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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 280]   CLASS 280,LAND VEHICLES
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This class includes vehicles, adapted to travel on land and not elsewhere classified. The term "vehicle" includes some form of running gear as an essential element, which running gear usually supports a load carrier, but may support a load directly, and adapts the vehicle to move over a surface. The basic purpose of those devices commonly called vehicles is the carrying of a load, either freight or passengers, from one place to another. The idea of towing a load, as by locomotives, traction engines, or tractors, has also long been associated with the term "vehicle."

(1) Note. The term "vehicle" also includes devices that are for special purposes identical with those in which a form of running gear is an essential element, and further includes such attachments for vehicles as are not limited in their position to any particular part of the vehicle.
(2) Note. This class includes the combination between running gear and load carriers not otherwise classified.
(3) Note. The running gear of various portable machines is also included when the machine is not claimed or is claimed by name only and the running gear is capable of general use. However, when the claimed running gear is solely disclosed for an agricultural, earth working, or harvesting implement, proper classification is in the appropriate agricultural, earth working, or harvesting implement class, even without specific claimed limitations of such agricultural, earth working, or harvesting implement. See the class definition (Class 280), EARTH OR TRAVELED SURFACE, TRAVERSING AND WORKING OR TREATING DEVICES,and also subclass 400 herein, the (1) Note, directed to an articulated vehicle or plural interconnected vehicles (i.e., a vehicle train).
(4) Note. The relationship of vehicles which are primarily intended for transportation purposes to working devices of various types, which may or may not travel while performing their primary function, and to various related arts is discussed in the following search notes presented in the sequence of the following "OUTLINE OF NOTES."

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

Where the articulated vehicle is solely disclosed for use in an earth working or harvesting environment, the proper classification is in Class 172, Earth Working. No specific recitation in the claims of an earth working implement or harvester is necessary to cause an assignment in Class 172. Thus, where the articulative feature is disclosed solely in the performance of an earth working or harvesting operation, the body of art is not collected in Class 280. See (3) Note in the class definition above.

See References to Other Classes, below, for classes related to the following art areas:

A. COMBINED WITH EXTERNAL MEANS OR DEVICES:

1. Remote control;

2. With external loading or unloading means;

3. With rails or tracks.

B. CONVERTIBLE:

1. To nonvehicular devices: (a. To work platforms; b. Miscellaneous);

2. To different types of vehicle.

This class (Class 280) provides for general utility land vehicles having both wheels and runners; for velocipedes convertible to or from plural occupant forms; for velocipedes convertible to or from occupant propulsion; for miscellaneous convertible velocipedes; for general utility wheeled land vehicles convertible to nonvehicular devices; for vehicles convertible to work platforms including means interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof for altering height or levelness or including vertical adjustment of a wheel upon the running gear; for tiltable, handle-propelled wheeled vehicles convertible to devices having no load transporting function; or miscellaneous convertible articulated vehicles. See Subclass References to the Class, below, for references to these areas.

C. EARTH OR TRAVELED SURFACE TRAVERSING AND WORKING OR TREATING DEVICES:

These devices commonly perform their main function of physically treating or affecting the surface while traveling and are equipped with running gear generally equivalent to the vehicular type. Portable or transportable machines having proximate function unrelated to transporting, supporting, or handling material or distributing material during traverse are seldom included in this class (Class 280), but will be found in the class appropriate to the type of work performed, e.g., agitating, ironing, comminuting, etc. However, subcombinations pertaining to the running gear of various art devices may be classified in Class 280 if of general utility.

D. SELF LOADING AND/OR UNLOADING VEHICLES AND PORTABLE MATERIAL HANDLING DEVICES

1. Traversing type. The load is usually distributed over or gathered from the area traversed by the vehicle;

2. Miscellaneous. These devices include vehicles which are loaded or unloaded while stationary also handling mechanisms which are ordinarily used to perform their chief function while stationary, running gear being provided for convenience in moving the device from place to place.

E. VEHICLE TYPES OTHERWISE CLASSIFIED

1. Water;

2. Rail;

3. Motor;

4. Receptacle and support types. The distinction between receptacles and supports provided with wheels and land vehicles has not been clearly established, and many warehouse and factory type trucks and work supports will be found in Class 280, Land Vehicles, and in the classes in References to Other Classes, below, that reference this section, without any stated line or perceptible distinction.

F. VEHICLE PARTS, INSTALLATIONS, ATTACHMENTS AND FURNISHINGS

1. Bodies;

2. Wheels;

3. Miscellaneous.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.188,and 7.1+ for miscellaneous convertible velocipedes.
7.12+,and 8+ for vehicles having both wheels and runners.
7.16,for those vehicles convertible to or from plural occupant forms.
7.17,for those vehicles convertible to or from occupant propulsion.
30+,for miscellaneous convertible to nonvehicular forms.
43+,for vehicles convertible to work platforms by vertical adjustment of the running gear.
47.18,for handle-propelled vehicles convertible to wheeled devices having no load transporting function.
400,see the search notes for vehicle-related classes.
415.1,for miscellaneous convertible articulated vehicles.
840,for vehicles convertible to work platforms by body leveling.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

