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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 435]   CLASS 435,CHEMISTRY: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

STATEMENT OF CLASS SUBJECT MATTER

This class provides for the following subject matter when not provided for elsewhere:

A. A process of using a microorganism or enzyme to synthesize a chemical product.

B. A process of treating a material with a microorganism or enzyme to separate, liberate, or purify a preexisting substance.

C. An in vitro process of measuring and testing in which: (1) A microorganism or enzyme is used to determine the presence or identity of a compound or composition in a sample; (2) A microorganism is identified by propagation; (3) An enzyme is identified by its catalytic activity; (4) The presence of microorganisms is detected; (5) A live microorganism is used in an antigen antibody test as an antigen; (6) Fixed or stabilized nonliving microorganisms, cells, or tissues are involved.

D. A process of propagating a microorganism.

E. A process in which the genetic structure of a microorganism or extrachromosomal genetic structure is altered.

F. A process of organ or tissue maintenance.

G.A process of mashing or malting.

H. Apparatus claimed or solely disclosed as for A-G.

I. Microorganisms, per se, or the subcellular parts thereof.

J. Enzymes, immobilized enzymes or enzyme containing compositions not otherwise provided for and the processes for purifying enzymes or forming immobilized enzymes.

K. Compositions claimed or solely disclosed as for the propagation of microorganisms or for measuring and testing processes in C above.

L. Using microorganisms to destroy hazardous or toxic waste.

CLASSIFICATION GUIDELINES FOR THIS CLASS

APPARATUS

This class takes only apparatus claimed or solely disclosed as for fermentation or enzymology, organ, and tissue maintenance or genetic engineering not otherwise provided for. Apparatus by name only which is claimed as a collection of compounds or compositions in a kit without structure is classified as described below in Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class.

COMPOSITIONS

In general, this class will not provide for compositions other than an immobilized or insolubilized enzyme or a test or culture media.

COMPOUNDS

In general, this class does not provide for compounds other than an immobilized or insolubilized enzyme or an enzyme, per se. Production of metal or ammonium salts of a compound are classified with the production of that compound.

AMINO ACID RESIDUES

If upon hydrolysis of an unidentified product the only residues are amino acids, it should be presumed that the product is a protein or peptide. If other organic moieties are present after hydrolysis of the product then placement should be made upon the basis of the presence of such structure in the product.

PRESUMPTION

In the absence of a clearly claimed step of killing or inactivating a microorganism in an antigen-antibody test the microorganism should be treated as a living antigen.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

See References to Other Classes, below, for lines with classes providing for the use of a microorganism, an enzyme and the apparatus therefor and the composition classes providing for the products of a microorganism or enzyme and for lines with other related classes.

The rules for determining Class placement of the Original Reference (OR) for claimed chemical compositions are set forth in the Class Definition of Class 252 in the section LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS, subsection COMPOSITION CLASS SUPERIORITY, which includes a hierarchical ORDER OF SUPERIORITY FOR COMPOSITION CLASSES.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

4+,Apparatus by name only which is claimed as a collection of compounds or compositions in a kit without structure is classified on the basis of the compositions into the subclasses 4+ area.
84+,and indented subclasses 95, 96, 98, and 99 for compounds produced by hydrolysis of larger structures with subclasses
94,reserved for the enzymatic interconversion of isomers.
97,100 - 105 provide for building up from smaller saccharide units.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   provides for processes of (a) dyeing employing a microorganism or enzyme (b) treating hides or skins by use of a microorganism or enzyme with subsequent tanning of the hides or skins or subsequent operations that are preliminary and peculiar to tanning of hides or skins or peculiar to making leather.
  • Class 435 provides for a process of using an enzyme or microorganism to treat a hide or skin particularly depilating or bating as well as treating feathers or animal tissue with a microorganism or enzyme not otherwise provided for.
8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   provides for compositions for dyeing materials of any kind which may contain a microorganism or enzyme.
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   provides for dust cloths, mops, or other cleaning devices which include detergents which may contain enzymes.
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   provides for processes and apparatus for drying of a solid which may include a microorganism enzyme or media composition.
  • Class 435 provides for processes of culture or propagation of microorganisms including the production of enzymes and media and provides for the combination of culture or production with drying or another Class 34 operation.
48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   for gaseous compositions for heating or illuminating by combustion which may be the result of a process using a microorganism or enzyme.
47Plant Husbandry,   which provides for mushrooms or processes of or apparatus for cultivating or culturing mushrooms; sprouting or germinating seeds for planting, or testing the sprouting or germinating power of seeds; articles or compositions that include seeds and either a microorganism or enzyme and process of making such articles or compositions; processes of cultivating or culturing seed plants, or other nonfungal plants that include the use of a microorganism or enzyme, articles, compositions, or apparatus, for use in the above processes, or in making articles or compositions, that include seeds and microorganism or enzymes or processes of making articles or compositions for use in the above noted processes.
  • Class 435 provides for materials that contain germinated seeds, for processes that include germinating seeds or for apparatus for use therein, e.g., malting grain and malting apparatus, etc., as well as processes involving propagation of unicellular algae or undifferentiated plant cells where there is no plant propagation and for the extraction of enzymes from plants or plant products. Class 435 also provides for the production of starter culture for mushrooms or for the propagation of undifferentiated plant cells as well as the culture of unicellular algae.
48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   for fuel gas compositions when the processes of making such compositions involve a microorganism; processes of producing fuel gas compositions that include a microorganism; articles, compositions, or apparatus, for uses in such processes; or processes of making such articles or compositions for such uses.
  • Class 435 provides for the production or purification of a gas by the use of microorganisms or enzymes if such process is not ancillary to the production of fertilizer or a Class 210 liquid purification by living organisms or directed to the production of a fuel gas by living organisms.
62Refrigeration,   for processes or apparatus for preserving an organ, microorganism, or enzyme by the removal of heat and the cooled or frozen product resulting. The process may involve the use of a composition to eliminate or minimize cooling or freezing damage, e.g., sperm preservation, etc.
  • Class 435 provides for methods and apparatus of maintaining the viability of an animal organ tissue including blood and sperm or cells as well as the process and apparatus for the treatment or propagation of animal cells or tissue.
71Chemistry: Fertilizers,   provides for processes of producing a composition or article having utility as a fertilizer by use of a microorganism or enzyme as well as the composition containing a microorganism or enzyme.
  • Class 435 provides for the production of microorganisms having utility for fertilizer production and microorganism containing starter compositions useful in a Class 71 process.
73Measuring and Testing,   provides for processes and apparatus for determining the physical properties of the product of fermentation or enzymology and include process and apparatus for measuring the rate of sedimentation of elements in blood.
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   provides for processes and compositions containing a microorganism or enzyme for use in processes of obtaining free metals from metal compounds or ores. Class 75, in particular, provides for processes of hydrometallurgy processes of beneficiating ores or recovery of elemental metal from waste in which a microorganism or enzyme is used when the reduction to elemental metal is claimed.
  • Class 435 provides for the process of producing a microorganism or enzyme useful in ore treating and for processes of cultivating microorganisms on sulfur containing media.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   for apparatus adapted for the preparation of a beverage or beverage intermediate by carrying out primary ethyl alcoholic fermentations and apparatus for the aging, refining, and purification of alcoholic beverages.
  • Class 435 provides for apparatus claimed or solely disclosed as used for propagating a microorganism or for use of an enzyme.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   provides for processes which use an enzyme or microorganism to produce a coating or plastic composition.
  • Class 435 provides for the use of a microorganism or enzyme to produce a product which may be a composition not otherwise provided for.
127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   provides for the hydrolysis of carbohydrates including their conversion to sugar by chemical means or process using an enzyme or microorganism only where the hydrolysis by microorganism or enzyme is followed by steps of concentration purification or treatment (such as crystallization) to make a sugar or syrup. Additionally, Class 127 provides for the products of such processes.
  • Class 435 provides for hydrolysis of a carbohydrate by a microorganism or enzyme when not followed by steps of concentration, purification, or treatment to make a sugar or syrup. Class 435 also provides for hydrolysis by any method when followed by treatment with a microorganism or enzyme to produce alcohol.
128Surgery,   appropriate subclasses provide for methods of blood transfusion and insemination by artificial means as well as for methods of treatment of the living body or a test which involves contact with a body and apparatus used in the inspection and treatment of diseases of the bodies of men and animals which apparatus is provided with means for connection to the living body.
  • Class 435 provides for the maintenance of blood or sperm and viable tissue and virus cultures and the media for such processes.
131Tobacco,   for tobacco-containing articles, or compositions, or articles or compositions when tobacco is used in the making thereof, when the processes of making such articles or compositions involve the use of a microorganism or enzyme; processes of making such articles or compositions, or treating tobacco, that include the use of a microorganism or enzyme; or articles, compositions, or apparatus, for uses in such processes, or processes of making the latter articles or compositions for uses in above noted processes.
  • Class 435 provides for processes of growing a microorganism or using an enzyme the media for which may comprise plant material.
137Fluid Handling,   is the residual place for processes, systems, combinations, and subcombinations for fluid material handling. Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Automatic Contro, in the class definition of Class 137 provide a guide to the automatic control provided for therein.
  • Class 435 will provide for condition responsive control of a process with a step of microbial growth or enzymology and for condition responsive control apparatus when claimed or solely disclosed as involving a microorganism or enzyme.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   provides for the concentration of solids held in solution or suspension by evaporation of liquid and the recovery of a concentrate or a dry solid which include the treatment of a feed stream to or the treatment of a product of a microorganism or enzyme.
  • Class 435 is superior to Class 159 and will provide for the concentration of a solid by the evaporation of liquid when combined with process or apparatus involving a microorganism or enzyme.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   provides for processes and apparatus which includes use of a microorganism or enzyme when combined with a step peculiar to Class 162 as well as the use of a microorganism or enzyme as a component of a paper or fiber pulp.
  • Class 435 provides for fiber paper pulping and textile treatment by a microorganism or enzyme, per se. For an exhaustive listing of fiber treatment classes, see the notes immediately following the class definition of Class 162.
166Wells,   provides for processes and apparatus for treating oil or an oil bearing mineral with a microorganism or enzyme while in the ground.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   provides for processes and apparatus involving electrical or wave energy. Class 204 provides for electrophoretic or electro-osmotic separation and purification of a compound or element and for other electrical separation or purification of a liquid when not provided for elsewhere, for the use of electrophoretic or electro-osmotic techniques to immobilize a compound or element where not provided for elsewhere, and for processes for use of an electrode containing a microorganism or enzyme for measuring or testing.
  • Class 435 provides for processes and apparatus for measuring or testing in which a microorganism is cultured or an enzyme functions catalytically when a nonelectrical or nonwave energy property is measured, or when an electrical or wave energy property is measured separate and apart, but in combination with Class 435 subject matter; and for processes and apparatus for electrical or wave energy treatment of microorganisms or enzymes when the treatment is solely disclosed for use with viable microorganisms or catalytically active enzymes.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for processes of measuring and testing in which the activity of a microorganism or enzyme is measured by change in electrolytic action, for electrolytic separation and purification of a compound or element when not provided for elsewhere, for the use of electrolytic techniques to immobilize a compound or element where not provided for elsewhere, and for processes of use of an electrode containing a microorganism or enzyme for measuring or testing.
  • Class 435 provides for processes and apparatus for measuring or testing in which a microorganism is cultured or an enzyme functions catalytically when a nonelectrolytic property is measured, or when an electrolytic property is measured separate and apart, but in combination with Class 435 subject matter; and for processes and apparatus for electrical or wave energy treatment of microorganisms or enzymes when the treatment is solely disclosed for use with viable microorganisms or catalytically active enzymes.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   provides for processes of treating impure liquids by processes including a microorganism, e.g., bacteriological digestion of sewage including the use of an immobilized microorganism and the apparatus for such processes, as well as methods of physical separation of microorganisms and viruses from liquid media.
  • Class 435, provides for the growth of a microorganism on a liquid media and the apparatus therefor as well as providing for process utilizing an immobilized microorganism, per se.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   provides for processes and apparatus for the comminution or disintegration of solids which includes the comminution of the feed material to or the product of a microorganism or enzyme.
  • Class 435, provides for the combination of comminution or disintegration with a process or apparatus for microorganism use or enzymology.
250Radiant Energy,   provides for all methods and apparatus for using, generating, controlling, or detecting radiant energy including radioactivity not elsewhere provided for. Class 250 provides a comprehensive guide in References to Other Classes for classes providing for similar subject matter.
  • Class 435, provides for the use of radiant energy to alter the genetic structure of a microorganism as part of a measuring and testing process or in combination with microbial growth or enzymology.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   provides for the synthesis and liberation and purification by chemical or physical means of compounds and extracts falling within the class definition of Class 260 where such processes do not include a step of treatment by a microorganism or enzyme. Processes of making chemical compounds that include the use of a microorganism or enzyme are controlling for classification over other processes of making chemical compounds.
  • Class 435, provides for a process of synthesis or liberation, separation, or purification of a compound utilizing a microorganism or enzyme, per se. Class 435, provides for an enzyme, per se, and the process of recovering the enzyme from a natural source or immobilizing or insolubilizing an enzyme. Class 435, provides for a process utilizing a microorganism or enzyme combined with a physical separation or purification. Class 435, will provide for preliminary chemical treatment to produce a starting material which is subjected to the action of a microorganism or enzyme or a chemical reaction simultaneously with or subsequent to the action of a microorganism or enzyme which perfects or improves the action of the microorganism or enzyme.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   provides for organic compounds, per se, and methods of synthesizing them by means other than a microorganism or enzymes.
366Agitating,   provides for apparatus and processes restricted to causing fluid or particulate material to move irregularly and commingle.
  • Class 435, provides for apparatus with agitators claimed or solely disclosed as useful for microorganism propagation or enzymology and for processes of microorganism propagation or enzymology which may include an agitation step.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   provides for processes of purification of fermentation off gas by chemical means as well as the recovery of metal values by means other than microorganisms or enzymes.
  • Class 435, provides for processes of synthesis of organic or inorganic compounds involving a microorganism or enzyme.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   for: compositions (A) for preventing, alleviating, treating, or curing abnormal and pathological conditions of the living body, for maintaining, increasing, decreasing, limiting, or destroying a physiologic body function, for diagnosing a physiological condition or state by an in vivo test, for controlling or protecting an environment or living body by attracting, disabling, inhibiting, killing, modifying, repelling, or retarding an animal or microorganism, (B) for deodorizing, protecting, adorning, or grooming a body, (C) for fermentates and extracts for use in A or B and not elsewhere provided for, and (D) such compositions defined in terms of specific structure; methods of making the above compositions; methods of using the class defined compositions for purposes in A and B; and methods of using compounds, per se, for purposes in A and B; subclasses 85.1+ for a lymphokine composition; subclasses 130.1+ for a bioaffecting or body-treating composition of an immunoglobulin, antiserum, antibody, or antibody fragment and for methods of immunizing to produce antibodies for recovery, which antibodies are characterized as being useful as bioaffecting or body-treating agents (e.g., to provide passive immunity); subclasses 184.1+ for a bio-affecting or body-treating composition comprising an antigen, an epitope, or another immunospecific immunoeffector, such as an immunospecific vaccine, an immunospecific stimulator of cell-mediated immunity, an immunospecific tolerogen, or an immunospecific immunosuppressor, and for methods of immunizing to produce protective immunity in vivo (i.e., for vaccination purposes); subclasses 93.1+ for a composition including whole live microorganism or virus; and subclass 94 for a composition containing an enzyme or co-enzyme.
  • Class 435, provides for a process of propagating a microorganism or using an enzyme to produce a drug or bio-affecting composition. Class 435 provides for virus culture and attenuation, for the virus or microorganism, per se, and their culture and propagation and for in vitro diagnostic tests involving a microorganism or enzyme and antigen antibody tests which involve a living microorganism or use of an enzyme label.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   provides for fermentation processes that are solely disclosed or claimed as preparing an edible, and for mixtures of enzymes or ferments solely disclosed or claimed as edible or used in the preparation of an edible. Class 426 provides for compositions and processes of preparation relating to compositions which have the capacity to ferment and produce an edible, but which are claimed as being in an inactive state, and also provides for compositions which are undergoing a fermentation to produce an edible product. See especially subclasses 11+ for alcoholic beverages, or other beverages, milk or other alimentary articles or compositions, when the beverage or other alimentary articles contain bacteria or enzymes; processes of making the same which include microorganisms or enzymes. Processes of autolysis or microbial or enzymic destruction of yeasts or other living organisms are in Class 435, subclasses 262+, but processes of preparing foods including such autolysis are in Class 426. Processes of making vinegar by methods including use of a microorganism or enzyme are in Class 426.
  • Class 435, provides for processes and apparatus of production of nonpotable ethanol and acetic acid and for processes and apparatus for diastatic mashing as well as fermentation other than primary fermentations. Class 435 also provides for compositions and processes of producing a microorganism containing starter culture useful in the production of an edible product. Class 435, will provide for production of protein from a single source by fermentation or enzymology even if the product is claimed as having a Class 426 utility. For an elaboration of the line regarding the placement of yeast patents, see (1) Note in subclass 255 of this class.
427Coating Processes,   provides for significant coating or impregnating processes when not involving subject matter proper for Class 435.
  • Class 435 provides for processes having a significant or nonsignificant coating (or impregnating) step and otherwise proper for the class.
429Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process,   provides for a current producing device having a microorganism as an integral part and the process of operating the device and a process involving the device.
  • Class 435, provides for processes of producing microorganisms in bulk, i.e., propagation of microorganisms. Class 435, Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology, provides for a photo imaging process in which an enzyme whose activity is altered upon exposure to light is used and the material therefor.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   provides for a measurement or test in which an enzyme reacts chemically, i.e., noncatalytically and antigen antibody tests for the identification of chemical species that are nondiagnostic and do not involve a living antigen.
  • Class 435, provides for a test or measurement involving a microorganism or enzyme which functions catalytically as well as antigen antibody tests involving a living microorganism.
(1) Note. The burden of showing an enzyme is functioning noncatalytically is on Class 436, i.e., the presumption, as between Class 435 and Class 436, is that an enzyme in a test functions catalytically until rebutted.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   provides for testing compositions (a) which contain an enzyme if the enzyme participates in a chemical reaction in a noncatalytic manner; and (b) which are of use in an antigen-antibody test and do not involve a microorganism or enzyme and are not diagnostic.
  • Class 435 provides for in vitro testing by or for a microorganism or enzyme or tests involving the propagation of a microorganism or catalytic use of an enzyme. Class 435 provides for antigen-antibody tests wherein a living antigen, i.e., a microorganism is involved or an enzyme label is present. Class 435, provides for processes and apparatus and material for measuring and testing blood which involve the propagation of a microorganism or catalytic functioning of an enzyme.
(1) Note. The burden of showing an enzyme is functioning noncatalytically is on Class 436, i.e., the presumption, as between Class 435 and Class 436, is that an enzyme in a testing composition functions catalytically until rebutted.
504Plant Protecting and Regulating Compositions,   provides for processes of producing a composition or article having plant stimulating or eradicating utility by using a microorganism or enzyme as well as the composition containing a microorganism or enzyme.
  • Class 435, provides for the production of microorganisms having utility for plant growth regulator production and microorganism containing starter compositions useful in a Class 504 process.
Class 510, Cleaning Compositions for Solid Surfaces, Auxiliary Compositions Therefor, or Processes of Preparing the Compositions, provides for detergent compositions containing enzymes.Class 435, provides for process of production of enzymes and enzymes, per se, and enzyme compositions not otherwise provided for.Class 516, Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting, subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art. Nominal recitation of a Class 435 process (e.g., fermentation or fermentation step) combined with a process otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 516, while recitation of a significant Class 435 step combined with a step or composition otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 435 with a discretionary cross-reference to Class 516.Class 435, provides for processes of making chemical compounds which involve micro-organisms or enzymes, other processes relating to cell, organ, or tissue growth or maintenance, compositions for use in such processes, in vitro processes of testing or measuring, certain apparatus for class provided for processes.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   for a chemical or biological library, a process of creating said library, a process of testing involving said library, or an apparatus specially adapted for creating or testing involving said library.
588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   provides for the storage to contain pathogenic organisms, e.g., virus, bacteria and medical waste, see subclass 258 .

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

ACTIVITY

Rate of metabolic or anabolic action, speed or efficiency. Mere suppression of competing strains is not viewed as increasing the activity.

BIOCHEMICAL

By means of a bacteria, yeast, animal or plant cell, or virus, or the parts thereof.

CONDENSED

Bridged or fused.

DERIVATIVE

For purposes of this class derivatives included with the production of a named compound are only the inorganic anion or inorganic cation salts thereof, e.g., metal, ammonium, halogen, carbonate, etc.

DIASTACE

For purposes of this class classified as an amylase.

FERMENTATION

The use of a microorganism or enzyme to carry a molecular transformation.

HAZARDOUS WASTE

Material that when present in the environment produces for man and other living organisms a dangerous, risky, or perilous environmental situation in so for as the physiological well being of the organism is concerned (e.g., all caustic chemicals, irritants, cancer causing agents, and other tumor producing materials).

HETERO

Containing only O, N, S, Se, or Te in addition to carbon in a ring.

MEDIA

Material which supports or sustains growth of microorganisms which material may contain substances which will not support or may inhibit the growth of selected microorganisms.

MICROORGANISM

For purposes of this class, bacteria, actinomycetales, cyanobacteria (unicellular algae), fungi, protozoa, animal cells or plant cells or virus.

NUCLEIC ACID

A polynucleotide or more than two nucleotides.

TEST MEDIA

Distinguished from (propagation) media by the presence of an indicator, e.g., chromophore, etc.

