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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 374]   CLASS 374,THERMAL MEASURING AND TESTING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the generic class for making a determination of either (1) a characteristic or condition of an object or system utilizing heating or cooling as a significant part of the test and not provided for in other classes, or (2) a thermal quantity or condition.

This class also includes circuitry and devices with structure unique to a thermal measurement or test and not elsewhere provided for.

(1) Note. Processes and apparatus are classified together.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

A thermal measurement or test made as part of a measurement elsewhere classifiable, e.g. liquid level or flow, will be classified with the other measurement. However, a thermal measurement combined with a separate measurement, so as to provide separate determinations are classifiable herein. (See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.)

Substantially all apparatus classes include automatic control of the apparatus. Such automatic control usually involves some means to measure or test a condition or change of condition, the measuring or testing means then operating to control or regulate the apparatus in accordance with the results of the measurement or test. For such subject matter, the class appropriate to the type of apparatus controlled should be investigated.

ORGANIZATION OF THIS CLASS

For the organization of this class, see Subclass References to the Current Class, below.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

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1,through 28 and 43 through 57, Thermal Testing subclasses provide for determination of either a thermal characteristic of, or the thermal dependence of a nonthermal characteristic of, a test specimen. Also included herein is the thermal determination of a nonthermal property not elsewhere provided for.
29,through 42, Heat and Heat Flux Measurement subclasses provide for determination of heat energy, rate of heat transfer, and other miscellaneous thermodynamic potentials (e.g., enthalpy).
100,through 207, Temperature Measurement subclasses provide for quantitative determination of temperature and temperature-related composite quantities.
142+,for a thermal measurement combined with a separate measurement, so as to provide separate determinations.
208,and 209, Specialized Subcombinations subclasses provide for devices having structure peculiar to thermal measuring and testing which perfects, but does not perform the determination.
210,Miscellaneous subclass provides for subject matter under the class definition and not found above.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

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60Power Plants,   subclasses 516+ for expansion and contraction mechanisms, in general.
73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for measuring a nonthermal variable by a thermal measurement, particularly subclasses 25.01+ for thermal gas analysis; subclasses 61.75 and 61.77 for a heat determination of the content or effect of a constituent of a liquid mixture; subclass 154 for thermal logging of a formation in a borehole; subclasses 204.11+ for thermal volume or rate of flow determination; and subclass 295 for thermal liquid level determination.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 34+ for a bellows chamber, per se; and subclasses 89+ for a diaphragm, per se.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 342+ for a condition indicator for a cooking arrangement.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 388.1 for an open-top liquid heating vessel that may include a lid and an indicator or signaler feature.
128Surgery,   subclass 736 for a diagnostic temperature measuring arrangement particularly limited by structure to shape of, or placement in or on, a living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 551+ for fluid handling with condition responsive indication.
219Electric Heating,   subclass 248 for a flat iron with a condition responsive indicator.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   subclasses 2+ for incubator control, and subclass 94 for thermostatic temperature control with an indicator.
237Heating Systems,   subclass 3 for an incubator heating system.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 338+ for an infrared radiometer.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclass 11 , for a heat motor actuated valve.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   subclass 39 for a thermostatic carburetor.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   subclass 99 for a metallurgical device with a condition responsive indicator.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclass 93.8 for abnormal current condition detecting by thermal sensing.
366Agitating,   subclass 142 for agitating structure with a condition responsive indicator.
399Electrophotography,   subclasses 67+ for controls of fixing, particularly subclass 70 for temperature control of a warm-up or standby mode and subclass 94 for internal machine environment temperature.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 35 for a thermometer bulb, per se; and subclass 616 for a bimetallic element, per se.

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

HEAT

Kinetic energy of macroscopically non-observable random modes of motion of atoms and molecules.

TEMPERATURE

A quantitative measure of the ability of a substance to transmit or receive heat energy.

THERMAL

Related to heat or temperature.

THERMAL CHARACTERISTIC

A property of matter related to heat or temperature.

THERMAL PARAMETER

Heat, temperature, or a thermodynamic quantity related thereto.

THERMAL MEASUREMENT OR TEST

A determination of a thermal quantity, or a determination of a quantity made under a controlled thermal condition.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 1]    1THERMAL CALIBRATION SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the accuracy, operability, or operating characteristics of a device responsive to a thermal condition.
(1) Note. The calibration may involve either a single value or plural values including a continuous variation.
(2) Note. The thermal condition responsive device need not be a measuring or testing device, e.g. calibration of a thermostat is classifiable in this subclass.
(3) Note. A measuring or testing device having a reference or calibrating element or subsystem is classified with the measuring or testing device.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 1.01+ for calibrating or proving of a nonthermal condition responsive arrangement.
399Electrophotography,   subclasses 67+ for controls of fixing, particularly subclass 70 for temperature control of a warm-up or standby mode and subclass 94 for internal machine environment temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 2]    2By thermal radiation emitting device (e.g. blackbody cavity):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein a reference thermal condition is thermal radiation given off from a radiating element.
(1) Note. Such an element would include a blackened element adjacent a radiation transmitting element.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 393 for an invisible radiant energy source used in electrical signalling.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 3]    3By immersion in liquid having controlled temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the reference thermal condition is a thermal parameter of a controlled temperature liquid bath.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 4]    4LEAK OR FLAW DETECTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for testing a solid material for a defect or undesired passage of fluent material therethrough.

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57,for detection of susceptibility to such a defect caused by a thermal effect.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 40+ for leakage testing by fluid pressure; and subclasses 104+ for surface or cutting edge testing, in general.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclass 103 for similar subject matter in a welding process.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 5]    5With heating or cooling of specimen for test:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein heat is applied to or extracted from the solid material to permit detection of a thermal anomaly.

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43+,for determination of a thermal parameter of an object, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 6]    6DISTANCE OR ANGLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining an angle or distance by measuring a thermal property which varies therewith.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   appropriate subclasses for determination of spatial relationship by direct contact with a measuring element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 7]    7Thickness, erosion, or deposition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Subject matter wherein the distance measured is the thickness or change thereof of a solid body.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 8]    8FLAMMABILITY TESTING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the susceptibility of the test specimen to combustion.
(1) Note. Included herein is burn rate determination.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 36 for testing of illuminating gas, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 9]    9EMISSIVITY DETERMINATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the ability of an object to radiate energy in accordance with its temperature.
(1) Note. Such a determination often includes heating the sample.

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32,for measuring total radiant energy emitted from a source. 126 and 128, for emissivity compensation of temperature measurement by thermally emitted radiant energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 10]    10DIFFERENTIAL THERMAL ANALYSIS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which compares simultaneous thermal effects on a test specimen and a reference specimen of an applied variation in temperature.
(1) Note. The reference specimen is usually inert (i.e. undergoes no thermodynamic phase changes) over the temperature range of interest.
(2) Note. The comparison is usually a differential determination of the specimen conditions being monitored (e.g. temperature difference).
(3) Note. The specimens being compared are exposed to similar environmental conditions.

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112+,for measurement of temperature difference, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 11]    11Detail of electrical heating control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter having a particular circuitry arrangement for controlling heating of the test and reference specimens.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 12]    12Detail of sample holder or support therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter including structural detail of a specimen holder or of a holder supporting arrangement.

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208,for such a holder or support, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 13]    13Formed by thermoelectric element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the specimen holder is composed of a thermoelectric junction.

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12,for such subject matter having a sample cup with a distinct thermoelement contained therein.
157,for a combined thermometer and sampling cup.
179+,for a thermometer having a thermocouple sensor.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclass 231 for such a sample holder, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 14]    14THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the change in mass or weight of a sample subjected to heat.

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177Weighing Scales,   appropriate subclasses for weighing devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 15]    15BY APPLYING KNOWN THERMAL GRADIENT (E.G., INDICATION OF RESPONSE BY LOCATION):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having an element with a temperature which increases in one direction according to the distance from a reference point so as to determine the relationship between a thermally responsive property and temperature by observation of the spatial distribution of the property.

