subclasses 656+ for selective sorptions (e.g., chromatography), subclasses 85 for a liquid separator with recorder or register, and subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material.
324Electricity: Measuring, and Testing,   particularly subclasses 464+ for analyzing gas using ionization effects, and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   particularly subclass 68 for a process utilizing a chemical reaction for determining the gases in the blood, and subclasses 161+ for chromatography.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.23]    23.23Baseline drift correction circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22.  Subject matter which includes circuitry for correcting a systematic shift in the spectra of the chromatogram.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.24]    23.24Rate of flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22.  Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the rate of flow of the gas being tested or of the carrier gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.25]    23.25Temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22.  Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the temperature of the gas or the chromatography.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 100+ for temperature measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.26]    23.26Gradient:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.25.  Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the temperature variations along the column or columns of the chromatography.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.27]    23.27Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.22.  Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the pressure of the gas effluent or of the carrier gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.28]    23.28For density or specific gravity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.21.  Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted affects the determination of the mass per unit volume of the gas or the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of some substance taken as a standard when both densities are obtained by weighing in air.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.29]    23.29Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.28.  Subject matter wherein the condition being corrected or adjusted is the pressure of the gas being measured or tested, which pressure is used to determine the density or specific gravity of the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.3]    23.3Breath analysis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein the gas being tested is exhaled by a human being or other animal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

128Surgery,   subclasses 717+ for breath analyzing inside the body.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 632+ for a humanly perceptible indication of a predetermined condition of the breath.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 84+ for a breath analyzer utilizing a chemical change to analyze air exhaled from a human being or other animal.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   appropriate subclasses for a process of gas analysis which utilizes a chemical reaction, particularly subclass 132 for ethanol determination, and subclass 900 for a cross-reference art collection of breath testing processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.31]    23.31Gas of combustion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein the gas being tested is the product of a combustion process.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 632+ for a humanly perceptible indication of a predetermined condition of a gas of combustion.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 94+ for a detector, per se, of combustible gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.32]    23.32Air-fuel ratio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.31.  Subject matter wherein the ratio of the amount of air to the amount of fuel in the gas of combustion is determined.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 434+ and particularly subclasses 672+ for measuring the composition of exhaust gas and utilizing the measurement to control the air-fuel ratio.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.33]    23.33Solid content:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.32.  Subject matter wherein the nature or amount of particulate matter in the gas of combustion is determined.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.34]    23.34Odor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein stimulation of the olfactory organ of an animal is used to detect or measure the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.35]    23.35Gas chromatography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Process or apparatus in which the effluent of a mixture of gases, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components, is successively tested to determine the quantity, quality or identity of a component of the effluent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

19.02,for a gas chromatography process or apparatus for determining the presence of, or the amount of, gas in a liquid or a solid.
35.05+,for a gas detector, per se, which may be used in gas chromatography.
53.01+,for liquid testing (e.g., liquid chromatography).
863+,for a sampling device, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

95Gas Separation: Processes,   subclasses 82+ for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps), using chromatography.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 101+ for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means), of the chromatographic type.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for electrochemical gas sensors, per se.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 660+ for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption, particularly subclasses 656+ for selective sorptions (e.g., chromatography), subclasses 85+ for a liquid separator with recorder or register and subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   particularly subclasses 464+ for gas analysis using ionization effects, and appropriate subclasses for testing gas by measuring impedance, admittance, and related quantities.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for an apparatus utilizing a chemical reaction to analyze a gas, particularly subclass 89 for gas chromatography.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   for a process of gas analysis which utilizes a chemical reaction, particularly subclasses 161+ for chromatography.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.36]    23.36With electrical computer or data processor control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35.  Subject matter including a programmable electronic device which can store, retrieve and process data, which device controls the chromatography.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.37]    23.37With spectrometer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35.  Subject matter combined with an instrument used to measure the spectral characteristics of light.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.38]    23.38Petrochemical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35.  Subject matter in which the gas being tested is a derivative of petroleum.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.39]    23.39Column detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35.  Subject matter comprising detail of a tubular structure which is either packed with a material having a known absorption characteristic and/or is coated with a liquid of a high molecular weight and having known properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.4]    23.4Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.41]    23.41Including sample preparation or sampling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35.  Subject matter wherein the sample is treated or modified before being tested, or a predetermined portion of a mass of material is obtained for testing, or a previously obtained sample transported or handled in preparation for analysis, or a previously obtained sample is introduced into an analyzer.
(1) Note. Included here is a liquid sample which is gasified prior to injection into the column.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

863+,for sample preparation or sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 89 for a sample undergoing a chemical reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 23.42]    23.42Detail of gas handling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.35.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for confining, directing, or controlling the flow of gaseous material.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 24.01]    24.01By vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter in which the composition of a gas or a constituent of a gas is determined by detecting or measuring the transmission of vibration through the gas being tested.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 24.02]    24.02Produced by radiant energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01.  Subject matter wherein the vibration is produced by energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or traveling subatomic, atomic or molecular particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 24.03]    24.03Solid content of gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01.  Subject matter wherein the nature or amount of particulate matter in gas is determined.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 24.04]    24.04Moisture content or vapor pressure of gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01.  Subject matter wherein the amount of moisture in the gas being analyzed or the pressure of the vapor in the gas is determined.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 24.05]    24.05Density or specific gravity of gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01.  Subject matter for determining the mass per unit volume of the gas or the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of some substance taken as a standard when both densities are obtained by weighing in air.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 24.06]    24.06Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for sensing the vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 25.01]    25.01By thermal property:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter in which the composition of a gas or a constituent of a gas is determined by detecting or measuring the heat transmitting or heat related properties of the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

29.02,for hygrometers utilizing temperature measuring.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 25.02]    25.02With magnetic property (e.g., paramagnetic gas):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01.  Subject matter wherein the gas being analyzed produces a modification of the magnetic field of a measuring device.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 25.03]    25.03Thermoconductivity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01.  Subject matter wherein the heat transmitting property of a gas is determined.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 25.04]    25.04Moisture content or vapor pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01.  Subject matter wherein the amount of moisture in the gas or the pressure of the vapor in the gas is measured or detected.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 25.05]    25.05Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 28.01]    28.01Solid content of gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein the nature or amount of particulate matter in gas is determined.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

31.01,for measuring other impurities in the air.
170.25,for measuring solid particles originating in the outer space surrounding the Earth.
863.21+,for sampling involving separation of constituents where no testing device is claimed.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 1+ for continuous gas or vapor phase colloid system (e.g., smoke, fog, aersol, cloud, mist) or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents subclass 114 for processes of or compositions for or subcombination compositions for the breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems of conitinuous gas or vapor phase (e.g., fog dispelling, dust suppressing, contrail suppressing); in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 28.02]    28.02Particle charging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a parameter related to electrically charged particles (e.g., the total electrical field produced by the particles being charged).
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 28.03]    28.03Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.01.  Subject matter wherein the force per unit area applied over a surface by the gas is measured in order to determine the solid content of the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 28.04]    28.04Separator detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means separating the solid from the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 28.05]    28.05Impactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.04.  Subject matter wherein separation is accomplished by directing a fluid current of gas containing solid particles toward a solid surface wherein the isolated particles remain on the surface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

863.21+,for subject matter under the class definition for obtaining a predetermined portion of a mass of material being tested including isolation of individual components of the source or sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 28.06]    28.06Fractionalizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.05.  Subject matter wherein the particles are distributed on the surface according to size.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

863.22,for sampling, per se, including isolation of individual components of a source or sample by directing a fluid current containing particles toward a solid surface wherein the isolated particles remain on the surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 29.01]    29.01Moisture content or vapor pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter including means for determining the amount of liquid diffused in the gas or the pressure exerted by liquid diffused into the gas.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

24.04,for determining the moisture content or vapor pressure of a gas by measuring the transmission of vibration through the gas.
25.04,for determining the moisture content or vapor pressure of a gas by measuring a thermal property of the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 29.02]    29.02Hygrometer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein the amount of the liquid is the actual amount of water vapor in a unit volume of air (e.g., the absolute humidity) or the ratio of the amount of water vapor in the air to the amount of water vapor which the air would hold if it were saturated at that temperature (e.g., the relative humidity).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