TOXIC WASTE

Materials that are direct physiological poisons to living organisms (e.g., pesticides, heavy metal ion solutions, and other materials that are poisonous to life.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 1.1]    1.1DIFFERENTIATED TISSUE OR ORGAN OTHER THAN BLOOD, PER SE, OR DIFFERENTIATED TISSUE OR ORGAN MAINTAINING; COMPOSITION THEREFOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes or compositions for the maintenance of a differentiated tissue or organ, or the differentiated tissue or organ, per se.
(1) Note. Maintenance includes keeping an organ under conditions in which it produces a product (e.g., hormone, etc.) which is later recovered.
(2) Note. Tissue is presumed to be undifferentiated in the absence of a clear showing to the contrary. The fact that a tissue continues to produce hormones, etc., is to be taken as an indication that the tissue retains its differentiation.
(3) Note. For a process to be classified in this subclass, the organ must be maintained in a viable state (e.g., in a nutrient or life sustaining media) and the tissue must contain an integral membrane. Thus, the preservation of blood plasma provided for in subclass 2 is excluded from this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

235.1+,for virus culture and treatment.
325+,for animal cells, per se, and compositions thereof; processes of propagating, maintaining, preserving, isolating, etc. animal cells or compositions; culture media therefore.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   for methods of preserving by freeze drying.
62Refrigeration,   for methods of cooling.
623Prosthesis (i.e., Artificial Body Members), Parts Thereof, or Aids and Accessories Therefor,   appropriate subclasses for implantable living glands encapsulated in a porous membrane.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 1.2]    1.2Including perfusion; composition therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.1.  Processes for the maintenance of differentiated tissue or organs by continuously perfusing with a fluid, or compositions useful in such processes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

284.1,for differentiated tissue (e.g., organ) perfusion or preservation apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 1.3]    1.3Including freezing; composition therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.1.  Processes for the maintenance of differentiated tissue or organs by freezing, or compositions useful in such processes
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 2]    2MAINTAINING BLOOD OR SPERM IN A PHYSIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE STATE OR COMPOSITIONS THEREOF OR THEREFOR OR METHODS OF IN VITRO BLOOD CELL SEPARATION OR TREATMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes or compositions for the maintenance of blood or sperm in a physiologically active state or for the in vitro separation or treatment of blood cells.
(1) Note. This subclass includes methods for preserving the viability of sperm by chemical means.
(2) Note. This subclass provides for compositions for artificial insemination.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

235.1+,where the tissue or cell culture is concomitant with virus propagation.
243+,for culture media for propagating microorganism.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

62Refrigeration,   for methods of maintaining the viability of living tissue and cells including sperm under refrigeration or in a frozen state. These processes may include the addition of chemical agents to prevent or minimize cellular damage from the refrigeration.
128Surgery,   appropriate subclasses for a method of blood transfusion or artificial insemination.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 184.1+ for therapeutic compositions containing a living cell which functions as an antigen; and subclass 529 for therapeutic compositions containing viable blood cells and a therapeutically active ingredient. See subclass 1.17 for compositions comprising a radiolabeled cell or sub-cellular structure, including red blood cells, intended for class defined uses such as in vivo diagnosing (e.g., imaging), methods of making such compositions, and nominal methods of using such compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 3]    3CONDITION RESPONSIVE CONTROL PROCESS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Process in which a process parameter is measured and that or another process parameter is varied responsive to such measurement.
(1) Note. The measurement should be by a nonsubjective means, i.e., mere observation by an operator is not sufficient to constitute measurement for purposes of this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

289,and 290, for condition or time responsive control apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 266 through 274for chemical process control or monitoring system.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 19+ for data processing in biological or biochemical applications, and subclasses 22+ for chemical analysis data processing.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 4]    4Measuring or testing process involving enzymes or microorganisms; composition or test strip therefore; processes of forming such composition or test strip:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes in which there is a direct or indirect qualitative or quantitative measurement or test of a material which contains an enzyme or microorganism or processes in which a material containing an enzyme or microorganism is used to perform a qualitative or quantitative measurement or test and compositions therefor and the processes of making such compositions.
(1) Note. "Involving" in this and the indented subclasses includes (a) the use of a known microorganism or enzyme to detect or identify a chemical compound or composition, (b) the use of a chemical compound or composition to detect or identify a microorganism or enzyme, (c) a composition containing a microorganism or enzyme for use as in (a), and (d) a composition distinguished by the presence of an indicator for use as in (b). Thus, "involving" in this and the indented subclasses means that the steps in the measurement or test either use the designated chemical compound, microorganism, or individual plant or animal cells or enzyme or the steps in the measurement or test indicate the presence or absence of the designated chemical compound, microorganism, plant or animal cell or enzyme.
(2) Note. The enzyme herein can be free or immobilized or present in a cell, tissue, or organ.
(3) Note. Compositions herein may include inert carriers that have either a single or multiple zones or chemical agents. Included as carriers are bibilous or absorbent materials and films.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174+,for immobilized enzymes, per se.
183+,for enzymes.
188,for stabilized enzymes, enzyme conjugates or compositions thereof.
235.1+,for viruses, per se.
287+,for apparatus for measuring and testing.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   for processes and apparatus for making a test or measurement of any kind not provided for in other classes. In general, the classes superior to 73 are 435, 422, 424, 204, 350, and 356.
128Surgery,   for methods of treatment of the living body or a test which involves contact with a body and apparatus used in the inspection and treatment of diseases of the bodies of men and animals which apparatus is provided with means for connection to the living body.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 2+ for processes of controlling the flow of a fluid in response to the sensing of a condition or characteristic of a fluid.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400 through 435for electrolytic analysis or testing apparatus, especially subclasses 403.01-403.15 for electrolytic analysis or testing apparatus including biological material or analyzing or testing for biological material (e.g., microbe, enzyme, antigen, etc.).
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 775+ for electrolytic analysis or testing processes, especially subclasses 777.5+ for electrolytic analysis or testing involving an enzyme or microorganism (e.g., animal or plant cells, bacteria, virus, etc.).
208Minerals Oils: Processes and Products,   for chemical tests claimed in association with processes for recovery or treatment of naturally occurring mineral oil.
252Compositions,   subclass 408 for testing compositions.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   for chemical tests claimed in association with processes for the treatment or modification of carbon compounds.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for methods and apparatus for testing an electrical property or condition of a material by electrical means, even though the result of the test may be used as an indication of some other physical or chemical property or condition.
346Recorders,   subclasses 2+ for phenomenal apparatus and processes recording.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   especially subclasses 28 , 139.04 through 139.08, 141.1 through 141.5 and 152.1 through 152.3, 205+, and 218 for methods and apparatus for optical testing with a photoelectric light detector with either an indicator or structure to support or contain the specimen or sample under test. Class 356 provides for methods and apparatus for visual counting of bacteria colonies, etc., with a scale or spacer to aid the eye without an optical element or statistical analysis procedures for the sizing and counting of particles, such as bacteria colonies by visible light and the counting of particles one by one with a microscope having a graticule rather than a cross hair or reticle.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 396+ for transparent microscope slides with means to contain and support the life functions of a microorganism.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 10 for sizing or counting of discrete particles such as bacteria colonies one at a time by numerical counting apparatus which registers the counts.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 1.11+ for class defined compositions and methods comprising a radionuclide or intended radionuclide, including those for in vivo diagnosing, and subclasses 9.1+ for a composition or method of in vivo testing (diagnosing) a living body or for an in vivo method of testing or analyzing a composition of that class (424).
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 1+ for processes for analysis involving steps for causing or promoting a chemical reaction, regulating or controlling a chemical reaction. This includes tests dependent upon the chemical, i.e., proteinaceous reactivity of an enzyme as opposed to its catalytic functioning provided for in Class 435. Measurements and tests when claimed in association with chemical processes provided for in other Classes, e.g., 435, 208, 260, 423, etc., are classified in the class providing for the chemical process.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   for a process of testing involving a chemical or biological library or an apparatus specially adapted for testing involving said library.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 266 through 274for significant data processing system for chemical process control.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 19 through 21for significant data processing system for biological or biochemical measurement and subclasses 22-32 for significant data processing system for chemical analysis to analyze the results of a chemical reaction which is only nominally claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 5]    5Involving virus or bacteriophage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains a virus or bacteriophage or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a virus or bacteriophage.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.1]    6.1Involving nucleic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be tested or the composition in which the test is conducted contains nucleic acid or the agent used for the measurement or test contains nucleic acid.
(1) Note. Nucleic acids for the purpose of this subclass are defined as polynucleotides of three or more nucleotides.
(2) Note. Proper for this subclass is subject matter involving the staining of samples comprising microorganisms, cells, or tissues specifically for and only for nucleic acid (e.g., DNA, RNA, etc.) with stains, that interact with nucleic acids to produce a signal, such as Feulgen stain or acridine orange.
(3) Note. For this subclass array, where the claims of a document are strongly weighted toward a specific test protocol or test procedure and possibly with detailed recitation of test components, rather than weighted toward the disease or condition or specific substance being detected, the document is normally classified in the subclass providing for the test procedure, e.g., hybridization, pharmacogenetics, genotyping, amplification, etc. Where the test is in name only, no details or minimal details as to how the test is carried out are recited, the claims recite a list of multiple nucleic acid based tests which can be used alternatively and recite no other details of the tests or the claims recite only very basic steps of the test, the document is normally classified in this array based on what is being tested for, e.g., drug or compound screening involving gene expression, detecting cancer, pathogens, conditions related to the nervous system, enzymes, etc. using a nucleic acid based assay. If both the test protocol and the disease, condition, or substance being tested for are equally weighted, classify the document according to standard rules of classification.

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40.5+,for subject matter involving microorganisms, cells, or tissues stained with a composition providing contrasting stains for the cell nucleus and cytoplasm (e.g., hematoxylin, eosin, etc.).

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436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclass 94 for chemical determination of nucleic acid where no microorganisms are involved and if an enzyme is present, it reacts chemically, i.e., non-catalytically. If the activity of the enzyme is unclear, classification is made in Class 435.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   for a process of testing involving a chemical or biological library or an apparatus specially adapted for testing involving said library.
536Organic Compounds,   appropriate subclasses for saccharides, polysaccharides, nucleosides, nucleotides, and polynucleotides like RNA or DNA compounds as well as chemical methods of synthesizing such compounds. Search specifically 23.1+ for fragments of RNA or DNA which could have utility as genes in recombinant processes and subclass 24.3 for probes.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.11]    6.11Nucleic acid based assay involving a hybridization step with a nucleic acid probe, involving a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), involving pharmacogenetics, involving genotyping, involving haplotyping, or involving detection of DNA methylation gene expression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter where the test involves a method for detecting the presence of a nucleic acid in a sample comprising a nucleic acid hybridization step, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), pharmacogenetics, genotyping, haplotyping or the detection of DNA methylation.
(1) Note. Hybridization is the process of bringing together two complementary strands of DNA or one each of DNA and RNA to from a double-stranded molecule. Nucleic acid hybridization assays involve using a nucleic acid probe of known sequence structure to identify a target molecule, that has a significantly high degree of sequence similarity to the nucleic acid probe, within a complex mixture of unlabeled nucleic acid molecules. Hybridization can be used in determining the sequence or order of nucleotides in a nucleic acid in a sequencing assay including assay steps reciting particular hybridization conditions.
(2) Note. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a DNA sequence variation or alteration occurring between members of paired chromosomes in an individual or between members of a species; SNPs are usually considered to be point mutations that have been evolutionarily successful enough to recur in a significant proportion of the population of a species. SNPs may be used in diagnostics for cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and other diseases.
(3) Note. Pharmacogenetics is the study of the association between genetic variation and response to drug therapy. An individuals genetic make-up may predict how the individual will react to certain drug therapies.
(4) Note. Genotyping is determining the genetic make-up of a subject.
(5) Note. Haplotyping is determining a set of SNPs or alleles (for different genes) that are located closely together on the same chromosome and that tend to be inherited together.
(6) Note. DNA methylation is an epigenetic event (process involving changes in gene expression but not gene sequence) that affects cell function by altering gene expression and refers to the covalent addition of a methyl group to a DNA base. In mammals DNA methylation occurs most often to the 5-carbon of cytosine in a CpG dinucleotide. The resulting methylated genes may be silenced. Assaying for the presence of methylation in a target DNA can be used for detecting the presence of the target DNA in a sample comprising nucleic acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.12]    6.12With significant amplification step (e.g., polymerase chain reaction (PCR), etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the test involves a significant nucleic acid amplification step, such as PCR.
(1) Note. Nucleic acid amplification involves increasing or amplifying the number of copies of a target nucleic acid in a sample, using appropriate polymerase enzymes, to levels where they can be detected. Examples are PCR (polymerase chain reaction), TMA (transcription mediated amplification), NASBA (nucleic acid sequence based amplification), rolling circle amplification, LCR (ligase chain reaction), LMP or LMPCR (ligase mediated PCR), SDA (strand displacement amplification), RTPCT (real time PCR), SPA (signal probe amplification), etc.
(2) Note. In order to be considered "significant" the amplification reaction should be mentioned in a substantial way such as requiring specific primer pairs, specific enzymes, stating that primers flank or target a specific region or mutation, methods which mention increasing specificity, efficiency, or fidelity of an amplification reaction, etc. Merely reciting "polymerase chain reaction", "ligase chain reaction", "ligase mediated polymerase chain reaction", etc. (assay names where a specific enzyme is part of the name) will meet the standard of "significant" for the purposes of this subclass.Where the amplification reaction is mentioned as one of many alternative methods of detection and no details are given, this is not considered significant.
(3) Note. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular genetics which permits the analysis of minute quantities DNA. A target DNA is separated into two strands, incubated with oligonucleotide primers and DNA polymerase resulting in duplication of the target DNA. This cycle can be repeated again and again to result in a multitude of copies of the target DNA. The polymerase enzyme used may be recombinantly produced with modifications in the sequence to enhance the enzyme activity.

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91.2,through 91.21 for an a cellular exponential or geometric amplification of a nucleotide sequence not involving a test or analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.13]    6.13Drug or compound screening involving gene expression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the effect of a drug or compound is determined by its influence on the expression of a gene.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.14]    6.14Detecting cancer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the test involves the detection of the presence of cancer using nucleic acid based assay.
(1) Note. Cancer or malignant neoplastic disease includes any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell devision.
(2) Note. Tests involving oncogenes are included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.15]    6.15Involving bacterium, fungus, parasite or protozoan (e.g., detecting pathogen viru- lence factors, adhesions, toxins, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the test involves the detection of the presence of bacteria, fungi, parasites or protozoans using nucleic acid based assay.
(1) Note. Testing includes detection, involving a nucleic acid in some manner, of virulence factors, toxins (e.g., bacterial neurotoxins, ADP ribosylating toxins, etc.), coding sequences associated with diseases (e.g., RecA gene, etc.), transacting sequences associated with activtion of virulence factors, secretion systems I, II, III, IV, etc. associated with expression of toxins, coding sequences for enzymes in the autoinducer communication pathway, adhesion-related substances (e.g., flagella, intimin, invasin, Tir, etc.), etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.16]    6.16Involving a nucleic acid encoding a protein related to the nervous system (e.g., nerve related factors, brain-derived cytokines, nerve cell biomarker, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the nucleic acid involved in the test encodes proteins related to the brain, spinal cord, or peripheral nervous system.
(1) Note. Proteins related to the nervous system include brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived cytokines, nerve cell biomarkers (e.g., tau, beta amyloid 42, etc.), ion channel or transporter proteins expressed in the nervous system, etc.
(2) Note. Ion channel protein or transporter protein is involved in the facilitated diffusion and active transport of substances out of or into the cell.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.17]    6.17Involving a nucleic acid encoding a receptor, cytokine, hormone, growth factor, ion channel protein, or membrane transporter protein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the nucleic acid involved in the test encodes receptors, cytokines, hormones, growth factors, ion channel proteins, or membrane transporter proteins.
(1) Note. Receptors are proteins on the surface of a cell, in a cell, or isolated from a cell, which acts as a binding site for specific chemicals; cytokines (e.g., lymphokines, interleukins, etc.) are proteins secreted by cells of the immune system which act as intercellular mediators in generating an immune response; ion channel or membrane transporter proteins are integral proteins within a cell membrane, through which selective ion transport occurs.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.18]    6.18Involving a nucleic acid encoding an enzyme:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the nucleic acid involved in the test encodes an enzyme.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 6.19]    6.19Detecting nucleic acid by specific antibody, protein, or ligand-receptor binding assay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter wherein the test involves the detection of nucleic acid with a specific antibody, protein, or ligand-receptor binding assay.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.1]    7.1Involving antigen-antibody binding, specific binding protein assay, or specific ligand-receptor binding assay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter in which a measurement or test utilizes an enzyme or microorganism or plant or animal cells in an antibody binding, specific binding protein or other specific ligand-receptor binding test or assay.
(1) Note. Cross-Reference Art Collections 960 through 975 provide for different aspects of the subject matter of this and the indented subclasses.
(2) Note. The enzyme or microorganism may function for example, as an antigen, separating agent or detection label in a test or assay.
(3) Note. Subject matter directed to identifying a specific enzyme in a microorganism or tissue is appropriate for subclass 7.4 below, however, determining an enzyme as an indirect indication of a specific microorganism being present is appropriate for the microorganism subclass.
(4) Note. Subject matter directed to determining the presence of a specific microorganism is appropriate for the specific microbial subclass below. For example, an assay for determining a bacteria in an animal tissue sample is appropriate for the bacteria subclass rather than the animal cell subclass.
(5) Note. An indirect microbial determination, such as a determination of a microbial product as an indication of the presence of the microbe, is appropriate for the microbial subclasses below. However, it is strongly suggested that a patent containing such an indirect microbial determination be cross-referenced to the subclass appropriate for the assay of the product of the microbe.
(6) Note. Terminology used in this and the indented subclasses is found at the end of this subclass definition.

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5,for processes in which a virus is involved, as for example, as an antigen.
174+,for immobilized enzymes.
183+,for enzymes, per se, and methods of isolating enzymes.
188,for enzyme conjugates.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 184.1+ for methods of immunizing with an antigen to induce protective immunity in vivo. Class 424 provides for in vivo antigen-antibody tests.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   for a measurement or test involving antigen-antibody tests and other ligand-receptor binding tests for the identification of chemical species that do not involve a microorganism or enzyme.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   for a process of testing involving a chemical or biological library or an apparatus specially adapted for testing involving said library.
530Chemistry, Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 387+ for antibodies, per se, subclasses 403+ for protein antigens or the use of antigenic proteins as an immunogenic carrier for a hapten, subclass 413 for immunological separation and affinity chromatography, cross-reference art collections 806 for antigenic peptides or protein, and 807 for hapten conjugated with peptide or protein, and 808 for monoclonal antibodies.
600and 604, Surgery,   provides for methods including the use of claimed specific structure adapted to be placed on or in the living body and further include diagnostic or therapeutic methods and apparatus when the only disclosed utility is for diagnosis or treatment of a living body.
 
 GLOSSARY
 ANALYTE
 

The compound or composition to be measured.

 SPECIFIC LIGAND-RECEPTOR BINDING ASSAY
 

The interaction between a ligand material and a receptor which is specific to a class of compounds or a single compound.

 EPITOPE
 

A single antigenic determinant portion of the antigen which combines with the antibody site.

 LABEL
 

A member of a signal producing system which is usually bound to or incorporated in the ligand. Measurement of the label activity is an indication of the amount of unknown in the sample.

 LIGAND
 

Any organic compound for which a receptor naturally exists or can be prepared; a linking or binding molecule.

 RECEPTOR
 

Any compound or composition capable of recognizing a particular spatial and polar organization of a molecule, i.e., epitopic site on an antigen. The receptor material can be isolated from a cellular material from a living body such as a membrane or organ and exhibits great specificity to the species to be tested for. A cell surface molecule which binds specifically to particular proteins or peptides in the fluid phase.

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.2]    7.2Involving a microorganism or cell membrane bound antigen or cell membrane bound receptor or cell membrane bound antibody or microbial lysate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter involving a microorganism or cell membrane bound antigen, or cell membrane bound receptor or cell membrane bound antibody, or lysate of a microorganism.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.21]    7.21Animal cell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.2.  Subject matter involving animal cells.
(1) Note. Though "whole blood" contains animal cells, the mere presence of a "whole blood sample" in an assay or test is not sufficient for placement in this and the indented subclasses. Since "whole blood" is a complex mixture of cells and liquid, classifying based on its presence might be inconsistent. Furthermore, the "whole blood" aspect is rarely of main importance, therefore, patents using whole blood samples are more appropriately placed based on the analyte of interest or on a reagent which is more specific, i.e., cancer cell, lymphocyte, red blood cell, enzyme label, etc., to one of the subclasses below.
(2) Note. "Animal cell" in this and the indented subclasses is also intended to include tissue.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.22]    7.22Parasite or protozoa:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.21.  Subject matter involving a parasite or protozoa.
(1) Note. Parasite is intended to include those animals which live in or on and at the expense of a host such as certain nematodes, cestodes, trematodes (e.g., tapeworm, heartworm, Trichinella, etc.).
(2) Note. A protozoa is a single-celled animal.

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7.32+,for bacteria which may be parasitic.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.23]    7.23Tumor cell or cancer cell:
 Subject matter under 7.21 involving tumor or cancer cells.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.24]    7.24Leukocyte (e.g., lymphocyte, granulocyte, monocyte, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.21.  Subject matter involving leukocytes such as lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, etc.
(1) Note. The subject matter intended for this subclass includes, for example, a test wherein the leukocyte is a reagent, the leukocyte type is determined, a leukocyte surface antigen is determined, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.25]    7.25Erythrocyte:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.21.  Subject matter involving red blood cells or reticulocytes.
(1) Note. Examples of subject matter in this subclass are red blood cell carriers, red cell surface antigen testing, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.3]    7.3Flagellar-antigen or pili-antigen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.2.  Subject matter involving flagellar-antigen (e.g., (H)-antigen, etc.) or pili-antigen, (e.g., (K)-antigen, etc.).
(1) Note. Flagellar - or pili-antigens are those which are or are part of the flagella or pili of certain motile microorganisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.31]    7.31Fungi (e.g., yeast, mold, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.2.  Subject matter involving fungi such as yeast or mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.32]    7.32Bacteria or actinomycetales:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.2.  Subject matter involving bacteria or actinomycetales.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.33]    7.33Staphylococcus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.32.  Subject matter involving bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.34]    7.34Streptococcus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.32.  Subject matter involving bacteria of the genus Streptococcus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.35]    7.35Salmonella:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.32.  Subject matter involving bacteria of the genus Salmonella.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.36]    7.36Sexually transmitted disease (e.g., chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.32.  Subject matter involving a sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria.
(1) Note. Common bacteria involved include Chlamydiae, Treponema pallidum, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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5,for a sexually transmitted disease involving a virus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.37]    7.37Escherichia coli:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.32.  Subject matter involving Escherichia coli (E. coli.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.4]    7.4To identify an enzyme or isoenzyme:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter in which the measurement or test determines the identity or quantity of an enzyme or group of isoenzymes.
(1) Note. Immunological identification of enzymatic coagulation factors is proper for this subclass.
(2) Note. Determination of complement or complement components is proper for this subclass.

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7.6,for an assay or test involving a modified enzyme in a capacity other than that of being identified or quantified.
7.7,through 7.8, for an assay or test in which an enzyme is involved as a reagent.
7.8,through 7.95, for an assay or test in which an enzyme is involved as a detection label.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.5]    7.5Involving avidin-biotin binding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter involving the binding of avidin to biotin.
(1) Note. The binding of avidin and biotin derivatives such as streptavidin or iminobiotin is also included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.6]    7.6Involving a modified enzyme (e.g., abzyme, recombinant, chemically altered, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter involving a modified enzyme which has been functionally changed through recombinant DNA techniques, chemical treatment, etc.
(1) Note. This subclass is not intended to include a mere conjugation of an enzyme to an antigen or antibody, since the function of the enzyme has not been changed.
(2) Note. An abzyme is an antibody with enzymatic activity.

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7.4,for a test or assay for determining the identity or quantity of a modified enzyme.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.7]    7.7Assay in which a label present is an apoenzyme, prosthetic group, or enzyme cofactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter in which a label is present in the assay and is an apoenzyme, prosthetic group or enzyme cofactor.
(1) Note. See subclass 7.1 for the definition of label.
(2) Note. An enzyme cofactor is a nonprotein substance whose presence is required for an enzyme to exhibit its catalytic activity and which undergoes a chemical change during the catalytic cycle of the enzyme involved. A coenzyme is a type of enzyme cofactor which is chemically modified in the course of the reaction catalyzed by the parent enzyme. Regeneration of the original form of the cofactor requires its participation in a separate reaction that is catalyzed by an enzyme other than the parent enzyme. A prosthetic group is an enzyme cofactor which is chemically modified in the course of the reaction catalyzed by the parent enzyme and is regenerated by a second reaction catalyzed by the parent enzyme. Prosthetic groups are bound to the protein portion of the parent enzyme, such protein portion being known as the apoenzyme and the catalytically active parent enzyme being known as the holoenzyme.
(3) Note. Prosthetic groups and Holoenzymes. In the list below, the prosthetic group (underlined) is first, follwed by the conjugated enzyme.
(a) flavine adenine, glutathione;
(b) dinucleotide (FAD), reductase (human erythrocytes);
(c) flavin mononucleotide (FMN), cytochrome reductase (yeast);
(d) FMN, NADPH: oxidoreductase ("old yellow enzyme");
(e) FAD, glucose oxidase (Aspergillus niger);
(f) FAD, lipoamide dehydrogenase;
(g) FMN , pyridoxine phosphate oxidase;
(h) heme, peroxidase (horseradish);
(i) heme , cytochrome C.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.71]    7.71Assay in which a label present is an enzyme inhibitor or functions to alter enzyme activity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter in which a label is present in the assay and is an enzyme inhibitor or otherwise functions to alter the function of the enzyme present in the analysis.