5Beds,   subclasses 625+ for field stretchers. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
5Beds,   subclass 9 for berths and bunks; subclass 94, for automobile cribs; and subclasses 118+ for vehicle attached beds. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Bodies)
14Bridges,   subclass 72 for unattached gang-ways.
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclasses 78+ for street sweepers and subclass 340 for vacuum sweepers having vehicular features. (Earth or Traveled Surface, Traversing and Working or Treating Devices)
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 312 for ambulant air draft cleaners with fixed guide. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail Vehicles)
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 340 for self-propelled vacuum cleaners. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 97+ for wheel mounts for panel hangers, travellers and/or tracks; and subclass 107 for wheels therefor. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 97+ and 107 for wheel mounts and wheels for panel hangers, travelers or tracks. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail vehicles)
16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 18+ for casters and subclass 107 for wheels for traveling panels. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
27Undertaking,   subclass 27 for casket carriers. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
37Excavating,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 4+ for self-loading vehicles, subclasses 196+ for automobile mounted roadway snow excavators, and subclasses 124+ for wheeled scoops. (Earth or Traveled Surface, Traversing and Working or Treating Devices)
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 111+ for mechanism operated transportable towers. (Convertible, To nonvehicular devices, To work platforms)
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 111+ for extensible or movable portable towers, and subclass 143 for a building with a transportation feature, and see the reference to Class 105 in the class definition of that class. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Receptacle and support type)
56Harvesters,   subclasses 10.1+ for a harvester driven by a motor or tractor; subclasses 253+, 258+, 269+, and 272+ for wheeled cutters; subclasses 380+, 384+, and 396+ for wheeled horse rakes; and subclasses 6+ for multiple trailing or ganged machines. (Earth or Traveled Surface, Traversing and Working or Treating Devices)
56Harvesters,   subclasses 10.1+ for a harvester driven by a motor or tractor. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
56Harvesters,   subclass 322 for grain wheels and casters for harvesters. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
56Harvesters,   subclasses 208+ for platform adjustments.
60Power Plants,   and see search notes in main class definition for other motors and engines. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
60Power Plants,   see main class definition for search notes on motors and engines. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
70Locks,   subclasses 259+ for locks for spare wheels.
89Ordnance,   subclass 40 for field ordinance mounts. (Convertible, To nonvehicular devices, To work platforms)
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclass 384 for drop bombs with direction controlling means. (Combined With External Means or Devices, Remote control)
104Railways,   for combined tracks and railway rolling stock. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
104Railways,   for rail vehicles combined with tracks. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail vehicles)
104Railways,   subclass 44 for automobile turntables and subclass 45 for portable turntables.
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 27 , 28, 161, and 455 for handling devices mounted on railway rolling stock. (Convertible, To nonvehicular devices, To work platforms)
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 27 for self- propelled power tools, subclass 28 for locomotive type turntable carried power plant, subclass 161 for mining machine trucks, subclasses 239+ for railway cars with dumping bodies, and subclass 455 for railway cars with rotary turntable. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
105Railway Rolling Stock,   (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail vehicles)
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 26.1+ for railway vehicle having a power plant for propulsion thereof. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 239+ for railway car dumping bodies, subclasses 314+ for railway sleeping cars, subclasses 327 for railway dining cars, subclass 328 for merchandizing car bodies, subclasses 329.1+ for passenger car bodies, and subclasses 355+ for freight car bodies. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Bodies)
108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 44+ for a horizontal planar supporting surface supported on a vehicle. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
111Planting,   appropriate subclasses for planters. (Earth or Traveled Surface, Traversing and Working or Treating Devices)
114Ships,   subclass 312 for external control of submarines, subclass 21.1 for external control of torpedoes, and subclass 144 for external control of ships. (Combined With External Means or Devices, Remote control)
114Ships,   subclasses 27+ for dumping and unloading scows. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
114Ships,   for boats. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Water)
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   see reference to Class 60, Power Plants, above. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 899+ for fluid handling apparatus having a vehicle or part thereof as a support or casing.
152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   especially subclasses 450+ for pneumatic tires. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 208+ for antiskid devices and subclasses 416+ for tire inflating devices with vehicle carried supply. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 44+ for a heat exchanger installed on a vehicle and appropriate subclasses for a heat exchanger, per se. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
169Fire Extinguishers,   subclasses 24+ for fire engines. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
169Fire Extinguishers,   subclass 25 for wheeled water towers. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Receptacle and support type)
169Fire Extinguishers,   subclass 24 for fire engines and subclass 25 for wheeled water towers. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
172Earth Working,   subclasses 669+ and the subclasses there noted for earth working apparatus with a wheel or supported on a wheeled frame. (Earth or Traveled Surface, Traversing and Working or Treating Devices)
172Earth Working,   subclass 292 and the subclasses there noted for earth working apparatus with some specific propulsion means. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 2.7 for a motor vehicle having its motor supplied from an external source; subclasses 167+ for a motor vehicle provided with means for controlling its operation which is responsive to electromagnetic radiation, magnetic force, or sound waves received from a source, or reflected from an object or surface, which is located apart from the vehicle; and subclass 401 for a motor vehicle having steering gear of the power assisted type and wherein the operation of the power steering is controlled by a terrestrial guide. (Combined With External Means or Devices, Remote control)
180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for a land vehicle which is provided with a motor for propelling it. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclasses 10+ for a fire escape car carrier with a stationary strand and subclasses 36+ for a track mounted device of that class. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclasses 205+ for a fire escape car carrier with a stationary strand and subclasses 36+ for a track mounted device of that class. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail vehicles)
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   appropriate subclasses for wheeled supports of that class. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Receptacle and support type)
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclasses 63+ for a wheeled ladder, scaffold or escape with erection means. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
186Merchandising,   subclasses 27+ and 45+ for wheeled carriers for store and dining room service, respectively. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
186Merchandising,   subclasses 27+ and 45+ for wheeled carriers for store and dining room service, respectively. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail vehicles)
187Elevator, Industrial Lift Truck, or Stationary Lift for Vehicle,   subclasses 222+ for industrial fork lift trucks. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
188Brakes,   subclasses 2+ for vehicle brakes. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
190Trunks and Hand-Carried Luggage,   subclass 18 for articles of baggage provided with wheels where specific structure of the baggage item is claimed. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Receptacle and support type)
191Electricity: Transmission to Vehicles,   (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
191Electricity: Transmission to Vehicles,   (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclasses 30+ for clutches. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   subclasses 300+ and 506+ for a conveyor mounted on a vehicle. (Convertible, To nonvehicular devices, To work platforms)
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   subclasses 300+ and 506+ for loading machine type conveyors. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Handling Devices, Traversing type)
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   subclasses 300+ and 506+ for a conveyor mounted on a vehicle. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 19.5 for vehicle attached special receptacles and packages. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
211Supports: Racks,   appropriate subclasses for wheeled racks. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Receptacle and support type)
212Traversing Hoists,   subclass 312 for traveling bridge cranes and subclasses 71+ for over-head traversing hoists. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 301+ for auxiliary supports for traversing hoists. (Convertible, To nonvehicular devices, To work platforms)
212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 180+ for hoists removably mounted on a vehicle; subclass 901, a collection of cross-referenced patents, for portable, dolley-type hoists or cranes; subclasses 328+ for a self-propelled carrier for an overhead hoist; and subclasses 343+ for surface type an overhead traversing hoists. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 316+ for traveling cranes and subclasses 71+ for overhead traversing hoists. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail vehicles)
212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 180+ for a traversing hoist removably mounted on a vehicle; subclass 901, a collection of cross referenced patents, for ambulant dolley-type hoists or cranes; subclass 328 for self-propelled cable-trolley hoist; and subclasses 344+ for surface self-propelled traversing hoists. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
213Railway Draft Appliances,   (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
221Article Dispensing,   subclass 185 for ambulant article dispensing devices. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Traversing type)
222Dispensing,   subclasses 608+ for ambulant dispensers. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Traversing type)
224Package and Article Carriers,   subclasses 539+ for package and article carriers with complementary body parts. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Bodies)
224Package and Article Carriers,   subclasses 400+ for vehicle attached package and article carriers. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
237Heating Systems,   subclasses 12.1+ for combined heat and power plants for fire engines, vehicles, cars, etc. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
237Heating Systems,   subclass 12.3 for combined heat and power plants for vehicles and subclasses 28+ for vehicle heating systems. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 130+ and 146+ for sprayers with ambulant discharge and supply; subclasses 722+ for sprayers with stationary supply and ambulant discharge; subclasses 650+ for a container for nonfluid material and means for scattering or strewing the material, in which the container may be ambulant. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Traversing type)
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 390.7 , 391+, and 403+ for a reeling device mounted on a vehicle. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 390.7 , 391+, and 403+ for a reeling device mounted on a vehicle. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Receptacle and support type)
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 391+ for a trundle reel. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 75 through 99.9and the classes specified in the Notes thereto for apparatus and devices for controlling aircraft and other mobile craft. See subclasses 175+ and the classes specified in the Notes thereto for the classes which provide for the remote control by electrical means of aircraft and other vehicles and for a statement as to the lines between the classes. (Combined With External Means or Devices, Remote control)
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 50 for aircraft propulsion and steering on land or water. (Convertible, To different types of vehicles)
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 50 for aircraft propulsion and steering on water, subclass 101 for amphibious landing gear, and subclasses 105+ for water landing gear. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Water)
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   for aircraft. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 103+ for aircraft landing gear. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
248Supports,   appropriate subclasses for wheeled supports, especially subclass 98 for wheeled golf bag stands; and subclass 129 for wheeled receptacle stands. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Receptacle and support type)
248Supports,   subclasses 560+ for resilient supports and subclasses 637+ for machinery supports. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 2+ for hoisting trucks and subclasses 279+ and 323+ for vehicles supporting a load hauling or hoisting cable drum. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 418+ for attached vehicle jacks, including retractable ground supports and props. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
258Railway Mail Delivery,   for delivery to or from moving vehicles. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With external loading or unloading means)
258Railway Mail Delivery,   for material delivery to and from moving vehicles. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Traversing type)
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for carburetors. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 2+ for vehicle springs. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 2+ for resilient mountings for wheels. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
278Land Vehicles: Animal Draft Appliances,   (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
291Track Sanders,   (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
291Track Sanders,   (Earth or Traveled Surface, Traversing and Working or Treating Devices)
291Track Sanders,   (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Traversing type)
291Track Sanders,   (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Rail vehicles)
293Vehicle Fenders,   subclasses 102+ for vehicle bumpers. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 15+ for hand bars and hand barrows. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Bodies)
295Railway Wheels and Axles,   (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclass 20 for wheeled stretchers for ambulances. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With external loading or unloading means)
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclass 20 for wheeled ambulance stretchers. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Bodies)
297Chairs and Seats,   subclasses 1+ for a chair or seat convertible from wheel mounted to nonwheel mounted device by reorienting the chair or seat and subclasses 130+ for a chair or seat having alternately usable supporting devices, as wheels, rockers, suspending hangers and the like. (Convertible, To nonvehicular devices, Miscellaneous)
297Chairs and Seats,   subclasses 5+ for occupant propelled walker or skater frames having a seat, usable by the occupant intermediate periods of walking or skating. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
297Chairs and Seats,   appropriate subclasses for seat of general utility. This class (280) takes the combination of one or more seats and a vehicle. See the search notes in the class definition of Class 297 for the line. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Bodies)
298Land Vehicles: Dumping,   for dumping vehicles of the land type. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Miscellaneous)
298Land Vehicles: Dumping,   (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Bodies)
301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   for wheel substitutes, per se. Class 305 takes patents claiming a vehicle and wheel substitute combination, where the vehicle is only nominally recited in the claims. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 16 for electric motors for steering where a rudder or steering means is claimed broadly, with or without radio control of said motor. (Combined With External Means or Devices, Remote control)
362Illumination,   subclasses 459+ for vehicle lighting. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 6+ for a vehicle responsive parking meter and subclasses 1+ for an horological device acted upon by a disparate device. (Combined With External Means or Devices, Remote control)
384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for wheel bearings and journal boxes. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Wheels)
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 101+ for road material distributors with treatment means. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Hand­ling Devices, Traversing type)
406Conveyors: Fluid Current,   subclass 185 for a wheeled article carrier adapted to be propelled through a tube by a fluid current. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 333 through 402for the combination of a vehicle of the load transporting type and means external of the vehicle for loading or unloading the vehicle. (Combined With External Means or Devices, With external loading or unloading means)
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 595+ for an elevator or hoist and loading or unloading means therefor and wherein the elevator or hoist is on an inclined track (Combined With External Means or Devices, With rails or tracks)
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 467+ for a self-loading or unloading vehicle. (Self Loading and/or Unloading Vehicles and Portable Material Handling Devices, Miscellaneous)
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 227+ for apparatus particularly adapted for charging or discharging a facility comprising one or more sites for the parking of wheeled vehicles. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
417Pumps,   subclasses 231+ for pumps attached to vehicles and actuated thereby. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
440Marine Propulsion,   for boats and ships combined with power plants for propulsion. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Motor vehicles)
441Buoys, Rafts, and Aquatic Devices,   subclasses 65+ for skimming and walking devices for use on water. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Water)
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   appropriate subclasses for wheeled toys. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 97 through 99,111-114 and 201+ for wheeled toys.
454Ventilation,   subclasses 69+ for vehicle ventilation. (Vehicle Parts, Installations, Attachments and Furnishings; Miscellaneous)
472Amusement Devices,   subclasses 1+ for a skater support or walker vehicle restricted to a circuitous path, i.e., a roundabout, particularly subclasses 14+ for an occupant propelled roundabout. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
482Exercise Devices,   particularly subclasses 66+ for an occupant propelled support frame having movement facilitating feature, e.g., wheels, runners, etc., for foot travel. (Vehicle Types Otherwise Classified, Miscellaneous)
701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclasses 1+ for vehicle indication, operation, or guidance which includes a computation. Note, where significant vehicle structure is recited, classification is in the appropriate vehicle class. (Combined With External Means or Devices, Remote control)