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137,for determination of a temperature distribution, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 16]    16TRANSFORMATION POINT DETERMINATION (E.G., DEW POINT, BOILING POINT):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the temperature at which a change of state or phase of the test specimen occurs.
(1) Note. The term "change of state" refers to changes between the gaseous, liquids, and solid states.

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15,for such determination using an applied thermal gradient.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 17]    17By change in optical property (e.g., transmission):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein the test is performed by determining a change in a light modifying characteristic of the test specimen or an element in contact therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 18]    18By reflection (e.g., polished surface):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.  Subject matter wherein the light modifying characteristic is reflection from the specimen or an element in contact therewith.
(1) Note. Included herein are total internal reflection within the specimen and mirrors contacting the specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 19]    19Sensed by instrument (e.g., photocell):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein the reflected light is sensed by an element responsive thereto.
(1) Note. Such an element is often a photocell.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 573+ for a prephotocell systems having fluent material in its optical path.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 20]    20Controlling heating or cooling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Subject matter including a temperature modifying element for the specimen which modifying element is responsive to the light responsive element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 21]    21By electrical condition of specimen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein the test is performed by determining the value, or its change, of an electrical property of the test specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 22]    22By change in motion of movable element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein the test is performed by determining the modification of movement of a test element which contact or is located within the test specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 23]    23Driven element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Subject matter including an arrangement for applying a motion producing force to the movable test element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 24]    24By change in pressure or flow rate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein the transition point is established by determination of a variation in either the force per unit area or the volume per unit time of a fluid specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 25]    25By thermal arrest (e.g., time-temperature curve):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein the transition point is established by locating the temperature at which there is no temperature change during heating or cooling of the specimen.
(1) Note. The thermal arrest temperature is often located by use of a graph of time vs. temperature during heating or cooling.

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107,for measurement of the time rate of change of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 26]    26Of molten metal (e.g., carbon content):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter for determining a thermal arrest point of a molten metal.
(1) Note. The thermal arrest point is often used to determine carbon content of the molten metal.

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139+,for molten metal temperature measurement, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 27]    27Between gaseous and liquid states:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter where in the transformation point determination is between a gaseous and a liquid state, and not provided for in subclass
(1) Note. Included herein are determination of a boiling or a condensation point.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 28]    28Dew point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Subject matter wherein the change of state determined is that of the temperature at which condensation of a vapor in a sample begins, and not provided for in subclasses 17 - 26, above.
(1) Note. The vapor is often water vapor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 29]    29HEAT FLUX MEASUREMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining the heat flowing through a unit area per unit time.

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31+,for measuring the total heat energy at a particular location.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 30]    30By differential temperature measurement along undisturbed thermal gradient:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Subject matter wherein the heat flux is determined by measuring the temperature difference across a thermal impedance without heating or cooling.

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112+,for measuring a temperature difference, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 31]    31CALORIMETRY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for determining a quantity of heat energy produced or absorbed at a given location.
(1) Note. Calorimetric determination of the amount of constituent in a compound or of the heat of chemical combination is classified herein only when limited to a determination of heat produced by combustion of the specimen.

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10+,for calorimetric determination used in differential thermal analysis.
29,for measuring heat flow.

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23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   subclass 230 and 232 for processes involving heat measurement of a catalytic element, or with steps involving a chemical reaction other than combustion.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 51 for apparatus for heat measurement of a catalytic element, or with an arrangement involving a chemical reaction other than combustion.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 32]    32
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Total radiant energy or power measurement: Subject matter for determining the total energy or power produced by a source of radiation.
(1) Note. Microwave, other radio wave, X-ray and gamma ray radiation are excluded from this subclass.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclasses 213+ for a radiant energy sensing thermocouple.
250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for measurement of intensity or amplitude of an incident beam of radiant energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 33]    33With control of heat added to or lost from a sample container (e.g., isothermal calorimetry):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter including an arrangement to maintain or vary the heat energy of a receptacle containing a sample undergoing an endothermic or exothermic reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 34]    34With controlled adiabatic shield:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter including an element in thermally conductive relation to the sample container and an arrangement to maintain the temperature of the element equal to that of the test location by heating or cooling the element so as to prevent heat flow between the element and the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 35]    35Heat absorbing high temperature gas probe (e.g., enthalpy or fluid cooled probe):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter for making a measurement of a thermal parameter of a hot gas including transfer of heat energy from the hot gas to a measuring element.
(1) Note. The terms "hot" or "high temperature" to describe the gas are each intended to specify that the absolute temperature of the probe is very small compared to that of the gas.
(2) Note. Included herein are enthalpy probes and probes with a fluid coolant therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 36]    36Heat value of combustion (e.g., "calorific value"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter for determining the amount of heat produced by burning a given amount of a tested combustible material.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 37]    37Having specified control of input of mixture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Subject matter having a structural detail of an adjustment of the amount of air or fuel admitted to the combustion location.
(1) Note. The adjustment may be responsive to the temperature of the combustion exhaust fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 38]    38Having bomb or cartridge ignition chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Subject matter including a container resistant to high pressure produced by rapid ignition of the tested material.
(1) Note. The ignition chamber is often immersed in a liquid, or includes and electrically operated igniting element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 39]    39Gain or loss of heat by heat utilizing load in path of heat exchange fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter wherein the heat measured is that taken from or added to a heat exchange fluid by a heat utilizing device through which the fluid flows.
(1) Note. The term "heat utilizing device" is generally a heating or cooling device.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 40]    40Determined by combining flow rate and temperature signals of heat exchange fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter including sensing of the flow rate and a temperature of the heat exchange fluid and combining signals representative thereof to produce a signal representing heat gain or loss.
(1) Note. The temperature signal is often representative of the differential temperature of the fluid prior to and following heat exchange with the heat utilizing device.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 41]    41Signals combined electrically:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein the temperature and flow rate are each sensed to produce an electrical signal and the signals are electrically combined.

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702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 130 through 136for significant data processing temperature measuring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 42]    42Throttling calorimeter (e.g., steam quality):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter for measuring a heat energy property of a gas or vapor including flow of the gas or vapor through a restriction as part of the measurement.
(1) Note. Such devices are often used to determine "steam quality" which is the fraction of moisture in the liquid state carried by flowing steam.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 23.2 for determination of gas composition, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 43]    43DETERMINATION OF INHERENT THERMAL PROPERTY (E.G., HEAT FLOW COEFFICIENT):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for ascertaining a specimen"s ability to transmit, transfer, retard, or spread heat and which includes heating or cooling of a portion of the specimen.
(1) Note. Properties determined by such a measurement include thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, or heat transfer coefficient.
(2) Note. Measurement of specific heat is made by calorimetry.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 44]    44Thermal conductivity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Subject matter for determining the coefficient of heat flow per unit area with respect to the temperature gradient.

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29,for determining heat flux, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 45]    45THERMAL TESTING OF A NONTHERMAL QUANTITY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for performing a measurement or test of other than a thermal quantity either (1) with a specified thermal condition, or (2) to ascertain the dependence of the quantity upon a thermal condition.
(1) Note. The thermal condition is usually temperature or heat.
(2) Note. Nominal recitation of thermal recitation combined with a test classified elsewhere is classified with the other test.

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164Metal Founding,   subclass 151.4 , 154.6, and 155.6 for metal casting apparatus which may detect a non-thermal condition using a thermal sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 46]    46With loading of specimen (e.g., stress or strain):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter wherein the nonthermal test includes direct application of a mechanical force to a test specimen.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 788+ for testing by loading of a specimen, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 47]    47Cyclic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter wherein the loading is repeatedly varied during the test.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 808+ for testing a specimen by applying a cyclic load, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 48]    48Torsional:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Subject matter wherein the repetitive loading tends to twist the specimen.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 814 for testing by cyclic application of a torsional load, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 49]    49Tensile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter wherein the loading is a pull tending to stretch the specimen.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 826+ for tensile testing, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 50]    50With detail of heating or cooling structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 49.  Subject matter having a structural detail of an element of an arrangement for applying heat to, or extracting heat from, the specimen.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 51]    51Compressional:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter wherein the load tends to squeeze the specimen.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 818 for compressional testing, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 52]    52Bending or flexing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter wherein the test specimen has a long axis which the load tends to deform.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 849 for testing by bending or flexing, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 53]    53Of cure or hardenability:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter wherein the nonthermal quantity is either the degree of polymerization of a polymerizable substance, or the depth to which a hardening of an outer layer of metal extends.
(1) Note. The hardening of a layer of metal is often produced by quenching.