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7.1,for the definition of label.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.72]    7.72Assay in which a label present is an enzyme substrate or substrate analogue:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter in which a label is present in the assay and is an enzyme substrate or substrate analogue.

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7.1,for the definition of label.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.8]    7.8Involving nonmembrane bound receptor binding or protein binding other than antigen-antibody binding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter in which the measurement or test includes nonmembrane bound receptor binding or ligand-receptor binding other than antigen-antibody binding.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for enzyme-inhibitor binding where the inhibitor is not a label, binding to soluble or nonmembrane bound receptors or transport proteins, etc. Specific examples include thyroxine-thyroxine binding globulin, B12-intrinsic factor, cortisol-transcortin, lectin-carbohydrate, etc.

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7.71,for an assay where an enzyme inhibitor is present as a label.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.9]    7.9Assay in which an enzyme present is a label:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter in which an enzyme present is a label in the assay.

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7.1,for the definition of label.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.91]    7.91Enzyme produces product which is part of another reaction system (e.g., cyclic reaction, cascade reaction, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.9.  Subject matter in which the enzyme label produces a product which is part of another reaction system.
(1) Note. The reaction system may be chemical or enzymatic.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.92]    7.92Heterogeneous or solid phase assay system (e.g., ELISA, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.9.  Subject matter in which the assay system requires at least one separation step which allows differentiation of reacted from unreacted material or requires that at least one of the immunochemicals in the system be bound to an insoluble support material.

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174+,for carrier-bound or immobilized enzymes.
188,for enzyme conjugates.

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436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 518+ for immunoassays, not including Class 435 subject matter, wherein a solid phase carrier is utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.93]    7.93Competitive assay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.92.  Subject matter in which the heterogeneous or solid phase assay involves competitive binding of immunologically similar or identical compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.94]    7.94Sandwich assay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.92.  Subject matter in which the heterogeneous or solid phase assay involves the binding of polyvalent analyte antigen to an antibody and a labeled antibody to obtain a measurable antibody-antigen-antibody complex; alternatively, a second unlabeled antibody and a third labeled anti-antibody can be reacted with the antigen-antibody complex to obtain a measurable result.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 7.95]    7.95Indirect assay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.92.  Subject matter in which the heterogeneous or solid phase assay involves the binding of antigen with analyte antibody and a labeled anti-antibody thereby forming a complex.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 8]    8Involving luciferase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains luciferase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains luciferase.
(1) Note. Firefly extract or firefly lantern extract contains luciferase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 9]    9Geomicrobiological testing (e.g., for petroleum, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the measurement or test is for the presence or absence of mineral deposits or for the presence of microorganisms which thrive in the presence of such minerals.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for detection of underground deposits of petroleum or natural gas.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.02+ for well logging, per se, wherein the logging is not determined by making a purely electrical measurement or a purely magnetic measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 10]    10Involving uric acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains uric acid or the agent used for the measurement or test contains uric acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 11]    11Involving cholesterol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains cholesterol or the agent used for the measurement or test contains cholesterol.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 12]    12Involving urea or urease:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains urea or urease or the agent used for the measurement or test contains urea or urease.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 13]    13Involving blood clotting factor (e.g., involving thrombin, thromboplastin, fibrinogen, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains a blood clotting factor or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a blood clotting factor.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 64.41 for apparatus used for testing the ability of blood to clot.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 14]    14Involving glucose or galactose:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains glucose or galactose or the agent used for the measurement or test contains glucose or galactose.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 15]    15Involving transferase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains a transferase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a transferase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 16]    16Involving transaminase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Subject matter subclass where the material to be measured or tested contains a transaminase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a transaminase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 17]    17Involving creatine phosphokinase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains creatine phosphokinase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains creatine phosphokinase.
(1) Note. Creatine Phosphokinase is also known as creatine kinase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 18]    18Involving hydrolase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains a hydrolase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a hydrolase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 19]    19Involving esterase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains an esterase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains an esterase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 20]    20Involving cholinesterase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase or the agent used for the measurement or tests contains cholinesterase or acetylcholinesterase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 21]    21Involving phosphatase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains a phosphatase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a phosphatase.
(1) Note. Phosphatase includes all of the phosphoric monoester hydrolases (ICE classification 3.1.3) including the phytases and the nucleotidases.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 22]    22Involving amylase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains amylase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains amylase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 23]    23Involving proteinase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains proteinase (endopeptidase) or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a proteinase (endopeptidase).
(1) Note. Enzymes included in this subclass are trypsin, pepsin, ficin, bromelin, papain, renin.
(2) Note. Where the hydrolytic activity of an enzyme on a protein or polypeptide is unclear it should be presumed to be an endopeptidase, classifiable in subclass 23.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 24]    24Involving peptidase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains a peptidase (exopeptidase) or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a peptidase (exopeptidase).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 25]    25Involving oxidoreductase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains an oxidoreductase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains an oxidoreductase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 26]    26Involving dehydrogenase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains a dehydrogenase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a dehydrogenase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 27]    27Involving catalase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains catalase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains catalase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 28]    28Involving peroxidase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter where the material to be measured or tested contains peroxidase or the agent used for the measurement or test contains peroxidase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 29]    29Involving viable microorganism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter where the material to be tested contains a microorganism or the agent used for the measurement or test contains a microorganism.
(1) Note. A microorganism for the purposes of this subclass includes actinomycetates, unicellular algae, bacteria, fungi (including yeast), plant cells, and animal cells.
(2) Note. If there is no clear disclosure as to whether the microorganism or cell is viable or nonliving, it shall be presumed to be viable and therefore appropriate for this or the indented subclasses. However, due to the uncertainty of the viability of the microorganism or cell, placement of a cross reference in the most appropriate place in this class, subclasses 40.5+ for nonliving microorganisms or cells is strongly recommended.

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40.5+,for measuring or testing processes involving fixed or stabilized nonliving microorganisms, cells, or tissues.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 94.11 for reactive treatment of biological specimens as by a bleach or dye.
250Radiant Energy,   for methods and apparatus for detecting radiant energy.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 2.1+ for coating a biological specimen for a medical test and when not provided for in Class 435.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 30]    30Methods of sampling or inoculating or spreading a sample; methods of physically isolating an intact microorganism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Processes in which (a) a series of sampling steps are claimed in which a sample containing a microorganism is separated or recovered from a larger body of material before or while performing a measurement or test, or (b) a sample is brought into contact with a measuring or testing media to result in a particular geometric pattern or at a particular varying flow rate.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for sampling when claimed by a series of sampling process steps, i.e., not sampling by name only.
(2) Note. This subclass provides for applying the sample in a particularly claimed varying flow rate or pattern or path other than merely a single straight line.
(3) Note. Mere nonpattern applications such as dipping or spaying is not included herein.
(4) Note. Included in this subclass is a test or measurement which includes a swab streaking procedure or centrifugal density separation step.

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243,for sampling, inoculating, spreading a sample or physical isolation of samples which are not claimed as part of a test.
292,for inoculation and sampling apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 31]    31Testing for sterility condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Subject matter wherein the efficacy of a prior step intended to destroy living organisms is assessed by attempting to culture a microorganism which has been exposed to such treatment and determining subsequent growth or by exposing an enzyme to such treatment and subsequently testing for enzymatic activity.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass is the use of a living microorganism as the test agent or the use of enzymes which simulate the living microorganism"s ability to survive as a test agent.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 32]    32Testing for antimicrobial activity of a material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Subject matter where the in vitro ability of a material to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms is determined.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for (a) a determination of the sensitivity of a microorganism to known antibiotics, and (b) determining the presence or amount of an antibiotic or toxicant in a sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 33]    33Using multifield media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.  Subject matter where the test field contains more than one zone or area.
(1) Note. Zones or areas can contain different concentrations of the same antibiotic or different antibiotics and are generally separated by an identifiable boundary.
(2) Note. Media as used in this subclass includes culture media which sustains growth and medias which kill or inhibit certain microorganisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 34]    34Determining presence or kind of microorganism; use of selective media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Subject matter where the presence of or identity of a microorganism is determined.
(1) Note. Included herein are test media that contains chemicals which change or remain unchanged in color or other physical appearance due to the action of or the absence of action of the microorganisms on the test media.
(2) Note. This subclass includes but is not restricted to testing of biological samples.
(3) Note. Test media includes culture media plus a chromosphere.
(4) Note. This subclass includes determining the metabolic character of a microorganism, i.e., the production or consumption of a particular metabolite.

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32,and 33, for similar process used to test for antimicrobial sensitivity.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 35]    35Using radioactive material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter where the test media contains an assimilable radioactive labeled compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 36]    36Streptococcus; staphylococcus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter where the microorganisms involved are Streptococcus or Staphylococcus or the agent is specific for indicating the presence or absence of Streptococcus or Staphylococcus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 37]    37Nitrate to nitrite reducing bacteria:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter where the microorganisms involved are nitrite forming bacteria or the agent is specific for indicating the presence or absence of nitrite forming bacteria.
(1) Note. It should be generally presumed that the presence of the nitrite is due to bacterial conversion of nitrate to nitrite.
(2) Note. Included here are detection of nitrite in materials, such as an indication of bacteria.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 38]    38Enterobacteria:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter where the microorganism involved is an enterobacteria or the agent is specific for indicating the presence or absence of enterobacteria.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 39]    39Quantitative determination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter where the number or concentration of living microorganisms in the material is found.
(1) Note. The identity of the microorganism is not necessarily known.
(2) Note. Included herein are tests for the purity of water.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   for the use of an optical element such as a lens of a microscope for magnification for counting particles such as bacteria colonies one by one.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 40]    40Using multifield media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter which uses a test substrate that has more than one test zone or area.
(1) Note. Zones or areas can contain different concentrations of the same antibiotic or different antibiotic and are generally separated by an identifiable boundary.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 40.5]    40.5Involving fixed or stabilized, nonliving microorganism, cell, or tissue (e.g., processes of staining, stabilizing, dehydrating, etc.; compositions used therefore, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject where the material to be tested contains fixed or stabilized, nonliving microorganisms, cells, or tissues or the agent used for the measurement or test contains fixed or stabilized, nonliving microorganisms, cells, or tissues.
(1) Note. If there is no clear disclosure as to whether the microorganism or cell is nonliving or viable, it shall be presumed to be viable and therefore appropriate for this class, subclasses 29+. However, due to the uncertainty of the viability of the microorganism or cell, placement of a cross reference in this or the indented subclasses is strongly recommended.
(2) Note. This and the indented subclasses are intended to take compositions used to aid in the microscopic study (e.g., light, scanning or transmission electron microscopy, etc.) of microorganisms, cells, and tissues such as those used for staining, clarifying, firming, fixing, or dehydrating a microorganism, cell, or tissue for microscopic examination as well as the methods for preparing the microorganisms, cells, and tissues for examination and the processes of examining them not specifically provided for elsewhere.
(3) Note. Fixation or stabilization of the microorganisms, cells, or tissues on a slide may involve merely air drying rather than a chemical fixation process.
(4) Note. Subject matter involving the staining of microorganisms, cells, or tissues specifically and only for nucleic acid (e.g., DNA or RNA, etc.) with stains such as Feulgen stain or acridine orange is proper for this class, subclass 6. Subject matter involving microorganisms, cells, or tissues stained with a composition providing contrasting stains for the cell nucleus and cytoplasm (e.g., hematoxylin, eosin, etc.) is proper for this or the indented subclasses.

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6.11,for measuring or testing processes or compositions therefore involving nucleic acid, nucleotide, or nucleoside which includes processes of staining microorganisms, cells, or tissues via in situ nucleic acid hybridization.
7.1+,for test methods or compositions therefore involving the staining of microorganisms, cells, or tissue with labelled antibodies, ligands, or receptors.
14+,for test methods or compositions therefore involving the staining of microorganisms, cells, or tissues for endogenous enzyme activity.
29+,for test methods or compositions therefore involving the staining of microorganisms, cells, or tissues with vital stains; methods or compositions involving the microscopic observation of live microorganisms or cells; methods or compositions involving the counting of intact, live microorganisms or cells not provided for elsewhere.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclasses 94.1+ for treatment of hides, skins, feathers and animal tissues, e.g., tanning, particularly subclass 94.11 pertaining to treatment of subcutaneous or internal tissues of animals, e.g., the production of sutures, racket strings, etc., from gut and various subclasses for compositions for dying materials of any kind which may contain a microorganism or enzyme.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   appropriate subclass for a process of mounting a specimen by a lamination process which process may or may not include the step of staining, clarifying, firming or fixing the tissue; and subclass 57 for the combination of coating a biological specimen and then interposing the coated specimen between glass plates.
250Radiant Energy,   for methods and apparatus for detecting radiant energy not classified elsewhere.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   for methods and apparatus for analyzing light, determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials, measuring optically dimensions, determining optically spatial relations and inspecting optically for flaws and imperfections within the scope of this class and not otherwise classifiable. This includes visual counting of blood particles, etc. with a scale or spacer to aid the eye, counting and sizing particles with visible light by statistical analysis procedures rather than one by one numerical particle counting, etc.
359Optics: Systems (Including communication) and Elements,   for microscopes and microscope slides.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   for a numerical counting means for counting and/or sizing discrete particles such as blood particles or bacteria colonies one at a time.
424Drug, Bio-affecting and Body Treating Composition,   subclass 75 for an embalming and undertaking composition.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 2+ for coating processes wherein a medical or dental product is produced and subclass 4 for processes of coating a plant member or animal specimen.
434Education and Demonstration,   subclasses 295+ for method, apparatus or product related to teaching and pertinent to biology and taxidermy, including models, cells, mounting and preserving means, processes and taxidermy devices.
436Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclass 10 for particle count standards or controls such as platelet count standards; subclass 521 for fixed or stabilized red blood cells used as an insoluble carrier for immunochemicals (e.g., hemagglutination, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 40.51]    40.51Involving a monolayer, smear or suspension of microorganisms or cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.5.  Subject where the fixed or stabilized, nonliving microorganisms or cells are in the form of a monolayer, smear, or a suspension.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass is subject matter in which the microorganisms or cells may be placed on a slide or other surface for histological or microscopic examination or may be automatically examined such as by flow cytometry.
(2) Note. Included in this subclass is subject matter involving blood cell smears; cells prepared for cytopathological analysis, e.g., analysis of cells that are spontaneously exfoliated, mechanically dislodged by irrigation, brushing, or scraping, or forcibly removed by needle aspiration (e.g., Pap smears, etc.); urine sediments, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 40.52]    40.52Involving tissue sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.5.  Subject matter wherein the fixed or stabilized, nonliving tissue is in the form of a tissue section.
(1) Note. Since tissues and organs are usually too thick for microscopic study, techniques have been developed which result in thin, translucent sections. Therefore, for the purpose of this subclass, tissue sections are tissues which have been sliced so that they may be microscopically observed.
(2) Note. Included in this subclass are all stages of tissue processing in the preparation for and examination of tissue sections, e.g., fixation, dehydration, embedding, sectioning, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 41]    41MICROORGANISM, TISSUE CELL CULTURE, OR ENZYME USING PROCESS TO SYNTHESIZE A DESIRED CHEMICAL COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes wherein the product is synthesized by a biochemical transformation of matter, i.e., a transformation wherein the transforming agent is a microorganism, or an enzyme or an immobilized enzyme or an animal or plant cell culture or organelles.
(1) Note. microorganism for the purpose of this subclass includes bacteria, fungi (including yeast), virus, actinomycetales unicellular algae, plant cells, actinomycetales, and protozoa.
(2) Note. Synthesis for purposes of this subclass involves the preparation of a composition or compound which did not exist in the starting material, and does not include an ancillary operation wherein a material is chemically modified by an enzyme, cell bound free or immobilized, or microorganism or animal or plant cell so as to degrade or change the chemical structure thereof so that another material which is in initial intimate contact with the modified material can be recovered in a nonmodified form. See in particular, subclasses 262+ of this schedule for such liberation or purification processes.
(3) Note. As between Class 260 and this class (435) provide an original home for all synthesis which include action by a microorganism or enzyme.
(4) Note. Enzymes for the purpose of this subclass are polypeptides or proteins or material containing the same which are capable of chemically transforming matter, e.g., oxidation, etc., without undergoing a transformation itself.
(5) Note. Processes for producing an enzyme or microorganism are excluded herefrom and are found in subclasses 183+ and 243+.
(6) Note. Processes for the production of products in which the structure is not disclosed should be placed in this and the indented subclasses in the first appearing subclass which takes an identified constituent of the product. Should such a placement prove impossible, then placement is on the basis of the microorganism"s identity.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for chemical processes including electrical or wave energy methods.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   for the synthesis of carbon compounds by means not including a microorganism or enzyme.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for the synthesis of inorganic compounds or elements other than metals by means not including the use of a microorganism or enzyme.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   for fermentation processes that are solely disclosed or claimed in preparing an edible, and for mixtures of enzymes or ferments solely disclosed or claimed as edible or used in preparation of an edible. Class 426 provides for compositions and processes of preparation relating to compositions which have the capacity to ferment and produce an edible, but which are claimed as being in an inactive state, and also provides for compositions which are undergoing a fermentation to produce an edible product.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 42]    42Process involving microorganisms of different genera in the same process, simultaneously:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein microorganisms of different genera are simultaneously propagated on the same culture media.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 43]    43Preparing compound having a 1- thia- 4- aza-bicyclo (3.2.0) heptane ring system (e.g., penicillin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a 1-thia-4-aza-bicyclo (3.2.0) heptane polycyclic ring system, i.e.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 43

(1) Note. The media of the processes included in subclass 45 must contain the 1-thia-4-aza-bicyclo heptane ring system compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 44]    44By desacylation of the substituent in 6-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by the hydrolysis of an acetyl group in the 6-position.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 45]    45By acylation of the substituent in 6-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by substituting an acyl group in the 6-position.
(1) Note. The media of the processes included herein must contain the 1-thia- 4-aza-bicyclo heptane ring system compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 46]    46In presence of phenyl acetic acid or phenyl acetamide or their derivatives:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Processes wherein phenyl acetic acid or substituted phenyl acetic acid or salts thereof or phenyl acetamide or substituted phenyl acetamide or salts thereof is present during the synthesis.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 47]    47Preparing compound having a 1 -thia -5- aza-bicyclo (4.2.0) octane ring system (e.g., cephalosporin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a 1-thia-5-aza-bicyclo (4.2.0) octane polycyclic ring system, i.e.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 47

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 48]    48Di-substituted in 7-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes wherein the polycyclic ring system synthesized contains two substituents other than hydrogen in the 7-position.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 49]    49Cephalosporin C:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes wherein the product contains 7-(D-5-amino-5-carboxy valer-amido)-3-(hydroxy methyl)-8- oxo - 1 -thia-5-aza-bicyclo (4.2.0) -oct -3 -ene -3-carboxylic acid acetate, i.e.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 49

(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass, derivatives include only metal and ammonium salts.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 50]    50By acylation of the substituent in the 7-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by amide bond formation, present with the nitrogen attached at the 7-position.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 51]    51By desacylation of the substituent in the 7-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by cleaving the amide bond with the nitrogen attached to the 7-position.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 52]    52Preparing compound containing a cyclopentanohydrophenanthrene nucleus; nor-, homo-, or D-ring lactone derivatives thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a cyclopentanophenanthrene ring system, i.e., or the nor or homo or D-ring lactone derivatives.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 52

(1) Note. The phenanthrene ring system contains more hydrogen than is present in phenanthrene.
(2) Note. Common atoms of two rings are considered to belong to the rightmost ring.
(3) Note. Homo derivatives wherein the D-ring is expanded to 6-carbons such as in Hellebrin are found here.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 53]    53Containing heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Processes wherein the cyclopentanophenanthrene ring system synthesized contains an additional ring which is a hetero ring.
(1) Note. The hetero ring may be fused or bridged with the cyclopentanophenanthrene ring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 54]    54Acting on D-ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is formed by biochemical transformation within the D-ring.
(1) Note. The hetero ring may be fused or bridged with the cyclopentanophenanthrene ring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 55]    55Acting at 17-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is formed by biochemical transformation at the 17-position.
(1) Note. This subclass includes cleavage of the 17-side chain with the formation of keto or hydroxyl groups at the cleaved position.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 56]    56Hydroxylating at 17-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Processes wherein the product synthesized has a hydroxyl group at the 17-position and is formed by the addition of an oxygen atom to the pendant hydrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 57]    57Hydroxylating at 16-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Processes wherein the product synthesized has a hydroxyl group at the 16-position and is formed by the addition of oxygen to the ring pendant hydrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 58]    58Hydroxylating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Processes wherein a carbon atom on the substrate nucleus is hydroxylated by the addition of oxygen to the ring pendant hydrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 59]    59At 11-position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Processes wherein the product synthesized has a hydroxyl group formed at the 11-position.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 60]    60At 11 alpha position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Processes wherein the product synthesized has a hydroxyl group formed at the 11 Alpha position.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 61]    61Dehydrogenating; dehydroxylating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is produced by the removal from the nucleus of a pair of hydrogen atoms creating an unsaturated bond or the product is synthesized by removal or addition of a hydroxyl group.
(1) Note. The mere shifting of unsaturated bonds from adjacent positions such as from the 5, 6 position to the 4, 5 position is not a dehydrogenation.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 62]    62Forming an aryl ring from "A" ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains an aromatic "A" ring which is formed by dehydrogenation.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 63]    63Preparing compound containing a prostaglandin nucleus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a five membered ring having two side-chains in ortho position to each other, and having at least one oxygen atom directly bound to the ring in ortho position to one of the side-chains, one side-chain containing, not directly bound to the ring, a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most one bond to halogen, and the other side-chain having at least one oxygen atom bound in position to the ring, i.e., prostaglandins having the structure,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 63

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 64]    64Preparing compound other than saccharide containing a tetracycline nucleus (e.g., naphthacene, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a naphthacene ring system (i.e., see figure below) and nonsaccharide ring unsaturated derivatives thereof.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 64

(1) Note. Tetracyclines are properly classified here.
(2) Note. Saccharide derivatives are excluded herefrom.

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78,for saccharide derivatives.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 65]    65Preparing compound other than saccharide containing a gibberellin nucleus (i.e., gibbane):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains other than the saccharide.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 65

(1) Note. Gibberellic acid and gibberellins are properly classified here.
(2) Note. Saccharide derivatives are excluded herefrom.

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78,for saccharide derivatives.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 66]    66Preparing compound other than saccharide containing alloxazine or isoalloxazine nucleus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains an alloxazine or isoalloxazine ring system, e.g., and is not a saccharide.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 66

(1) Note. Riboflavin is not considered a saccharide derivative for the purpose of this subclass and is therefore provided for here.
(2) Note. Saccharide derivatives are excluded herefrom.

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72+,for saccharide derivatives of these compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 67]    67Preparing compound containing a carotene nucleus (i.e., carotene):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains either the first or second structures below.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 67

Image 2 for class 435 subclass 67

(1) Note. Carotenoids having a cyclic group are properly classified here.
(2) Note. Structures above can be partially hydrogenated such as Phytofluene.