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1]    1MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicles not provided for in the subclasses hereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.12]    1.12Aircraft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Vehicles in which the object simulated is an aircraft.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

827,for aircraft simulations which are pushed by the occupant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 230+ for a toy aircraft having wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.13]    1.13Figure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 828.  Vehicles in which the object simulated is a living figure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1.22,for figure simulating velocipedes which are adapted to be pushed along by the occupant.
200+,for occupant propelled vehicles in which the simulation is not claimed, and see the definition of subclass 827 for the line.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

104Railways,   subclass 61 for simulated horses which progress along a track.
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 269+ for a wheeled figure toy.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.14]    1.14Noise makers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles in which means is provided for making a sound, usually simulating the cry of the creature represented.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 270+ for a wheeled figure toy having sounder, subclass 297 for a figure toy having a sounder, subclasses 188+ for air operated sounders, and subclasses 397+ for other sounding toys.
472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclass 98 for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means and including animal sound simulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.16]    1.16Figure and carriage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles in which the simulation is that of the figure drawing a carriage.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 275+ for a toy representing a vehicle and an external figure.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.165]    1.165With moving figure or figure parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.16.  Vehicles in which the figure as a whole or parts of the figure are so connected with the remainder of the structure as to have relative movement.

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1.201+,for figures having moving parts where no carriage is provided and where the rider"s body does not move.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclass 99 for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means and a relatively movable animal part.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.167]    1.167Relatively movable legs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.165.  Vehicles in which the legs of the figure move relative to the trunk of the figure.

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1.204,for figure simulating velocipedes having moving legs but no carriage, the movement of the legs not being necessary to the movement of the vehicle.

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446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclass 276 for a toy representing a vehicle and an external walking figure.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.173]    1.173Plural:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles having either or both of (a) more than one simulated figure or (b) more than one occupant support.
(1) Note. A composite figure having two sides each comprising a separate cut-out is regarded as a single figure if the sides are rigidly secured to each other or the same seat or framework.

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203,for nonsimulating occupant propelled vehicles with side car.
222,for nonsimulating occupant propelled vehicles having plural movable occupant supports.
231+,for nonsimulating vehicles propelled by plural occupants.
273,for nonsimulating occupant-propelled vehicles having one-wheel controlled steering and providing for plural occupants.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.175]    1.175Progressing rocker type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles which are mounted upon rockers so as to cause the vehicle to travel on a supporting surface, either by reason of plural rockers which may be extended or retracted relative to one another or by reason of brakes, rollers or swing arms applied to or cooperating with the rockers.

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1.193,for platform rocker type, rider-body-actuated velocipede type simulations.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclasses 95+ for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means and which may travel backward and forward on a platform.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.177]    1.177Plural relatively moving rockers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.175.  Vehicles having longitudinally spaced rockers constructed to move relative to each other so as to cause the vehicle to move along a supporting surface.

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1.181+,for figures which progress by transferring the weight from one swinging leg or support to another, the legs or supports not having rocker bottoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.181]    1.181With alternately advanced ground engaging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles which progress by advancing supporting means alternately either at opposite sides, as in walking (this subclass) or at opposite ends, as in galloping (indented subclasses), or which have an alternately advanced and retracted pusher.