29.01,for other thermal testing of a gas.
73+,for humidity determining means combined with additional apparatus for testing or determining the moisture content of a substance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclasses 61.06+ for humidity controlled electric switches.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   principally subclass 44 for humidity responsive devices combined with regulating means.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for devices wherein the atmosphere or gas changes in electrical conductance, in response to humidity and such property, is taken as a measure of humidity. Where no electrical property of the material under test is measured, but an additional element is exposed to the material to have its electrical properties affected by a physical property of the separate element measured, the art is in Class 73, Measuring and Testing.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclass 35 for electrical resistors whose resistance value is responsive to humidity or changes in humidity.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclass 178 for relays controlled by humidity.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 109 for a measuring device providing a composite indication of temperature and humidity and subclass 142 for the combination of a thermometer and another measuring device wherein the thermometer is not a subcombination of a hygrometer. In the latter case when a thermometer is merely claimed as a subcombination of a hygrometer, the device would be classified in this class (73).
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 29.03]    29.03Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein the pressure of the gas is measured to determine the amount of vapor present in the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 29.04]    29.04With visual indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by directly observing the visible effect of a gas on a sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 29.05]    29.05Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 30.01]    30.01Density or specific gravity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter including means for determining the mass per unit volume of the gas or the ratio of the density of the gas to the density of some substance taken as a standard when both densities are obtained by weighing in air.

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32,for determining the density or specific gravity of a liquid or solid.
152.05,for determining a characteristic of a formation in a borehole by measuring density.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 30.02]    30.02By pressure measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.01.  Subject matter wherein pressure is measured in order to determine density or specific gravity of gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 30.03]    30.03By rate of flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.01.  Subject matter wherein the density of specific gravity of a gas is determined by measuring the rate of the flow of the gas.

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114.32,through 114.25, for the measuring of the air intake of an auxiliary unit of an engine or a motor.
861+,for a device determining the volume of flow, speed, volume rate of flow, or mass rate of flow of fluent material.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 30.04]    30.04Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 31.01]    31.01Ambient air:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein the gas being tested is the naturally occurring mixture of gases surrounding the earth.

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28.01+,for measuring the solid content of air not originating in the outer space surrounding the Earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 31.02]    31.02Impurity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01.  Subject matter wherein the mixture is being tested for undesirable content.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 31.03]    31.03Impurity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein the gas is being tested for undesirable content.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 31.04]    31.04Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein the force per unit area exerted by the gas on a surface is measured.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 31.05]    31.05Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 31.06]    31.06Semiconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.05.  Subject matter wherein the detector includes semiconductor material.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 31.07]    31.07Particular separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.2.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for isolating a constituent of a gaseous mixture.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include chromatographic separation of gases, per se.

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19.02,for chromatographic separation of gases whose content in a solid or a liquid is being measured.
19.12,for a particular separator of a gas from a liquid or a solid.
23.35,for chromatographic separation of gases whose composition or constituent is being detected or measured.
863+,for gas sampling, per se.

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95Gas Separation: Processes,   for processes of gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis steps).
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   for apparatus for gas separation, per se (i.e., not combined with analysis means).
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 83+ for an apparatus for gas sampling involving the use of sorbents or chemicals wherein a chemical reaction is utilized to analyze the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 32]    32SPECIFIC GRAVITY OR DENSITY OF LIQUID OR SOLID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the density and/or specific gravity of liquids or solids.
(1) Note. Included here is an apparatus for measuring density of a liquid suspension of a solid, per se.

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30,for determination of the density or specific gravity of gases.
152.05,for determining a characteristic of a formation in a borehole by measuring density.

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702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,,   subclass 137 for measuring the density of a substance which involves a computation and only nominal claimed structure to the measuring device.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.01]    35.01ENGINE DETONATION (E.G., KNOCK):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for performing a test or measurement by determining or detecting abnormal rapid combustion in an internal combustion engine.

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114.02,for measuring or testing irregular combustion (e.g., misfire).
114.03,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by time variation.
114.04,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) speed variation.
114.05,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by acceleration.
114.06,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by exhaust pressure.
114.07,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by vibration.
114.08,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by ignition measurement.
114.09,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by optical measurement.
114.11,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by torque variation.
114.12,for measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) in combination with road condition detection.
570+,for testing (a) by applying vibration to a body or (b) by sensing vibration, per se.
700+,for a fluid pressure gage, per se.
865.6,for testing, per se, in a simulated environment.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 425 for engine knock control of ignition timing and subclass 435 for knock control of a pressure responsive charge forming device.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 378+ for purely electrical testing of an internal combustion engine ignition system or device.
701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclass 111 for determining engine knock by use of an electrical computer wherein no more than a nominally recited knock sensor is claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.02]    35.02Fuel rating (e.g., octane rating):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01.  Subject matter wherein a measurement of a quality of a test fuel is made by detecting an abnormal rapid combustion (e.g. knock) of the test fuel in the engine and comparing the knock of the test fuel with a knock value of a second fuel having a known fuel rating.

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53.01+,for liquid analysis, per se.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 575+ for diverse fuel supply for an internal-combustion engine.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   subclass 36.2 for fluid distribution means in a carburetor.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.03]    35.03Combustion signal compared to reference signal varied by a condition of the engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01.  Subject matter including a combustion signal produced by a sensing means whose characteristic changes in response to the combustion and which is compared with a reference signal responsive to a condition of the engine to determine detonation.
(1) Note. A reference signal is presumed to be varied by a condition of the engine unless otherwise stated as being fixed.
(2) Note. The reference signal may be derived from the combustion itself as, for example, by integration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.04]    35.04Including calculation means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.03.  Subject matter comprising an element for performing a mathematical computation utilizing the reference signal.

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701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclass 111 for application of an electrical computer or data processing to determine a vehicle engine knock wherein computer detail or data processing detail is recited and wherein no more than a nominally recited sensor is claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.05]    35.05Automatic gain control or feedback control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.03.  Subject matter including either (a) an amplifier having a gain controlled by some condition of the engine or (b) a circuit arrangement comprising several stages including an earlier stage and a later stage wherein the later stage produces an output signal which is fed to the earlier stage of the arrangement for control purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.06]    35.06Combustion signal compared to a fixed reference signal or utilizing a threshold value:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01.  Subject matter including a combustion signal produced by a sensing means whose characteristic changes in response to combustion and which is either (a) compared to a predetermined signal or (b) limited to that portion over a predetermined minimum value.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.07]    35.07Specific type of detonation sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.01.  Subject matter comprising a specified sensing means whose characteristic changes in response to detecting detonation and which is intended to produce a signal in response to the change in the characteristic.

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866.5,for a probe or a probe mounting, per se.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   appropriate subclass for an electrochemical sensor, per se.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 216+ for a photocell, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 328+ for a condition responsive piezoelectric sensor, per se.
336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclass for a condition responsive inductive sensor, per se.
338Electrical Resistors,   appropriate subclass for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   appropriate subclass for an optical element, per se.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   appropriate subclass for a condition responsive capacitor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.08]    35.08Ionization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.07.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises spaced electrodes between which electrical current passes in proportion to ionization of combustion gases in the engine.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 459+ for an ionization detector, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.09]    35.09Vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.07.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means detects a rapid periodic motion of a body about an equilibrium position, which rapid periodic motion of the body is caused by detonation.
(1) Note. An acoustic detector for knock sensing is included here.

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570+,for other testing by vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.11]    35.11Piezoelectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.09.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises a pressure responsive material which generates an electric signal in response to vibration.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 329 for a vibration responsive piezoelectric detector, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.12]    35.12Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.07.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means detects a rapid fluctuation in pressure caused by detonation.

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114.06,measuring or testing for irregular combustion (e.g., misfire) by exhaust pressure.
114.16through 114.21, for measuring or testing the compression (i.e., cylinder pressure) of an internal combustion engine.
700+,for a fluid pressure gage, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.13]    35.13Piezoelectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.12.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means comprises pressure responsive material which generates an electrical signal in response to the pressure fluctuation.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 338 for a pressure responsive piezoelectric detector, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.14]    35.14EXPLOSIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for (a) determining a physical characteristic of a body or material by measuring a disruptive force or a disruptive pressure produced by an explosion of the body or material or (b) testing a body or material by applying a disruptive force or a disruptive pressure due to an explosion.