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166,for the acyclic carotenoid, lycopene.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 68.1]    68.1Enzymatic production of a protein or polypeptide (e.g., enzymatic hydrolysis, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the enzymatically produced product is a high molecular weight polypeptide of alpha amino acids or consists of two or more amino acids linked by a peptide bond.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for peptones which are the result of partial protein hydrolysis.
(2) Note. A peptide bond is defined as an amide linkage between two amino acid residues.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   for protein containing coating or plastic compositions, particularly subclasses 4 , 31.24, 31.57, 31.82, 31.94, 124+, 645+ and indented subclasses.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 63 , 92, 105, 211, and 212 for edible protein compositions or products and related process involving the same.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 474.4+ for a nonstructural stock material product in the form of a composite web or sheet including a layer comprising protein, and other appropriately titled subclasses (e.g., subclasses 435 and 458).
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins, Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 300 and 345 for peptides and reaction products thereof; subclasses 350 to 427 for proteins and the reaction products thereof; and cross-reference art collections 800 through 859 for antigenic peptides or proteins, methods of immobilizing peptides or proteins, and the source materials from which peptides or proteins are isolated.
536Organic Compounds,   appropriate subclasses, for nucleic acids and processes of chemical synthesis thereof.
930Peptide or Protein Sequence,   subclasses 10+ for peptide or protein sequence of four or more amino acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.1]    69.1Recombinant DNA technique included in method of making a protein or polypeptide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes which involve the use of recombinant DNA techniques in a process of synthesis of a protein or polypeptide.
(1) Note. An example of the subject matter in this subclass is a process of producing a polypeptide which includes the alteration of the genetic structure of a cell by use of recombinant DNA techniques.
(2) Note. See this class, subclass 68.1 for the definition of polypeptide or protein.

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440+,for processes using recombinant DNA techniques to alter the genetic structure of a living microorganism.

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514Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 1.1 through 21.92for a therapeutic or bio-affecting body treating composition containing a peptide as a designated organic active ingredient (DOAI).
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 808 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
800Multicellular Living Organisms and Unmodified Parts Thereof and Related Processes,   subclasses 4+ for a method of using a living transgenic nonhuman animal to manufacture a protein which is to be isolated or extracted from the animal.
930Peptide or Protein Sequence,   subclasses 10+ for peptide or protein sequence of four or more amino acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.2]    69.2Enzyme inhibitors or activators:
 Processes under subclasses 69.1 wherein the product synthesized is an enzyme inhibitor or activator which is a protein or polypeptide.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are the cloning and expression of antagonists to enzymes for amino acid biosynthesis.

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106,through 116 and 183-234, for enzyme inhibitors employed in the production of amino acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.3]    69.3Antigens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.1.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is claimed or solely disclosed as functioning as an antigen.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are cloning and expression of all polypeptide antigens (e.g., viral subunit antigens).

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7.1+,for antigens involved in an enzyme immunoassay.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 184.1+ for compositions of that class which contain antigens.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 543 through 546for antigens used as a testing material in an in vitro test.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides, or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 806 and 807 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.4]    69.4Hormones or fragments thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.1.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a hormone or a part of a hormone.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are cloning and expression of polypeptide hormones (e.g., mammalion growth stimulating hormones).

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514Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 9.7 through 13.1for therapeutic or bio-affecting compositions containing a peptide hormone.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 399 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.5]    69.5Lymphokines or monokines:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.1.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a lymphokine or monokine.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are cloning and expression of interferon, interleukin, lymphotoxin, or tumor necrosis factor.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 85 for bioactive compositions containing interferon.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 351 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.51]    69.51Interferons:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.5.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an interferon.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 85.4 through 85.7for compositions of that class containing an interferon.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 351 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.52]    69.52Interleukins:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.5.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an interleukin.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 85.2 for compositions of that class containing interleukin.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 351 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.6]    69.6Blood proteins:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.1.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a blood protein.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are cloning and expression of polypeptide of immunoglobulin origin.

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70.4,for processes including the culture of blood cells.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 85.1+ for composition of that class containing a blood protein.
514Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 13.5-15.3 for therapeutic or bio-affecting compositions containing blood proteins, especially subclass 13.4 for a blood substitute.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 380 through 394for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.7]    69.7Fusion proteins or polypeptides:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.1.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a fusion protein or fusion polypeptide.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are the cloning and expression of a fused polypeptide (e.g., tribrid protein).

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 300+ for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.8]    69.8Signal sequence (e.g., beta-galactosidase, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.1.  Process wherein the product synthesized is a protein or polypeptide with a signal sequence such as beta-galactosidase.

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183,through 234, for enzymatic signal sequences.

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 300+ for the product produced by the processes of this subclass which includes fused polypeptides.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 69.9]    69.9Yeast derived:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.8.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a protein or polypeptide with a yeast derived signal sequence.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are cloning and expression of polypeptides attached to a yeast signal sequence (e.g., alpha-amylose).

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183,through 234, for enzymatic signal sequence of yeast.

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 300+ for the product produced by the processes of this subclass which include fused polypeptides.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 70.1]    70.1Using tissue cell culture to make a protein or polypeptide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein an in vitro tissue cell culture is used to produce a protein or polypeptide.
(1) Note. An example of the subject matter included in this subclass is use of a plant or animal cell culture to produce polypeptides.
(2) Note. See this class, subclass 68.1 for the definition of polypeptide or protein.

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325+,for the culture of animal cells absent the production of a protein or polypeptide product.

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930Peptide or Protein Sequence,   subclasses 10+ for peptide or protein sequence of four or more amino acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 70.2]    70.2Fused or hybrid cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.1.  Processes wherein the product is synthesized by culture of fused or hybrid cells.
(1) Note. Fused or hybrid cells include those resulting from (a) the fusion of two cells, (b) the insertion of the nucleus or chromosone of one cell into another or (c) the treatment of a cell with an immortalizing agent which results in a cell which will proliferate in long-term culture.
(2) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this and the indented subclass are use of lymphoblastoid hybridoma cells to produce peptide hormones (e.g., insulin, calcitonin, growth hormone, etc.) or monoclonal anti-bodies or use of cells transformed with a virus or oncogene to produce a cell line which will proliferate and produce proteins or polypeptides in long term culture.

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326+,for fused or hybrid animal cells, per se, which express immunoglobulin, antibody, or fragment thereof.
346,for fused or hybrid cell, per se.
373,through 403, for various processes of culturing animal cells.

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 303 , 307, 399, for the product produced by the processes of this subclass which includes insulin, calcitonin, and hormones.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 70.21]    70.21Producing monoclonal antibody:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.21.  Processes wherein the product synthesized by the fused or hybrid cell is a monoclonal antibody.
(1) Note. Subject matter in this subclass includes production of monoclonal antibodies by hybridoma cells.

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7.1+,for use of monoclonal antibodies in testing methods involving a microorganism or enzyme.
326+,for fused or hybrid animal cells, per se, which express immunoglobulin, antibody, or fragment thereof. 373 through 403, for various processes of culturing animal cells.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 131.1+ for bio-affecting compositions containing monoclonal antibodies.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclass 548 for monoclonal antibodies used in a process of immunoassay.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 387.2+ for the product produced by the processes of this subclass and subclass 413 for the process of using monoclonal antibody to separate a protein.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 70.3]    70.3Animal tissue cell culture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.2.  Processes wherein the protein or polypeptide product synthesized is derived from the culture of animal tissue cells.
(1) Note. The term tissue cells is intended to differentiate cells cultivated as a contiguous mass as opposed to individual cells or fused cells.

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326,through 372.3, for animal cells, per se.
373,through 403, for techniques of culturing animal cells.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 95+ for medicinal compositions containing animal cell extracts.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 350+ , for proteins, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 70.4]    70.4Blood (lymphoid) cell culture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.3.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is produced by culture of blood cells.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are interleukins produced by culture of blood cells.

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69.5,for processes of producing lymphokines or monokines through use of recombinant DNA techniques.

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 351 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 70.5]    70.5Producing interferons:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.4.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an interferon.

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69.51,for processes of producing interferon through use of recombinant DNA techniques.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 85 for compositions of that class containing interferon.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 351 for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 71.1]    71.1Using a microorganism to make a protein or polypeptide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein a protein or peptide synthesized is produced by a culture of a microorganism.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are eucaryotic antibiotics.
(2) Note. See this class subclass 68.1 for the definition of polypeptide or protein.

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243,through 261, for process of culturing microorganisms and for microorganisms, per se.

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Therefore,   subclasses 820+ for the product produced by the process of this subclass.
930Peptide or Protein Sequence,   subclasses 10+ for peptide or protein sequence of four or more amino acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 71.2]    71.2Procaryotic microorganism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.1.  Processes wherein the microorganism is procaryotic.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter included in this subclass are bacterial antigens and periplasmic proteins.

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252.1+,for process of culture of bacteria and for bacteria, per se.

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 820+ for the product produced by the processes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 71.3]    71.3Antibiotic or toxin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.2.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an antibiotic or toxin.
(1) Note. Examples of the subject matter in this subclass are procaryotic antibiotics (e.g., polymyxin).

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514Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 1.1 through 21.92for compositions of that class containing an antibiotic or toxin which is a protein or polypeptide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 72]    72Preparing compound containing saccharide radical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a saccharide or polysaccharide, the monomeric units of which contain at least five-carbon atoms, or their reaction products wherein the carbon skeleton of the saccharide or polysaccharide of the unit is not destroyed.
(1) Note. Included herein is cellulose, derivatized cellulose, starch, derivatized starch, sugars, lignins, tannins, o-glycosides, n-glycosides, and s-glycosides.
(2) Note. Processes wherein the product synthesized is a degradation product which contains fewer than five-carbon atoms are not provided for in this subclass but are provided for in an appropriate subclass below.

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137,for sugar acids.
158+,for sugar alcohols.
262,for processes of liberation or purification of carbohydrates using a biochemical reaction.

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127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   for the hydrolysis of carbohydrates including their conversion to sugar by means other than a microorganism or enzyme. Class 127 will provide for such processes using an enzyme or microorganism only where the hydrolysis by microorganism or enzyme is followed by steps of concentration, purification, or treatment (such as crystallization) to make a sugar or syrup.
536Organic Compounds,   for the chemical manufacture or synthesis of sugar or carbohydrates by a process other than hydrolysis and the rearrangement of one carbohydrate to form another carbohydrate by means other than a microorganism or enzyme. Search subclasses 22.1+ for N-glycosides (e.g., nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides) and more specifically subclasses 23.1+ for fragments of RNA or DNA which could have utility as genes in recombinant processes and subclasses 26.4+ for vitamin B-12 and its derivatives.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 73]    73Preparing S-glycoside (e.g, lincomycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a thioacetal derivative of a cyclic form of sugar in which the hydrogen atom of the hemithioacetal sulfhydryl group has been replaced by an alkyl, aralkyl, or aryl group.
(1) Note. An S-glycoside is a compound having a sugar moiety connected to an aglycone moiety via a sulfur.
(2) Note. The aglycone is a nonsaccharide material, e.g., benzene, indoxyl, anthracene, etc.
(3) Note. On complete hydrolysis S-glycosides yield one or more monosaccharides, and a mono or a polyhydric thiol or thiol phenol.
(4) Note. The cyclic sugars referred to in the definitions are normally pyranoses or furanoses.
(5) Note. Gyclosides derived from aldoses are referred to as aldosides, and those from ketoses are ketosides.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 74]    74Preparing O-glycoside (e.g, glucosides, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acetal derivative of a cyclic form of sugars in which the hydrogen atom of the hemiacetal hydroxyl has been replaced by an alkyl, aralkyl, or aryl group.
(1) Note. An O-glycoside is a compound having a sugar moiety connected to an aglycone moiety via oxygen.
(2) Note. The aglycone is a nonsaccharide material, e.g., benzene, indoxyl, anthracene, etc.
(3) Note. On complete hydrolysis O-glycosides yield one or more monosaccharides, and a mono or polyhydric alcohol or phenol.
(4) Note. The cyclic sugars referred to in the definitions are normally pyranoses or furanoses.
(5) Note. Glycosides derived from aldoses are referred to as aldosides, and those from ketoses are ketosides.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 75]    75Oxygen of the saccharide radical is directly bonded to a nonsaccharide heterocyclic ring or a fused- or bridged-ring system which contains a nonsaccharide heterocyclic ring (e.g., coumermycin, novobiocin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Processes wherein a nonsaccharide heterocyclic ring or a fused or bridged- ring system which contains a nonsaccharide heterocyclic ring is attached to an oxygen of the saccharide radical, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 75

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 76]    76The hetero ring has eight or more ring members and only oxygen as ring hetero atoms (e.g., erythromycin, spiramycin, nystatin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.  Processes wherein the nonsaccharide heterocyclic ring has eight or more ring members and only oxygen as the ring heteroatom, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 76

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 77]    77Oxygen atom of the saccharide radical is directly linked through only acyclic carbon atoms to a nonsaccharide heterocyclic ring (e.g., bleomycin, phleomycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Processes wherein the Heterocyclic ring is directly linked to an oxygen atom of the saccharide radical directly through only acyclic carbon atoms, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 77

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 78]    78Oxygen atom of the saccharide radical is directly bonded to a condensed ring system having three or more carbocyclic rings (e.g., dauomycin, adriamycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Processes wherein a condensed ring system having three or more carbocyclic rings is directly bonded to an oxygen atom of the saccharide radical, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 78

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 79]    79Oxygen atom of the saccharide radical is bonded to a cyclohexyl radical (e.g., kasugamycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Processes wherein a cyclohexyl radical is bonded to an oxygen atom of the saccharide radical, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 79

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 80]    80Cyclohexyl radical is substituted by two or more nitrogen atoms (e.g., destomycin, neamin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Processes wherein two or more nitrogen atoms are attached to the cyclohexyl radical, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 80

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 81]    81Cyclohexyl radical is attached directly to a nitrogen atom of two or more N-C(=N)-N radicals (e.g., streptomycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Processes wherein nitrogen atoms of two or more N-C(=N)-N radicals are bonded to the cyclohexyl radical, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 81

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 82]    82Having two saccharide radicals bonded through only oxygen to adjacent ring carbons of the cyclohexyl radical (e.g., ambutyrosin, ribostamycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Processes wherein the cyclohexyl radical is separately, independently bonded to two or more oxygen atoms of saccharide radicals at adjacent ring carbons, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 82

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 83]    83Containing three or more saccharide radicals (e.g., liquidomycin, neomycin, lividomycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Processes wherein the cyclohexyl radical is bonded directly or indirectly to three or more saccharide radicals, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 83

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 84]    84Preparing nitrogen-containing saccharide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized has a nitrogen-containing group bonded to a chain carbon of the saccharide or polysaccharide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 85]    85N-glycoside:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a glycosidic derivative of the cyclic forms of saccharides or polysaccharides in which the aglycone portion is attached through nitrogen to the saccharide moiety by substituting it for the hemiacetal hydroxyl of the sugar.
(1) Note. The aglycone can be noncyclic.
(2) Note. N-glycosides in which the aglycone is purine or pyrimidine in which the ring structure is intact are provided for in subclasses 87 and 89. Compounds such as those below are not considered to be within this meaning and thus, are here in subclass 85

6-azauracil riboside

6-azauracil riboside

 or 8-azaguanine riboside

or 8-azaguanine riboside

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 86]    86Cobalamin (i.e., vitamin B12,LLD factor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Processes wherein the product synthesized has the following structure:

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 86

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 87]    87Nucleoside:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Processes wherein the nitrogen is part of a purine or pyrimidine or a substituted purine or pyrimidine ring and the product synthesized does not contain phosphorus.
(1) Note. Substituted purine or pyrimidine includes only those derivatives which are substituted on rather than in the respective ring positions, (i.e., the structures below) is present in the structure. The internal ring bonding may be altered by tautomerism or by the addition of substituents without excluding a compound from this subclass.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 87

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 88]    88Having a fused ring containing a six-membered ring having two N-atoms in the same ring (e.g., purine nucleosides, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Processes wherein the nitrogen is part of a purine or substituted purine ring.
(1) Note. See subclass 17, Note (1) for a definition of substituted.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 89]    89Nucleotide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Processes wherein the nitrogen is part of a purine or pyrimidine or a substituted purine or pyrimidine ring and the compound additionally contains a phosphoric acid residue esterified to one of the hydroxyl groups of a saccharide moiety.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 90]    90Dinucleotide (e.g., NAD, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Processes wherein the product contains only two nucleotides joined through esterified phosphoric acid residues.
(1) Note. See subclass 87, Note (1) for definition of the term substituted.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.1]    91.1Polynucleotide (e.g., nucleic acid, oligonucleotide, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is (see image below) where "n" is a whole number greater than 2, R" is H or OH, and R is purine or pyrimidine or a substituted purine or pyrimidine.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 91.1

(1) Note. The two purines, adenine and guanine, are found in both deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). The pyrimidine cytosine is found in both DNA and RNA while the pyrimidine thymine is found only in DNA and the pyrimidine uracil appears only in RNA.
(2) Note. This and the indented subclasses are intended to include processes wherein the polynucleotide synthesized did not exist as such in the starting material. The synthesized material may be entirely different from the starting material, or it may have a substituted, deleted, or added nucleotide or nucleotides.
(3) Note. Substituted purine or pyrimidine includes only those derivatives which are substituted on, rather than in the respective ring positions.
(4) Note. If the disclosure is unclear as to what kind of polynucleotide is being made (i.e., RNA or DNA) the subject matter should be classified in the first appearing appropriate subclass for either RNA or DNA and cross-referenced to other appropriate subclasses for RNA or DNA. Unless the subject matter is directed to an acellular amplification process, synthesis of RNA is intended for subclasses 91.3+.

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91.3+,for processes wherein the product synthesized contains only ribonucleotide monomers.
270,for methods of removing nucleic acid from intact or disrupted cells by the use of an enzyme or microorganism.

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536Organic Compounds,   subclasses 22.1+ for nucleic acids, per se, and for methods of making nucleic acids which do not involve use of an enzyme or microorganism in the process.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.2]    91.2Acellular exponential or geometric amplification (e.g., PCR, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Processes which result in a geometric or exponential increase in the number of copies of a nucleotide sequence or sequences, rather than an arithmetic increase which occurs in the making of a single complementary copy of a nucleotide, wherein such processes take place without the involvement of viruses, eukaryotic cells, or prokaryotic cells.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR is an in vitro DNA amplification system that uses repeated cycles of oligonucleotide-directed DNA synthesis to selectively generate multiple copies of a specific DNA segment. It involves repeated cycles of (a) denaturation or strand displacement of the DNA, (b) annealing of two oligonucleotide primers that flank the DNA segment to be amplified, and (c) extension of the annealed primers with DNA polymerase.
(2) Note. Processes which result in an arithmetic increase in the number of copies of a nucleotide sequence, such as occurs in the making of a single complementary copy of a nucleotide sequence, are proper for subclasses 91.3+ if the nucleotide is a ribonucleotide and either subclass 91.1 or subclasses 91.5+, depending on the process details, if the nucleotide is other than a ribonucleotide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.21]    91.21Involving the making of multiple RNA copies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.2.  Processes which result in a geometric or exponential, rather than an arithmetic increase in the number of copies of a ribonucleotide sequence or sequences.
(1) Note. Transcription amplification is included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.3]    91.3Polynucleotide contains only ribonucleotide monomers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is (see image below): where "n" is a whole number greater than 2 and R is purine or pyrimidine or a substituted purine or pyrimidine.

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 91.3

(1) Note. The two purines, adenine and guanine, and the two pyrimidines, cytosine and uracil, are used in ribonucleic acid (RNA) synthesis.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

91.51,for acellular synthesis of RNA-DNA hybrid polynucleotides.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.31]    91.31Involving catalytic ribonucleic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.3.  Processes wherein a ribonucleic acid (RNA) acting as an enzyme is involved as a reactant in, or as a product of, a process of synthesizing a polynucleotide containing only ribonucleotide monomers.
(1) Note. Catalytic RNA is also called enzymatic RNA or ribozyme.
(2) Note. Catalytic RNA is RNA which can serve as an enzyme acting on other RNA molecules in vitro as a (a) dephosphorylase, (b) ribonucleotidyl-transferase, or (c) sequence-specific endoribonuclease.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.32]    91.32Prepared from virus, prokaryotic cell, or eukaryotic cell culturing process:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.3.  Processes wherein the desired RNA results from the culturing of a virus, prokaryote, or eukaryote.
(1) Note. A prokaryotic cell is one that lacks a defined nucleus. Generally, the cellular DNA is in the form of a single circular molecule not bounded by a membrane. The cell wall is rigid and it has few distinct organelles. Included in this group are bacteria and blue-green algae. A eukaryotic cell is one that has a nucleus defined by a nuclear membrane, which nucleus contains chromosomes that comprise the cell"s genome. Eukaryotic organisms may be multicellular or single-celled and include cells from plants, animals, fungi, and algae other than blue-green algae.
(2) Note. This and the indented subclass is intended to include processes wherein the virus, prokaryote, or eukaryote is a wild type, mutant, or recombinant.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.33]    91.33Involving virus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.32.  Processes wherein a virus is involved in the production of the polyribonucleotide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.4]    91.4Modification or preparation of a recombinant DNA vector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Processes involving the insertion, deletion, addition, or substitution of a nucleotide or nucleotides in an already existing vector or involving the creation of a new vector.
(1) Note. A vector is a DNA sequence (e.g., a plasmid, cosmid, a viral or phage DNA, etc.) which is able to replicate autonomously in a host cell.
(2) Note. Examples of processes intended for this and the indented subclasses include cleaving a plasmid followed by adding onto the plasmid a piece of nucleic acid and then ligating the plasmid; linearizing and then ligating two plasmids together; culturing cells and isolating vectors from them, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

320.1,for vectors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.41]    91.41By insertion or addition of one or more nucleotides:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.4.  Process involving the insertion of a nucleotide or a nucleotide sequence into a vector or onto the end of a vector wherein the result is a vector different from the starting vector.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.42]    91.42Involving deletion of a nucleotide or nucleotides from a vector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.4.  Processes involving the removal of an unwanted nucleotide or nucleotide sequence from the vector structure wherein the result is a vector different from the starting vector.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.5]    91.5Acellular preparation of polynucleotide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Processes wherein the polynucleotide is prepared enzymatically (with no virus, eukaryotic cell, or prokaryotic cell involvement in the preparation step) which results in a new polynucleotide or a polynucleotide different from the starting polynucleotide.
(1) Note. Viral or cellular involvement, prior to the actual polynucleotide preparation steps, is acceptable for this subclass as is cellular replication of the newly made polynucleotide, if said replication does not modify the structure of the polynucleotide product.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.51]    91.51Involving RNA as a starting material or intermediate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.5.  Processes wherein RNA is involved in the preparation of a polynucleotide as a template for the polynucleotide or as an intermediate in the process which results in the polynucleotide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.52]    91.52Involving a ligase (6.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.5.  Processes wherein a ligase (6.) is involved in the preparation of the polynucleotide.
(1) Note. Although ligase is the most common name used, carboxylase, synthetase, and synthase are other names used.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 91.53]    91.53Involving a hydrolase (3.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.5.  Processes wherein a hydrolase (3.) is involved in the preparation of the polynucleotide.
(1) Note. While the systematic name always includes "hydrolase," the recommended name is in most cases formed by the name of the substrate plus the suffix "ase" (e.g., nuclease, phosphatase, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 92]    92Having a fused ring containing a six-membered ring having two N-atoms in the same ring (e.g., purine based mononucleotides, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Processes wherein the nitrogen atoms are part of a purine or substituted purine ring.
(1) Note. See subclass 87, Note (1) for a definition of the term substituted.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 93]    93Mashing or wort making:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product is mashed grain or wort which has been prepared by a biochemical reaction utilizing malt, or malt diastase, or a malt extract.
(1) Note. Malt, malt diastase, and malt extract are considered to include a mixture of alpha- and beta-amylases.
(2) Note. Diastase (as distinguished from malt diastase) is considered to be alpha-amylase.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