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1,for nonsimulating, nonwheeled, stepper type vehicles.
1.177,for similar figures which have rocker bottoms on the swinging supports, on which they rock forward and back as the supports swing.
218,for nonsimulation type wheeled vehicles having walking or galloping progression.
219,for nonsimulation type vehicles having an alternately advanced and retracted pusher.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 187 for a motor vehicle which includes one or more ski-like or runner members and wherein the vehicle is provided with at least one surface-engaging propulsion element and further wherein the element has a shuffling movement along the surface which supports it; and subclasses 8.1+ for a motor vehicle having a special driving device in the nature of a stepper.
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 316 , 317, and 377 for a walking figure toy, and see the Search Notes under subclass 377 for other related loci.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.182]    1.182Galloping progression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.181.  Vehicles having supports attached to the occupant supporting portion at longitudinally spaced points and arranged to swing alternately. If the supports are provided with wheels, they have means to prevent retrograde movement, or they are driven positively by the relative movement of the supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.183]    1.183Foot or saddle actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.182.  Vehicles in which the relative spreading apart from and approach toward each other of the supports is brought about by the action of the rider"s weight upon the saddle or the stirrups, the saddle or stirrups having relatively movable connection with the parts to be moved.

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218,for similarly driven wheeled vehicles which claim no simulation features.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.184]    1.184With additional ground engaging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.182.  Vehicles in which there is present some means, in addition to the two relatively approaching and separating supports to engage the ground or surface over which the vehicle moves, either to stabilize the figure, assist in propelling it, or impart a different type of motion.

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1.175,for progressing rocker type simulations having a similar ground engaging means.
1.188,for other velocipede type simulations convertible to have more than one kind of motion.
219,for nonsimulation vehicles propelled by means intermittently engaging the ground or floor.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.186]    1.186Occupant not astride:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Velocipede simulations in which the occupant is not seated on the figure in the manner in which a horse is ordinarily ridden.
(1) Note. Arrangements in which the occupant is supported within the figure, stands on it or is seated in a chair which does not take the place of the back of the figure or serve as a mere substitute for a saddle are included.

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1.16+,for velocipede simulations in which the occupant is seated in a vehicle purporting to be drawn by the figure.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.188]    1.188Convertible, interchangeable, or adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles in which the vehicle may be converted to a vehicle of the nonsimulating type because of the removability of the figure, or changed to a nonprogressive type, or in which the manner for causing progression may be changed or the vehicle or parts thereof may be made larger or smaller to suit occupants of different sizes.
(1) Note. Mere change in the adjustment of relatively movable linkages or springs to control the force necessary to be supplied is not included unless the point at which the rider"s effort is applied is also changed.

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7.15+,for convertible nonsimulating velocipede type vehicles which are occupant propelled.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclasses 95+ for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means and which may be convertible to another type of device.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.189]    1.189Combined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles claimed in combination with auxiliary features such as brakes, rider mounting steps, velocipede pushing handles, props, fixed guides, etc. not essential to the primary function of the velocipedes.

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1.14,for simulation type velocipedes combined with noise makers.
1.16+,for figure and carriage simulating velocipedes.
1.181+,for brakes designed to prevent retrograde motion of velocipedes which advance by alternately advancing and drawing together independently moving ground engaging means.
1.188,for simulation type vehicles having means for converting them to other forms or modes of operation.
264,for nonsimulating type occupant propelled vehicles having combined brakes and steering means.
288.4,for attachments, for occupant propelled vehicles, especially subclass 291 for steps.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclass 101 for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means and combined with a disparate device.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.191]    1.191With rider body motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles in which the advance of the vehicle along the ground is or may be accompanied by movement of the rider"s body. The movement usually actuates the propelling mechanism or assists in actuating it, but it may be merely a bouncing movement on spring mounted saddles or figure parts which are unrelated to the propelling means of the velocipede.
(1) Note. Motion of merely the feet or arms of the rider is not included.

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1.175+,for rocker type progression caused by body motion.
1.181+,for stepping or galloping type progression caused by body movement.
1.201+,for movable figure devices in which the occupant"s body is not shifted.
226.1,for nonsimulating vehicles whose propulsion is actuated by the occupant"s movable seat.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclasses 95+ for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.192]    1.192With figure motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.191.  Vehicles in which there is also movement of simulating portions of the vehicle.

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1.181+,for figure movement involving alternately advancing supports for causing progression.
1.201+,for figure movement without rider body movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.193]    1.193Platform rocker type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.192.  Vehicles in which the movement of a rocker supported figure relative to a supporting platform is transmitted to progressing means for the platform.

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1.175+,for progressing rocker-mounted figure-simulating vehicles in which the rockers engage the ground or floor directly.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclasses 95+ for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means and which may travel on a platform.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.194]    1.194Additional relatively movable drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.192.  Vehicles having means which produce progression of the figure actuated by either the feet or the hands of the rider, through parts relatively movably connected to the propulsion system either as the primary actuating means or as an aid to rider body actuation. In the former case, the figure must be interconnected to the propulsion mechanism.

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221+,for nonsimulating velocipedes having a movable occupant support and additional propulsion means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.195]    1.195Rigid or rigid link steering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.192.  Velocipedes in which steering means comprising a single rigid member or a plurality of rigid members linked together passes through the moving figure body in such a way as to allow vertical movement of the body relative to the point at which the steering impulse is transmitted to the running gear of the velocipede.

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263+,for steering for occupant propelled vehicles generally.
771+,for occupant steered vehicles generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.196]    1.196Body centrally pivoted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.192.  Vehicles in which the figure pivots about a horizontal axis extending through the chassis and through a fixed point in the central portion of the trunk of the figure, the motion of the rider"s body being transmitted to a drive for the vehicle through the figure motion.

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1.175+,for rocking velocipedes which progress with the rockers in contact with the supporting surface.
1.193,for platform rocker type velocipedes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.201]    1.201Movably mounted figure or figure parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles having the entire figure or body parts thereof, such as ears, tails, heads, legs, mounted so as to be movable relative to the base, running gear or other parts, usually for simulating their natural movement on the living animal. Movement to provide access openings is included.

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1.165+,for carriage combined animal figures with movable body parts.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclass 99 for a rockable, nonprogressing, animal simulation amusement device having rider seat means and a relatively movable animal part.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.202]    1.202Steering movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.201.  Vehicles in which the foreparts of the figure are movably mounted for steering, being directly or indirectly connected to the turning portion of the running gear.
(1) Note. Either the head or feet, or both, may turn for steering (this subclass) or the entire forepart of the animal may be hinged to the body along a vertical line (indented subclass).
(2) Note. If the head is nonrigidly connected to the steering running gear, it must transmit the steering impulse.

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1.201,for heads relatively movably connected to independent steering mechanism. See (2) Note.
1.206,for rein steered figure velocipedes.
263+,for steering means for nonsimulating occupant propelled vehicles.
771+,for occupant steered vehicles generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.203]    1.203Body hinged in vertical plane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.202.  Vehicles in which the steering body foreparts are hinged to the figure"s body hindparts along a generally vertical line falling between the front and rear legs or supports of the figure.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.204]    1.204Movable legs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.201.  Vehicles in which the legs move relatively to the trunk of the figure.

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1,for nonsimulating vehicles having walking supports without wheels.
1.167,for carriage-combined animal figures with relatively movable legs.
1.181+,for figures in which the legs support the figure on the ground or floor and have relative movement to cause the figure to progress as by walking or galloping.
1.192+,for leg movement which is part of the drive mechanism in rider body motion types or which serves to accommodate figure body motion to a running gear which has no corresponding motion.
218,for nonsimulating vehicles of the occupant-propelled type having alternately advancing wheeled supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.206]    1.206Rein steered or driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles in which the propulsion of the vehicle or the turning of the wheels or supports for steering is caused by the rider"s pulling on the reins.
(1) Note. In this subclass, the head does not turn relative to the body, but patents from subclasses 1.201+ are cross-referenced herein when the reins are relatively movably connected to the steering point, even though the head also turns.

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1.202+,for figures in which the head or fore-parts turn relatively to the body, the steered ground engaging means usually being rigid with the head or forefeet. The head may be turned by pulling on the reins. See (1) Note.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.207]    1.207Stirrup steered or driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Vehicles which are propelled or steered by movement of the rider"s feet in stirrups attached to the figure.
(1) Note. The stirrups must be equivalent to the stirrups of a horse saddle to the extent of being movably suspended from the saddle or seat portion of the simulated figure.