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47+,for determination of cure by cyclic loading.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 78+ for hardness testing, in general; and subclasses 808+ for testing by cyclic loading, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 54]    54Of fluid volume or property (e.g., evaporation rate, flow rate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter wherein the nonthermal quantity is the amount of a fluid or the rate of change of a flow property or evaporation.

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164Metal Founding,   subclass 450.3 for a metal casting apparatus wherein material level maybe measured with a thermal sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 55]    55Expansion or contraction characteristic (e.g., dilatometry):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter wherein the measurement is of a temperature dependance of a dimensional change of a test specimen.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclass 147 for an extensometer, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 56]    56Including electrical sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter including a deformation responsive electrical sensing element.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 763+ for electrical deformation measurement, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 57]    57Of susceptibility to thermally induced deterioration, flaw, or failure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter for determining the properties of a specimen with respect to breakdown of structural integrity or of degeneration of a characteristic by heating or cooling of the specimen.
(1) Note. Such determination may further include application of other energy (e.g., radiation) to the specimen.

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4+,for determination of an existing flaw.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 100]    100TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT (E.G., THERMOMETER):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for making a quantitative determination of a temperature, or of a temperature-related parameter which is not otherwise classifiable.
(1) Note. The term "quantitative" requires a numerical result of more than two values.
(2) Note. The term "temperature-related parameter" is a quantity having a value that is a function of plural temperatures, or of temperature and another variable and not elsewhere classified, see subclasses 101+ below.
(3) Note. A device providing the temperature determination is often designated as a "thermometer" or pyrometer", both terms being used in this class.
(4) Note. In this and indented subclasses the term "sensing" will denote the immediate effect of a parameter and the term "indicating" will denote the creation of a humanly perceptible action.

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31+,for a calorimeter including a thermometer.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 25+ for thermal gas analysis, subclasses 75 and 77 for a thermal moisture content determination; subclasses 152.12+ for strata identification by thermal measurements in a bore hole; and subclass 295 for a thermal measurement to determine liquid level.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 101]    101Composite temperature-related parameter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the quantitative determination is a continuous function of plural temperatures, or of temperature, and at least one other variable and which function is not otherwise classifiable.
(1) Note. The other variable may include time, radiation, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 102]    102Time-temperature relationship (e.g., integral, deterioration, change):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Subject matter wherein the quantitative determination is either, (1) functionally dependent upon, or (2) limited to the time elapsed during the measurement.
(1) Note. Included herein are measurements of time-temperature integrals or other deterioration representative functions.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 103]    103Time-temperature integration performed by particular circuit arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter having a detail of a component or arrangement of circuitry which integrates a temperature-dependent electric signal with respect to time.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 104]    104Peak (maximum or minimum) with respect to time:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein the determination is of a temperature having a value, or difference in value from a reference temperature exceeding all other such temperatures during a measuring interval.

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111,for a determination of the highest or lowest of plural spaced apart temperatures.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 105]    105Indicating tube with sensing material return prevention:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 104.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made by an indicating tube type thermometer with an irregularity in its axial bore between the bulb and scale of the thermometer so as to prevent the expansible material therein from returning to the bulb.

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192,for an indicating tube thermometer with a holder for shaking.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 106]    106Permanent visual indication (i.e., irreversible):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 104.  Subject matter wherein the determination is made using an arrangement which changes with a change in temperature in only one direction, i.e. restoring the temperature to its initial value does not restore the arrangement to its original condition.
(1) Note. Included herein are arrangements having color change, fusible, or diffusion properties.

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160,for a reversible fusible thermometer.
161+,for a reversible optical property thermometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 107]    107Rate of change:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter where the determination is of the time derivative of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 108]    108Degree-days:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein the composite function is the product of the difference of the temperature from a reference temperature and the number of days elapsed.
(1) Note. The subject matter herein generally includes a clock running at a rate dependent upon the outdoor temperature difference below a reference temperature.

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109,for a climate related composite thermal measurement, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 109]    109Climate related (e.g., wind-chill factor, discomfort index):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Subject matter wherein the composite function is related to atmospheric conditions.
(1) Note. Included herein are such quantities as wind-chill factor and discomfort index.

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108,for a degree-day measurement.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 170.01+ for nonthermal meteorological measurement; and subclasses 335.08+ for wet and dry thermal sensors to determine atmospheric humidity.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 110]    110Plural spaced temperature function:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Subject matter wherein the quantitative determination is a single function of the temperatures of plural spaced-apart points.

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124,for a temperature distribution display by thermal radiation.
137,for temperature distribution or profile.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 111]    111Highest or lowest of spaced temperatures:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Subject matter wherein the resultant measurement is the highest or lowest temperature at several points.

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104+,for a determination of the maximum or minimum temperature during a time interval.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 112]    112Difference or gradient:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Subject matter wherein the resultant measurement is the difference between the temperatures at two of the spaced-apart points or the ratio of such a difference to the distance between the two points.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 113]    113By thermoelements connected in series opposition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the difference is sensed by two thermoelectric current generators having a single current path therethrough and connected with the potentials in opposing directions along the current path.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 114]    114By current modifying elements in circuit (e.g., bridge):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter having plural elements with a temperature-dependent impedance and so connected between a power source and output so as to produce a signal related to the temperature difference at the output.
(1) Note. A bride having such sensing impedance elements in adjacent arms is classified in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 115]    115Space average:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Subject matter wherein the resultant measurement is the summation of temperatures at the spaced apart points divided by the summation of said points.
(1) Note. In this definition, the term "summation" includes integration over a continuous path as well as discrete additive summation so as to include averages over continuous as well as discrete measurement points.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 116]    116By single sensor (e.g., elongate or with plural fluid intakes):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Subject matter having a sensor which is long enough to inherently average the temperature over its length.
(1) Note. Included herein are arrangements with fluid temperature sensors having housing with multiple inlets along its length.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 117]    117By a vibratory effect (e.g., resonant frequency, acoustical):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the temperature is determined by a parameter of a mechanical vibration.
(1) Note. The mechanical vibration may be an acoustical wave.
(2) Note. The parameter may be the frequency of mechanical or acoustic resonance of an element.
(3) Note. A temperature-responsive crystal controlling an oscillator in a thermometer is classified herein.

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163+,for other thermometers having an oscillator, particularly 170+, for digital output thermometers.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 570+ for testing by, or measurement or testing of, vibratory waves.
331Oscillators,   subclass 66 for a temperature controlled oscillator absent an indicating arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 118]    118Resonant frequency by fluid flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter wherein the temperature is determined by the frequency of mechanical or acoustical resonance measured by fluid flow.
(1) Such elements are often resonating chamber devices.

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135,for temperature measurement by fluid flow other than by resonant vibration production.

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116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 137 for fluid flow acoustical generators, in general.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 804+ for fluidic oscillators absent an indicating arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 119]    119Vibration velocity (e.g., echo timing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter wherein the temperature is determined by the speed of a mechanical wave.
(1) Note. the resonant frequency of a fixed wavelength element, although inherently a measure of vibration velocity, is classified in subclasses 117 and 118 above, without cross-reference to this subclass in the absence of a nonresonant variant of velocity determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 120]    120In spaced noncontact relationship to specimen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter having a temperature sensor separated from the object by an intervening space or material.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 121]    121By thermally emitted radiation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter wherein the temperature of a specimen is measured by measuring a parameter of the thermal radiation emitted therefrom.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclasses 213+ for a thermoelectric sensor for a thermoelectric radiation pyrometer absent processing and indicating circuitry.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 338+ for infrared radiation responsive circuitry absent a temperature indication.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 43+ for a pyrometer specifically limited to the optical wavelength range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 122]    122By microwave arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the radiation measurement is performed directly by microwave signal processing components (e.g., waveguides).