95+,for products other than mash or wort produced by malt, malt diastase, or malt extract.
99+,for producing compounds containing saccharide radials by diastase.
201,for the production of maltase.
202,for the production of diastase from microorganisms.
203,for the production of diastase from a fungal source.
204,for the production of diastase from a plant source such as barley malt.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   particularly subclasses 16 , 28+, and 64 for processes of producing mash or wort when combined with steps for producing an edible, e.g., a beverage and the product of such processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 94]    94Produced by the action of an isomerase (e.g., frutose by the action of xylose isomerase on glucose, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an enzymatically isomerized polysaccharide or saccharide containing compound.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174,for immobilized isomerase preparation.
233,and 234, for isomerase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 95]    95Produced by the action of a beta-amylase (e.g., maltose by the action of beta-amylase on amylose, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product is produced by the successive hydrolysis of alpha-1, 4-glucan bonds in a polysaccharide from a terminal end.
(1) Note. Malt and malt diastase are considered to include a mixture of alpha- and beta-amylases. Products containing saccharide radicals (other than mash or wort) produced by malt, malt diastase, or malt extract are provided for here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174+,for immobilized beta-amylase preparations.
201,for beta-amylase type enzymes.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 96]    96Produced by the action of an exo-1.4 alpha glucosidase (e.g., dextrose by the action of glucoamylase on starch, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is produced by the hydrolysis of alpha-1, 4-glucan bonds of saccharides or polysaccharides.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

105,for the production of dextrose by other methods.
174,for immobilized glucoamylase preparations.
205,for glucoamylase enzymes.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 97]    97Produced by the action of a glycosyl transferase (e.g., alpha, beta, or gamma-cyclodextrins by the action of glycosyl transferase on starch, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is produced by the direct transfer of a glycosyl moiety from one saccharide or polysaccharide to another, e.g., cyclo-dextrins, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174+,for immobilized transferase preparations.
193+,for transferases.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 98]    98Produced by the action of an alpha-1, 6-glucosidase (e.g., amylose, debranched amylopectin by action of pullulanase, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product is produced by the hydrolysis of alpha-1, 6-glucan bonds in polysaccharides.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174+,for immobilized enzyme preparations which may be used in this process.
210+,for the enzyme which may catalyze this process.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 99]    99Produced by the action of a carbohydrase (e.g., maltose by the action of alpha amylase on starch, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a saccharide or polysaccharide produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of a polysaccharide.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174,for immobilized enzyme preparations which may catalyze this process.
200,for the enzyme which may catalyze this reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 100]    100Disaccharide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a glycoside composed of only two glucan moieties.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 101]    101Polysaccharide of more than five saccharide radicals attached to each other by glycosidic bonds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains five or more saccharide moieties bonded together.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 102]    102Pullulan:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Processes wherein the polysaccharide is composed of glucose units which are joined predominantly by 1, 6-glucosidic bonds.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 103]    103Dextran:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Processes wherein the polysaccharide is composed of maltotriose units which are linked by 1, 6-glucosidic bonds.
(1) Note. Dextrin and Dextrine are not variant spellings of "Dextran", instead they are respectively a starch hydrolysis product and a variant spelling of dextrin.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 104]    104Xanthan (i.e., xanthomonas-type heteropolysaccharides):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Processes wherein the polysaccharide is prepared through the cultivation of a species of Xanthomonas.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 105]    105Monosaccharide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a monosaccharide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 106]    106Preparing alpha or beta amino acid or substituted amino acid or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an orgnaic compound that contains both a basic amino group and an acidic carboxyl group where a primary or secondary amino group is directly bonded to the alpha or beta carbon.
(1) Note. This subclass takes compounds such as pantothenic acid and amino acids that additionally contain heterocyclic groups.
(2) Note. This subclass provides for the salt form as well as the acid form.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 107]    107Proline; hydroxyproline; histidine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of alpha-2-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or 4-hydroxy-2-pyrrolidine carboxylic acid or alpha-amino-4-imidazole propionic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 108]    108Tryptophan; tyrosine; phenylalanine; 3, 4, dihydroxyphenylalanine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of alpha-amino-beta-phenyl-propionic acid or p-hydroxyphenylaminoacetic acid or 2-amino-3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid or 1-alpha-aminoindole-3-propionic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 109]    109Aspartic acid (asparaginic acid); asparagine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of amino succinic acid or alpha-amino succinamic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 110]    110Glutamic acid; glutamine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of 2-amino pentanedioic acid or alpha-amino-glutaric acid or 1-amino propane-1, 3-dicarboxylic acid or 2-amino glutaramic acid or glutamic acid 5-amide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 111]    111Utilizing biotin or its derivatives:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Processes wherein biotin or biotin derivative is present in the production media.
(1) Note. Biotin Derivatives include desthio-biotin, biotin-d-sulfoxide, biocytin.
(2) Note. Molases and various carbohydrate and protein hydrolyzates provide biotin.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 112]    112Utilizing surfactant, fatty acids, or fatty acid esters (i.e., having seven or more carbon atoms):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Processes wherein a surfactant or a fatty acid or a fatty acid ester is present in the production media.
(1) Note. A fatty acid or its ester is defined as containing seven or more carbon atoms in a single chain.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 113]    113Methionine; cysteine; cystine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of 2-amino-4-(methyl thio) butyric acid or 2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid or 3, 3"-dithiobis (2-aminopropanoic acid).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 114]    114Citrulline; arginine; ornithine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of alpha-amino-6-ureidovaleric acid or 1-amino-4-guanidovalenic acid or 2, 5 diaminopentaneic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 115]    115Lysine; diaminopimelic acid; threonine; valine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of 2, 6-diaminohexanoic acid or 2, 4 diamino-1,5-pentane dicarboxylic acid or 2-amino-3-hydroxy butanoic acid or 2-amino-3-methyl butanoic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 116]    116Alanine; leucine; isoleucine; serine; homoserine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of 2-aminopropanoic acid or 2-amino-4-methyl pentanoic acid or 2-amino-3-methyl pentanoic acid or 2-amino-3-hydroxypropionic acid or 2-amino-4-hydroxy butanoic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 117]    117Preparing heterocyclic carbon compound having only O, N, S, Se, or Te as ring hetero atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a carbon compound which contains a ring composed of carbon and at least one element from the group consisting of nitrogen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium, or oxygen and no other atoms.
(1) Note. Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid anhydride or lactone, or lactam are properly classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 118]    118Containing two or more hetero rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains at least two hetero rings.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 119]    119Containing at least two hetero rings bridged or fused among themselves or bridged or fused with a common carbocyclic ring system (e.g., rifamycin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains at least two hetero rings which are bridged or fused among themselves or bridged or fused with a common carbocyclic ring system.
(1) Note. Ring systems containing two carbocyclic rings fused to a common heterocyclic ring where each of the carbocyclic rings share a hetero ring are included herein, e.g.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 119

(2) Note. A common carbocyclic ring system may contain three or more carbon atoms and may be bridged or fused, e.g.,

Image 2 for class 435 subclass 119

(3) Note. This subclass provides for compounds generally referred to as alkaloids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 120]    120Nitrogen or oxygen hetero atom and at least one other diverse hetero ring atom in the same ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter wherein the product synthesized contains a hetero ring which contains at least two different hetero atoms, one of which is either nitrogen or oxygen.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 121]    121Nitrogen as only ring hetero atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a hetero ring having nitrogen as the only hetero atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 122]    122Containing six-membered hetero ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Processes wherein the N-containing hetero ring contains six-members.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 123]    123Oxygen as only ring hetero atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a hetero ring wherein oxygen is the only hetero atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 124]    124Containing a hetero ring of at least seven ring members (e.g., zearalenone, macrocyclic lactones, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains an O-containing hetero ring of seven or more ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 125]    125Containing six-membered hetero ring (e.g., fluorescein, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes wherein the O-containing hetero ring has only six members.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 126]    126Containing five-membered hetero ring (e.g., griseofulvin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes wherein the O-containing hetero ring has five members.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 127]    127Preparing compound containing at least three carbocyclic rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter in which the product contains three carbocyclic rings.
(1) Note. The rings need not be fused or contiguous.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 128]    128Preparing nitrogen-containing organic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product is an organic compound which contains nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 129]    129Amide (e.g., chloramphenicol, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Subject matter wherein the product has the following structural group,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 129

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 130]    130Preparing sulfur-containing organic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 131]    131Preparing organic compound containing a metal or atom other than H, N, C, O, or halogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product contains an atom other than H, N, C, O, or halogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 132]    132Preparing oxygen-containing organic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product is an organic compound containing oxygen.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 133]    133Containing quinone nucleus (i.e., quinoid structure):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 132.  Processes wherein the product contains the following structure, i.e.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 133

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 134]    134Fat; fatty oil; ester-type wax; higher fatty acid (i.e., having at least seven carbon atoms in an unbroken chain bound to a carboxyl group); oxidized oil or fat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 132.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a fat or fatty oil or ester-type wax or fatty acis, oxidized oil or fat.
(1) Note. "Fats" and "fatty oils" are the glycerides of higher fatty acids having seven or more carbon atoms.
(2) Note. "Higher fatty acid" is a monocarboxylic acid containing seven or more carbon atoms bonded to a carboxyl group, e.g., lauric, palmitic stearic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic, and behonolic acids. Where there are several unbroken chains of carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group, one of the chains must contain seven or more carbon atoms.
(3) Note. Ester-type waxes and esters of a higher fatty acid having seven or more carbon atoms and a monohydric alcohol.
(4) Note. The conversion of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to fatty acids is a step in the anaerobic digestion of sewage provided for in Class 210, subclasses 2+.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 135]    135Carboxylic acid ester:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 132.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains an ester group, i.e.,O-R wherein R=alkyl, aryl, alkenyl, alkynyl.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 136]    136Containing a carboxyl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 132.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a carboxylic acid functional group, i.e.,-CH which is either in the acid or salt form.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 137]    137Sugar acid having five or more carbon atoms (i.e., aldonic, keto-aldonic, or saccharic acids):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a polyhydroxy acid having five or more carbon atoms.
(1) Note. The processes of this subclass typically involve the oxidation of a carbohydrate and include the production of aldonic, keto-aldonic and saccharic acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 138]    138Alpha-ketogulonic acid (i.e., 2-ketogulonic acid):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of:

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 138

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 139]    139Lactic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid or salt form of alpha-hydroxy propanoic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 140]    140Acetic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is ethanoic acid which by the nature of the process can not be readily used as a food product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclass 17 for fermentation of alcohol to produce vinegar. The oxidizing of alcohol to produce acetic acid as a chemical compound is subject matter for Class 435.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 141]    141Propionic or butyric acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is an acid with the structure:

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 141

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 142]    142Polycarboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains two or more carboxylic acid groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 143]    143Having keto group (e.g., alpha-ketoglutaric acid, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Processes wherein the polycarboxylic acid synthesized contains a keto group.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 144]    144Tricarboxylic acid (e.g., citric acid, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains three carboxylic acid groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 145]    145Dicarboxylic acid having four or less carbon atoms (e.g., fumaric, maleic, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains two carboxylic acid groups and four or less carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 146]    146Hydroxy carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains one or more hydroxy groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 147]    147Containing carbonyl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 132.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a carbonyl group, i.e.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 147

(1) Note. This subclass provides for linear carbocyclic acid anhydrides such as acetic acid anhydride.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 148]    148Ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains a keto group, i.e.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 148

  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 149]    149Cyclopentanone or cyclopentadione containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is cyclopentanone or cyclopentadione or a substituted cyclopentanone or cyclopentadione.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 150]    150Acetone containing product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains acetone, i.e.,

Image 1 for class 435 subclass 150

(1) Note. Molasses is not considered a grain or cereal material for purposes of this subclass.
(2) Note. Care should be taken with the word "mash" to determine if sugar, or grain or cereal material is intended.
(3) Note. This subclass does not include dihydroxy acetone.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 151]    151Substrate contains grain or cereal material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Processes wherein acetone is prepared by biochemical transformation of farinaceous material.
(1) Note. Molasses is not considered a cereal or grain substrate.
(2) Note. Care should be taken with the word "mash" to determine if sugar or grain-cereal is intended.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 152]    152Substrate contains protein as nitrogen source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Processes wherein the production media contains a protein as the nitrogen source.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 153]    153Substrate contains inorganic nitrogen source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Processes wherein the production media contains an inorganic nitrogen source.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 154]    154Substrate contains inorganic compound, other than water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Processes wherein the production media contains an added inorganic compound other than water.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 155]    155Containing hydroxy group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 132.  Processes wherein the product contains a hydroxyl group, i.e., R-OH.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   subclasses 97.5 and 124 for the treatment of source materials such as sulfite waste liquor or black liquor to derive a specific carbon compound, subclass 527 for the production of oxalic acids from waste sulfite liquor.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   for fermentation to produce beverage alcohol. Class 426 also provides for methods of clarifying alcoholic beverages by fermentation.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 156]    156Aromatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains at least one aryl ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 157]    157Acyclic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is acyclic.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 158]    158Polyhydric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Processes wherein the product synthesized contains two or more hydroxyl groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 159]    159Glycerol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 158.  Processes wherein the product is 1, 2, 3, propanetriol.
(1) Note. Glycerine is another name for glycerol.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 160]    160Butanol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is 2-methyl-2-propanol or 1-butanol or 2-methyl-1-propanol or 2-butanol.
(1) Note. Butanol is typically produced as a product in fermentation process for producing acetone.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

150+,for processes for producing acetone which also produces a butanol by-product.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 161]    161Ethanol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is ethanol which is not directly suitable for food or beverage use.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 162]    162Multiple stages of fermentation; multiple types of microorganisms or reuse of microorganisms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Processes wherein ethanol is prepared by (a) two or more distinct fermentation steps, or (b) by using microorganisms of different species sequentially, or (c) by a process wherein the microorganism is recycled and reused.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 163]    163Produced as by-product or from waste or from cellulosic material substrate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Processes wherein ethanol produced as a by-product in a process for the production of another chemical species or is prepared by the biochemical conversion of materials containing cellulose or unrefined waste materials of another process.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 164]    164Substrate contains sulphite waste liquor or citrus waste:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Processes wherein ethanol is prepared by the biochemical conversion of waste sulfite liquor or citrus waste.
(1) Note. Waste sulfite liquor is the residual material obtained after the sulfurous acid treatment of paper pulp.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 165]    165Substrate contains cellulosic material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Processes wherein ethanol is prepared by the biochemical treatment of a cellulose containing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 166]    166Preparing hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is a hydrocarbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 167]    167Only acyclic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Processes wherein the only hydrocarbon product is acyclic.
(1) Note. This subclass is largely devoted to production of methane.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   especially subclass 197 for processes of producing a fuel gas by anerobic fermentation of sewage.
71Chemistry: Fertilizers,   for processes whose primary intent is to make a product of that class which may incidentally produce a methane containing gas by-product.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 603 for fermentative processing of liquid which may result in the production of a methane containing gas. The following criteria are determinative of placement in Class 210.
(1) Where water is the only disclosed liquid purified, the patent will be classified in Class 210.
(2) Where the disclosure includes water, mineral oils and/or other liquids, the patent will be classified: (a) In Class 210 if all the claims are broad as to the liquid. (b) In Class 210 if several species of liquid are claimed and one species includes waters. (c) In the appropriate art class if some liquid other than water is the only liquid claimed (e.g., mineral oils in Clas 208; organic compounds in Class 206). When the treatment of mineral oils and the treatment of other materials (other than water) are claimed the patent will be classified in Class 208.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 168]    168Preparing element or inorganic compound except carbon dioxide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product is an element or inorganic compound.
(1) Note. The exclusion of carbon dioxide is intended to exclude carbon dioxide as a normal respiration product of microorganisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 169]    169Using actinomycetales:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by actinomycetales.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 170]    170Using bacteria:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by bacteria.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 171]    171Using fungi:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by fungi.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.1]    173.1TREATMENT OF microorganismS OR ENZYMES WITH ELECTRICAL OR WAVE ENERGY (E.G., MAGNETISM, SONIC WAVES, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes wherein a microorganism is subjected to electrical or wave energy either prior to or during propagation, or catalytically active enzymes are subjected to electrical or wave energy.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include the treatment of plant cells, tissues thereof, algae, or any microorganism with light for the photosynthetic propagation thereof. Such subject matter is provided for in Class 47 or in Class 435, subclasses 410+ for plant cells and tissues thereof, and 243+ for algae and other photosynthetic microorganisms.
(2) Note. This subclass does not include the use of electrical or wave energy for the purpose of sterilizing, etc. Such subject matter is provided for in Class 422, subclasses 20 through 24.
(3) Note. This subclass does not include the use of electrical or wave energy for the purpose of detecting or measuring microorganisms or enzymes. Such subject matter is provided for in Class 435, subclasses 4+.

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283.1,for subject matter including apparatus.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for processes and apparatus involving electrical and wave energy effects upon chemical compositions, compounds, and elements not provided for elsewhere.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclass 701 for electrolytic treatment of biological material (e.g., sterilizing, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.2]    173.2Enzyme treated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.1.  Processes wherein enzymes are subjected to electrical or wave energy thus affecting the catalytic activity and/or physical structure thereof.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include electrophoretic or electrofocusing processes for the separation and purification of enzymes. Such subject matter is provided for in Class 204, and in Class 435, subclasses 183+.

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8,through 29, for subject matter involving measuring and testing utilizing enzymes.
174+,for subject matter involving immobilization of enzymes.
183+,for subject matter involving enzyme and proenzyme compositions and other processes for preparing, activating, inhibiting, separating, or purifying enzyme or proenzyme compositions.
817,for subject matter involving enzyme electrodes.

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205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 777.5+ for electrolytic analysis or testing involving an enzyme or microorganism (e.g., animal or plant cells, bacteria, virus, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.3]    173.3Modification of viruses (e.g., attenuation, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.1.  Processes in which viruses are modified utilizing electrical or wave energy.

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5,for subject matter of measuring and testing utilizing a virus or bacteriophage.
235.1+,for subject matter involving a virus or bacteriophage, particularly subclass 236 which involves other processes of inactivation or attenuation.
440+,for processes wherein the genetic material is altered.

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250Radiant Energy,   particularly subclass 492.1 for processes of irradiation of objects or materials.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting, and Body Treating Compositions,   particularly subclasses 159.1+ for a process involving the step of immunizing an animal with a virus to produce a protective antiserum, followed by the step of obtaining the protective antiserum from the animal; subclasses 199.1, 201.1, 202.1, and 204.1 for an immunologic composition containing a virus (e.g., vaccines, etc.); subclass 93.6 for compositions or products under the class definition which contain nongenetically modified whole, live viruses. The mere use of the word vaccine, etc., is insufficient for placement in Class 424.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.4]    173.4Cell membrane or cell surface is target:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.1.  Processes wherein electrical or wave energy affects the membrane or surface of a microorganism.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.5]    173.5Membrane permeability increased:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.4.  Processes wherein the permeability of a cell membrane is increased.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.6]    173.6Electroporation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.5.  Processes wherein the permeability of a cell membrane is increased as a result of an applied electric current.
(1) Note. The related process of electrofusion is provided for in Class 435, subclass 450.

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440+,for processes, including electrofusion, wherein the genetic material of a cell is altered.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 450+ for electrophoretic or electro-osmotic processes, in general. Class 435 provides for processes and apparatus using electrical or wave energy treatment of microorganisms or enzymes when the treatment is solely disclosed for use with viable microorganisms or catalytically active enzymes.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.7]    173.7Lytic effect produced (e.g., disruption of cell membrane for release of subcellular parts; e.g., nucleic acids, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.4.  Processes wherein electrical or wave energy is utilized to disrupt a cell membrane (e.g., ultrasonic energy, etc.) for releasing the contents of the cell or for producing membrane fragments thereof.

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259,for subject matter involving lysis of microorganisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.8]    173.8Metabolism of microorganism enhanced (e.g., growth enhancement or increased production of microbial product):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.1.  Processes wherein the metabolic activity of a microorganism is affected by electrical or wave energy.

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235.1+,for subject matter involving additional processes of propagation of a virus or bacteriophage.
243+,for subject matter involving additional processes of propagation of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, or single cell algae.
325+,for processes of propagation, maintenance, etc. of animal cells.
410+,for processes of propagation, maintenance, etc. of plant cells.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 173.9]    173.9Concentration, separation, or purification of microorganisms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.1.  Processes wherein electrical or wave energy (e.g. magnetism) is utilized to concentrate, separate, or purify a microorganism.