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12.01+,for testing by impact or shock, per se.
167,for ordnance testing especially by measuring pressure in a gun barrel.
700+,for a pressure gage, per se.
865.6,for testing, per se, in a simulated environment.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   for an explosive, per se.
346Recorders,   subclass 7 for an inertia recorder.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.15]    35.15By time measurement (e.g., burning rate, detonation velocity):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.14.  Subject matter wherein the explosion produces a traveling wavefront and the determination of a parameter of the explosion is made by measuring the time required for the wave front in the explosion to proceed from one point to another.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 160+ for electrical speed determining by measuring time between the occurrence of electrical pulses.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   for a time measuring system and device and especially, subclasses 89+ for an interval timer, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.16]    35.16Electric sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.14.  Subject matter comprising a sensing means for producing an electrical signal response to a disruptive force or a disruptive pressure.

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866.5,for a probe or a probe mounting, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   for a photocell, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for a condition responsive piezoelectric sensor, per se.
336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for a condition responsive inductive sensor, per se.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 13+ for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for condition responsive devices measuring visible light.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   appropriate subclass for an optical element, per se.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 280+ for a condition responsive capacitor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 35.17]    35.17Safety feature or containment structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.14.  Subject matter including means for either (a) protecting a person from the effects of the explosive during testing or (b) restricting effects of the explosion to a predetermined space during testing.

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571,for a test chamber for vibration testing, per se.
865.6,for a test chamber, per se.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclass 331 for a blasting charge case, per se.
109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   appropriate subclasses for a safety structure, per se.
220Receptacles,   appropriate subclass for container structure, per se, and in particular subclasses 88.1+ for a fire preventing attachment for a receptacle, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 36]    36ILLUMINATING FLUID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for testing illuminating fluids to determine flash point, vapor pressure and end point.

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35.02,for measuring engine knock or detonation.
35.14+,for testing of an explosive.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 8 for flammability testing, and subclasses 16+ for transformation point determination, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 37]    37WITH FLUID PRESSURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for subjecting a specimen directly to fluid pressure (positive or negative) to determine properties of the specimen.

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1.16+,for proving or calibrating volume or rate of flow meters and elements thereof.
1.57+,for proving or calibrating pressure responsive devices and gauges.
12.01+,for testing by impact or shock where the impact or shock is transmitted by a fluid.
807,and 838+, for the use of fluids to determine the bursting strength of sheet material.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 90 for test plug closures for conduits.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   for processes and apparatus for filling of receivers with gases, liquids, or fluent solids, or for evacuating receivers, particularly subclasses 4+ and 65+ for gas filling or evacuating.
445Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing,   for processes and apparatus for gas filling and/or evacuation of lamp and discharge device envelopes in connection with other manufacture or repair operations.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclass 301 for pressure control.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 37.5]    37.5Dimension, shape, or size:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter for checking dimensions, shape or size of an object, or the spacing of selected portions thereof, having at least one unit for the direct application of fluid pressure thereto and utilizing the escape of fluid about the specimen as an index of its dimension, shape, size or spacing.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 556+ and 700+ for processes and apparatus for determining size or dimension by means of a mechanical contact or feeler which in turn influences the fluid flow, pressure or volume of indicating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 37.6]    37.6Moving specimen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.5.  Subject matter in which the object is in motion during the test.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 37.7]    37.7Sheet or filament:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.6.  Subject matter in which the object under test is a sheet, cable or filament.

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159,and see the search notes thereto, for other sheet or filament tests.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 10+ for fluid actuated material detectors for control of means which advance material of indefinite length and subclass 22 for pneumatic detectors to sense the lateral position of material.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 37.8]    37.8Plural tests:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.5.  Subject matter for making measurements of each of two correlated objects or two portions of the same object.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 37.9]    37.9Internal gauging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.5.  Subject matter for measurement of size of bores and similar concave openings in specimens.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 38]    38Porosity or permeability:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter for determining through the direct application of fluid under pressure the porosity (i.e., volume of interstices) of solids, the fineness of powdered materials, or action of filters; also, the determining of permeability (i.e., the passage or diffusibility of fluids through a specimen).

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152.05,for determining a characteristic of a formation in a borehole by measuring permeability or porosity.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 39]    39Fluid pressure brake system or unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter, for the testing of the operating or control mechanism of fluid pressure operated brakes (e.g., air or hydraulic types for motor vehicles, trains, etc.).

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7,for testing the wear surfaces of brakes by abrasion, milling, rubbing or scuffing.
121+,for other types of brake testing.
862.09+,particularly subclasses 862.09+ for dynamo-meters having brakes.

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188Brakes,   particularly subclasses 141 and 151+ for fluid pressure types.
303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake Systems,  
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 40]    40Leakage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter for testing or determining leakage of a specimen or body.
(1) Note. The combination of means for testing specimens with means to reject those specimens which fail to pass the test is in Class 209, Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids, subclasses 509+ except where the test is a leakage test.

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48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   subclasses 193+ for detecting and preventing leakage from gas mains.
137Fluid Handling,   subclass 15.11 for a process of detecting or repairing a leak of a pipe, joint, valve, or tank.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 90 for closure plugs useful in connection with leakage tests of pipes.
209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   see Note 1.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 4+ , for leakage testing by measuring thermal parameters.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 40.5]    40.5Fluid handling conduit in situ:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter for testing fluid operative systems or fluid handling conduits while in their operative assembly or position.

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48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   subclass 193 , for means associated with a gas main to detect or indicate leaks without positive means to create a condition whereby leakage is produced in a defective pipe or joint; and subclass 195 for the preparation of odorous material and/or the insertion thereof into a gas main.
166Wells,   subclass 179 and the subclasses here noted for packer or plug devices in wells which are inherently capable of use as fluid pressure leakage testers.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 40.7]    40.7By probe gas, vapor, or powder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein a probe gas, smoke, vapor or powder is applied to a specimen and its escape or penetration is detected.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 41]    41Conveyor feed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein the article under test (usually a can or other receptacle) is moved by a conveyor during or through the test operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 41.2]    41.2With immersion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter including immersing the article in a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 41.3]    41.3Defective article discard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.2.  Subject matter including means for segregating or discarding a defective article (e.g., the operator presses a button to reject a defective specimen).
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 41.4]    41.4Automatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.3.  Subject matter automatically responsive to a defective condition of the article.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45]    45With defective article discard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter including means for segregating or discarding a defective article.

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41.3,for similar structure combined with immersion testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.1]    45.1Automatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter responsive to a defective condition of the article.

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41.4,for similar structure combined with immersion testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.2]    45.2Electrically controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.1.  Subject matter controlled or operated by electric or electromagnetic means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.3]    45.3Vacuum support failure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.1.  Subject matter wherein the article is sustained against a test head by vacuum unless leakage of the article destroys the vacuum and permits the article to fall by gravity.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.4]    45.4Sealed receptacle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.1.  Subject matter relating to presealed containers.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.5]    45.5With immersion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter including immersing the specimen in a liquid.

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41.2+,for immersion test with conveyor means for moving the specimen through the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.6]    45.6Pneumatic tire:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.5.  Subject matter for testing a pneumatic inner tube, casing, or tubeless tire.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.7]    45.7Mesh envelope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.6.  Subject matter relating to mesh structure for inclosing the tire to prevent it from bursting under pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 45.8]    45.8Radiator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.5.  Subject matter relating to a radiator.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 46]    46Between fitted parts (e.g., joints):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter for testing or determining leakage between parts mechanically fitted together and capable of being separated without destruction (e.g., faucets, separable pipe joints having interfitted parts, etc.).

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37,and 40, for fluid pressure testing of rivets, welded seams, etc., for various purposes including leakage.

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277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for a generic sealing means or process, subclass 320 for a seal combined with means to indicate fluid leakage.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 47]    47Piston, piston ring, or engine valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter for leakage testing of engine heads, i.e., any one or any combination of valve, piston or piston ring.

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119+,for miscellaneous tests of engine parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 48]    48Tire valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter for leakage testing of tire valves.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49]    49Pneumatic tire:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter for testing of pneumatic tubeless tires, inner tubes or casings.