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343Communications: Radio Wave,   subclass 100 for measurement of microwave radiation intensity, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 123]    123Transparent material measurement or compensation (e.g., spectral line, gas, particulate suspension):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter including compensation for radiation transmitted through or blocked from the thermally emitting material.
(1) Note. Measurements involving spectral line intensity or inversion, as well as reference emitters from transparency compensation are classified herein.

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129,for radiation thermometers with reference standards, in general.
161+,for temperature measurement involving a change in an optical property, absent evaluation of thermally emitted radiation.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 124]    124With scanning or temperature distribution display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the thermally emitted radiation from adjacent points of the emitting object is successively evaluated or wherein the quantitative or continuous variation of surface temperature is displayed in relationship to the points thereof.

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348Television,   subclasses 164+ for infrared radiation responsive television, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 125]    125With fluid flow purging device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter having an arrangement to produce a stream of fluid flowing past at least one element of a radiation analyzing arrangement in order to remove from the element, or the path between the element and the emitting object, particulate or other undesired material.
(1) Note. The element is often an optical element (e.g., lens or window).
(2) Note. The fluid stream usually has an incidental cooling effect.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclass 509 , for fluid stream particle control for optical elements, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 126]    126Having emissivity compensating or specified radiating surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter including an arrangement to provide, or to compensate for departure from, a fourth power dependence of the emitted radiation on the absolute temperature, or from the amount of radiation emitted by a completely black surface with an emissivity of one.
(1) Note. Included herein are blackened surfaces or cavities contacting the material the temperature of which is being measured.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 127]    127Having significant frequency limitation or relationship (e.g., peak, ratio):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter including a particular feature of the frequency of the thermal radiation, or a portion thereof, sensed to perform the temperature determination.
(1) Note. The sensed parameter is often the intensity of the radiation at a given frequency.
(2) Note. Included herein are ratio pyrometer, devices determining the frequency of peak intensity, and devices having sensors with different frequency-intensity characteristics.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 45 for a plural color responsive optical pyrometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 128]    128Having significant signal handling circuitry (e.g., linearizing, emissivity compensation):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter having details of a circuit which processes the sensed signal.
(1) Note. Included herein is processing to obtain a signal linearly related to the temperature or compensating for the emissivity characteristics of the radiating object.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 129]    129Comparison with radiation reference standard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter including an arrangement for comparing the thermally emitted radiation to be measured with radiation from a reference emitter the radiation from which has a predetermined relationship to the emitter temperature.
(1) Note. Such emitters often have a high emissivity factor (E1), and include blackened elements and blackbody cavity radiators.
(2) Note. Comparison arrangement may include choppers alternating the measured and reference radiation.

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2,for a reference radiating device which is not a part of a radiation thermometer.
126,for radiation temperature measuring with increasing the emissivity of the thermally emitting surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 130]    130Optical system structure (e.g., lens):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter including a specific limitation of an element which changes the direction of the radiation.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   appropriate subclasses for optical modifying elements and systems, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 131]    131With radiation conducting element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 130.  Subject matter including a generally elongate element for conducting radiation from one end to the other within the confines of the outer surface of the elongate element.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 44 for similar subject matter using radiation limited to the visual spectrum.
385Optical Waveguides,   appropriate subclasses, for light conducting elements, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 132]    132Sensor or mounting temperature control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter including maintaining or modifying the temperature of the radiation detector or some portion thereof during radiation sensing.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 133]    133Ambient temperature compensated (e.g., dummy sensor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter having an arrangement to eliminate any effects caused by the temperature of the surroundings of the radiation sensor.
(1) Note. Included herein are arrangements with an additional radiation sensor not exposed to the radiation to cancel the temperature effects on the radiation receiving sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 134]    134Extrapolation (e.g., simulation, heat flow):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter wherein the temperature at a location is measured by measuring temperature or heat flow at a point spaced from the location.
(1) Note. The desired location is often inaccessible for measurement.
(2) Note. Included herein are temperature and heat flow simulation or analog arrangement.
(3) Note. Included herein are article simulation arrangements, such as dummy cans, to determine temperature of the article interior.

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29+,for heat flux measurement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 135]    135By fluid flow within or to sensor (e.g., convection, heat transfer, differential pressure):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter including determination of some parameter of a flowing fluid in thermal relationship to an object at a location spaced away from the object.
(1) Note. Convection current measurement is included herein.
(2) Note. The parameters of the flowing fluid include flow rate, pressure, and temperature.

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138,147 and 148, for direct sensing of fluid temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 136]    136Geophysical (e.g., well bore, underwater):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter for temperature determination beneath the surface of the earth or of a body of water.

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109,for plural or composite atmospheric temperature measurement.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.12+ for borehole formation logging by making a thermal measurement, subclass 152.33 for thermal rate of fluid flow measuring in a borehole; and subclasses 170.01+ for measurement of oceanos:graphic or atmospheric phenomena, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 137]    137Temperature distribution or profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter for determination of the temperature along a path or on a surface and displaying in substantially continuous form the temperature at each point of the path or surface.

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124,for similar subject matter using thermally emitted radiation.
136,for similar subject matter particularly adapted for utility in geophysical measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 138]    138With fluid flow deflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter for measuring temperature of a flowing fluid which includes a deflector of the fluid.
(1) Note. An example would be a deflector to suppress the effect of a boundary layer of fluid upon a temperature sensing element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 139]    139Of molten metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the sensor contacts a molten metal bath.

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26,for transformation point determination of molten metal.

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164Metal Founding,   subclass 4 and 150.1 for a process and apparatus, respectively, for metal casting or mold making combined with condition indication.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   subclass 87 for metal treating apparatus combined with a temperature sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 140]    140Lance (e.g., consumable):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the sensing arrangement includes an elongate housing containing a temperature sensor.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclass 234 for a thermocouple molten metal lance having a covered and sealed sensing junction.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 141]    141Combined with diverse art device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter having significant temperature measuring detail combined with a device having another utility.
(1) Note. Where significant detail of the other device additional to that above is claimed such a combination is classifiable with the other device and should be cross-referenced herein.
(2) Note. The term "another utility" refers to a function which would still be performed if the temperature measurement limitations were removed, thus supports or viewing devices are not considered as having other utility.

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191,for an indicating tube thermometer with a viewing element.
194,for an indicating tube thermometer with a particular support.

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277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for a generic sealing means or process, subclass 319 for a seal combined with a fluid temperature indicator, sampler or inspection feature.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 10 for an electric lamp or tube having a thermometer combined therewith.
362Illumination,   subclass 23.15 for an illuminating device for a thermometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 142]    142With other measuring device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter combined with a device for making a quantitative determination of a parameter other than temperature.
(1) Note. The combination must make distinct determinations of the temperature and another parameter. See (2) Note in section II of the class definition.

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101+,for a single resultant indication of temperature and another condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 143]    143Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Subject matter wherein the other measuring device provides quantitative determination of fluid pressure.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 384+ for barometers; and subclasses 700+ for fluid pressure measurement, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 144]    144With combustion engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the other device is a mechanical energy producer operating by combustion.
(1) Note. This subclass includes a combination with either an internal or an external combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 145]    145Cooling system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter wherein the temperature of the system for removing heat from the engine is determined.
(1) Note. Such systems are often of the fluid circulation type.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 146]    146Radiator cap mounted thermometer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Subject matter wherein the cooling system has a radiator with a cap having the thermometer mounted thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 147]    147With fluid carrying conduit (e.g., shower pipe):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter for determining the temperature of a fluid flowing within a tubular element.
(1) Note. Such combinations often include structure for maintaining contact between a temperature sensor and the conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 148]    148Sensor within conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.  Subject matter wherein a thermometer sensing element or cover therefor protrudes within the conduit.
(1) Note. Included herein are sensor wells into which temperature sensors may be placed.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 149]    149With cooking compartment or door thereof (e.g., oven):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the thermometer is mounted in or on an oven, or door thereof.
(1) Note. Where significant detail of the oven is claimed, classification is in the appropriate class therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 150]    150With bottle (e.g., nursing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the device of other utility is a container for liquid storage.
(1) Note. Included herein are infant feeding bottles.