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235.1+,for subject matter involving other processes of purification of a virus or bacteriophage.
243+,for subject matter involving other processes of purification of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, or single cell algae.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 174]    174CARRIER-BOUND OR IMMOBILIZED ENZYME OR MICROBIAL CELL; CARRIER-BOUND OR IMMOBILIZED CELL; PREPARATION THEREOF:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which is an artificially produced composition or complex or compound under the class definition containing microbial cell or enzyme or individual plant or animal cell which imparts to the enzyme or the microorganism or the individual plant or animal cell the property of physical confinement or localization during a continuous biochemical process or the property of enhanced recoverability in a batch process for repeated future use and processes for preparing the same.
(1) Note. Immobilization results from covalent bonding between an enzyme or microorganism and the carrier or an ionic bonding between an enzyme or microorganism and a carrier or sorption of an enzyme or microorganism within a carrier, or entrapment of an enzyme or microorganism within a carrier.
(2) Note. A carrier material may be either water soluble or water insoluble.
(3) Note. Reaction or ultra filtration cells, vials, or beakers which contain enzymes or microorganisms are not considered to be immobilized complexes or compositions.
(4) Note. Enzymes chemically or physically bonded to a water-insoluble matrix, enzymes contained within a polymer or gel, enzymes absorbed on a resin are examples of immobilized enzymes.
(5) Note. Proenzymes are considered to be enzymes for the purpose of this subclass.
(6) Note. When a carrier is composed of more than one material, the patent is placed in the subclass which corresponds to the material to which the enzyme is bound, e.g., a carrier which is a synthetic polymer coated metal is placed in subclass 177.
(7) Note. The carrier material or the carrier material and a covalent bond forming agent impart to the enzyme or the microbial or plant or animal cell the property of physical confinement or localization during a continuous process or the property of enhanced recoverability in a batch process which it did not possess prior to treatment with the carrier material or carrier material and a covalent bonding agent.
(8) Note. A microbial cell for purposes of this subclass includes bacteria, fungi (including yeast), actinomycetales, animal or plant cells, unicellular algae or protozoa.
(9) Note. An enzyme conjugate, enzyme ligand, enzyme adduct for the purpose of this subclass are deemed to enhance enzyme stability.
(10) Note. In documents where it is unclear whether an enzyme joined to a chemical moiety is an immobilized enzyme or is an enzyme conjugate or adduct, the following factors should be considered. A. If the document states that the product is an enzyme conjugate, adduct or ligand bound enzyme placement is proper in subclass 188.B If the ratio of nonenzyme moiety to enzyme is in the range of 0.01-100:1 placement would be indicated in subclass 188. A ratio of 1-40 nonenzyme moieties per enzyme indicates placement in subclass 188. C. If the molecular weight of the nonenzyme moiety is less than about 100,000 placement would be indicated in subclass 188. D. If the intended use of the enzyme containing product is a reagent in competitive assay placement is indicated in subclass 188. If the use of the product is as a catalyst in the preparation of chemical compounds with recoverability (i.e., insolubililty) an important consideration, placement as an immoblized enzyme is indicated in subclasses 174+.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   for processes of making glass articles, particularly subclasses 447+ for making a resin coated glass fiber; and subclass 22 for making a porous glass article which may find utility as an immobilization agent.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   for protein containing coating or plastic compositions, particularly subclasses 4 , 31.24, 31.53, 31.82, 31.94, 124+, 645+, and indented subclasses.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 77+ for pore forming in combination with a laminating step.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 263+ and 660+ for processes and apparatus for ion exchange or sorption of components from a liquid; and subclasses 606 and 632 for a process of use of an immobilized enzyme or microorganism to purify sewage.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   various subclasses for coenzymes or immobilized coenzymes; subclasses 112+ for proteins or polypeptides, per se.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 41+ for significant molding processes which include the step of pore forming in situ.
362Illumination,   for cells which are propagated fixed to a surface.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 94.1 through 94.67for a therapeutic or bio-affecting composition containing an enzyme or coenzyme.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   appropriate subclasses, for edible protein compositions or products and related process involving the same.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 474.1+ for a nonstructural stock material product in the form of a composite web or sheet including a layer comprising protein, and other appropriately titled subclasses, e.g., subclasses 435 and 458; and subclasses 304.4+ for a stock material in the form of a composite web or sheet embodying a component which is porous or cellular.
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   for resin containing a chemically combined protein or biologically active polypeptide which is other than an enzyme; see in particular, Class 525, subclases 8+ and 54.1; Class 526, subclass 238.1 ; and Class 527, subclasses 200+.
521Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 25+ for an ion exchange resin and the processes of making or regenerating them; and subclasses 50+ for cellular or porous resinous bodies and the process of preparing them.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 175]    175Multi-enzyme system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Subject matter wherein two or more functionally different enzymes are immobilized on the same support material.
(1) Note. The use of a microorganism as a carrier is excluded herefrom.
(2) Note. Functionally different means possessing differing catalytic activities.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 176]    176Enzyme or microbial cell is immobilized on or in an inorganic carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Subject matter wherein the carrier is an inorganic compound or metal alloy.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 177]    177Enzyme or microbial cell is immobilized on or in an organic carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Subject matter wherein the support material is an organic compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 178]    178Carrier is carbohydrate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject Matter wherein the support material is a carbohydrate.
(1) Note. Derivatized starch, derivatized cellulose, and derivatized polysaccharides are carbohydrates within the meaning of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 179]    179Carbohydrate is cellulose or derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 178.  Subject matter wherein the carbohydrate is cellulose or a substituted cellulose.
(1) Note. Examples of substituted cellulose are DEAE cellulose, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 180]    180Carrier is synthetic polymer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein the support material is a linear or cross-linked polymer which is not naturally occurring.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 181]    181Attached to the carrier via a bridging agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme or microbial cell is bonded to the polymeric carrier through an intermediate compound which attaches to both the enzyme and the carrier.
(1) Note. The formation of the immobilized enzyme or cell may be in a stagewise manner with a reaction between the carrier and bridging agent being completed before the enzyme is added or in a process in which the carrier, bridging agent, and enzyme are present simultaneously in which case some care should be exercised in distinguishing the process of this subclass from mere entrapment. In general, if three separate entities, i.e., enzyme and two different chemical species are present simultaneously bonding through a bridging agent should be presumed.
(2) Note. A product or process classifiable in this subclass combines a polymeric carrier with a bridging agent to provide functional groups for enzyme attachment. It should be noted that similar functional groups can be provided by formation of a polymeric carrier by copolymerization of monomers one or more of which contain the desired functional group for enzyme attachment and that such would be provided for in subclass 180.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 182]    182Enzyme or microbial cell is entrapped within the carrier (e.g., gel, hollow fibre):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme or microbial cell is physically trapped in a reticulated polymer structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 183]    183ENZYME (E.G., LIGASES (6.), ETC.); PROENZYMES, COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROCESS FOR PREPARING, ACTIVATING, INHIBITING, SEPARATING, OR PURIFYING ENZYMES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Enzymes, per se, compositions containing enzymes, processes for synthesizing enzymes, and preparing enzyme compositions, processes for separating enzymes from a source material, or purifying enzymes or processes under the class definition for treating enzymes.
(1) Note. Enzymes, for the purpose of this class, are defined as proteinaceous materials which cause a chemical change in a starting material without being consumed in the reaction with the remaining amount of enzyme generally, after the reaction, the same as originally present.
(2) Note. Processes wherein a microorganism is propagated and an enzyme recovered therefrom or processes wherein a microorganism is cultivated in the presence of a compound or composition which induces or stimulates enzyme formation are included in this subclass.
(3) Note. The chemical changes catalyzed by an enzyme include oxidation-reduction, transfer of methyl or phosphate groups from one molecule to the next, hydrolysis, nonhydrolytic bond cleavage, isomerization, bond formation in the presence of a nucleotide, etc.
(4) Note. Enzymes conjugates, i.e., enzymes which are labeled with relatively small organic molecules compared to the enzyme, are included in this subclass.
(5) Note. Processes for treating enzymes include but are not limited to processes for inactivating an enzyme, processes for enhancing enzyme activity, processes for forming granular or free-flowing enzyme compositions.
(6) Note. Proenzymes or precursors of enzymes are classified with the related enzyme.
(7) Note. The bracketed numerals following the titles in this and the indented subclasses refer to the nomenclature system recommended by the Commission on Bio-chemical Nomenclature on the Nomenclature and Classification of Enzymes. The titles include the enzymes defined by the bracketed numerals but are not limited to the enzymes so classified.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 94.5 for medicinal compositions containing a ligase.
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   subclass 101 for a composition which contains an enzyme and which is specific to earth boring and subclass 201 for a composition which contains an enzyme and which is specific to well treating.
930Peptide or Protein Sequence,   subclass 240 for enzyme or protein sequence.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 184]    184Enzyme inactivation by chemical treatment
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Enzyme inactivation by chemical treatment: Processes wherein the enzyme is contacted with an element or chemical compound to reduce its catalytic activity.
(1) Note. Processes such as the treatment of an enzyme containing a sulfhydryl group in the active site with mercuric salts, etc., are included herein.
(2) Note. Selective inactivation by chemical treatment to obtain a greater proportion of certain enzymes is found in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 185]    185Malt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme containing composition is green, partially dried, dried, kilned malt, or malt extract.
(1) Note. This subclass is intended to provided for documents which germinate grain to produce a mixture containing enzymes, i.e., malt rather than the use of grain as a substrate for microorganism growth, e.g., ergot on rye grain, etc. If the crude mixture is subjected to further refinement to obtain a specific enzyme, placement should be on the basis of the enzyme obtained.

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127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   for processes of hydrolysis of carbohydrates which include the action of diastase only when the hydrolysis is followed by steps of concentration, purification, or treatment, such as crystallization to make a sugar or syrup.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 186]    186Pancreatin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the product contains a mixture of amylopsin, trypsin and steapsin (lipase) obtained from a pancreas.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 187]    187Preparing granular- or free-flowing enzyme composition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein an enzyme is treated to produce a solid flowable product or to produce a product in the form of small discrete particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 188]    188Stabilizing an enzyme by forming a mixture, an adduct, or a composition, or formation of an adduct or enzyme conjugate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein (a) the enzyme is contacted with an extraneous material to impart to the enzyme a resistance to loss of activity, or (b) the enzyme is reacted with a nonenzymatic material to form a complex or a chemically modified enzymatic compound, e.g., conjugate, ligand, etc.
(1) Note. An enzyme conjugate, enzyme ligand, enzyme adduct for the purpose of this subclass are deemed to enhance enzyme stability.
(2) Note. In documents where it is unclear whether an enzyme joined to a chemical moiety is an immobilized enzyme or is an enzyme conjugate or adduct, the following factors should be considered. A. If the document states that the product is an enzyme conjugate, adduct, or ligand bound enzyme, placement is proper in subclass 188. B. If the ratio of non-enzyme moiety to enzyme is in the range of 0.01-100:1 placement would be indicated in subclass 188. A ratio of 1-40 nonenzyme moieties per enzyme indicates placement in subclass 188. C. If the molecular weight of the non-enzyme moiety is less than about 100,000, placement would be indicated in subclass 188. D. If the intended use of the enzyme containing product is a reagent in competitive assay, placement is indicated in subclass 188. If the use of the product is as a catalyst in the preparation of chemical compounds with recoverability (i.e., insolubility) an important consideration, placement as an immobililzed enzyme is indicated in subclasses 174+.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 188.5]    188.5Catalytic antibody:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter involving an antibody that functions catalytically in a chemical reaction.
(1) Note. Synonym is abzyme, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 189]    189Oxidoreductase (1. ) (e.g., luciferase):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction between a donor and aceptor, e.g., AH2+B=A+BH2, etc.
(1) Note. An oxidation-reduction reaction for the purposes of this classification involves the transfer of oxygen, hydrogen, or electrons from a donor to an acceptor.
(2) Note. A water molecule is not considered to be an acceptor or a donor.
(3) Note. Oxidoreductases which catalyze a reaction between a donor and acceptor are different portions of the same molecule, i.e., an intramolecular oxidoreductase, are considered to be isomerases and are excluded herefrom.

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233+,for isomerases which are oxidoreductases which catalyze a reaction between a donor and acceptor on the same molecule.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 94.4 for medicinal compositions containing oxidoreductases.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 190]    190Acting on CHOH group as donor; e.g., glucose oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase (1.1):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter wherein the donor is a compound containing a hydroxyl group, i.e., -C-OH.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 191]    191Acting on nitrogen-containing compound as donor (1.2, 1.5, 1.7):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter wherein the donor is a nitrogen compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 192]    192Acting on hydrogen peroxide as acceptor (1.11):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter wherein the acceptor is hydrogen peroxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 193]    193Transferase other than ribonuclease (2.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another, e.g., AR + BBR + A, etc.
(1) Note. Elements, e.g., hydrogen, oxygen, etc., electrons, or water, per se, are not considered for the purposes of this subclass to be a functional group.
(2) Note. Functional groups include but are not limited to methyl, hydroxyl methyl, formyl, carboxyl, carbamoyl, amidino, acyl, amino acyl, hexosyl, pentosyl, glycosyl, amino, oximino, phosphate, sulfur, sulpho, etc.
(3) Note. Transaminases, transacetylases, and kinases that transfer phosphate from a nucleoside dior triphosphate to an acceptor are examples of transferases.
(4) Note. Ribonuclease is excluded herefrom.
(5) Note. A transferase which catalyzes the cleavage of a functional group from one part of a molecule and its transfer to another part of the same molecule, i.e., an intramolecular transferase, is considered an isomerase and is excluded herefrom.

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199,for ribonucleases.
233,for transferases which catalyze the cleavage of a functional group from one part of a molecule and the transfer to another part of the same molecule.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 94.5 for medicinal compositions containing transferases.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 194]    194Transferring phosphorus containing group; e.g., kineases, etc., (2.7):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 193.  Subject matter wherein the functional group transferred contains phosophorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 195]    195Hydrolase (3.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the followingreaction; AB + H2O AOH + BH.
(1) Note. The compounds hydrolyzed are usually carboxylic esters, thiolesters, phosphoric esters, sulfuric esters, glycosides, ethers, peptides, amides, amidines, nitriles, acid anhydrides, organis halides, etc.
(2) Note. Peptidases, esterases, glycosidases, and phosphatases are examples of hydrolases.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass for medicinal compositions containing a hydrolase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 196]    196Acting on ester bond (3.1):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of an ester bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 197]    197Carboxylic ester hydrolase (3.1.1):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein the ester bond which is hydrolyzed was formed by a carboxylic acid and an alcohol, i.e., OR.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 198]    198Triglyceride splitting; e.g., lipase, etc. (3.1.1.3):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of the ester bond in triglyceride fats.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 199]    199Ribonuclease (3.1.4):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein the enzymes are phosphoric diester hydrolases that act on nucleotides and nucleic acids.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 200]    200Acting on glycosyl compound (3.2):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of O-glycosyl bonds or N-glycosyl bonds or S-glycosyl bonds.
(1) Note. Enzymes which hydrolyze mucin are classifiable in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 201]    201Acting on alpha-1, 4-glucosidic bond; e.g., hyaluronidase, invertase, amylase, etc., (some 3.2.1):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha-1, 4-glucosidic bond.
(1) Note. Amylase from Bacillus macerans characterized by its ability to degrade starch in part to crystalline nonreducing substances known as Schardinger dextrins is included in this subclass.
(2) Note. In the absence of a clear showing to the contrary the recitation of "amylase" is presumed to mean alpha-amylase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 202]    202Alpha-amylase, microbial source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Subject matter wherein the source of alpha-1, 4-glucano-4-glucanohydrolase obtained is a microorganism.
(1) Note. In the absence of a clear showing to the contrary, a recitation of "amylase" is presumptively alpha-amylase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 203]    203Fungal source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Subject matter wherein the source of alpha-1, 4-glucan-4- glucanohydrolase is a fungi.
(1) Note. Takediastase, koji, and taka-koji are classifiable in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 204]    204Alpha-amylase, plant source (3.2.1.1):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Subject matter wherein the source of alpha-1, 4-glucan-4- glucanohydrolase is a nonmicrobial plant.
(1) Note. An alpha-1, 4-glucan-4- glucohydrolace is an enzyme that catalyzes in a random fashion the hydrolysis of the alpha-1, 4-glucan bonds in carbohyrates that contain three or more alpha-1, 4-linked-D- glucose units and does not hydrolyze alpha-1, 6-bonds connecting D-glucose units.
(2) Note. In the absence of a clear showing to the contrary, a recitation of amylase is presumptively alpha-amylase.

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205,for hydrolases capable of hydrolyzing both alpha-1,4 and and alpha-1,6 glucan bonds.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 205]    205Glucomylase (3.2.1.3):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme obtained is an alpha-1, 4-glucanglucohydrolase.
(1) Note. Alpha-1, 4-glucanglucohydrolase for the purpose of this subclass is defined as an enzyme which hydrolyzes alpha-1,4-glucan bonds and alpha-1,6-glucan bonds in carbohydrates removing successive glucose units from the ends of carbohydrate chains.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 206]    206Acting on beta-1, 4 link between N-acetylmuramic acid and 2-acetylamino 2-deoxy-D-glucose (e.g., lysozyme, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme hydrolyzes a beta-1,4 glycoside bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and 2-acetyl amino 2-deoxy-D-glucose moieties.
(1) Note. The hydrolysis of this subclass is usually of a mucopolysaccharide, muco-polypeptide, or chitin.
(2) Note. Lysozyme is an example of an enzyme appropriate for this subclass.
(3) Note. Cell lytic, bacteriolytic, lytic enzymes are presumptively included in this subclass unless the document indicates that the lysis (hydrolysis) is not of the bond specified.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 207]    207Acting on beta-galatose-glycoside bond (e.g., beta-galactosidase, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-galactose-glycoside bonds.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 208]    208Acting on alpha-galatose-glycoside bond (e.g., alpha-galactosidase, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-galactose-glycoside bonds.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 209]    209Acting on beta-1,4-glucosidic bond (e.g., cellulase, etc.(3.2.1.4)):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-1, 4-glucan bonds in polysaccharides.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 210]    210Acting on alpha-1,6-glucosidic bond (e.g., isoamylase, pullulanase, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of an alpha-1,6-glucosidic bonds of a polysaccharide.
(1) Note. Dextranase and isoamylase are examples of enzymes appropriate for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 211]    211Dextranase (3.2.1.11):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 210.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme is alpha-1,6-glucan-6-glucanohydrolase.
(1) Note. Alpha-1,6-glucan-6- glucanohydrolase is defined as an enzyme which hydrolizes dextran to oligosaccharides of various lengths and upon complete hydrolysis of dextran yields isomaltose and trace amounts of glucose.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 212]    212Acting on peptide bond (e.g., thromboplastin, leucine amino-peptidase, etc. (3.4)):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of amide bonds in proteins or peptides.
(1) Note. Exopeptidases (peptidases which hydrolyze single amino acids from the terminus of peptide chains) and enzymes having both exo- and endo-peptidase-activities are examples of enzymes for this subclass.
(2) Note. Where the peptide hydrolase activity is unclear or undisclosed and not ascertainable the activity is presumptively that of an endopeptidase.

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227,for enzymes which hydrolyze the amide bond in compounds other than proteins or peptides.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass for medicinal compositions containing a hydrolase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 213]    213Trypsin; chymotrypsin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyse the hydrolysis of the amide bond connecting the carboxyl group of alpha-arginine and alpha-lysine or an aromatic alpha-amino acid with another amino acid or peptide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 214]    214Thrombin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of fibrinogen to fibrin.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 215]    215Urokinase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the source of the enzyme which converts plasminogen to plasmin is mammalian blood or urine.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 216]    216Streptokinase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the source of the enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of amide bonds and converts plasminogen to plasmin in hemolytic streptococci.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 217]    217Plasmin (i.e., fibrinolysin):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of amide bonds which connect alpha-arginine or alpha-lysine to another amino acid or peptide and converts fibrin to water soluble products.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 218]    218Elastase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of amide bonds connecting a neutral amino acid to another amino acid or peptide.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 219]    219Proteinase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of amide bonds within a polypeptide chain, i.e., the amide bonds of nonterminal amino acids.
(1) Note. Endopeptidases are examples of enzymes for this subclass, e.g., ficin, bromelin, etc.
(2) Note. Where the peptide hydrolase activity is unclear (e.g., if it can not be determined whether exopeptidase oendopeptidase activity is involved), enzyme activity within the means of this subclass is presumed.
(3) Note. Exopeptidase and enzymes having both exo- and endo-peptidase activity are to be found in subclass 212.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 220]    220Derived from bacteria:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein the source of the enzyme is a bacteria.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 221]    221Bacteria is bacillus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein the bacteria is a species of bacillus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 222]    222Bacillus subtilus or bacillus lichenoformis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Subject matter wherein the species of bacillus is Bacillus subtilus or Bacillus lichenofomis.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 223]    223Derived from fungi:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein the source of the enzyme is fungi.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 224]    224From yeast:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the source of the enzyme is yeast.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 225]    225From aspergillus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the fungi is a species of aspergillus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 226]    226Derived from animal tissue (e.g., rennin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein the source of the enzyme is animal tissue, glands, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 227]    227Acting on carbon to nitrogen bond other than peptide bond (3.5):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a carbon-nitrogen bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 228]    228Acting on a linear amide linkage in linear amide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a linear amide bond which is not part of a cyclic ring.
(1) Note. Acylases, such as cephalosporin amidase, which can also act as deacylases by hydrolysis of a linear amide bond are included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 229]    229Asparaginase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-asparagine forming alpha-aspartate and ammonia.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 230]    230Penicillin amidase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of pencillin forming a carboxylic acid anion and penicin.
(1) Note. Penicillin amidase (acylase) also acts in the reverse direction producing penicillins from 6-aminopenicillanic acid and a appropriate side chain.

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228,for acylases and amidases which attack the 7-position in cephalosporins.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 231]    231Acting on amide linkage in cyclic amides (e.g., penicillinase, etc. (3.5.2)):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of an amide bond which is part of a ring structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 232]    232Lyase (4.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the nonhydrolytic cleavage of bonds, e.g., AB A + B, etc.
(1) Note. Decarboxylases, aldolases, deaminases are examples of subject matter included in this subclass.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 94.5 for medicinal compositions containing lyases.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 233]    233Isomerase (5.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes an isomerization reaction, e.g., AB BA.
(1) Note. This subclass includes racemases, epimerases, cis-trans isomerases, intramolecular oxide reductases, intrmolecular transferases, etc.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 94.5 for medicinal compositions containing an isomerase.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 234]    234Glucose isomerase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of xylose to xylulose or glucose to fructose or glucose -6- phosphate to fructose -6- phosphate.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 235.1]    235.1VIRUS OR BACTERIOPHAGE, EXCEPT FOR VIRAL VECTOR OR BACTERIOPHAGE VECTOR; COMPOSITION THEREOF; PREPARATION OR PURIFICATION THEREOF; PRODUCTION OF VIRAL SUBUNITS; MEDIA FOR PROPAGATING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter excluding viral and bacteria-phage vectors, but including a virus or bacteriophage which is a microorganism that (a) consists of a protein shell around a nucleic acid core of either ribonucleic acid or deoxyribonucleic acid, and (b) is capable of independently entering a host microorganism, and (c) requires a host microorganism, having both ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid, to replicate, compositions thereof under the class definition not elsewhere provided for, processes of preparation or propagation, media for propagating, processes of purifying the microorganism and processes of producing viral subunits.
(1) Note. Propagation is limited to processes concerned with the multiplication of viruses and not with processes concerned with the artificial alteration of genetic material involving changes in the genotype of the virus. Such processes of artificial alteration of genetic material are intended for this class, subclasses 440+.
(2) Note. This subclass provides for processes involving viruses of all types, i.e., animal, plant, etc.

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1,for process of maintaining tissue in a viable state or media therefor.
2,for process of maintaining blood or sperm in a physiologically active state.
284+,for tissue or virus culture apparatus.
320.1,for vector, e.g., viral, phage, etc., where vector is intended to encompass a virus or phage which is used in the transformation or transfection of a cell. Transformation is the acquisition of new genetic material by incorporation of exogenous DNA and transfection is the transfer of genetic information to a cell using isolated DNA or RNA.
325+,for animal cells, per se, and culture processes therefore.
440+,for processes in which the genetic material of a microorganism is altered.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 159.1+ for a process involving the step of immunizing an animal with a virus to produce a protective antiserum, followed by the step of obtaining the protective antiserum from the animal. See subclasses 199.1, 201.1, 202.1, and 204.1+ for an immunogenic composition that contains a virus, which composition induces protective immunity. Where there is doubt as to whether or not virus propagation takes place in preparing a vaccine, the process should be classified in Class 424 in the subclass providing for the corresponding viral vaccine. The mere use of the word vaccine is insufficient basis for placement in Class 424. See subclass 93.6, for compositions under the class definition containing a whole live virus.
930Peptide or Protein Sequence,   subclasses 220 through 224for sequence of peptides or protein homologous to a virus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 236]    236Inactivation or attenuation; producing viral subunits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.1.  Subject matter in which the virulence of the virus is decreased or the virus is reduced to its component parts.
(1) Note. This subclass includes methods of attenuation by physical means, e.g., freezing, etc.
(2) Note. Viral subunits include the virus protein coat, viral nucleic acid and viral enzymes.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 204.1+ for immunologic compositions prepared by the irradiation of a virus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 237]    237By serial passage of virus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter which involves attenuation of a virus by serial passage by transferring a virus containing body fluid through a series of animals or transfer of supernatant culture fluid through a series of cultures.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 238]    238By chemical treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter which involves attenuation of a virus by chemical means.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 239]    239Recovery or purification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.1.  Subject matter which involves the purification or recovery of a virus in a purified or uncontaminated state.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 242]    242SPORE FORMING OR ISOLATING PROCESS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes of inducing the formation of spores or their recovery.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 243]    243MICROORGANISM, PER SE; E.G., PROTOZOA, ETC., COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROCESS OF PROPAGATING, MAINTAINING, OR PRESERVING MICROORGANISMS OR COMPOSITIONS THEREOF; PROCESS OF PREPARING OR ISOLATING A COMPOSITION CONTAINING A MICROORGANISM; CULTURE MEDIA THEREFOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including microorganisms, compositions containing, processes under the class definition for propagating, processes under the class definition for preserving or maintaining, processes under the class definition for isolating, processes under the class definition for preparing compositions containing and, compositions under the class definition for use in propagation of microorganisms.
(1) Note. microorganisms for the purpose of this subclass include actinomycetales, unicellular algae, bacteria, fungi (yeast and molds), and protozoa. virus propagation is provided for in subclass 235 and animal or plant cell cultivation in subclasses 410+.
(2) Note. The mere propagation of a microorganism to produce a recoverable chemical product is excluded herefrom.
(2) Note. Subcellular parts of a microorganism are not appropriate for this and the indented subclasses.