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45.6,for testing such articles by immersion.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.1]    49.1Pipe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter for testing for leakage of a pipe section.

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46,for similar testing of a separable joint.
49.5+,for strength testing of pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.2]    49.2Receptacle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter for testing a receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.3]    49.3Sealed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 49.2.  Subject matter the receptacle being a presealed container.

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45.4,for testing for leakage of a sealed receptacle on a conveyor and with automatic discard means.
52,for other testing of a sealed receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.4]    49.4With ram pressure inducer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein a test liquid pressure is induced by a single stroke ram or plunger.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.5]    49.5Pipe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter for testing pipe.

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49.1,for testing for leakage of a pipe section.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.6]    49.6With power-operated closure or seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 49.5.  Subject matter including power operated means for closing or sealing the pipe ends.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.7]    49.7Motor part or auxiliary:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter for testing of a motor auxiliary or part.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 49.8]    49.8Clamp, plug, or sealing feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter relating to a clamp, plug or other sealing feature.

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49.6,for power operated means for sealing ends of a pipe under test.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 90 for a test plug closure for a conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 52]    52TESTING SEALED RECEPTACLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for testing of sealed receptacles (usually cans). Test is usually for spoilage of contents, presence of foreign matter therein, etc.

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37+,particularly subclasses 45.4 and 49.3, for testing of sealed receptacles with extraneously applied fluid pressure.
824,for testing of sealed receptacles by rotating squeezing elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 53.01]    53.01LIQUID ANALYSIS OR ANALYSIS OF THE SUSPENSION OF SOLIDS IN A LIQUID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a process or an apparatus for detecting or determining the composition of, a constituent of, or a property of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid.
(1) Note. Determining is considered to include measuring.

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10,for testing the effect of a lubricant on frictional resistance or coefficient.
32,for determining the specific gravity or the density of a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid wherein the density measuring is not used to further determine some other property of the liquid or the liquid suspension.
35.02,for measuring engine knock or detonation in order to determine a fuel rating.
152.42+,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by analyzing a fluid.
169,for determining the physical characteristic of dough.
170.17+,for a rain gauge.
290+,for a liquid level gauge.
592,for liquid leakage or liquid location detection by using vibration.
700+,for a fluid pressure gauge.
861+,for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of a liquid.

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128Surgery,   subclasses 630+ for testing liquids wherein the test is conducted within a living body.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   appropriate subclasses for electrolytic sensor, per se.
250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for using invisible light to test liquids and, in particular, subclasses 301+ for methods of determining oil presence, contamination, or concentration using radiant energy; subclasses 306+ for inspection of liquids by charged particles, subclasses 336.1+ for invisible radiant energy signalling of conditions of liquids and subclasses 573+ for optical or pre-optical systems having a liquid in the path there of wherein the modification of or the emission of radiant energy resulting from the irradiation of the liquid is tested.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 603+ for a humanly perceptible indication of a predetermined condition of a liquid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for determining a property of a liquid by measuring visible light.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   appropriate subclass for an apparatus for testing a liquid wherein a chemical reaction is involved.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 53.02]    53.02Butter fat content:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the constituent is butter fat.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 53.03]    53.03Paper or wood suspension (e.g., paper or wood pulp):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring either the degree to which paper pulp or wood pulp relinquishes its water content or the percentage of water content relinquished.

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29.02+,for determining the moisture content of a gas.
73+,for determining the moisture content of solid or the absorptive characteristic of material for a liquid.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 258 for a device for regulating the ratio of liquid to fiber of pulp and subclass 263 for the combination of means for testing or permitting the examination of water in liquid laid fibrous product and a structure or mechanism for producing and/or treating water or liquid laid fibrous products.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 53.04]    53.04By measuring fluid flow characteristic (e.g., by volume or rate of flow or by change in fluid level):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.03.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a parameter which is characteristic of the liquid being in motion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.16+,for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
1.73+,for proving or calibrating a liquid level or volume measuring apparatus.
54.13,for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19,for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64+,for determining settling or filtering ability by measuring volumetric or flow or sedimentation rate.
61.73,for utilizing flow effect to measure settling or filtering ability.
152.21+,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid during drilling.
170.11+,for determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178+,for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861+,for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclass for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128Surgery,   subclasses 668+ for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in a living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 98+ for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclass for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class type.
222Dispensing,   particularly subclasses 14, 59, and 71 for volume or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250Radiant Energy,   particularly subclasses 258 , 259+, 356.1, and 432 for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 606+ for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 27+ for flow measuring means employing a laser.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 89+ , for time interval measuring, per se.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 282 through 285for flow control.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 53.05]    53.05Lubricant testing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the capability of a substance to reduce friction, heat, and wear when it is introduced as a film between two relatively movable solid surfaces.

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10,for an apparatus or a process for determining the effect of a lubricant upon the frictional drag between two relatively movable solid surfaces.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 301 for an apparatus or method for utilizing invisible radiant energy in testing for the presence of, the concentration of or contamination in oil.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 70 for determining the contamination of oil by measuring a characteristic of electromagnetic wave energy in the visible range.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 53.06]    53.06By analyzing a characteristic of a measuring surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.05.  Subject matter wherein determination is made by analyzing or observing the effect of the lubricant upon a surface.

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104,for surface inspection or testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 53.07]    53.07By solid content:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.05.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring an amount of particulate matter in the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.01]    54.01Viscosity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject wherein the determination is of the resistance of the liquid to change in shape or a force within the liquid that opposes motion therein (e.g. flow, usually by internal force reaction or energy absorption).

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822,for viscosity measurement in a solid by compressional testing.
843,for viscosity measurement in a solid by shear testing using a rotary element.
862.08+,for torque measurement, per se.
862.38+,for force measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.02]    54.02Combined with other measuring means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter including another type of measuring process or apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.03]    54.03Of concrete (e.g., slump indicator):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the liquid is a mixture of cement, sand and gravel.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.04]    54.04Friction tube (e.g., capillary):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by using a small slender tubular conduit wherein the surface of the liquid in contact with the conduit forms an elevation or a depression due to either the molecular attraction of the molecules of the liquid to each other or the attraction of the molecules of the liquid to the molecules of the surface of the tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.05]    54.05Plural tubes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.04.  Subject matter including more than one conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.06]    54.06By pressure measuring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.05.  Subject matter wherein the determination includes measuring the force, per unit area, of the fluid moving through the conduit.

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54.14,for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means.
61.47,for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46,for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.07]    54.07By time interval of travel or flow rate measuring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.04.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the volume of or the mass rate of flow of the liquid or the time elapsed for the liquid to move a predetermined distance.

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1.16+,for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
53.04,for utilizing flow characteristics to measure a property of a paper or pulp suspension.
54.13,for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19,for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64+,for the utilization of flow properties in order to determine settling or filtering ability.
61.73,for utilization of flow characteristic to measure the solid content of a liquid suspension.
152.29+,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of flow of a fluid, per se.
170.11+,for determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178+,for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861+,for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclass, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128Surgery,   subclasses 668+ for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in a living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 98+ for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclass for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class type.
222Dispensing,   particularly subclasses 14, 59, and 71 for volume of rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 606+ for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for flow measuring devices of the optical type including no manipulation other than that necessary for an optical test.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 89+ , for time interval measuring, per se.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, subclasses 282-285 for flow control.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.08]    54.08Including a photocell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.07.  Subject matter including means having an electrical characteristic which changes in response to light.

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54.13,for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
866.5,for a sensor, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photocell detectors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.09]    54.09By pressure measuring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.04.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force per unit area of the liquid moving through the conduit.

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54.06,for measuring viscosity by pressure difference measuring using plural friction tubes.
54.14,for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means.
61.47,for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46,for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.11]    54.11Orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by utilizing the reaction of the liquid to flowing through an orifice, a nozzle, or an extrusion means.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.12]    54.12Plural fluids (e. g., comparison):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.11.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring reactions of plural liquids.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.13]    54.13By time interval of travel or flow rate measuring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.11.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the volume or the mass rate of flow or the time elapsed for the liquid to move a predetermined distance.