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215Bottles and Jars,   subclass 11 for nursing bottle structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 151]    151With confection or infant pacifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the thermometer is combined with an edible casing or a teething device.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 152]    152With electrical component (e.g., transformer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the other device is a current handling component of an electric circuit.
(1) Note. Examples of such components are transformers, inductors, etc.

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361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclass 93.6 for safety and protection arrangements for electrical components including transformer sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 153]    153With roll or rotary specimen or support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the temperature of an angularly rotatable cylindrical element or of material contacting the element surface is measured
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 154]    154With coupling between rotating sensor and stationary electrical circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Subject matter including an arrangement to couple a sensor located in or on the rotating element, and including indicating circuitry which does not rotate.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 155]    155With piercing element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the diverse art device is an object penetrating element to enable interior temperature measurements of objects.
(1) Note. A piercing element integral with a temperature probe is considered to have independent utility whether or not explicitly disclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 156]    156With float:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the diverse art device is a buoyant element which supports the thermometer in spaced relation to a liquid surface.
(1) Note. The buoyant action of a float is considered to make the float a device of independent utility, rather than a static support excluded from subclass 141 and its indented subclasses.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 322.5 for a float, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 157]    157With sampling cup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the diverse art device is a holder or container for obtaining a volume of material being measured.
(1) Note. The temperature sensor may extend into the material within the sampler.

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140,for such a device in a molten metal lance.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 158]    158With removable cover for sensor (e.g., disposable sheath):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including an element particularly adapted to fit over a temperature sensor during a measurement.
(1) Note. Included herein are also probecover subcombinations not elsewhere classifiable.

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209,for removable probe covers, per se.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclasses 230+ for a thermocouple probe combined with a disposable sheath.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 306 for thermometer cases for storage, and for a package of disposable sheaths.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 28+ for a resistance thermometer probe combined with a disposable sheath.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 159]    159Nonelectrical, nonmagnetic, or nonmechanical temperature responsive property:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the temperature is determined by a change in a property of a sensing element and which property is other than magnetic, electrical, or mechanical.
(1) Note. The term "mechanical" refers specifically to temperature dependent expansion or contraction.
(2) Note. Such a property could include an optical property, luminescence, sorbtion, or a change of state.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 160]    160Melting or softening:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Subject matter wherein the sensor changes between a solid and liquid state or changes its flow property.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 161]    161Change of optical property:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Subject matter wherein the radiation transmission or reflection of the sensor changes.
(1) Note. Such a property would be translucence or polarization.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 162]    162Color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Subject matter wherein the sensor changes color.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 163]    163By electrical or magnetic heat sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including an element having a temperature responsive variation in an electrical or magnetic property thereof and an arrangement providing a quantitative indication from the variation.
(1) Note. Included in this and its indented subclasses is circuitry peculiar to temperature measurement and not provided for elsewhere.
(2) Note. Sensor structure, per se, is classified with the particular element structure (e.g. resistor, magnet, etc.).

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188,for a thermometer having a mechanical sensor and an electrical indicator.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 53 through 56, 108, 414, and 467-470 for such devices used as temperature responsive devices, subclass 295 for insulated gate field effect devices with a ferroelectric layer, and subclasses 421-427 for magnetic field responsive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 164]    164With preheated sensing probe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter included a housing having the thermal sensing element and an element for heating the housing to assist in the temperature determination.
(1) Note. The heating is particularly to assist in the temperature measurement as, for example, to heat the probe to a nominal expected temperature. Heating of more general utility is classified in the appropriate class.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 165]    165With heat exchanger or conductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter including an arrangement to conduct heat to the temperature sensing element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 166]    166At plural zones:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter having plural sensors at different locations for distinct temperature measurements of the several locations.

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110+,for a single function of plural spaced temperatures.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 167]    167Scanning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter including successive connection of the sensors of each location with the temperature measuring arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 168]    168With self-rebalancing arrangement (e.g., servo-potentiometer, thermal link):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter including an electric circuit with an output which may be balanced by a variable signal which is controlled by the output, and which variable signal is utilized as a measure of the magnitude of the sensor output.
(1) Note. Included herein are servo-potentiometer and thermal links for rebalancing.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 641 for a thermally controlled rebalancing bridge not specifically including an indicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 169]    169With thermal lag compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter including an arrangement to permit the indication of the measured temperature prior to the sensor reaching the measured temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 170]    170Digital output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter including production of a pulse group in accordance with the sensed temperature.

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117,for similar subject matter where the signal is produced by a vibratory effect.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 171]    171With digital linearizing circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter having electrical pulse or digital processing circuitry to modify the pulse group content in accordance with the value represented thereby in order to provide an output which is a linear function of the sensed temperature.
(1) Note. The modification is generally the inverse function of the signal relationship to the temperature.

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172+,for response linearizing circuitry other than digital.

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341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclass 140 for an analog to digital converter circuit with transducer output linearization.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclasses 27+ for similar subject matter including detailed structure of output counters.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 172]    172With compensation for sensor nonlinearity or lead impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Subject matter having circuitry to modify the signal representing the sensed temperature to form a signal which is linearly related to the sensed temperature, or which is independent of the impedance of leads connecting the sensor to the other circuit elements.
(1) Note. The signal modification for linearizing is generally the function inverse to the sensor temperature response.
(2) Note. The signal modification for impedance compensation may include three or more leads to a two terminal sensor, or separable (e.g. by polarity) signals energizing the sensor.

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171,for such linearization by digital processing circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 173]    173By feedback in amplifier circuit or with constant current source in circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 172.  Subject matter wherein the signal modification is performed by either feedback circuitry of an amplifier, or circuitry of an amplifier, or circuitry including a constant current source.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 174]    174By conductive fluid or work function within sensor (e.g., ionization):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter wherein the thermal sensor includes an envelope having a fluid or a vacuum therein, and electrodes to provide an electric current or space discharge therein, the temperature being determined by its effect on the discharge.
(1) Note. The temperature effect may be produced by variation in work function, ionization, or thermoelectric potential.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 175]    175Thermal noise generated in conductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter responsive to an electric current produced by the thermal motion of molecules in the sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 176]    176Including sensor having hysteresis or cryogenic property (e.g., ferromagnetism, superconductivity):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter wherein the sensor has either a residual electric or magnetic field absent an external field applied thereto, or a property peculiar to temperatures near absolute zero.
(1) Note. Included herein are magnetized elements.
(2) Note. Included herein are superconductivity and certain paramagnetic-ferromagnetic transitions.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 177]    177Ferroelectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the sensor has a spontaneous electrical polarization.
(1) Note. Included herein is an electret sensor in a thermometer.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 400 for electrets, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 178]    178By barrier layer sensing element (e.g., semiconductor junction):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter wherein the sensor is composed of semiconductive material having a potential barrier therein.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 512+ for temperature-responsive circuitry containing a nonlinear solid-state element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 179]    179By thermoelectric potential generator (e.g., thermocouple):
 Subject matter 163 wherein the element produces a temperature-dependent potential as a result of physical contact between two materials having different thermoelectric potentials at the measurement location.
(1) Note. These are usually of the thermocouple type.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclasses 200+ for thermocouples or thermal batteries, per se.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 33+ for a system including a thermal condition controlled generator or driving means therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 180]    180Specimen is part of thermoelectric circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter including an electrical circuit path passing through the specimen as part of the thermoelectric potential generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 181]    181Reference junction compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter having a reference junction complementary to the measuring junction, and an arrangement to modify the output signal to eliminate the effect of temperature variation on the reference junction.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 182]    182Reference junction temperature control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter having a reference junction complementary to the measuring junction, and an arrangement to maintain the reference junction at a constant temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 183]    183By current modifying sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter wherein the sensor has a temperature-responsive variation in electrical impedance from which the temperature determination is obtained.
(1) Note. Included in this and indented subclasses are circuitry arrangements not specifically provided for in subclasses 164-182.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 184]    184Reactive element (e.g., capacitive):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the temperature is sensed by a variation in the ratio of the voltage drop across the sensor to the quadrature current through the sensor.
(1) Note. Systems having capacitive or inductive sensors are classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 185]    185Detail of resistive sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter including significant structure of a resistive sensing element.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 25+ for resistance temperature sensors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 186]    186With specified recording arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter having structure for generating a permanent or semi-permanent record of the measured temperature.
(1) Note. A temperature measuring device including only nominal recitation of a recorder will be classified according to the temperature measuring structure.
(2) Note. The record may be a visible representation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