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1.183,for foot or saddle actuated galloping type velocipedes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.208]    1.208Hollow body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.13.  Velocipedes in which the figure is constructed as a shell or in which a solid body has been provided with one or more openings or cavities, usually to accommodate operating parts of the progressing mechanism.
(1) Note. Bodies having apertures to receive nonmoving parts which fit more or less closely therein are not considered to be hollow within the meaning of this definition.

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1.195,for bodies having slots to permit rocking movement of the body relative to rigid or rigid link steering means passing therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.21]    1.21Aircraft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 827.  Vehicles which simulate aircraft.

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1.12,for aircraft simulating velocipedes having occupant operated means for propulsion.

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446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 230+ for a toy aircraft having wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.22]    1.22Figure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 827.  Vehicles in which the simulation is that of a living figure.

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1.13+,for velocipedes of this type having means operated by the occupant for propelling them.

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446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 97+ and 115+ for figure toys.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.23]    1.23Attendant propelled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.22.  Vehicles which additionally include devices particularly adapted for the pushing or pulling of the vehicle by a nonoccupant.

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446Amusement Devices: Toys,   for hand pushed toys.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 1.5]    1.5WITH MEANS FOR ENGAGING BODY OF WALKING ATTENDANT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  A vehicle having a means adapted to engage the body of a walking attendant other than means adapted to be engaged by the hands or feet, the body engaging means being for the purpose of propelling the vehicle or sustaining some of the load carried by the vehicle.
(1) Note. An agricultural implement claimed by name only is considered a vehicle for purposes of this definition.

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47.11,for a vehicle wheel steered by a walking attendant.
47.17+,for handle propelled tiltable vehicles.
47.34+,for handle propelled stable vehicles.

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54Harness for Working Animal,   for animal harness, per se.
172Earth Working,   subclass 353 for an earth working implement having a draft means or ground support and guided or propelled by a walking attendant and also having body engaging means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 2]    2Dropped bodies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles having a portion of the body or load supporting framework depending between the axles to form a portion of the running gear connections.

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6.151+,for a vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for the proximate utility of facilitating cargo movement which may entail lowering the cargo support surface below the usual running gear level.
43.11,for a vehicle having a vertically adjustable wheel, the axis of which may be moved to a position above the load carrying surface of the vehicle.
47.23,for handle-propelled vehicles with similarly disposed body or load supporting framework.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 3]    3WHEELED PROPELLED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicles provided with means for rotating a wheel or wheels and operable from without the vehicle for propelling it.

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151,for auxiliary load starting attachments.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 96+ for railway rolling stock with wheel or axle drive, and especially subclass 129 for flange or axle grip tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 4]    4HOSE AND LADDER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicles specially adapted to carry ladders and fire-hose, commonly fire-fighting vehicles.

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182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclasses 63.1+ for a vehicle mounted ladder with erection means and subclass 127 for a ladder with a land vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.2]    5.2STEP OR ABUTMENT ASCENDING TYPE VEHICLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicles (a) constructed to permit its parts to be arranged for, or (b) having means combined therewith for ascending or descending steps or similar obstructions.

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30+,for miscellaneous convertible land vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.22]    5.22With endless track:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.2.  Vehicles having endless traction elements (a) shiftably mounted from a normal tractive position to a second position angularly disposed on the vehicle to contact the edge portion of a step or abutment to propel the vehicle while in upright position at an incline to the horizontal, or (b) which are designed to have one portion active while traveling horizontally and a second portion active while ascending or descending a step or abutment, or (c) which are auxiliary to the normal running gear to provide a secondary traction means operative only when ascending or descending steps or the like.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 9.1+ for a motor vehicle including a special driving device of endless track configuration.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for endless flexible track type wheel substitutes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.24]    5.24With skid or rollerway:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.2.  Vehicles having a plate-like surface or rollerway positioned on the vehicle and designed to engage the edge portion of the step or abutment to facilitate movement of the vehicle thereacross.

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5.32,for roller attachments providing a fulcrum support for a vehicle.
7.12,for wheeled velocipedes convertible to or from runner type.
8+,for miscellaneous vehicles provided with wheeled and runner type running gear.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.26]    5.26With spider-type engaging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.2.  Vehicles comprising a spider-like means pivotally mounted on a vehicle in position to permit the legs of the spider to engage the tread portions of successive steps or levels of a path.

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305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   subclasses 1+ for steppers.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.28]    5.28Relatively movable running gear portions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.2.  Vehicles in which the running gear comprises spaced ground engaging portions, which portions are mounted for relative movement to permit variations in the relative vertical or horizontal distances between said portions to facilitate movement over a step or abutment.

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6.15+,for a land vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
43+,for a wheeled land vehicle including vertically adjustable wheels for altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.3]    5.3Jack-type attachment (i.e., elevating):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.2.  Vehicles having attached thereto mechanism adapted to react upon a tread surface to lift or lower the vehicle to or from the step or abutment.

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254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 418+ for miscellaneous vehicles having jacks attached thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.32]    5.32Fulcrum attachment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.2.  Vehicles having attached thereto a fulcrum means about which the vehicle may be tilted.
(1) Note. The fulcrum is usually provided with wheel means at its outer end to permit translatory movement of the vehicle on its attached fulcrum.

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47.12,for vehicles having rocker or fulcrum supports auxiliary to the wheels.
47.2,for auxiliary wheel attachments for two wheeled hand trucks or barrows.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.5]    5.5SUSPENSION MODIFICATION ENACTED DURING TRAVEL (I.E., ACTIVE SUSPENSION CONTROL):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicle comprising a regulatable elastic means intermediate a vehicle body, chassis, or frame and ground engaging means thereof for supporting the weight of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame (i.e., sprung mass) upon the ground engaging means (e.g., axle, runner, ski, skid, sled, tire, unsprung mass, wheel, wheel assembly, wheel carrier) wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property responsive to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion to control a handling or ride posture characteristic of the vehicle.
(1) Note. A named "vehicle suspension system or unit" responsive to a limitation, either expressly or inferentially claimed, representing a force associated with a traveling vehicle is properly classifiable herein whether or not mechanical parts (e.g., axle, control arm, linkage, pivot, runner, shock absorber, ski, skid, sled, spring, tire, wheel, wheel assembly, wheel carrier) constituting the regulatable elastic means or the ground engaging means are claimed.
(2) Note. A named "vehicle suspension system or unit," per se, lacking the limitation of responsiveness to a force associated with a vehicle in traveling motion is not properly classifiable herein. Thus, the feature of a "vehicle suspension system or unit" responding to a "load or loading condition," lacking a specific vehicular traversing motion limitation by either sole disclosure of dynamic loading experienced by the regulatable elastic means or explicit claim language, is not proper for classification in this or the indented subclasses but is provided for later in the class schedule.

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6.15+,for a general utility land vehicle including means interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame without vehicular traversing motion.
8+,for a vehicle having both wheel and runner support.
80.1+,for specific running gear associated with a general utility wheeled land vehicle, especially subclass 86.5 for an auxiliary axle assembly, subclasses 86.75+ for running gear provided with geometric or spatial alignment adjustment, or subclasses 124.1+ for a particular running gear suspension arrangement.
200+,for wheeled occupant-propelled-type land vehicle running gear, especially subclasses 274+ or 281.1+. Additionally, in accordance with the (2) Note of subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses.
400+,for running gear of an articulated vehicle or plural interconnected vehicles (i.e., vehicle train).
830+,wherein a vehicle frame is specially adapted to carry a tank or boiler, especially subclass 7 for means for leveling the tank or boiler portion responsive to an actual or incipient nonlevel condition.
845+,for a vehicle having a sliding engagement with the travel surface, especially subclass 25 which includes a spring support.