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1.16+,for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
53.04,for utilizing flow characteristics to measure a property of a paper or pulp suspension.
54.07,for time interval of travel or rate of flow measuring using friction tubes to determine viscosity.
54.19,for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64+,for the utilization of flow properties in order to determine settling or filtering ability.
61.73,for utilization of flow characteristic to measure the solid content of a liquid suspension.
152.21,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of flow of a fluid during drilling.
152.29,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a rate of flow of a fluid, per se.
170.11+,for the determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178+,for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861+,for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclass, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128Surgery,   subclasses 668+ for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in the living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 98+ for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclass for a device for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid in combination with an art device of that class type.
222Dispensing,   particularly subclasses 14, 59, and 71 for volume of or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 606+ for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for an optical measuring of fluid flow utilizing visible light but having no other manipulation recited other than that for use in an optical measurement of that class.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 89+ for time interval measuring, per se.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, subclasses 282-285 for flow control.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.14]    54.14By force, pressure, or displacement measuring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.11.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring either the force, pressure, or displacement force used to move or extrude the liquid or the pressure of the liquid.

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61.47,for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46,for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
862.08+,for torque measuring, per se.
862.38+,for measuring force, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.15]    54.15Gravity movement of an object in a liquid (e. g., a bubble):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring rate at which an object rises (usually a bubble) or sinks in the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.16]    54.16With detail of temperature or pressure regulating or compensating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for controlling, regulating, or compensating for a thermal effect or pressure on the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.17]    54.17Using a reference fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by comparing the time of flight of an object through the liquid being tested with the time of flight of same or a second identical object through a liquid of a known standard viscosity.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.18]    54.18With means for restoring an object to its initial starting position (e.g., magnetic or fluid means):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15.  Subject matter including means for returning the object to its original position after the completion of each test.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.19]    54.19Including detail of a timing detection circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to an electrical circuit for detecting the time of flight of the object in the liquid.

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54.13,for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 89+ for time interval measuring, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.21]    54.21Including an object concentricity guide means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.15.  Subject matter including means for maintaining a constant gap between the container for the liquid and the falling object.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.22]    54.22Adhesion between wetted surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the molecular attraction of the liquid to closely adjacent wetted surfaces between which it is located.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.23]    54.23Force reactance to member driven therein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force reaction of the liquid to a member (e.g., a disc, an impeller, a resonator, etc.) driven therein.

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54.31+,for measuring the driving force of a rotationally driven member in order to determine viscosity.
64.49,for determining the surface tension by measuring force.
862.08,for torque measuring, per se.
862.38+,for force measuring, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.24]    54.24By vibration:
 Subject matter under 54.23 wherein the determination is made by subjecting the member to mechanical vibration.

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19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01,for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.41,for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45,for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49,for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75,for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79,for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42,for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53,for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592,for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.25]    54.25Dampening effect (e.g., frequency, amplitude, speed, or power measurement):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.24.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a power, force, or current required to maintain a predetermined vibrational frequency or amplitude or change in frequency or amplitude of a vibrator driven by a constant force.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.26]    54.26With detail of a drive means or a detecting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.25.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a circuitry or other means used to vibrate the member or to the means which measure the vibrational effect of the member.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.27]    54.27With detail (e.g., circuitry) of a drive means or a detecting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.24.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a circuitry or other means used to vibrate the member or to the means which measure the vibrational effect of the member.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.28]    54.28Rotationally driven member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23.  Subject matter wherein the member is subjected to rotational motion of more than 360 degrees.
(1) Note. Oscillations of less than 360 degrees are considered vibrations.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.29]    54.29Comparator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by comparing measurements of a member rotating in a first liquid with the same or an identical member rotating in a second liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.31]    54.31By measuring the driving force or the speed of the driven member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the drive current or voltage for maintaining the member rotating at a constant speed or by measuring a speed of the driven member when driven by a constant force.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.32]    54.32By measuring an opposed drag force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a force exerted on a secondary member due to a viscous drag force.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.33]    54.33By measuring angular displacement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.32.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the amount of movement imparted to the secondary member due to movement of the rotationally driven member.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.34]    54.34By measuring a counterbalance or restoring force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.32.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force is which is necessary to maintain stationary a secondary member which is displaced by a viscous drag force caused by the rotation of the driven member.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.35]    54.35Including detail of a motor drive, a stator, or a housing structure of a motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.28.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to either a means for converting energy to a form which results in the movement of the driven member, a stationary part of such means or an enclosure for such means.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclass for electric motor structure or housing, per se.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   appropriate subclass for a drive circuit for a motor or motor control, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.36]    54.36Penetrometer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the depth of or the rate of penetration of a member driven into the liquid with a predetermined force or by measuring a characteristic of the predetermined force on a member driven therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.37]    54.37By movement or displacement between shearing surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the relative movement between adjacent or parallel surfaces when subjected to a predetermined force for a predetermined time.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.38]    54.38Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a sensing means.

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862+,for a force responsive sensors or a torque responsive sensor.
866.5,for a sensing means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.39]    54.39Shearing torque between parallel surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force which is necessary to shear a film of liquid disposed between closely adjacent relatively slidable surfaces.

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54.24+,for similar subject matter wherein a reaction force is measured.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.41]    54.41Vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the liquid or the suspension being tested on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01,for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24,for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
61.45,for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49,for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75,for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79,for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42,for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53,for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592,for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.42]    54.42Thermal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or a temperature related property.

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61.46,and 61.76+, for determining content or the effect of the constituent of a liquid mixture by means of a thermal measurement.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 43 for determining the inherent thermal properties, per se, of a liquid, subclass 54 for thermal measurement of liquid volume and subclass 139 for measuring the temperature of a liquid metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 54.43]    54.43With detail of a pressure or a temperature regulating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.01.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a means for controlling temperature or pressure within the apparatus for analyzing the liquid or the liquid suspension.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 60.11]    60.11Cleaning or foaming ability:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring either the ability of the liquid or the liquid suspension to remove undesirable matter from a surface or the ability of liquid or the liquid suspension to foam bubbles.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.41]    61.41Content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring the amount of or the presence of a constituent of a liquid mixture, the ratio of one constituent to at least another constituent, or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23.2+,for similar processes and apparatus for gas analysis, particularly subclasses 23.35+ for gas chromatography and subclasses 28.01+ for determining the solid content of a gas.
64.41+,for tests of gelling or coagulation even though this effect may be disclosed as being caused by the presence of some constituent.
863.21,for samplers, per se, which isolate particulate matter from a liquid for latter analysis or inspection.

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62Refrigeration,   subclasses 58 and 123+ for processes and apparatus, per se, for fractionally solidifying by freezing and separation.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   appropriate subclasses, for the separation of a solid from a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.42]    61.42Metallic particle constituent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination being made is of a liquid containing metallic particles.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 204 for determining magnetic properties of a liquid or a liquid mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.43]    61.43Liquid constituent of a liquid mixture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the amount, ratio, presence, or effect of one or more constituents of a mixture of liquids.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.44]    61.44Plural liquid constituent (e.g., multiphase liquid):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the amount, ratio, presence, or effect of plural liquid constituents of a liquid mixture.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.45]    61.45By vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.44.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01,for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24,for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41,for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.49,for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75,for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79,for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42,for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53,for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592,for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.46]    61.46By thermal measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or a temperature related property.

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54.42,for a thermal measurement of the viscosity of a liquid.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for thermal measuring and testing, per se, or temperature measuring, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.47]    61.47By pressure measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force per unit area of the liquid or the liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

54.14,for determining viscosity of a liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.73,for measuring pressure in order to determine the solid content of a liquid mixture.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46,for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.48]    61.48By optical irradiation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the sediment on visible light.

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250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for a photocell, per se, and for analyzing a liquid utilizing invisible light which is modified by transmission through or emission by the liquid being tested wherein the modified light is tested.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for an optical measuring of fluid using visible light and involving no manipulation other than that necessary to perform the optical test.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.49]    61.49By vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring of detecting the effect of the liquid on vibration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24,for determining the viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance of the liquid to the member vibrated therein.
54.41,for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45,for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture by utilizing vibration.
61.75,for utilizing vibration to measure the solid content of a liquid mixture.
61.79,for utilizing vibration to measure the content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.42,for utilization of vibration for detecting gelling or coagulation characteristics of a liquid.
64.49,for determining surface tension by utilizing vibration.
64.53,for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592,for utilizing vibration to test for liquid leakage or a pipe flaw.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.51]    61.51Buoyant detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter wherein the detector floats on the surface of the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.52]    61.52Chromatography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by successively testing the effluence of a mixture of liquids, which has contacted a solvent or sorbent which separates the mixture into fractional components in order to determine the quantity, quality or identity of a component of the effluent.