346Recorders,   subclasses 33+ for recorders responsive to temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 187]    187Mechanical (e.g., expansion or contraction of material):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the quantitative temperature determination is given by a variation of force, position, or motion caused by a variation in a temperature-responsive mechanical property of a sensing material.
(1) Note. Such mechanical properties include expansion or contraction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

60Power Plants,   subclasses 516+ for expansion and contraction power plants.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 188]    188Having electrical indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter having electrical measurement of the mechanical variation to produce an electrical current for temperature determination.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

163+,for temperature determination by directly sensing a thermally variable electrical sensor parameter.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 189]    189Plural zones (e.g., indoor-outdoor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter including plural distinct temperature measurements at distinct locations.
(1) Note. The several indications of the measurements may be displayed at a single station.
(2) Note. Included herein are coupled displays of indoor and outdoor temperature.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

110+,for a single function of plural spaced temperatures.
166+,for similar subject matter utilizing an electrical or magnetic heat sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 190]    190Indicating tube type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter wherein the expansion of a sensing or indicating material is visible through a transparent tube.
(1) Note. The tube or its mounting usually has a graduated scale to provide a numerical indication.
(2) Note. Although the material is usually a liquid, use of a gas or a semisolid material is included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 191]    191With optical element (e.g., magnifying):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Subject matter combined with a distinct arrangement for optically modifying the temperature indication.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

193,for an indicating tube itself shaped so as to form an optical element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 192]    192With holder for shaking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Subject matter having an arrangement to assist in returning an expanded portion of the sensing material back to a reference or storage position.
(1) Note. The reference or storage position usually refers to an enlarged bulb at the sensing portion of the thermometer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 335.09 for whirling psychrometers (i.e., wet and dry built thermometers mounted to be whirled on a support to cause wet bulb evaporation.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 193]    193Having specified cross-section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Subject matter wherein the cross-section configuration of the transparent tube is particularly described.
(1) Note. This subclass includes a transparent indicating tube shaped so as to form an optical element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

191,for an indicating tube thermometer having a distinct optical element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 194]    194With support or housing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Subject matter combined with a particular mounting or enclosing arrangement for the thermometer.
(1) Note. Such structure having any additional function than support or housing for the thermometer is classified in subclasses 141+, above.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 195]    195With detail of motion transmitting mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter having significant detail of a mechanism for transmitting motion from a sensing element to an indicating element.
(1) Note. The term "mechanism" requires at least two relatively moving elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 196]    196One sensing element within another:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter having a compound sensing element with two distinct mechanical sensors one of which surrounds the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 197]    197With compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter having an arrangement to vary the indication in response to a condition other than the measured temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 198]    198With adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter having an arrangement to modify the temperature indication.
(1) Note. Such adjustment is often performed manually.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 199]    199Mechanical loading of sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Subject matter including adjustment of the stress or tension applied to the temperature sensing element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 200]    200Adjustment of limit stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Subject matter including an adjustable element for limiting thermally caused motion of the temperature sensor.
(1) Note. Included herein are screw-threaded stop elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 201]    201Expanding fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter using the temperature responsive expansion or contraction of a confined fluid to determine temperature.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

190+,for an indicating tube-type thermometer with an expanding fluid therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 202]    202With distinct pressure transmitting fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Subject matter having a solid force transmitting element applying pressure on a second confined fluid in response to the pressure of the sensing fluid, which second fluid pressure is measured to provide the temperature determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 203]    203Bourdon tube or bellows:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Subject matter wherein the fluid is confined to an elastic tube having either (1) a flexible corrugated wall, or (2) a curved or twisted configuration such that an increase of fluid pressure tends to straighten the tube.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 729.1 for pressure measurement by a bellow; and subclass 732 for pressure measurement by a Bourdon tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 204]    204Multiple distinct sensing elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter having a sensor including two or more separate elements cooperating to increase the mechanical variation causing indication.
(1) Note. The separate sensing elements are located at a single location to increase the effect of temperature change.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

110+,for a single function of plural sensors in different locations.
189,for a mechanical thermometer indicating the temperatures at different locations.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 205]    205Compound sensing element (e.g., bimetallic):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter having a solid sensing element composed of plural materials joined together along a surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 206]    206Coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Subject matter in which the sensing element is continuously curved so as to form a spiral having plural turns.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 207]    207Helix:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein the spiral element extends in the direction of it"s axis of symmetry.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 208]    208HOUSING, SUPPORT, OR ADJUNCT:
 Subject matter particularly adapted for enclosing, protecting, holding or otherwise perfecting subject matter classified in this class, but not of itself performing a measurement or test, and not elsewhere classified.
(1) Note. A thermal measuring or testing arrangement including a housing, support or adjunct is classified in the appropriate preceding subclass.

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12+,for detail of sample holder in a differential thermal analysis arrangement.
38,for calorimetric heat value ignition chamber detail.
192,for detail of a holder combined with thermometer.
194,for detail of a support or housing combined with thermometer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   for an instrument casing for a measuring device, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 209]    209Removable probe cover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Subject matter drawn to an element particularly adapted to fit over a temperature sensor during measurement.

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158,for the combination of a cover and a thermometer or thermometer probe.

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206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 306 for a thermometer storage package.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass 210]    210MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter not classifiable in any of the preceding subclasses.
  

E-SUBCLASSES

E-subclasses in USPC Class 374/E19.001-E1.026 were created as duplicates of EPO groups in G01K and its indents. With the implementation of CPC, these E-subclasses should no longer be used. Instead, use CPC groups in G01K and its indents.

The E-subclasses in U.S. Class 374 provide for calorimetric devices and methods and devices and methods for testing or calibrating calorimetric devices. They also provide for thermometers, details and adaptations of thermometers, and devices and methods for testing or calibrating thermometers.