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180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses, for a general utility self-propelled land vehicle including a feature as specified in Class 180 definition. Class 180 is superior to Class 280 in the class hierarchy.
188Brakes,   subclasses 2+ for a retarding or stopping mechanism employed upon a vehicle; or subclasses 266+ for a retarding or stopping mechanism employing an internal resistance medium.
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 2+ for a spring device employed upon a vehicle.
301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   appropriate subclasses, for specific wheel or axle construction. Class 301 is subordinate to Class 280 in the class hierarchy.
701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclasses 37+ for computer controlled auxiliary automotive vehicle systems including active suspension control.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.501]    5.501Including fail-safe override of hazardous condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter comprising means for detecting a perceived abnormal handling or ride posture characteristic presenting a potentially life threatening situation during surface traversing motion whereby the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property so as to assume a predefined state.
(1) Note. Fail-safe override requires a positive action by the regulatable elastic means upon the detection of a perceived abnormal handling or ride posture characteristic. The positive action may entail control elimination or attainment of a preordained position of the regulatable elastic means.
(2) Note. A suspension having regulatable elastic means that is merely preferentially operated while the vehicle is experiencing normal handling or ride posture characteristics is not proper for classification in this subclass and the subclass indented hereunder but rather belongs in an appropriate subclass provided later in the class schedule.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.502]    5.502Of lateral vehicle attitude (e.g., antiroll, antisway):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.501.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property so as to govern transverse or sideways vehicle body, chassis, or frame posture in relation to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame centerline.
(1) Note. The regulatable elastic means acts to change the transverse or sideways angulation of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame in relation to the travel direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.503]    5.503Priority assignment between diverse control criterion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property responsive to multiple, individual handling or ride posture, characteristics encountered while the vehicle is in normal surface traversing motion and one of the encountered handling or ride posture characteristics dominates the response of the regulatable elastic means.
(1) Note. The phrase "normal surface traversing motion" is employed to distinguish from a perceived abnormal handling or ride posture condition which is provided for earlier in the class schedule.
(2) Note. Representative of multiple, individual handling or ride posture characteristics are lateral vehicle attitude, longitudinal vehicle attitude, riding or suspension height, suspension stiffness for ride comfort, etc.

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5.501+,for a land vehicle active suspension having a regulatable elastic means which is caused to alter its elasticity property in response to a perceived abnormal handling or ride posture condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.504]    5.504Including condition or parameter adjustment occurring at longitudinally spaced vehicle axles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter comprising (a) supporting shafts or members for the ground engaging means positioned at front and rear ends of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; (b) regulatable elastic means being disposed at each end of the vehicle; and (c) the regulatable elastic means are cooperatively regulated.
(1) Note. Regulatable elastic means positioned at front and rear ends of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame without the inclusion of the supporting shafts or members are not proper for classification in this subclass or those indented hereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.505]    5.505Applied between diagonally opposed suspension units:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.504.  Subject matter wherein (a) the regulatable elastic means are additionally located upon opposite sides of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame centerline and (b) the cooperative regulation of the elastic means occurs upon opposite ends and opposite sides of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.506]    5.506Controlling lateral vehicle attitude (e.g., antiroll, antisway):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.504.  Subject matter wherein the cooperative regulation of the longitudinally spaced regulatable elastic means governs transverse or sideways vehicle body, chassis, or frame posture in relation to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame centerline.
(1) Note. Adjustment occurs upon each longitudinally spaced vehicle axle. Control of lateral vehicle attitude by regulatable elastic means upon a single vehicle axle is not proper for classification in this subclass but is provided for later in the class schedule.
(2) Note. The regulatable elastic means acts to change the transverse or sideways angulation of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame in relation to the travel direction.

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5.508+,for an active land vehicle suspension including control of lateral vehicle attitude by regulatable elastic means upon a single vehicle axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.507]    5.507Lateral and longitudinal vehicle attitude control (e.g., combinations of antidive, antipitch, antiroll, antisquat, antisway, antiyaw, riding, or suspension height):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property so as to govern both transverse or sideways and front-to-rear or fore-and-aft posture of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame in relation to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame centerline.
(1) Note. A suspension system providing lateral and longitudinal attitude control including longitudinally spaced front and rear vehicle axles is not proper for classification in this subclass.
(2) Note. A suspension system separately providing, as claimed, for either lateral or longitudinal attitude control is not proper for classification in this subclass. Such a suspension system belongs in a subclass provided later in the class schedule for the respective lateral or longitudinal attitude control being claimed.

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5.504+,for an active land vehicle suspension system providing lateral and longitudinal attitude control including elasticity adjustment occurring at longitudinally spaced vehicle axles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.508]    5.508Lateral vehicle disposition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property so as to govern sideways or transverse posture of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame in relation to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame centerline.
(1) Note. The regulatable elastic means acts to change the transverse or sideways angulation of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame in relation to the direction of travel.

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5.502,for a suspension controlling lateral vehicle attitude including fail-safe override of a hazardous condition.
5.504+,for a suspension controlling lateral vehicle attitude including longitudinally spaced vehicle axles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.509]    5.509Body banking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.508.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means inclines or tilts the vehicle body, chassis, or frame toward a center of curvature about which the vehicle is executing arcuate travel to overcompensate for resultant centrifugal force experienced by the vehicle executing.

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124.103,for a mechanical hardware or structural assembly suspension arrangement causing body banking on turning.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.51]    5.51Steering element responsive (e.g., steering angle, steering rate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.508.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means responds to operation of a mechanism causing the vehicle to execute arcuate travel.
(1) Note. The mere inclusion of terminology associated with arcuate travel of a vehicle, such as steered, turned, or turning, without a limitation indicative of operation of means for executing such arcuate travel of the vehicle does not render classification proper for this or the indented subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.511]    5.511Applied to sway or torsion bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.51.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means includes an elongated rod, shaft, or tube having a long axis and providing a springing action through twisting about the long axis (torque deformation) upon which the regulative action is administered.
(1) Note. The mere inclusion of a sway or torsion bar does not cause assignment to this subclass unless a regulative action is applied to such sway or torsion bar.

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124.106+,for a mechanical hardware or structural assembly suspension arrangement for preventing sideways or transverse tilt of a vehicle body, chassis, or frame including a sway or torsion bar interconnecting laterally opposed wheel suspension units.
124.125+,for a suspension arrangement of a wheel separately supported upon an individual skein or spindle axle; especially subclass 124.13 wherein a longitudinally extending swinging arm includes stabilizing means within the connection housing of the swinging arm pivot to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; subclass 124.137 wherein an upper and lower lateral control arm suspension includes a torsion bar; subclass 124.149 wherein a lateral control arm and vertical strut suspension includes a torsion stabilizer; or subclass 124.152 wherein a lateral control arm suspension includes a stabilizer bar.

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267Spring Devices,   subclasses 183+ for a spring device having a stabilizer bar for causing a uniform displacement along a substantially horizontal line contained in the vehicle body or chassis.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.512]    5.512Including suspension stiffness for ride comfort (e.g., damping coefficient, spring rate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.51.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means additionally governs the extent of vibrational force experienced by a vehicle occupant.

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5.503,for an active suspension responsive to plural, diverse control criterion and one of the control characteristics is given regulative priority.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.513]    5.513Longitudinal vehicle disposition (e.g., antidive, antipitch, antisquat):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property so as to govern front-to-rear or fore-and-aft posture of the vehicle body, chassis or frame along the vehicle body, chassis, or frame centerline.