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29+,for measuring or testing processes which involve viable microorganisms and the use of selective media to identify a particular microorganism.
41+,for propagation processes which produce a recoverable chemical product.
42,for the symbiotic propagation of genetically dissimilar microorganisms to produce a product.
173.1+,for the use of magnetic or wave energy to enhance mictrobial growth or product production.
283.1+,for apparatus used in the cultivation, propagation, or innoculation of microorganisms.
317.1,for subcellular parts of microorganisms such as organelles.
320.1,for vector, e.g., plasmid, cosmid, etc.

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71Chemistry: Fertilizers,   appropriate subclasses and in particularly subclasses 6+ for a fertilizer containing a microorganism.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for a composition of that class and in particular, subclasses 93.1+ which may contain a microorganism.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   appropriate subclasses for a product containing a microorganism and in particularly subclasses 7+ , 61+, 531+, 656, and 800+.
504Plant Protecting and Regulating Compositions,   subclass 117 for a plant regulator composition containing a microorganism.
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   subclass 101 for a composition which contains a living microorganism and which is specific to earth boring and subclass 201 for a composition which contains a living microorganism and which is specific to well treating.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 244]    244Chemical stimulation of growth or activity by addition of chemical compound which is not an essential growth factor; stimulation of growth by removal of a chemical compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the growth rate of a microorganism or its metabolic activity is stimulated or enhanced by the addition or removal of a particular element or compound which is not required for the microorganism"s growth or the control of the pH of the propagation media.

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41+,for processes in which the synthesis of compounds is enhanced by methods including the addition of stimulants, etc., to the culture media.
173,for the use of magnetic or wave energy to alter microbial growth or activity.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 245]    245Adaptation or attenuation of cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Processes wherein the virulence of a microorganism is reduced or a microorganism"s ability to propagate on a given substrate is increased or growth requirements are altered by a series of sequential cultivation steps.
(1) Note. The dividing line between adaptation and mutation is that an adapted microorganism will not retain its ability to flourish in a hostile media when cultured in a normal growth media and returned to the hostile media.

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172,for mutation and genetic engineering.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 246]    246Foam culture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein media of the process is in the form of a foam.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 10+ for foam colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents; subclasses 115+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of foam colloid systems; in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 247]    247Utilizing media containing lower alkanols (i.e., having one to six carbon atoms):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein a microorganism is propagated on a media containing an alkanol having six or less carbon atoms or the media, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 248]    248Utilizing media containing hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is propagated on a media containing a hydrocarbon or the media, per se.

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281,for processes of growing microorganisms on petroleum oil containing media.
282,for processes in which microorganisms are grown in a petroleum oil to remove sulfur.

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426Foods or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclass 62 for growing yeast on a hydrocarbon feed-stock which is claimed as edible yeast.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 249]    249Aliphatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the hydrocarbon is aliphatic.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 250]    250Having five or less carbon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Subject matter wherein the aliphatic hydrocarbon contains five or less carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 251]    251Utilizing media containing waste sulphite liquor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the media contains waste liquid from the sulfurous acid treatment of cellulose containing material, e.g., paper pulp, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252]    252Utilizing media containing cellulose or hydrolysates thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is propagated on a media which contains cellulose or cellulose hydrolysates or the media, per se.
(1) Note. Media containing only glucose prepared by the hydrolysis of cellulose are excluded herefrom.

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252.1+,254+ and 257, for a media for bacteria or yeast, or fungi, or protozoa or unicellular algae which contains glucose.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.1]    252.1Bacteria or actinomycetales; media therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter including microorganisms which are bacteria or actinomycetales, media for the propagation or maintenance of bacteria or actinomycetales, compositions containing, processes for propagating or maintaining, and processes for preparing media for and compositions containing bacteria or actinomycetales.

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930Peptide or Protein Sequence,   subclasses 220 through 224for sequence of peptides or protein homologous to a virus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.2]    252.2Rhizobium or agrobacterium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganisms is a species of Rhizobium or Agrobacterium.
(1) Note. These microorganisms may be wild-type, mutated, transformed, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.3]    252.3Transformants (e.g., recombinant DNA or vector or foreign or exogenous gene containing, fused bacteria, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the genotype of the microorganism is a product of recombination or transformation with a vector or foreign or exogenous gene, or the result of bacterial cell fusion, etc.
(1) Note. Products of bacterial conjugation and natural or spontaneous recombination events are not included in this subclass. See subclasses 252.1 and 252.4+ which contain nontransformant bacteria, for such products.

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41+,for methods of using a transformant to produce a desired compound.
440+,471+, for processes of producing the microorganisms of subclass 252.3.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.31]    252.31Bacillus (e.g., B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.3.  Subject matter wherein the altered microorganism is a species of Bacillus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.32]    252.32Brevibacterium or corynebacterium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.3.  Subject matter wherein the altered microorganism is a species of Brevibacterium or Corynebacterium.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.33]    252.33Escherichia (e.g., E. coli, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.3.  Subject matter wherein the altered microorganism is a species of Escherichia.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.34]    252.34Pseudomonas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.3.  Subject matter wherein the altered microorganism is a species of Pseudomonas.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.35]    252.35Streptomyces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.3.  Subject matter wherein the altered microorganism is a species of streptomyces.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.4]    252.4Mixed culture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the bacteria are in a mixed culture of at least two different genera of microorganisms one of which is a bacteria.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

71Chemistry: Fertilizers,   subclass 6 for fertilizer compositions containing microorganisms.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   appropriate subclasses, for mixed cultures solely disclosed or claimed as edible or to be used in the preparation of an edible material.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.5]    252.5Bacillus (e.g., B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Bacillus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.6]    252.6Actinoplanes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Actinoplanes.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.7]    252.7Clostridium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Clostridium.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.8]    252.8Escherichia (e.g., E. coli, etc.) or salmonella:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Escherichia or Salmonella.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 252.9]    252.9Lactobacillus, pediococcus, or leuconostoc:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, or Leuconostoc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 253.1]    253.1Mycobacterium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Mycobacterium.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 253.2]    253.2Nocardia:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Nocardia.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 253.3]    253.3Pseudomonas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of Pseudomonas.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 253.4]    253.4Streptococcus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism is a species of streptococcus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 253.5]    253.5Streptomyces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter wherein the microorganisms is a species of Streptomyces.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 253.6]    253.6Culture media, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Subject matter directed to a composition having utility as a bacterial culture medium (i.e., media for maintenance, growth, production, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.1]    254.1Fungi:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter including microorganisms which are fungi, compositions containing fungi, processes for propagating or maintaining fungi, and processes for preparing compositions containing fungi.
(1) Note. Fungi includes yeast and molds.

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7.31,for measuring and testing processes involving fungi.
171,for processes wherein the product synthesized is prepared by a fungi.
203,for subject matter wherein the source of alpha-1,4-glucan-4-glucanohydrolase is a fungi.
223,for subject matter wherein the source of a proteinase enzyme is a fungi.
804,for subject matter wherein the suitability of a microorganism (e.g., a fungi) to supply palatable protein is disclosed.
911+,for specific fungi cross-reference collections.

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47Plant Husbandry,   subclass 1.1 for the cultivation of multicellular mushrooms, per se.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 601+ for processes of liquid purification using a living organism (e.g., a fungi).
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives; Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclasses 371 and 823 for proteins derived from fungi (e.g., yeast, molds, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.11]    254.11Transformants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter involving a fungi which is 1) a product of recombination or transformation with (a) a vector, or (b) a foreign or exogenous gene, or 2) a product of homologous recombination if it is directed rather than spontaneous, or 3) a product of fused cell formation.
(1) Note. Fused cells are cells of which the cellular matter of two or more individual cells is combined producing a single cell which initially contains the genes of all the combined cells.
(2) Note. Excluded from this subclass are products of unidentified or noninduced mutations, and products of natural, spontaneous, or arbitrary recombination events. These are not considered genetically modified for this subclass and therefor will be classified as unmodified fungi (subclasses 254.1, and 255.1 through 256.8).

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440+,for processes of mutation or genetic engineering wherein the genetic mate­ rial of a microorganism (e.g. a fungi) is altered.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.2]    254.2Yeast; media therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a yeast, and media and processes for preparing media for the propagation, maintenance, or preservation of transformed yeast.
(1) Note. Disposition of yeast patents claimed or disclosed (a) as an edible, (b) as a component in an edible, or (c) as a single source material for producing protein useful in making an edible: (a) Yeast with a claimed or solely disclosed utility as a foodstuff in the form it is produced by a Class 435 process is classifiable in Class 426; (b) Yeast claimed or disclosed as a component of an edible is classifiable in Class 426 if the claim or disclosure is that the yeast is a food supplement and is not medicative (i.e., used to alleviate a disease) in which case placement in Class 424 is proper; (c) Refined or crude yeast protein is not classifiable in Class 426 solely on the basis of a Class 426 utility. Refined yeast protein is classifiable in Class 530. Crude yeast is usually disposed of on the basis of utility.

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69.9,for processes wherein the product synthesized is a protein or polypeptide with a yeast derived signal sequence.
224,for subject matter wherein the source of a proteinase enzyme is a yeast.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.21]    254.21Saccharomyces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.2.  Subject matter wherein the altered yeast is a species of Saccharomyces.
(1) Note. Included herein are bakers, brewers, compressed, and pressed yeast, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

940+,for specific Saccharomyces cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.22]    254.22Candida:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.2.  Subject matter wherein the altered yeast is a species of Candida.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

921+,for specific Candida cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.23]    254.23Pichia:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.2.  Subject matter wherein the altered yeast is a species of Pichia.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

938,for specific Pichia cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.3]    254.3Aspergillus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a species of Aspergillus.

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225,for subject matter wherein the source of a proteinase enzyme is a species of Aspergillus.
913+,for specific Aspergillus cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.4]    254.4Neurospora:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a species of Neurospora.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.5]    254.5Penicillium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a species of Penicillium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

933+,for specific Penicillium cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.6]    254.6Trichoderma:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a species of Trichoderma.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

945,for specific Trichoderma cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.7]    254.7Fusarium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a species of Fusarium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

929,for specific Fusarium cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.8]    254.8Mucor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a species of Mucor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

931,for specific Mucor cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 254.9]    254.9Rhizopus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.11.  Subject matter wherein the altered fungus is a species of Rhizopus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

939,for specific Rhizopus cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.1]    255.1Yeast:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a yeast.
(1) Note. Disposition of yeast patents claimed or disclosed (a) as an edible, (b) as a component in an edible, or (c) as a single source material for producing protein useful in making an edible: (a) Yeast with a claimed or solely disclosed utility as a foodstuff in the form it is produced by a Class 435 process is classifiable in Class 426; (b) Yeast claimed or disclosed as a component of an edible is classifiable in Class 426 if the claim or disclosure is that the yeast is a food supplement and is not medicative (i.e., used to alleviate a disease) in which case placement in Class 424 is proper; (c) Refined or crude yeast protein is not classifiable in Class 426 solely on the basis of a Class 426 utility. Refined yeast protein is classifiable in Class 530. Crude yeast is usually disposed of on the basis of utility.

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224,for subject matter wherein the source of a proteinase enzyme is a yeast.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.2]    255.2Saccharomyces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.1.  Subject matter wherein the yeast is a species of Saccharomyces.
(1) Note. Included herein are bakers, brewers, compressed, and pressed yeast, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

940+,for specific Saccharomyces cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.21]    255.21Culture media, per se, or technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.2.  Subject matter directed to a composition having utility as a Saccharomyces culture medium (i.e., media for maintenance, growth, production, etc.) or a technique for preparing and using the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.3]    255.3Cryptococcus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.1.  Subject matter wherein the yeast is a species of Cryptococcus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.4]    255.4Candida or torulopsis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.1.  Subject matter wherein the yeast is a species of Candida or Torulopsis.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

921+,for specific Candida cross-reference collections.
944,for specific Torulopsis cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.5]    255.5Pichia:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.1.  Subject matter wherein the yeast is a species of Pichia.

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938,for specific Pichia cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.6]    255.6Hansenula:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.1.  Subject matter wherein the yeast is a species of Hansenula.

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930,for specific Hansenula cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 255.7]    255.7Culture media, per se, or technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.1.  Subject matter directed to a composition having utility as a yeast culture medium (i.e., media for maintenance, growth, production, etc.) or a technique for preparing and using the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.1]    256.1Aspergillus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a species of Aspergillus.

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225,for subject matter wherein the source of a proteinase enzyme is a species of Aspergillus.
913+,for specific Aspergillus cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.2]    256.2Mucor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a species of Mucor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

931,for specific Mucor cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.3]    256.3Penicillium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a species of Penicillium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

933+,for specific Penicillium cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.4]    256.4Cephalosporium or acremonium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a species of Cephalosporium or Acremonium.

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925+,for specific Cephalosporium cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.5]    256.5Fusarium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a species of Fusarium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

929,for specific Fusarium cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.6]    256.6Rhizopus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a species of Rhizopus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

939,for specific Rhizopus cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.7]    256.7Trichoderma:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the fungus is a species of Trichoderma.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

945,for specific Trichoderma cross-reference collections.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 256.8]    256.8Culture media, per se, or technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter directed to a composition having utility as a fungal culture medium (i.e., media for maintenance, growth, production, etc.) or a technique for preparing and using the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 257.1]    257.1Algae, media therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism propagated or treated is a unicellular algae, or the media useful for the propagation of unicellular algae, or a composition containing unicellular algae, or methods of preparing said compositions or media.
(1) Note. Edible compositions containing unicellular algae are excluded herefrom.
(2) Note. Multicellular algae are excluded herefrom. Algae are presumed to be multicellular in the absence of a clear showing to the contrary.
(3) Note. Unicellular algae in this subclass include both eukaryotic and prokaryotic algae. Examples of eukaryotes include Chlorophyta (green algae, such as Chlorella, Scenedesmus, etc.), Euglenophyta (Euglena), Rhodophyta (red algae), etc. Examples of prokaryotes include Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae, such as Anacystis, Anabaena, etc.).
(4) Note. microorganisms of the genera Euglena and Chlamydomonas are currently classified in both algal (Bold and Wynne) and protozoan (Levine) taxonomic systems due to their photosynthetic and motility systems. For classification purposes, these genera are placed under algae unless the reference specifically eludes to the "protozoan" nature of the microorganism.

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804,for subject matter wherein the suitability of a microorganism (e.g., an algae) to supply palatable protein is disclosed.
946,for specific algae cross-reference collections.

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47Plant Husbandry,   subclass 1.4 for the cultivation of multicellular algae, per se.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 601+ for processes of liquid purification using a living organism (e.g., an algae).
504Plant Protecting and Regulating Compositions,   subclasses 150+ for subject matter involving algicides.
530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives; Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 370 for proteins derived from plants (e.g., algae).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 257.2]    257.2Transformants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.1.  Subject matter involving an algae which is 1) a product of recombination or transformation with (a) a vector, or (b) a foreign or exogenous gene, or 2) a product of homologous recombination if it is directed rather than spontaneous, or 3) a product of fused cell formation.
(1) Note. Fused cells are cells of which the cellular matter of two or more individual cells is combined producing a singlecell which initially contains the genes of all the combined cells.
(2) Note. Excluded from this subclass are products of unidentified or noninduced mutations, and products of natural, spontaneous, or arbitrary recombination events. These are not considered genetically modified for this subclass and therefor will be classified as unmodified algae (subclasses 257.1, and 257.3 through 257.6).

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440+,for processes of mutation or genetic engineering wherein the genetic mate­ rial of a microorganism (e.g. an algae) is altered.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 257.3]    257.3Chlorella:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.1.  Subject matter wherein the algae is a species of Chlorella.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 257.4]    257.4Euglena:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.1.  Subject matter wherein the algae is a species of Euglena.
(1) Note. microorganisms of the genus Euglena are currently classified in both algal (Bold and Wynne) and protozoan (Levine) taxonomic systems due to their photosynthetic and motility systems. For classification purposes, this genus is placed under algae unless the reference specifically eludes to the "protozoan" nature of the microorganism.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 257.5]    257.5Scenedesmus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.1.  Subject matter wherein the algae is a species of Scenedesmus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 257.6]    257.6Chlamydomonas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.1.  Subject matter wherein the algae is a species of Chlamydomonas.
(1) Note. microorganisms of the genus Chlamydomonas are currently classified in both algal (Bold and Wynne) and protozoan (Levine) taxonomic systems due to their photosynthetic and motility systems. For classification purposes, this Genus is placed under algae unless the reference specifically eludes to the "protozoan" nature of the microorganism.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 258.1]    258.1Protozoa, media therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the microorganism propagated or treated is a protozoa, or media useful for the propagation of protozoa, or a composition containing protozoa, or methods of preparing said composition or media.
(1) Note. microorganisms of the genera Euglena and Chlamydomonas are currently classified in both algal (Bold and Wynne) and protozoan (Levine) taxonomic systems due to their photosynthetic and motility systems. For classification purposes, these genera are placed under algae unless the reference specifically eludes to the "protozoan" nature of the microorganism.

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7.22,for measuring and testing processes involving protozoa.
947,for specific protozoa cross-reference collections.

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530Chemistry: Natural Resins or Derivatives; Peptides or Proteins; Lignins or Reaction Products Thereof,   subclass 822 for proteins derived from protozoa.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 258.2]    258.2Plasmodium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.1.  Subject matter wherein the protozoa is a species of Plasmodium.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 258.3]    258.3Leishmania:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.1.  Subject matter wherein the protozoa is a species of Leishmania.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 258.4]    258.4Eimeria:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.1.  Subject matter wherein the protozoa is a species of Eimeria.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 259]    259Lysis of microorganism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Processes wherein the microorganism is ruptured by added material or mechanical means.
(1) Note. This subclass does not provide for autolysis which is generally part of the processes included in subclasses 262+.

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241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   particularly subclass 2 for methods of and apparatus for the comminution of microorganisms or tissues.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 260]    260Preserving or maintaining microorganism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Processes wherein a viable microorganism is rendered reversibly dormant.
(1) Note. This subclass includes preparing solvent dried and freeze dried cells.

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1,for processes of maintaining differentiated tissue or an organ in a viable state.
2,for processes or media for maintaining blood or sperm in a physiologically active state.

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241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   particularly subclass 2 for methods of and apparatus for the comminution of microorganisms or tissues.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 261]    261Separation of microorganism from culture media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Processes where a microorganism is recovered from culture media.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 262]    262PROCESS OF UTILIZING AN ENZYME OR MICROORGANISM TO DESTROY HAZARDOUS OR TOXIC WASTE, LIBERATE, SEPARATE, OR PURIFY A PREEXISTING COMPOUND OR COMPOSITION THEREFORE; CLEANING OBJECTS OR TEXTILES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes wherein a preexisting material or compound, which may include a hazardous or toxic waste, present in a composition or material containing a preexisting material, is contacted with an enzyme or immobilized enzyme microorganism or plant or animal cells to isolate or recover the preexisting material which is chemically unchanged by the process and the hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed.
(1) Note. Liberation or purification of a preexisting substance is usually accomplished by breaking down or otherwise physically or chemically altering the substance regarded as a contaminant by means of an enzyme or microorganism.
(2) Note. The amount of the preexisting compound or material is not increased by the microbial or enzymatic treatment.
(3) Note. Resolution of optical isomers or their salts is considered purification or separation of a preexisting compound.
(4) Note. Composition includes oil shale deposits, oil, hides, etc.
(5) Note. The hydrolysis of starch or proteins to liberate glucose or amino acids, respectively, is not included in this subclass.

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68.1,for the hydrolysis of proteins.
94,for the hydrolysis of starch.

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34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   provides for processes of separating liquids from solids or slurries, i.e., drying as well as the contact of solids with either, or both, gases and vapors. If the starting material is in the form of a liquid suspension or solution even of the process is continued to the point of complete dryness, Class 159, Concentrating Evaporators, will take the process.
62Refrigeration,   includes processes which include removing heat by refrigeration from a substance whether solid, liquid, or vapor. In particular, Class 62, subclasses will take processes of making a solidified or liquefied gaseous product provided the gas has a normal boiling point below 32° (methane, ethane, propane) and Class 62, subclasses 532+ will take processes wherein a solution or mixture is cooled to solidify a constituent which is then removed from the mixture.
95Gas Separation: Processes,   for physical processes involving steps resulting in separation of a gas from a fluid mixture comprising (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein, (b) a liquid and gas entrained therein, or (c) a plurality of gases. The separation is not done by chemical reaction.
127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   for processes wholly peculiar to processes of extracting or purifying natural starch, natural sucrose, or other natural carbohydrates except cellulose, processes of hydrolyzing carbohydrates or processes of purifying the products of such hydrolysis. The chemical manufacture or synthesis of sugar or of carbohydrates by any other process than that of hydrolysis is not included in Class 127. Molecular rearrangement of one carbohydrate to form any other carbohydrate is excluded. Such processes are provided for in Class 260.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   provides for processes peculiar to the concentration of solids held in solution or suspension by evaporation of the liquid containing them and the recovery of the concentrate. If the starting material is a solid or slurry placement in Class 34, Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids, would be indicated. Class 159 will take concentration to the point of crystallization or to dryness, however, removal of water of crystallization is considered to be a chemical reaction and placement would not be proper in Class 159. Evaporating with subsequent vapor condensation is excluded from Class 159 and in such case, placement in Class 203, Distillation: Processes, Separatory, would be proper.
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   provides for processes of thermolytic distillation wherein a solid carbonaceous material is heated to vaporize a volatile portion and to cause chemical decomposition of the heated material to form different chemical substances at least some of which are volatile and leave behind a solid carbonaceous material.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   provides for processes for separating a liquid mixture by vaporizing and condensing a portion thereof to isolate in the condensed liquid or the unvaporized portion a relatively pure compound which was present in the original mixture. The original mixture may be in a solid form so long as it melts to form a liquid before it vaporizes. A solid original mixture which undergoes chemical decomposition leaving a carbonaceous residue would be classifiable in Class 201, Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic, which is superior to Class 203. Processes including a chemical reaction and a separatory distillation operation are classified in Class 203 only when the chemical reaction merely facilitates the isolation by the separatory distillation operation of a preexisting substance in the distilland. See Class 260, Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, or Class 423, Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds, for a process of preparing a compound and isolating it by a separatory distillation process.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   includes processes for the separation or purification of a constituent from a flowable liquid mixture by dialysis, sorption, ion exchange, liquid extraction, gravitational separation, or filtration, as well as purification of a liquid mixture by destruction or conversion of a constituent. Processes directed to the purification of a particular compound or composition (including solutions of either the compound or composition in water), are classified with the particular compound or composition. Insofar as the treatment of liquids with ion exchange or sorption materials are concerned, the following lines will be maintained: (1) Where water is the only disclosed liquid purified, the patent will be classified in this class (210); (2) Where the disclosure includes water, hydrocarbons and/or other liquids the patent will be classified: (a) In Class 210 if all claims are broad as to the liquid; (b) In Class 210 if several species of liquid are claimed and one species includes water; and (c) In the appropriate art class if some liquid other than water is the only liquid claimed (e.g., mineral oils in Class 208, organic compounds in Class 260); (3) Purification or separation of liquids by flocculation only are classified in Class 210; (4) Processes wherein all claims are limited to the deposition of specific materials on ion-exchangers or sorbents with subsequent recovery of the specific materials are classified with materials so operated upon. Class 210 is superior to Class 95 and takes separating processes, per se, generally disclosed or claimed as fluid separation, or if the disclosure or a claim is restricted to liquid separation.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   provides for the liberation and purification by chemical or physical means of compounds and extracts falling within the class definition of Class 260. Generally, the physical processes included are of two types (a) a purification process prior or subsequent to a chemical reaction producing a Class 260 product, (b) a purification process directed to the purification of a Class 260 compound by a combination of physical separation techniques the classes for which do not provide for or exclude the combination claimed. Chemical purification processes are generally provided for with each product produced.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art. Nominal recitation of a Class 435 process (e.g., fermentation or fermentation step) combined with a process otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 516, while recitation of a significant Class 435 step combined with a step or composition otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 435 with a discretionary cross-reference to Class 516.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 262.5]    262.5Destruction of hazardous or toxic waste:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Process wherein hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed or converted into an environmentally safe substance.