[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.001]    E1.001DETAILS OF THERMOMETERS NOT SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR PARTICULAR TYPES OF THERMOMETER:
 This main subclass provides for thermometer details of general utility. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/00.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E7.042,for circuits for reducing thermal inertia.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.002]    E1.002Special applications of indicating or recording means, e.g., for remote indications, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/02.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.003]    E1.003Recording:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/02B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.004]    E1.004For remote:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/02C.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.005]    E1.005Arrangements for monitoring a plurality of temperatures, e.g., by multiplexing, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/02D.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.006]    E1.006Arrangements for numerical indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/02F.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.007]    E1.007Scales:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/04.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.008]    E1.008Temperature indication combined with the indication of another variable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.007.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/04B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.009]    E1.009Arrangements for facilitating reading, e.g., illumination, magnifying glass, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.007.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/06.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.01]    E1.01Of liquid column thermometers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.009.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/06B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.011]    E1.011Protective devices, e.g., casings, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/08.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.012]    E1.012For clinical thermometers, e.g., contamination preventing sleeves, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.011.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/08B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.013]    E1.013For tympanic thermometers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.012.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/08B2.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.014]    E1.014For preventing chemical attack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.011.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/10.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.015]    E1.015For siderurgical use:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.014.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/10B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.016]    E1.016For preventing damage due to heat overloading:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.011.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/12.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.017]    E1.017For siderurgical use:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.016.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/12B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.018]    E1.018Supports; Fastening devices; Mounting thermometers in particular locations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/14.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.019]    E1.019For measuring surface temperatures, e.g., of pipe walls, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/14B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.02]    E1.02Arrangements for moving thermometers to or from a measuring position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/14C.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.021]    E1.021Special arrangements for conducting heat from the object to the sensitive element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/16.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.022]    E1.022For reducing thermal inertia:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.021.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/18.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.023]    E1.023Compensating for effects of temperature changes other than those to be measured, e.g., changes in ambient temperature, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/20.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.024]    E1.024By means of fluid contained in a hollow body having parts which are deformable or displaceable under the pressure developed by the fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.023.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/22
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.025]    E1.025By means of compounded strips or plates, e.g., by bimetallic strips, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.023.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/24.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E1.026]    E1.026Compensating for effects of pressure changes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E1.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K1/26.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.001]    E3.001THERMOMETERS GIVING RESULTS OTHER THAN MOMENTARY VALUE OF TEMPERATURE:
 This main subclass provides forthermometers which indicate a specific temperature or a relative temperature. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/00.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.002]    E3.002Circuits arrangements for indicating a predetermined temperature :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/00C.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.003]    E3.003Giving means values; giving integrated values:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/02.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.004]    E3.004In respect of time:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.003.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/04.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.005]    E3.005In respect of space:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.003.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/0.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.006]    E3.006Giving differences of values; giving differentiated values :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/08.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E7.004,for similar subject matter using thermoelectric elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.007]    E3.007In respect of time, e.g., reacting only to a quick change of temperature, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.006.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/10.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.008]    E3.008Based upon expansion or contraction of materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.007.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/12.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E3.009]    E3.009In respect of space:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E3.006.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K3/14.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.001]    E5.001MEASURING TEMPERATURE BASED ON THE EXPANSION OR CONTRACTION OF A MATERIAL:
 This main subclass provides for temperature indicators responsive to the expansion or contraction of a material caused by a temperature change. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/00.

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E3.001,for temperature indicators giving other than momentary value of temperature.
E11.004,for temperature indicators of vapor arising from a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.002]    E5.002The material being a liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/02.

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E5.019,for similar subject matter wherein the material is contained in a hollow body having parts which are deformable or displaceable under the pressure developed by the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.003]    E5.003Manufacturing of this particular type of thermometer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/02B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.004]    E5.004Details:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/04.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.005]    E5.005Arrangements for driving back the liquid column:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/06.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.006]    E5.006Capillary tubes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/08.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.007]    E5.007Containers for the liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/10.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.008]    E5.008Selection of liquid compositions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/12.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.009]    E5.009The liquid displacing a further liquid column or a solid body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/14.

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E5.014,for maximum or minimum indication.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.01]    E5.01With electric contacts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/16.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.011]    E5.011With electric conversion means for final indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/18.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.012]    E5.012With provision for expansion indicating over not more than a few degrees, e.g., clinical thermometer, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/22.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.013]    E5.013With means for indicating a maximum, e.g., a constriction in the capillary tube, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.012.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/22B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.014]    E5.014With means for indicating a maximum or a minimum or both :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/20.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.015]    E5.015With provision for measuring the difference between two temperatures:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/24.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.016]    E5.016With provision for adjusting zero point of scale, e.g., Beckmann thermometer, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/26.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.017]    E5.017The material being a gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/28.

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E5.019,for similar subject matter in which the material is contained in a hollow body having parts which are deformable or displaceable under the pressure developed by the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.018]    E5.018The gas displacing a liquid column:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.017.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/30.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.019]    E5.019The material being a fluid contained in a hollow body having parts which are deformable or displaceable under the pressure developed by the material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/32.