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19.1,for a gas chromatographic process or apparatus for determining the presence of or the amount of gas in a liquid.
23.35,for the analysis of gas by chromatography.
863+,for liquid sampling, per se.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for electrolytic analysis and testing apparatus.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 775+ for electrolytic analysis or testing processes.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 85+ for a liquid separator with a recorder, subclass 198.2 for a device for removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption combined with means to add treating material, subclasses 263+ for a liquid separator utilizing a bed of particulate material and subclasses 660+ for a process of removing a constituent from a liquid by sorption.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   particularly subclasses 459+ for liquid analysis using ionization effects and appropriate subclasses for testing a liquid by measuring an electrical property of the liquid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 409+ for a process of liquid chromatography wherein a liquid substance, a solute in a solvent, or a miscible liquid is examined by transmission of light to furnish a quantitative or qualitative determination with respect to a chemical composition of the liquid analyzed in the absence of a color development.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 70 for chromatographic analysis of a liquid utilizing a chemical reaction.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclass 161 for a process or composition in which the results of a chemical reaction is subjected to a chromatographic separation or analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.53]    61.53Column detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a tubular structure which is either packed with a material having a known absorption characteristic or is coated with a liquid of a high molecular weight and having known properties.

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23.39,for column detail of gas chromatography in gas analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.54]    61.54Paper or thin layer type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52.  Subject matter wherein the sorbent is a paper or other thin layer material.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 198.3 for liquid separation using the layer chromatography.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclass subclass 162 for subject of that class type utilizing paper or thin layer plate chromatography.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.55]    61.55Including sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52.  Subject matter combined with means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of liquid in preparation for analysis. or (b) Introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis. or (c) The preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

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23.41,for a chromatographic gas analyzer including sample preparation or sampling.
23.42,for a chromatographic gas analysis including detail of gas handling.
61.59,for a liquid analyzer using chromatography and including detail of sampling, sample handling or sample preparation.
155,for the measurement of liquid flow characteristics in a well bore utilizing sampling.
170.29+,for the measurement of an oceanographic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863+,for liquid sampling, per se.

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4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   appropriate subclass for a urine sampler combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128Surgery,   appropriate subclasses for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclass, in particularly subclasses 21+ , 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166Wells,   in particularly subclasses 107+ , 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 513+ for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclass for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 36+ for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclass for sampling pumps, per se.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating, or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 309.1+ for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with microorganisms and enzymes; and subclass 288.6 for a microorganism or enzyme measuring and testing apparatus, including a column separation means.
604Surgery,   subclass 181 for syringes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.56]    61.56Detail of fluid handling means (e.g., valve, control, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the means for confining, directing, or controlling the flow of liquid material.

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141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclass, in particularly subclasses 21+ , 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 513+ for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclass for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.57]    61.57With detail of compensation or regulating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for controlling a condition within the apparatus or making a correction in a test result due to such condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.58]    61.58Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a sensing means.

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61.61,for a sensing means for detecting liquid constituents of a liquid mixture, per se.
866.5,for a sensing means, per se
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.59]    61.59With detail of sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.43.  Subject matter combined with sampling means wherein significance is attributed to means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of liquid in preparation for analysis. or (b) Introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis. or (c) The preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

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152.23+,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid, utilizing sampling.
170.29+,for the measurement of an oceanographic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863+,for liquid sampling, liquid sample handling, or liquid sample preparation, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   appropriate subclasses for a urine sampler, combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   appropriate subclasses for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128Surgery,   subclasses 185+ for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclass, in particularly subclasses 21+ , 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166Wells,   in particularly subclasses 107+ , 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 513+ for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclass for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 36+ for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417Pumps,   for sampling pumps, per se.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   appropriate subclass for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 309.1+ for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with microorganisms and enzymes.
604Surgery,   subclass 181 for syringes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.61]    61.61Detector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.52.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a sensing means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

61.58,for a sensing means for chromatographic determination of content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
866.5,for a sensing means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.62]    61.62Depositing characteristic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the ability of the constituent of a liquid to form a deposit or a coating on a surface (e.g., slime or seal).

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86,for tests for treating a nonliquid specimen to determine the effect of a liquid on brittleness or erosion resistance.

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252Compositions,   subclasses 175+ for scale inhibiting compositions.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 53 for corrosion testing apparatus.
510Cleaning Compositions for Solid Surfaces, Auxiliary Compositions Therefor, or Processes of Preparing the Compositions,   for cleaning compositions, including detergents, for solid surfaces and subclasses 245+ for scale removing compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.63]    61.63Settling or filtering ability:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring a characteristic associated with the tendency of the sediment to settle at the bottom of the liquid or a characteristic associated with resistance offered by the mixture when passing through material.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.64]    61.64By volume or flow rate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.63.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the volume of flow, the speed, the volume rate of flow or mass rate of flow of the liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.16+,for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
1.73+,for proving or calibrating a liquid level or volume measuring apparatus.
53.04,for a property of a paper or wood suspension by measuring flow characteristic.
54.13,for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due to a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19,for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.73,for utilizing flow effect to measure solid components of a liquid suspension.
152.18+,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid or by analyzing a fluid.
170.11+,for determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178+,for determining the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861+,for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclasses, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128Surgery,   subclasses 668+ for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in the living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 98+ for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class.
222Dispensing,   particularly subclasses 14, 59, and 71 for volume or rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250Radiant Energy,   particularly subclasses 258 , 259+, 356.1, and 432 for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 606+ for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for an optical measuring of fluid flow not involving nonoptical measuring or testing beyond that found in Class 356.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 89+ for time interval measuring, per se.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 45 through 49for an application of computers or data processing in fluid flow studying.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.65]    61.65Sedimentation rate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.63.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the rate at which the sediment settles to the bottom of the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.66]    61.66With means for accelerating solids (e.g., particles):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65.  Subject matter including means for imparting an increase in the rate at which the sediment settles.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.67]    61.67By pressure measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

54.14,for determining viscosity of a liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.47,for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46,for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.68]    61.68Including detail of fluid handling means, sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65.  Subject matter combined with sampling means wherein significance is attributed to means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof and/or to means for confining, directing, or controlling the flow of liquid material.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of liquid in preparation for analysis; or (b) introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis; or (c) the preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23.41,for a chromatographic gas analyzer including sample preparation or sampling.
23.42,for a chromatos:graphic gas analysis including detail of gas handling.
61.59,for a liquid analyzer using chromatography and including detail of sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation.
152.18+,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid, utilizing sampling.
170.29+,for the measurement of an oceanographic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863+,for sampling, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   appropriate subclass for a urine sampler, combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128Surgery,   subclasses 185+ for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
137Fluid Handling,   for valves, per se.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclasses, in particularly subclasses 21+ , 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166Wells,   in particularly subclasses 107+ , 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 513+ for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 36+ for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for sampling pumps, per se.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   appropriate subclasses for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 309.1+ for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with microorganisms and enzymes.
604Surgery,   subclass 181 for syringes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.69]    61.69By optical measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.65.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the sediment on light.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for a photocell, per se, and for analyzing a liquid utilizing invisible light which is modified by transmission through or emission by the liquid being tested wherein the modified light is tested.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 436 for measuring visible light transmission or absorption of a liquid wherein the test involves no manipulation other than that involved in optical testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.71]    61.71For measuring solid components (e.g., particles):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the identity of, the amount of or the effect of a solid constituent of the liquid mixture.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

865.5,for measuring particle size, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 335+ for determining particle size by measuring scattered visible light and subclass 544 for measuring visible light transmission to inspect or to study a suspension of particles in a liquid.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.72]    61.72By separation and subsequent measurement (e.g., by weighing, X-ray or microscope, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.71.  Subject matter including means for isolating the solid from the liquid and wherein the determination is made subsequent to the isolation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