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5.504+,for an active suspension including longitudinally spaced front and rear vehicle axles or wheel support means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.514]    5.514Riding or suspension height (e.g., ground-clearance, "trim height"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property so as to govern distance from various points of a vehicle body, chassis, or frame to the travel surface or vertical separation from running gear components.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for adjusting or maintaining a physically dimensioned separation gap (e.g., "trim height," etc.) between a vehicle body, chassis or frame and land or running gear components, as contrasted with the lateral or longitudinal vehicle attitude or disposition subclasses provided earlier in the class schedule whose proximate utility is regulation of the posture of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame, although the vehicle attitude or disposition subclasses may inherently alter riding or suspension height.
(2) Note. Fluid suspension systems including a "level control valve" provided with means for adjustment of the trip point thereof responding to changes of static loading are not proper for this subclass but are provided for later in the class schedule.

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5.501+,for a riding or suspension height adjustable suspension including fail-safe override.
5.503,for an active suspension responsive to diverse control criterion, one of which may be riding or suspension height.
6.157+,for body elevation or tilt adjustment of a vehicle due to a static load imposed upon the suspension including adjustment of a trip point of a "level control valve" within a fluid suspension system. See the (2) Note supra.
43+,for an extensible vehicle including vertically adjustable wheels for altering a dimension of the vehicle or part thereof.

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267Spring Devices,   subclass 64.16 for a fluid spring device including means for maintaining an effective working range of the fluid spring device.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.515]    5.515Suspension stiffness for ride comfort (e.g., damping coefficient, spring rate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property so as to govern the extent of travel surface induced vibrational force experienced by a vehicle occupant.

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5.512,for an active suspension controlling lateral vehicle disposition and including suspension stiffness for ride comfort regulation.
6.157+,for a suspension arrangement including control means which establish riding or trim height of the vehicle suspension arrangement due to a static load for enabling proper running gear operation, which may or may not involve adjustment of suspension stiffness.
124.101+,for a mechanical hardware or structural assembly suspension arrangement including control means for preparatory adjustment of the extent of resilient, shock absorbing support provided.
124.108,for a mechanical hardware or structural assembly suspension arrangement specifically abating mechanically induced vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.516]    5.516Bushing compliance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.515.  Subject matter comprising an accommodative resilient coupling member whose elasticity property is altered.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.517]    5.517Look ahead:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.515.  Subject matter comprising (a) means upon the vehicle for detecting land surface irregularities spatially positioned from the regulated elastic means and (b) the regulatable elastic means is caused to alter its elasticity property responsive thereto.
(1) Note. Included herein are "road surface detectors" relying upon a transient signal from an element of another regulatable elastic means to signify the road surface condition.

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5.504+,for an active suspension including longitudinally spaced vehicle axles or wheel support means.
5.518,for an active suspension including "road surface detectors" which actually observe land surface irregularities and contour.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.518]    5.518Traveling surface inspection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.517.  Subject matter wherein the means upon the vehicle for detecting land surface irregularities actually examines or observes the land contour.
(1) Note. Included herein are sonic, ultrasonic, or other road surface examining systems.

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5.515+,for an active suspension which relies upon a transient signal from an element of a regulatable elastic means to signify the road surface condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.519]    5.519Plural distinct modes (i.e., HARD-SOFT):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.515.  Subject matter comprising selection of an elasticity or resiliency value from among discrete, multiple relative elasticity or resiliency values, with each elasticity or resiliency value representing a defined ride firmness.
(1) Note. Included herein are suspension systems providing "HARD-SOFT" ride firmness.
(2) Note. Continuous adjustment or variable suspension systems are not included herein because they do not invoke selection of defined parameters.

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5.515+,for a continuous adjustment or variable active suspension.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.52]    5.52Suspension geometry (e.g., camber, caster, toe-in/toe-out, wheel track, road contact):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.5.  Subject matter wherein the regulatable elastic means governs a spatial relationship between structural elements of the running gear.
(1) Note. Running gear is defined as the structural assembly connecting ground-engaging means (e.g., runner, skid, sled, wheel) to a vehicle body, chassis, or frame, inclusive of axle, control arm, link, shock absorber, spring, strut, etc.
(2) Note. The spatial relationship herein provides for other than vertical separation of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame from running gear components which is specifically provided in subclass 5.514 earlier in the class schedule.

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5.514,for a suspension including riding or suspension height alteration of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame relative to land or components of the running gear.
43+,for an extensible vehicle including vertically adjustable wheels relative to the running gear for altering a dimension of the vehicle or part thereof.
86.75+,for a wheeled vehicle running gear provided with means upon the vehicle enabling static adjustment of a spatial relationship.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.521]    5.521Camber or caster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.52.  Subject matter wherein the spatial relationship governs an inclination or tilt of (a) a wheel relative to the ground surface as measured in degrees from true vertical (i.e., camber) or (b) a steering axis relative to the center line of the wheel as measured in degrees from true vertical (i.e., caster).
(1) Note. Camber is the tilting inward (negative camber) or outward (positive camber) of the top of the wheel as viewed from the front of the vehicle.
(2) Note. Caster is the tilting forward (negative caster) or backward (positive caster) of a line extending through upper and lower ball joints or a kingpin as viewed from the side of the vehicle.

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86.751+,for general utility wheeled land vehicle running gear provided with means enabling static camber or caster adjustment.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.522]    5.522Toe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.52.  Subject matter wherein the spatial relationship governs a difference in distance between extreme front and rear edges of laterally opposed wheels relative to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle.
(1) Note. "Toe-in" results when the distance difference for the extreme front edges is smaller than for the extreme rear edges. "Toe-out" results when the distance difference for the extreme front edges is greater than for the extreme rear edges.

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86.75+,for general utility wheeled land vehicle running gear provided with means for enabling static toe adjustment, particularly subclass 86.758 for toe adjustment of a steerable wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.523]    5.523Bushing compliance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.522.  Subject matter comprising an accommodative resilient coupling member whose elasticity property is altered.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 5.524]    5.524Nonsteered wheel (e.g., independent rear suspension):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.523.  Subject matter wherein the accommodative resilient coupling member is utilized in supporting an unsteerable, rolling ground engaging member.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.15]    6.15BODY ELEVATION OR TILT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicle comprising means disposed between that portion of a land vehicle which operates as a load, load carrier, or receptacle and running gear for vertically predisposing the load, load carrier, or receptacle at a distance from either the land surface or from the running gear to achieve change in height or level.
(1) Note. Running gear is defined as the structural assembly connecting ground-engaging means (e.g., runner, skid, sled, wheel) to a vehicle body, chassis, or frame, inclusive of axle, control arm, link, shock absorber, spring, strut, etc.
(2) Note. Means for vertically positioning a wheel relative to running gear for the purpose of altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof is not proper for classification in this subclass or subclasses indented hereunder. Such subject matter is provided for later in the class schedule.
(3) Note. The means changes height or levelness for other than transient excursions. Adjustment or establishment of riding or suspension height of a vehicle body, chassis, or frame in response to a force encountered while the vehicle is executing surface travel is provided for earlier in this class (Class 280).

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5.503,for an active suspension involving plural diverse control criterion, one of which may be riding or suspension height adjustment.
5.514,for riding or suspension height adjustment occurring during vehicle travel.
7,for a vehicle wherein the receptacle, load, or load carrier comprises a tank or boiler with leveling means extending between running gear and the tank or boiler.
30+,for a vehicle which is convertible from a wheeled vehicle to a nonvehicular structure.
43+,for a vehicle comprising a running gear and a wheel means, and means whereby the wheel means may be vertically adjusted relative to the running gear for the purpose of altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof.
293+,for a velocipede which is provided with a prop or steadying device.
763.1+,for a vehicle which is provided with a retractable prop or stand which may be extended to stabilize the vehicle when not in motion.