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E11.005,for similar subject matter in which the pressure is developed by evaporation.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.02]    E5.02Selection of fluid compositions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/32B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.021]    E5.021Using a fluid container connected to the deformable body by means of a capillary tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/32D.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.022]    E5.022The body being a tubular spring, e.g., Bourdon tube, etc. :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/36.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.023]    E5.023Of spiral formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.022.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/38.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.024]    E5.024Of helical formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.022.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/40.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.025]    E5.025The body being a bellows:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/42.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.026]    E5.026The body being a capsule:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/34.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.027]    E5.027The body being a cylinder and piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/44.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.028]    E5.028With electric conversion means for final indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/46.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.029]    E5.029Using electrical contact making or breaking devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.028.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/46B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.03]    E5.03The material being a solid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/48.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.031]    E5.031Using materials with a configuration memory, e.g., Ni-Ti alloys, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.03.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/48B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.032]    E5.032Using microstructures, e.g., made of silicon, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.03.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/48M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.033]    E5.033Arranged for free expansion or contraction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.03.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/50.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.034]    E5.034With electrical conversion means for final indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.033.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/52.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.035]    E5.035Consisting of pivotally-connected elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.03.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/54.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.036]    E5.036Constrained so that expansion or contraction causes a deformation of the solid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.03.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/56.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.037]    E5.037The solid body being formed of compounded strips or plates, e.g., bimetallic strip, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.036.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/62.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.038]    E5.038Details of the compounds system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.037.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/64.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.039]    E5.039Selection of composition of the components of the system :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.038.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/66.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.04]    E5.04Shape of the system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.038.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/68.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.041]    E5.041Specially adapted for indicating or recording:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.037.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/70.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.042]    E5.042With electric transmission means for final indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.041.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/72.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.043]    E5.043The solid body being constrained at more than one point, e.g., rod, plate, diaphragm, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.036.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/58.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E5.044]    E5.044The body being a flexible wire or ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E5.043.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K5/60.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.001]    E7.001MEASURING TEMPERATURE BASED ON THE USE OF ELECTRIC OR MAGNETIC ELEMENTS DIRECTLY SENSITIVE TO HEAT:
 This main subclass provides for devices or methods for measuring temperatures using sensing elements having an electrical or magnetic property which is varied by heat. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/00.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E3.001,for temperature indicators giving results other than momentary value of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.002]    E7.002Using pyroelectric elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/00C.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.003]    E7.003Using superconductive elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/00D.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.004]    E7.004Using thermoelectric elements, e.g., thermocouples, etc. :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/02.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.005]    E7.005Provided with specially adapted connectors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/02D.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.006]    E7.006Expendable thermocouples:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/02F.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.007]    E7.007Arrangements for signaling rupture or disconnection of the thermocouple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/02G.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.008]    E7.008Using microstructures, e.g., made of silicon, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/02M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.009]    E7.009The object to be measured not forming one of the thermo-electric materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/04.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.01]    E7.01The thermo-electric materials being arranged one within the other with the junction at one end exposed to the object, e.g., sheathed type, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.009.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/06.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.011]    E7.011The object to be measured forming one of the thermo-electric materials, e.g., pointed type, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/08.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.012]    E7.012Arrangements for compensating for auxiliary variables, e.g., length of lead, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/10.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.013]    E7.013Arrangements with respect to the cold junction, e.g., preventing influence of temperature of surrounding air, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.012.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/12.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.014]    E7.014Circuits for cold-junction compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.013.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/13.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.015]    E7.015Arrangements for modifying the output characteristic, e.g., linearizing, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/14.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.016]    E7.016Particular circuit arrangements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/02C.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.018]    E7.018Using resistive elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/16.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.019]    E7.019The element being an electrolyte:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/26.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.02]    E7.02In a specially-adapted circuit, e.g., bridge circuit, etc. :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.019.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/28.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.021]    E7.021The element being a linear resistance, e.g., platinum resistance thermometer etc.,:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/18.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.022]    E7.022Characterized by the use of the resistive element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.021.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/18B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.023]    E7.023Using microstructures:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.021.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/18M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.024]    E7.024In a specially-adapted circuit, e.g., bridge circuit, etc. :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.021.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/20.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.025]    E7.025In an oscillator circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.024.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/20B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.026]    E7.026In a potentiometer circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.024.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/20C.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.027]    E7.027For modifying the output characteristic, e.g., linearizing, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.024.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/21.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.028]    E7.028The element being a non-linear resistance, e.g., thermistor, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/22.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.029]    E7.029Characterized by the shape of the resistive element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.028.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/22B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.03]    E7.03Using microstructures, e.g., silicon spreading resistance, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.028.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/22M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.031]    E7.031In a specially-adapted circuit, e.g., bridge circuit, etc. :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.028.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/24.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.032]    E7.032In an oscillator circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.031.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/24B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.033]    E7.033For modifying the output characteristic, e.g., linearizing, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.031.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/25.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.034]    E7.034Using thermal noise of resistances or conductors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/30.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.035]    E7.035Using semiconducting elements having PN junctions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/01.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.036]    E7.036Using microstructures, e.g., made of silicon, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.035.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/01M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.037]    E7.037Using capacitative elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/34.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.038]    E7.038The dielectric constant of which is temperature dependant :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.037.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/34B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.039]    E7.039Using magnetic elements, e.g., magnets, coils, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/36.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.04]    E7.04The variations of temperature influencing the magnetic permeability:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.039.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/38.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.041]    E7.041Using ionization of gases:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/40.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.042]    E7.042Circuits for reducing thermal inertia; Circuits for predicting the stationary value of temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/42.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E7.043]    E7.043Thermal management of integrated systems:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E7.042.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K7/42M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E9.001]    E9.001MEASURING TEMPERTURE BASED ON MOVEMENTS CAUSED BY REDISTRIBUTION OF WEIGHT, E.G., TILTING THERMOMETER ETC.:
 This main subclass provides for temperature indicators responsive to a redistribution of weight caused by a change of temperature. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K9/00.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E3.001,for temperature indicators not giving momentary value of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.001]    E11.001MEASURING TEMPERATURE BASED UPON PHYSICAL OR CHEMICAL CHANGES NOT COVERED BY ANY OF THE PRECEDING SUBCLASSES:
 This main subclass provides for temperature indicators responsive to a physical or chemical change caused by a temperature change and not provided for in any of the preceding subclasses. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/00.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.002]    E11.002Using absorption or generation of gas, e.g., hydrogen, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/00B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.003]    E11.003Using measurement of the effect of a material on microwaves or longer electromagnetic waves, e.g., measuring temperature via microwaves emitted by the object, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/00D.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.004]    E11.004Using evaporation or sublimation, e.g., by observing boiling, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/02.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.005]    E11.005From material contained in a hollow body having parts which are deformable or displaceable under the pressure developed by the vapor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/04.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.006]    E11.006Using melting, freezing, or softening:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/06.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.007]    E11.007Of disposable test bodies, e.g., cone, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.006.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/08.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.008]    E11.008Using sintering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/10.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.009]    E11.009Using measurement of acoustic effects:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/22.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.01]    E11.01Of the velocity of propagation of sound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.009.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/24.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.011]    E11.011Of resonant frequencies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.009.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/26.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.012]    E11.012Using surface acoustic wave (SAW):
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.011.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/26M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.013]    E11.013Using measurements of density:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/28.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.014]    E11.014Using measurement of the effect of a material on X-radiation, gamma radiation or particle radiation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/30.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.015]    E11.015Using changes in transmission, scattering or fluorescence in optical fibers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/32.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.016]    E11.016At discrete locations in the fiber, e.g., by means of Bragg gratings, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.015.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/32B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.017]    E11.017Using changes in fluorescence, e.g., at the distal end of the fiber, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.016.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/32B2.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.018]    E11.018Using change of color or translucency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/12.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.019]    E11.019Using change in reflectance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/12R.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.02]    E11.02Of inorganic materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/14.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.021]    E11.021Of organic materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/16.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.022]    E11.022Liquid crystals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.021.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/16B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.023]    E11.023Of materials which change translucency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.018.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/18.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E11.024]    E11.024Using thermo-luminescent materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E11.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K11/20.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.001]    E13.001ADAPTATIONS OF THERMOMETERS FOR SPECIFIC PURPOSES:
 This main subclass provides for indicating devices designed for specific uses or environments. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/00.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.002]    E13.002For measuring body temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/00B.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E7.041,for prediction aspects.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.003]    E13.003Infrared clinical thermometers, e.g., tympanic, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.002.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/00B2.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.004]    E13.004For cryogenic purposes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/00C.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.005]    E13.005Using microstructures, e.g., made of silicon, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/00C2.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.006]    E13.006For measuring temperature of moving fluids or granular materials capable of flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/02.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.007]    E13.007Suction thermometers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.006.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/02B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.008]    E13.008For measuring temperature of moving solid bodies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/04.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.009]    E13.009In linear movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.008.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/06.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.01]    E13.01In rotary movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.008.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/08.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.011]    E13.011For measuring temperature within piled or stacked materials :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/10.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E1.021,for measuring temperature within piled or stacked materials by special arrangements for conducting heat from the object to the sensitive heat element.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.012]    E13.012Combined with sampling devices for measuring temperatures of samples of materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/12.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E13.013]    E13.013For siderurgical purposes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E13.012.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K13/12B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E15.001]    E15.001TESTING OR CALIBRATING OF THERMOMETERS:
 This main subclass provides fordevices or methods for testing or calibrating temperature measuring devices. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K15/00.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E15.002]    E15.002Calibrated temperature sources, temperature standards therefor :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E15.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K15/00B.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E7.013,for arrangements with respect to the cold junction of thermo-electric elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.001]    E17.001MEASURING QUANTITY OF HEAT:
 This main subclass provides for devices or methods for measuring the amount of heat produced or absorbed by chemical reactions or by physical changes or for measuring heat capacity. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/00.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

E3.001,to E11.001, for measuring temperature by calorimetry.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.002]    E17.002For measuring the power of light beams, e.g., laser beams, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/00B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.003]    E17.003Microcalorimeters, e.g., using silicon microstructures etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/00M.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.004]    E17.004Calorimeters using transport of an indicating substances, e.g., evaporation calorimeters, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/02.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.005]    E17.005Where evaporation, sublimation or condensation caused by heating or cooling, is measured:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.004.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/02B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.006]    E17.006Calorimeters using compensation methods:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/04.
(1) Note. This subclass covers calorimetry in which the absorbed or released quantity of heat to be measured is compensated by a measured quantity of heating or cooling.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.007]    E17.007Measuring quantity of heat conveyed by flowing mediums, e.g., in heating systems, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.001.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/06.
(1) Note. This subclass covers, for example, the measurement of the quantity of heat in a transporting medium, delivered to or consumed in an expenditure device.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.008]    E17.008Based upon measurement of temperature difference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.007.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/08.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.009]    E17.009Between an inlet and an outlet point, combined with measurement of rate of flow of the medium if such, by integration during a certain time-interval:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.008.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/10.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.01]    E17.01Indicating product of flow and temperature difference directly :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.009.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/12.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.011]    E17.011Using mechanical means for both measurements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.01.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/14.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.012]    E17.012Using electrical or magnetic means for both measurements :
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.01.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/16.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.013]    E17.013Using electrical or magnetic means for one measurement and mechanical means for the other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.01.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/18.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.014]    E17.014Where the indicating-instrument is driven electrically or magnetically by the temperature-measurement device and mechanically by the flow-measurement device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.013.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/18B.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E17.015]    E17.015Across a radiating surface, combined with ascertainment of the heat transmission coefficient:
 This subclass is indented under subclass E17.008.  This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K17/20.
  
[List of Patents for class 374 subclass E19.001]    E19.001TESTING OR CALIBRATING CALORIMETER:
 This main subclass provides for devices or methods for testing or calibrating calorimeters. This subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA classification G01K19/00.
  

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