210Liquid Purification or Separation,   appropriate subclass, for the separation of liquid components, per se.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.73]    61.73By flowing through barrier or restriction and measuring flow effect (e.g., pressure, volume of or rate of flow):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.71.  Subject matter wherein the isolation is made by means of an element located in a flow path of the liquid and the determination is made by measuring the effect of the movement of the liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.16+,for proving or calibrating volume of flow, speed of flow, volume rate, or flow or mass rate of flow.
53.04,for determining paper and wood suspension properties by measuring flow characteristic.
54.13,for determining viscosity by measuring a time interval of travel or flow rate using an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means wherein there is disclosed detail of a means whose optical character changes due a change in a physical phenomenon associated with the liquid whose viscosity is being measured.
54.19,for detail of a timing means in a device wherein viscosity is determined by gravity movement of an object in a liquid.
61.64+,for determining settling or filtering ability by measuring volume or flow rate of the liquid or the liquid mixture.
152.18+,for determining a characteristic of a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging by measuring a flow of a fluid or by analyzing a fluid.
170.11+,for the determining the direction and rate of flow of a fluid in meteorology and oceanology.
178+,for the speed of a craft with respect to a fluid.
861+,for measuring the volume or the rate of flow of liquid, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclass, for nonelectrical means for giving an alarm upon the occurrence of a predetermined condition of a fluid.
128Surgery,   subclasses 668+ for measuring blood flow in the body wherein there is disclosed structure for placement in a living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 98+ for a self-proportioning flow system and subclasses 624.11+ for a programmed or timed valve which meters fluid merely by timing the interval between opening and closing of the valve.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   for measuring the rate of flow of drilling fluid combined with a device of that class type.
222Dispensing,   particularly subclasses 14, 59, and 71 for volume of rate of flow-measuring means having dispensing features or which are used in dispensing combinations.
250Radiant Energy,   particularly subclasses 258 , 259+, 320+, 356.1, and 432 for miscellaneous radiant energy responsive devices.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 306 for flow-measuring means responsive to nuclear induction.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 606+ for electrical means for giving a humanly perceptible indication or signal in response to a predetermined condition, such as the flow of fluid.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for an optical measuring of liquid flow not involving nonoptical measuring or testing.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 89+ , for time interval measuring, per se.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 21 for a system utilizing a pulse counter to measure fluid flow.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclass 281 for control of fluid level or volume, and subclasses 282-285 for flow control.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.74]    61.74Thermal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.73.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or a temperature related property.

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54.42,for determining viscosity by making thermal measurement.
61.46,and 61.76+, for a thermal measurement of content or the effect of the constituent of a liquid mixture.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 43 for determining the inherent thermal properties, per se, of a liquid, subclass 54 for thermal measurement of liquid volume and subclass 139 for measuring the temperature of a liquid metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.75]    61.75Vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.71.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the suspension being tested on vibration.

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19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01,for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24,for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41,for determining viscosity by utilizing vibration.
61.45,for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49,for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.79,for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42,for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
592,for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.76]    61.76By thermal measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a heat or temperature related property.

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54.42,for determining viscosity by measuring heat transmitting or heat related properties.
61.46,and 61.74, for the thermal measurement of the liquid content of a liquid mixture.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 54 for thermal measurement of a liquid volume and subclass 139 for measuring the temperature of molten metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.77]    61.77Vaporization (e.g., evaporation, distillation, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.76.  Subject matter wherein the property being tested is the rate at which a liquid turns into a vapor or the heat required to change a liquid into a vapor.

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36,for an end point test of hydrocarbons.
61.46,and 61.74, for thermal measuring of the liquid content of a liquid mixture.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 16+ for a test to determine a thermal characteristic of a specimen or the temperature at which the specimen changes its physical state.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.78]    61.78By pressure measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring force per unit area.

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54.14,for determining viscosity of a liquid flowing through an orifice, a nozzle or an extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.47,for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
64.47,For measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 61.79]    61.79By vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by utilizing vibration in order to measure or detect the content of or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.

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19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01,for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24,for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41,for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45,for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49,for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75,for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.42,for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
64.53,for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
592,for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.41]    64.41Gelling or coagulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the ability of the liquid to coagulate, to form a clot, or to form a stiffened or solid colloid-like mass.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.42]    64.42By vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.41.  Subject matter wherein the property is being determined by the effect of the liquid upon vibration.

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19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
64.53,for testing a liquid or a liquid suspension of a solid by utilizing vibration.
54.41,for the utilization of vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45,for the utilization of vibration for determining a multiphase constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.49,for the utilization of vibration to determine the content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75,for the utilization of vibration to measure the solid content of a liquid mixture.
61.79,for the utilization of vibration to measure the content or the effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
592,for the utilization of vibration to test for liquid leakage or a pipe flaw.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.43]    64.43By optical measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.41.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring or detecting the effect of the liquid on light.

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250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclass, for a photocell, per se, and subclasses 574+ for an optical or preoptical system having a liquid in the path thereof wherein the modification of or the emission of the radiant energy resulting from the irradiation of the liquid is tested.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 436 for measuring visible light transmission or absorption of a liquid wherein the test involves no manipulation other than that involved in optical testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.44]    64.44Vapor-liquid ratio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the ratio of the amount of vapor above a confined liquid to the volume of the confined liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.45]    64.45Vapor pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the pressure of the vapor of a liquid above a confined body of liquid.

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54.14,for determining viscosity of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means by measuring pressure.
61.47,for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46,for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.46]    64.46Differential pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.45.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by utilizing plural pressures.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.47]    64.47Osmotic pressure (e.g., diffusion characteristic):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the pressure due to diffusion of the liquid through a material (e.g., through a member which is selective to one constituent of a liquid; the art term for the member being semi-permeable member).

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54.14,for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle, or extrusion means.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.51,for measuring pressure to determine surface tension.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.48]    64.48Surface tension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the contractile strength of the elastic skin effect at the surface of a body of liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.49]    64.49By force or torque:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.48.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the force or the torque required to immerse the member into or to separate the member from the liquid surface or the force exerted upon a member by the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.51]    64.51By pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.48.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a force per unit area.

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54.14,for determining viscosity by measuring pressure of the liquid flowing through an orifice, nozzle or extrusion means.
61.47,for measuring pressure in order to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.73,for measuring pressure of a liquid in order to determine its solid content.
61.78,for measuring pressure to determine the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture.
64.46,for measuring differential pressure to determine vapor pressure.
700+,for liquid pressure measurement, per se.
862+,for a dynamometer responsive to force or torque.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.52]    64.52Liquid droplet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.48.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring a characteristic of liquid drops produced by flowing a liquid through an orifice.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.53]    64.53By vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.

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19.03,for measuring the gas content of a liquid by measuring the effect of the liquid on vibration.
24.01,for utilization of vibration to analyze gas.
40.05+,for acoustic detection of liquid leakage utilizing pressurized fluid.
54.24,for determining viscosity of a liquid by measuring the force reactance to a member vibrated therein.
54.41,for utilizing vibration to test the viscosity of a liquid.
61.45,for determining a multiphase liquid constituent of a liquid mixture measuring vibration.
61.49,for utilizing vibration to determine the liquid constituent of a liquid mixture.
61.75,for measuring the solid components of a liquid utilizing vibration.
61.79,for utilizing vibration to determine the effect of the content of a liquid.
64.42,for testing of a gelling or coagulation property of a liquid utilizing vibration.
592,for detecting liquid leakage and location by utilizing vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.54]    64.54Molecular weight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by measuring the sum of the atomic weight of a molecule"s constituent atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.55]    64.55Interface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by detecting or measuring a property of the section along a fluid flow where liquid of a first kind immediately followed by a liquid of a second kind meets.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 64.56]    64.56Sampler, constituent separation, sample handling, or sample preparation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.01.  Subject matter combined with means for obtaining a predetermined amount of a liquid to be tested, for treating a liquid sample in preparation for its analysis or for isolating individual components of a liquid prior to analysis thereof.
(1) Note. "Sampling" includes: (a) Transporting or handling previously obtained samples of Liquid in preparation for analysis, or (b) introducing previously obtained liquid samples in preparation for analysis, or (c) the preparation of a liquid sample prior to the analysis thereof.