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423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 1 through 209and Digest 17 for the use of microorganisms in the leaching of ores.
588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 250+ for the use of containment in the treatment of hazardous or toxic waste.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 263]    263Textile treating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is an organic fiber material, per se, or the fiber is spun or woven into fabric.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   for chemical modification and fluid treatment of fibers and textiles, not otherwise provided for; and subclass 138 for nonenzymatic removal of natural sericin or other naturally occurring gum or wax or an artificially applied size or gum from textile fibers.
19Textiles: Fiber Preparation,   for the mechanical treatment of fibers to put them in condition for use.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   particularly subclass 2 for the freeing of silk from a cocoon.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 264]    264Cleaning using a microorganism or enzyme:
 Processes under subclasses 262 wherein the preexisting material is a solid macroscopic material not obtained from a natural source and is recovered from an undesired extraneous material originally contained in the macroscopic material"s surface.
(1) Note. This subclass includes processes of using a microorganism or enzyme, per se, to remove adherent matter from an object.

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8Bleaching, and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification,   for process of cleaning and laundering textile fabrics and fibers, including a fluid or chemical treatment. Includes also combinations and aftertreatments incidental to such operation not elsewhere classifiable.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   for processes of cleaning textiles and fibers not involving chemical or fluid treatment and including the mechanical cleaning of textiles and fibers and cleaning by a gas blast or suction (which is not considered a fluid treatment for Class 8).
510Cleaning Compositions for Solid Surfaces, Auxiliary Compositions Therefor, or Processes of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 108+ for detergent compositions containing enzymes classified according to substrate intended to be cleaned; subclass 530 for compositions which include an enzyme component and are specialized and designed for incorporation with other components of a cleaning composition, the enzymes usually facilitate cleaning by degrading specific types of soil, such as protein, oil, or grease.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 265]    265Depilating hides, bating, or hide treating using enzyme or microorganism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Processes wherein the preexisting material treated is a hide or a skin of an animal.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 401 for a dyeing process employing fermentation or an enzyme; subclasses 94.1+ for processes of tanning hides or skins by fermentation with subsequent tanning of the hides or skins or subsequent operations that are preliminary and peculiar to making leather. Class 435 provides for a fermentation process, per se, of treating a hide or skin, e.g., depilating, bating, etc.
71Chemistry: Fertilizers,   subclass 18 for compositions of matter including hides, skins, feathers, or animal tissues such as compost.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 266]    266Treating gas, emulsion, or foam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is a gas or is initially a component of an emulsion or foam.

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95Gas Separation: Processes,   for physical processes involving steps resulting in separation of a gas from a fluid mixture comprising (a) a gas and solid or liquid particles entrained therein, (b) a liquid and gas entrained therein, or (c) a plurality of gases. The separation is not done by chemical reaction. See particularly subclass 155 for processes of gas separation involving contacting with a liquid that contains a defoaming or antifoaming agent, subclass 157 for processes of gas separation involving liquid contacting and defoaming the liquid, and subclass 242 for defoaming a liquid.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 107+ for apparatus for controlling the degree of foaming in a gas charged liquid.
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   subclass 9 for a process of surface treating the solid particles of the charge to inhibit, reduce, or prevent foaming during distillation.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   subclass 264 for distillation apparatus intended to break foam or inhibit foaming.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   subclass 20 for processes of defoaming or inhibition of the formation of foam combined with distillation.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for gas-liquid scrubbing devices.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 113+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., foam breaking, emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settling, gel breaking, smoke suppressing, coagulating, flocculating), when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art. Nominal recitation of a Class 435 process (e.g., fermentation or fermentation step) combined with a process otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 516, while recitation of a significant Class 435 step combined with a step or composition otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 435 with a discretionary cross-reference to Class 516.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 267]    267Treating animal or plant material or microorganism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is obtained directly from an animal or plant source or microorganism.
(1) Note. Included herein are processes of isolating a hormone from an organ or a compound from a fruit by means of an enzyme or microorganism.

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239,for treatment of animal tissue or organs to recover a virus.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 268]    268Treating organ or animal secretion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is an organ or animal secretion.
(1) Note. Animal secretion includes blood, urine, feces, hormones, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 269]    269Treating blood fraction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is blood or a blood fraction.
(1) Note. A blood fraction is considered to include plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, nonenzymatic proteins, serum.

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2,for processes of treating blood cells in vitro to alter some cellular property while maintaining cell viability.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 1.17 for the class defined compositions and methods comprising radiolabeled cells and subcellular structures, including red blood cells and platelets.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 270]    270Removing nucleic acid from intact or disrupted cell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Processes wherein an intact or disrupted cell"s nucleic acid content is reduced by the use of an enzyme or microorganism.

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71Chemistry: Fertilizers,   for the production of substances having a nutrient action on plant growth and the product of such processes including methods of utilizing microorganisms to produce a fertilizer, e.g., compositing as well as the microorganism containing fertilizer so produced.
504Plant Protecting and Regulating Compositions,   for the production of substances having a stimulating, inhibiting, or regulating action on plant growth and the product of such processes including methods of utilizing microorganisms to produce a plant growth stimulator, inhibitor, or regulator as well the microorganism containing plant growth regulator so produced.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 271]    271Glyceridic oil, fat, ester-type wax or higher fatty acid recovered or purified:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is a fat, ester-type wax, higher fatty acid, or glyceride oil.
(1) Note. Fats and fatty oils are the glycerides of higher fatty acids, including naturally occurring mixtures thereof present in a single oil or fat.
(2) Note. Ester-type waxes are waxes which are essentially esters in chemical structure, e.g., beeswax, montan wax, carnauba wax, and spermaceti.
(3) Note. Higher fatty acid is a monocarboxylic acid containing an unbroken chain of more than seven carbon atoms bonded to a carboxylic group, e.g., lauric, palmitic, stearic, oleic, ricinoleic, linoleic acid, etc. Where there are several unbroken chains of carbon atoms bonded to the carboxyl group, one of the chains must contain a chain of seven or more carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 272]    272Proteinaceous material recovered or purified:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is a proteinaceous material.

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239,for methods of separating virus and protein contaminants by various methods, e.g., sorption, precipitation, etc.

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8Bleaching, and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclasses 94.1+ for fluid or chemical treatment of hides, skins, feathers, and animal tissues, not otherwise provided for; subclass 127.5 for processes of chemically modifying proteinaceous fibers; and subclass 138 for processes for fluid or chemical treatment of silk for the removal of sericin, or other naturally occurring gum or wax. Processes classifiable in this subclass (2) generally include the production of a fiber pulp from a raw proteinaceous fibrous material (e.g., leather).
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   for processes of chemically removing coatings, such as wax, from a paper base without otherwise affecting the base, where the coating is not recovered.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   subclass 112 for proteins and their reaction products and, in particular, subclass 123.7 for chemical treatment of natural protein containing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 273]    273Collagen or gelatin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is collagen or gelatin.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 274]    274Carbohydrate material recovered or purified:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is a carbohydrate.

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127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   for the hydrolysis of carbohydrates including their conversion to sugar by means other than a microorganism or enzyme. Class 127 provides for processes using an enzyme or microorganism only where the hydrolysis by microorganism or enzyme is followed by steps of concentration purification or treatment (such as crystallization) to make a sugar or syrup.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   for the chemical manufacture or synthesis of sugar or carbohydrates by a process other than hydrolysis and the rearrangement of one carbohydrate to form another carbohydrate by means other than a microorganism or enzyme.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 275]    275Pectin or starch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is a pectin or a starch.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 276]    276Sugar (e.g., molasses treatment, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is a monosaccharide or a polysaccharide which has predominately alpha-1, 4 linkages between the glucose units.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 277]    277Cellulose (e.g., plant fibers, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Processes wherein the preexisting material is a polysaccharide which has predominately beta-1, 4 linkages between the glucose units.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   for chemical modification and fluid treatment of fibers and textiles, not otherwise provided for.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   for processes of liberation, recovery or purification of cellulose or animal fibers as individual fibers or fibrous pulp by the use of a reagent which exerts some solvent or chemical action upon fibrous material and the reagent compositions employed in such processes.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   particularly subclasses 212+ for processes of chemically modifying cellulose in which its fibrous nature is destroyed, e.g., in the production of cellulose esters.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 278]    278Producing paper pulp:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Processes wherein the material which is liberated is paper pulp.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   for processes of making a paper pulp by chemical action.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 279]    279Hemp or flax treating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Processes wherein the preexisiting material which is liberated is hemp or flax.

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19Textiles: Fiber Preparation,   for the mechanical treatment of fibers to put them in condition for use.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 280]    280Resolution of optical isomers or purification of organic compounds or composition containing same:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Processes wherein a racemic mixture is treated to liberate an optically active mixture or compound or a mixture is otherwise purified by a microorganism or enzyme to obtain a specified organic compound.
(1) Note. It should be noted that biological, i.e., microbial or enzymatic reactions are generally steriospecific so that a search, to be complete, should also include a search of the synthesis subclass, i.e., subclasses 41+ of this class which provides for the transformation of the "contaminant" if it is chemically identifiable.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 281]    281Petroleum oil or shale oil treating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Processes wherein the preexisting material which is liberated or purified is petroleum or shale oil.

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9,for processes of prospecting for minerals including petroleum oils.

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166Wells,   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for treating oil or an oil bearing mineral with a microorganism or enzyme while in the ground.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   for apparatus for treating, refining, or recovering mineral oils such as petroleum, tar, pitch asphalt, or related products not otherwise provided for.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   appropriate subclass for apparatus for treating mineral oils involving more than the mere thermal effects of the electrical or wave energy.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   for processes of treating and preparing mineral oils including their separation from sands, coal, or shales.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes and apparatus for separating liquids including mineral oils involving no chemical treatment of the mineral oil.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   for a process or apparatus for treating oil or oil bearing minerals while in situ in a tunnel or excavation.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclass 41 for the recovery of metal containing compounds without the reduction of the compound to pure metal.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 135+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of emulsion colloid systems, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art, including petroleum emulsions where there is no additional treatment of the oil. Nominal recitation of a Class 435 process (e.g., fermentation or fermentation step) combined with a process otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 516, while recitation of a significant Class 435 step combined with a step or composition otherwise classifiable in Class 516 is proper for Class 435 with a discretionary cross-reference to Class 516.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 282]    282Desulfurizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Processes wherein sulfur or sulfur containing compounds are removed from petroleum or shale oil.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 283.1]    283.1APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus.
(1) Note. Excluded herefrom are kits that are claimed as kits which have no claimed structure, but instead recite the ingredients of the kit. Such subject matter should be considered test media and classified in this class, subclasses 4+.
(2) Note. Class 435 is the residual class for enzyme and microorganism apparatus.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 400.1+ for methods of assembling the apparatus provided for in this class.
47Plant Husbandry,   particularly subclass 1.1 for processes and apparatus for growing a mushroom or edible fungi (excluding yeast) and subclass 1.4 for processes and apparatus for growing multicellular algae.
53Package Making,   various subclasses for processes of packaging and package making.
71Chemistry: Fertilizers,   particularly subclasses 6+ for processes of using a microorganism or enzyme to produce a fertilizer.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 64.41 for apparatus used for testing the ability of blood to clot.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 275+ for apparatus adapted for the preparation of a beverage or beverage intermediate by carrying out primary ethyl alcoholic fermentations, and apparatus for aging, refining, and purifying alcoholic beverages.
128Surgery,   for methods of treatment of the living body and for apparatus used in the inspection and treatment of diseases of the bodies of humans and lower animals which apparatus is provided with means for connection to the living body.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclasses 223+ for a test kit of general utility.
215Bottles and Jars,   for bottles and jars of general utility and the closures therefor.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for apparatus for chemical analysis and chemical reactors of general utility.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   for apparatus specially adapted for use in combinatorial chemistry technology.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 284.1]    284.1Differentiated tissue (e.g., organ) perfusion or preservation apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Apparatus with means adapted for maintaining a differentiated tissue or animal organ in vitro in a viable state.

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1.2,for processes of differentiated tissue or organ other than blood, per se, or differentiated tissue or organ maintaining by perfusion.
297.2,for bioreactors including perfusion means.
307.1,for apparatus for preserving, storing, or transporting microorganisms.

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62Refrigeration,   for process of and apparatus for cooling and freezing materials.
137Fluid Handling,   subclass 560 for systems including pulsating pumps useful for forcing perfusate through organs.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 321.6+ for dialysis devices adapted for gas and mass transfer (e.g., artificial kidneys).
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   for gas liquid contact means of general utility.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 44+ for blood oxygenating devices and other blood treatment devices.
604Surgery,   subclasses 4.01 , 5.01-5.04, 6.01-6.09, 6.01, 6.11-6.16 for extra corporeal blood treating devices connected to or having specific means for connection to a living body.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 285.1]    285.1Mutation or genetic engineering apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Apparatus for producing a known stable change in the genotype of a microorganism by artificially inducing a structural change in a gene or by the incorporation of genetic material from an external source.

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440+,for processes of mutation or genetic engineering.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 285.2]    285.2With means for applying an electric current or charge (e.g., electrofusion, electroporation, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.1.  Apparatus for producing a known stable change in the genotype of a microorganism by the use of an applied electric current or charge.
(1) Note. Electrofusion is the combining of the entire genetic material of two separate cells, while electroporation is the incorporation of subcellular parts (i.e., plasmids) into a cell.

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173.6,for processes of electroporation.
450,for processes of electrofusion.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 285.3]    285.3Including projectile means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.1.  Apparatus wherein a projectile means is utilized to incorporate foreign genetic material into a cell.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 286.1]    286.1Including condition or time responsive control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Apparatus with means to sense a process parameter which actuates means to alter a process parameter, or with timing means which actuates means which alters a process parameter.
(1) Note. Included herein is the mere use of a programmed computer and associated detection and actuation devices for process control.

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73Measuring and Testing,   for apparatus for making tests and measurements not otherwise provided for.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 88+ for systems for controlling the mixture of a plurality of fluids in response to the sensing of a condition or characteristic of the mixture, note particularly subclass 93 in which the control is in response to a sensing of a chemical property.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   subclass 132 and 141 for combinations of apparatus for making a test or measurement and means for controlling a reaction provided for in that class.
346Recorders,   for recording apparatus, per se.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for apparatus for (a) determining qualitatively or quantitatively the presence of one or more chemical constituents of a material which involve a chemical reaction, and (b) combinations of a test or measurement and means for regulating a chemical reaction.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 266 through 274for chemical process control or monitoring systems and subclass 306 for control based on an elapsed time.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 19+ for data processing in biological or biochemical applications, subclasses 22+ for chemical analysis data processing, and subclasses 176+ for time duration or rate data processing for measurements.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 286.2]    286.2Including position control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.1.  Apparatus with means to control the position of a component (e.g., a sample container, dispensing means, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 286.3]    286.3Plater, streaker, or spreader:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.2.  Apparatus with means to control inoculation of microorganisms on a solid surface so as to isolate individual cells or colonies, or to completely cover the solid surface with a mat or lawn of cells.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 286.4]    286.4Including liquid dispenser means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.2.  Apparatus with means to control dispensing of a liquid (e.g., reagents, samples, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 286.5]    286.5Including liquid flow, level, or volume control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.1.  Apparatus with means to control the volume, level, or flow of a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 286.6]    286.6Including gas flow or pressure control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.1.  Apparatus with means to control pressure or gas flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 286.7]    286.7Including mixing or agitation control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.1.  Apparatus with means to control mixing or agitation.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.1]    287.1Including measuring or testing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Apparatus with means to test or measure a condition or property in a sample.
(1) Note. This subclass excludes mere means for measuring temperature or pH in combination with bioreactor structures. See this class, subclasses 289.1+ for this subject matter.

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73Measuring and Testing,   for apparatus for making tests and measurements not otherwise provided for.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 88+ for systems for controlling the mixture of a plurality of fluids in response to the sensing of a condition or characteristic of the mixture.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   subclasses 132 and 141 for combinations of apparatus for making a test or measurement and means for controlling a reaction provided for in that class.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400+ for apparatus specialized for analysis and testing of electrolytic reactions.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for testing an electrical property or condition of a material by electrical means, even though the result of the test may be used as an indication of some other physical or chemical property or condition.
346Recorders,   for recording apparatus, per se.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 31+ for calorimetry.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   particularly subclasses 50+ for apparatus for (a) determining qualitatively or quantitatively the presence of one or more chemical constituents of a material, and (b) combinations of a test or measurement and means for regulating a chemical reaction.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   for apparatus specially adapted for use in combinatorial chemistry technology to screen or identify a library member.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.2]    287.2Measuring or testing for antibody or nucleic acid, or measuring or testing using antibody or nucleic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus with means for the measuring or testing of antibodies or nucleic acids, or with means for using an antibody or nucleic acid agent to measure or test a sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.3]    287.3With sample or reagent mechanical transport means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus having means to transport a sample to be measured or a reagent involved in a measurement by mechanical means.

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422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   particularly subclasses 63+ for automated analytical apparatus having sample mechanical transport means.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.4]    287.4Sterility testing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus with means to test for sterility.
(1) Note. Included herein are means for attempting to culture a microorganism which has been exposed to a prior step intended to destroy living organisms, or by exposing an enzyme to such treatment and subsequently testing for enzymatic activity.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.5]    287.5Means for measuring gas pressure or gas volume of gas evolved from or consumed in an enzymatic or microbial reaction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus with means to measure gas pressure or gas volume that is either evolved from or consumed in an enzymatic or microbial reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.6]    287.6Including frangible means for introducing a sample or reagent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus containing a frangible element which, when broken, releases a reagent or a sample to a reaction container.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.7]    287.7Including bibulous or absorbent layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus wherein a reagent or sample is contained or placed in an absorbent or bibulous carrier or substrate (e.g., a dip-stick, test paper, wick, etc.).

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422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 400 through 429for structured visual or optical indicators, especially subclass 420 for structured visual or optical indicator having a reagent in absorbent or bibulous substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.8]    287.8Including multiple, stacked layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.7.  Apparatus wherein a reagent or sample is contained or placed in or on an element containing multiple stacked layers of an absorbent or bibulous carrier or substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 287.9]    287.9Including a coated reagent or sample layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus wherein a reagent or sample is coated on the surface of a carrier or substrate.

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422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 400 through 429for structured visual or optical indicators, especially subclass 425 for a structured visual or optical indicator having a coated reagent layer.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 288.1]    288.1Including a bottle, tube, flask, or jar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus which includes a bottle, tube, flask, or jar.

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304.1,for bottles, tubes, flasks, and jars of general use for the growth, propagation, or maintenance of a microorganism or enzyme, or for the synthesis of a composition or compound using a microorganism or enzyme.

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206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclasses 223+ for a test kit of general utility.
215Bottles and Jars,   for bottles and jars of general utility and the closures therefor.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 547 for miscellaneous laboratory containers, especially subclass 549 for tube shaped vessels and 556 for flasks, bottles or beakers.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 288.2]    288.2Including multiple internal compartments or baffles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.1.  Apparatus wherein a bottle, tube, flask, or jar contains multiple internal compartments or baffles.

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299.2,for bottles, tubes, flasks, and jars containing a solid extended reaction surface.
304.2,for bottles, tubes, flasks, and jars including multiple internal compartments or baffles of general use involving the growth, or propagation of a microorganism or enzyme, or for the synthesis of a composition or compound using a microorganism or enzyme.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 288.3]    288.3Including a dish, plate, slide, or tray:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus which includes a dish, plate, slide, or tray.

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297.5,for a dish, plate, or tray of general use involving the growth or propagation of a microorganism or enzyme, or for the synthesis of a composition or compound using a microorganism or enzyme in combination with a semi-permeable membrane or filter.
305.1+,for a dish, plate, or tray of general use involving the growth or propagation of a microorganism or enzyme, or for the synthesis of a composition or compound using a microorganism or enzyme.

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422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 547 for miscellaneous laboratory containers, especially subclass 551 for plates, sheets, dishes or trays.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 288.4]    288.4Including multiple compartments (e.g., wells, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.3.  Apparatus including two or more separate compartments.

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305.2+,for a multi-welled dish, plate, or tray of general use involving the growth or propagation of a microorganism or enzyme, or for the synthesis of a composition or compound using a microorganism or enzyme.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 288.5]    288.5Including means for fluid passage between compartments (e.g., between wells, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.4.  Apparatus with means providing fluid passage between compartments.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 288.6]    288.6Including column separation means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus including a column separation means in addition to measuring or testing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 288.7]    288.7Including optical measuring or testing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Apparatus having means for measuring or testing an optical property of the material to be analyzed.

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422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   particularly subclasses 82.05+ for analytical apparatus which measures optical properties of a chemical reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 289.1]    289.1Bioreactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Apparatus adapted for the growth or propagation of a microorganism or enzyme, or for the synthesis of a composition or compound using a microorganism or enzyme.

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307.1,for apparatus for maintaining a microorganism in a viable state.

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156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   appropriate subclasses for chemical manufacturing apparatus not elsewhere provided for producing articles of manufacture, and see especially sub 345.1-345.55 for differential etching apparatus.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for treating mineral oils. Catalytic apparatus, even though employed for carrying out a catalytic-cracking process provided for in Class 208, Mineral Oils: Processes and Products, is classified in Class 422.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 193+ for apparatus employed in carrying out a process provided for in that class, which apparatus is not provided for in any other class.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for reactors utilized in purifying liquids.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 255 for apparatus for testing earth material samples involving, and in name only, chemical or physical separation and an invisible radiation test of the separated material; subclass 281 for ionic separation or analysis apparatus; subclasses 306+ for the inspection of solids or liquids by charged particles and the detection of the particles modified by the solids or liquids; and subclasses 336.1+ for apparatus for analyzing material.
401Coating Implements With Material Supply,   subclasses 40+ and 44+ (particularly subclass 47) for a coating implement by means of which diverse materials are applied to a work surface.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   particularly subclasses 129+ for chemical reactors of a general nature.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for inorganic compound and nonmetallic elements and processes for their manufacture involving chemical reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 290.1]    290.1Composting apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 289.1.  Apparatus for the treatment of organic waste material by the action of microorganisms or enzymes.
  
[List of Patents for class 435 subclass 290.2]    290.2Including agitation means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.1.