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23.41,for a chromatographic gas analyzer including sample preparation or sampling.
23.42,for a chromatographic gas analysis including detail of gas handling.
61.59,for a liquid analyzer using chromatography and including detail of sampling, sample handling, or sample preparation.
155,for the measurement of liquid flow characteristics in a well bore utilizing sampling.
170.29+,for the measurement of an oceanographic phenomena combined with sampling the ocean.
863+,for liquid sampling, liquid handling or liquid sample preparation, per se.

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4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   appropriate subclasses for a urine sampler, combined with toilet or means to attach the sampler to the toilet.
23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   appropriate subclasses for a sampling process wherein a step of causing or promoting a chemical reaction, or regulating or controlling a chemical reaction are claimed.
128Surgery,   appropriate subclasses 185+ for body fluid samplers having means to contact the human body.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclass, in particularly subclasses 21+ , 29+, 110, and 130 for a device or method of filling a receiver which is not part of a sampling system.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   subclass 30 for a combination of a concentrating vessel with means for withdrawing a quantity of liquid for examination.
166Wells,   in particularly subclasses 107+ , 142+, 162+, and 264 for an apparatus or method for sampling well fluids.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 513+ for gravitational separators and especially subclasses 514+ for milk and cream separators.
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclass for subject of that class type which may include an apparatus or process for obtaining a predetermined portion of material from a mass but not for testing purposes.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 288 for mass spectrometers with sample supply.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 36+ for subject matter of that class type including sample preparation and subclasses 244+ for sample holders.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 140 for a molten metal lance which may include a sample chamber and subclass 157 a thermometer combined with a sample cup.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for sampling pumps, per se.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for a sampler wherein means for causing, promoting, regulating, or controlling a chemical reaction is claimed.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 309.1+ for inoculators, streakers, or samplers adapted for use with micro-organisms and enzymes; and subclass 288.6 for a micro-organism or enzyme measuring and testing apparatus including a column separation means.
604Surgery,   subclass 181 for syringes.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.01]    65.01CENTER OF GRAVITY; TURNING MOMENT; METACENTRIC HEIGHT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising an apparatus or method for determining (a) the point at which the entire weight of a body (e.g., a crank or a craft) may be considered as concentrated so that if supported at such a point the body would remain in equilibrium in any position, or (b) the ratio of the torque, applied to a rigid body free to rotate about a given axis, to the angular acceleration thus produced about that axis, or (c) the point of intersection of a vertical line through the center of buoyancy of a floating body with a vertical line through a new center of buoyancy when the body is displaced.
(1) Note. This subclass covers determination of mass distribution and balance of all bodies save rotors.

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66+,for rotor balancing.
172,for weight distribution on the human foot.

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701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclass 124 for an electrical processing or data processing system used in the determination of weight distribution of a body where only the nominal structure of a sensor is recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.02]    65.02Spherical specimen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01.  Subject matter wherein the body is bounded by a surface, all points of which are at an equal distance from a point constituting its center.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.03]    65.03Ball driving sporting implement (e.g., golf club, baseball bat, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01.  Subject matter wherein the body comprises a device for imparting motion to a spherical element used in recreation.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.04]    65.04Watercraft (e.g., metacentric height):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01.  Subject matter wherein the body is a craft for water transport.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.05]    65.05Air or space vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01.  Subject matter wherein the body is a structure for (a) navigation of the air or (b) orbiting the Earth or traveling beyond the Earth"s atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.06]    65.06Electric sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.05.  Subject matter including means whose electron flow or electron storage characteristic changes in response to the determination being made.

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65.09,for an electric sensor, per se, for determining the center of gravity, a turning moment, or a metacentric height.
866.5,for a probe or probe mounting, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for a light responsive sensor, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for a piezoelectric sensor, per se.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 2+ for a strain gauge, per se, and subclasses 13+ for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 280+ for a capacitor-type sensor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.07]    65.07Dynamic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by providing motion to the body.

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570+,for vibration testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.08]    65.08Torsional oscillation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.07.  Subject matter wherein one part of the body swings about a longitudinal axis while the other part of the body is held fast or turned in the opposite direction.

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570+,for vibration testing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 65.09]    65.09Electric sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.01.  Subject matter including means whose electron flow or electron storage characteristic changes in response to the determination being made.

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65.06,for an electric sensor for determining the center of gravity, a turning moment, or a metacentric height of an air or space vehicle.
866.5,for a probe or probe mounting, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for a light responsive sensor, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for a piezoelectric sensor, per se.
338Electrical Resistors,   appropriate subclasses 2+ for a strain gauge resistor, per se, and subclasses 13+ for a condition responsive resistor, per se.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 280+ for a capacitor-type sensor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 66]    66ROTOR UNBALANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the amount and/or location of masses or forces causing unbalance in rotatable bodies. The combination of a balance testing device with means to correct for the unbalance is classified with the latter. However, methods of testing for unbalance which broadly recite the additional step of adding or removing material in accordance with the indicated unbalance are found here.

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147,for devices for testing the aerodynamic balance of propellers and helicopter rotor blades.

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82Turning,   for the combination of balancing by turning.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 192.1+ , for compensating devices for engines, e.g., crank shafts.
219Electric Heating,   for combinations of balancing by electric welding.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 261.1 for miscellaneous rotor structures including those having balancing means.
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   subclass 2 for balancing by drilling.
451Abrading,   for the combination of balancing by abrading.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 73]    73MOISTURE CONTENT OR ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTIC OF MATERIAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for the determination of either the moisture content of materials (e.g., paper, wood, grain, etc.) or the absorptive characteristics of materials for water or other liquids.

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19,for determination of gas content of materials.
29,for determination of the moisture content of gases.
61.41,for determination of moisture or water content of liquids.
335+,for hygrometers and hygrostats.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for means and methods of moisture content determination by electrical apparatus which measures an electrical characteristic such as capacity or conductivity of the medium in which the moisture exists; note particularly subclasses 664+ , 689 and 694+.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 74]    74By residual capacity measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Subject matter for determination of moisture content by bringing the specimen (usually sand) up to the saturation point while measuring the required addition (residual capacity) as criterion.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 75]    75By heat conductivity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Subject matter in which the heat conductivity of the specimen is the criterion for determining moisture content.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 43+ .
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 76]    76By desiccation or extraction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Subject matter for determination of moisture content of materials wherein the moisture is extracted, collected, and measured as an index.

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34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   and see the notes thereto for drying and extraction of liquids from solids in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 77]    77By wet and dry bulb temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Subject matter for determination of moisture content of materials wherein wet and dry bulb temperature readings are employed, as criteria.

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338+,for wet and dry responsive element hygrometers and hygrostats, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 78]    78HARDNESS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for direct measurement of the hardness of materials.

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7,where abrasive or milling characteristic is employed as an index of hardness.
12.01+,for other tests in which the specimen is subjected to one or more sudden blows.
104,for durability of cutting edges as an index of hardness.
821,for tests of the crushing point of material, sometimes erroneously designated as "hardness".

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100Presses,   appropriate subclasses for presses not elsewhere provided for.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 79]    79Scleroscope or rebound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein hardness is measured or determined by either dropping an object on the specimen and observing rebound, or by dropping the specimen upon an anvil and observing rebound.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 81]    81By penetrator or indentor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein hardness is measured in terms of its resistance to a penetrator or to indentation.

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78+,for resistance to drilling as index of hardness.
700+,for fluid pressure gauges, other than those which measure the hardness of the tire as an index of fluid pressure which are in this subclass (81).
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 82]    82Impact type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter for measurement of hardness of materials wherein a penetrator or indentor is impelled against the specimen under a predetermined force.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 83]    83With successive minor and major load:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter wherein a penetrator or indentor is urged into the specimen with successive minor (to penetrate the skin) and major loads. Usually the penetration measurement begins with the major load.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 84]    84Soil bearing capacity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter for determining, through resistance to a penetrator, the load sustaining or bearing capacity of soil or foundations.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 85]    85Penetrator element:
 Penetrator elements or points, per se, or holders therefor employed by the apparatus or processes of subclasses 81+.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 189+ .
279Chucks or Sockets,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
  
[List of Patents for class 73 subclass 86]    86EMBRITTLEMENT OR EROSION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for treating specimens with fluids to determine the effect of such fluids on the brittleness or the erosion resistant properties of such specimens.

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87,for determination of the instant brittleness rating of a specimen, as co