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56Harvesters,   subclasses 206+ for platform adjustments for harvesters.
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 164 for railroad trucks with levelers.
172Earth Working,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 395+ for earth working apparatus comprising vertically adjustable wheels; subclasses 400+ for means interconnecting the wheels of an earth working implement whereby they may be moved, simultaneously, vertically with respect to the frame; subclass 406 for an earth working apparatus with an actuator for adjusting wheels on different axles and an additional actuator for changing the relative position of the wheels; subclasses 446+ for laterally adjustable earth working tools which may involve a leveling feature; subclasses 459+ for an earth working element which is swingable about an axis which extends substantially in the direction of movement of the apparatus over the ground; or subclass 466 for an earth working tool which is lifted and held raised for transport by a means other than the lifting means.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 39 and 41 for motor vehicles of that class (Class 180) with leveling means and subclasses 89.1+ for attaching bodies of motor vehicles of that class (Class 180) to the running gear thereof.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   appropriate subclasses for vehicle body construction in general, especially subclasses 35.1+ for devices securing the vehicle body to the running chassis frame including nominal recitation of running gear.
298Land Vehicles: Dumping,   appropriate subclasses for vehicles other than track or rail vehicles adapted to carry a load with means to manipulate the vehicle so that a considerable part of the load will move by gravity to unload the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.151]    6.151Loading position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.15.  Subject matter comprising predisposing the load, load carrier, or receptacle portion to accommodate cargo movement.
(1) Note. Included herein are means for positioning the load, load carrier, or receptacle portion of a land vehicle at a height compatible to that of a loading dock.

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2,for a vehicle wherein a portion of the body or load supporting framework depends between axles and functions as part of the running gear connection.
43.11,for a vehicle having a vertically adjustable wheel for altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof wherein the wheel axis may be moved to a position above the load carrying surface of the vehicle.
47.21+,for a handle propelled, tiltable vehicle having an adjustable or shiftable axle to varying the position thereof relative to the body to facilitate loading.
47.23,for a handle propelled, tiltable vehicle having a load carrying surface below a wheel axis with no means to elevate the wheel.
425.1+,for articulated vehicles including a semitrailer provided with power or manually actuated lift means on the tractor or reacting between the tractor and trailer to vertically position the connecting members (a) for coupling or (b) to raise the trailer after coupling.
446.1+,for articulated vehicles wherein the position of a connection is automatically changed in response to load or draft connections.
477+,for articulated vehicles including a coupling facilitating device wherein the articulated vehicles are other than the semitrailer type.

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298Land Vehicles: Dumping,   appropriate subclasses for vehicles other than track or rail vehicles adapted to carry a load with means to manipulate the vehicle so that a considerable part of the load will move by gravity to unload the vehicle.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclass 584 for external means used to position the load, load carrier, or receptacle portion of a vehicle for accommodating cargo movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.152]    6.152Occupant ingress or egress:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.151.  Subject matter wherein the accommodated cargo movement is user entry or exit from the vehicle.
(1) Note. Included herein are "kneeling" bus suspensions.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.153]    6.153Static site leveling (e.g., camper, mobile home, recreational vehicle, work vehicle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.15.  Subject matter comprising predisposing of the load, load carrier, or receptacle portion in a level attitude, irrespective of the surface contour beneath the vehicle, at a singular, stationary location.
(1) Note. Included herein are leveling means employing elements of the running gear. Leveling means involving attachments or auxiliary devices are not proper for classification in this subclass unless they are interrelated with an element of the running gear.
(2) Note. Level attitude for the purpose of this subclass is intended to be absolute level (i.e., parallel to a flat horizontal plane).

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47.33,for a wheeled tiltable vehicle provided with leg structure to stabilize the vehicle in a rest position.
293+,for a velocipede which is provided with a prop or steadying device.
427+,for articulated vehicles including a semitrailer having landing gear with interrelated coupling or brake operation.
475,for articulated vehicles provided with ground engaging support means to partially support one of the vehicles when uncoupled from the other vehicle, wherein the support means is in a retracted or inoperative position when the vehicles are coupled.
763.1+,for a vehicle which is provided with a retractable prop or stand which may be extended to stabilize the vehicle when not in motion.

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254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 418+ for attached vehicle jacks, including retractable ground supports and props.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.154]    6.154Terrain slope compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.15.  Subject matter comprising predisposing the load, load carrier, or receptacle portion to accommodate sustained travel upon an expansive inclined surface.
(1) Note. The presence of a gravity induced alteration control is included in this and the indented subclasses.
(2) Note. This and the indented subclasses are intended to position the load, load carrier, or receptacle portion in an appropriate attitude for prolonged travel upon a hillside or other protracted, nonlevel land configuration. Accordingly, load, load carrier, or receptacle vertical positioning occurring from encountering rough or uneven terrain is not proper for this or the indented subclasses. Such rough or uneven terrain adjustment is a normal function of a suspension system and is provided for earlier in the class schedule if suspension adjustment is caused to occur in response to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion or in an appropriate subclass elsewhere.

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5.508+,for an active suspension responding to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion to regulate lateral disposition of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
5.514,for an active suspension responding to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion to regulate ground clearance or "trim height".
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.155]    6.155Individual ground engaging means vertically movable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.154.  Subject matter comprising (a) separately mounted running gear positioned upon each side of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; and (b) means to create vertical movement of at least one of the running gear.
(1) Note. Running gear is defined as the structural assembly connecting ground-engaging means (e.g., runner, skid, sled, wheel) to a vehicle body, chassis, or frame, inclusive of axle, control arm, link, shock absorber, spring, strut, etc.
(2) Note. Running gear comprising a single transverse axle either pivotally mounted or having a crank axle on each end is not to be considered separately mounted running gear proper for classification in this or the indented subclass but is provided for earlier in the class schedule.

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6.154,for a vehicle including body elevation or tilting by means of running gear comprising a single transverse axle either pivotally mounted or having a crank axle on each end.
43+,for means for vertically positioning a wheel relative to running gear for the purpose of altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.156]    6.156Longitudinally extending support arm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.155.  Subject matter wherein at least one vertically movable laterally positioned running gear is supported upon an elongate member pivotally mounted about a laterally directed axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.157]    6.157Establishing riding or trim height:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.15.  Subject matter comprising predisposing the load, load carrier, or receptacle portion for attaining an appropriate location for proper running gear operation.
(1) Note. Riding or trim height is an art term recognized to define a normal operative disposition of structural components of the running gear design.

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5.503,for an active suspension involving plural diverse control criterion, one of which may be riding or suspension height adjustment. See the (3) Note under subclass 6.15 of this class.
5.514,for an active suspension having riding or suspension height adjustment responding while the vehicle is in motion. See the (2) Note under subclass 5.514 of this class.
86.5,for a vehicle including a selectively employed auxiliary axle which may or may not be deployed into ground engaging position for establishing riding or trim height.

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267Spring Devices,   subclass 64.16 for a fluid spring device including means for maintaining an effective working range of the fluid spring device.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.158]    6.158Including dwell period (e.g., delay, inactive, suppression):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.157.  Subject matter including means deferring incipient operation.
(1) Note. Included herein are riding or trim height establishing suspensions provided with delay means inhibiting or precluding a response to excursions of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame while the vehicle is in motion.

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5.503,for a riding or trim height establishing suspension including means responding while the vehicle is in motion for superseding riding or trim height control. See the (3) Note under subclass 6.15 of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.159]    6.159Load responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.157.  Subject matter wherein the riding or trim height is established by the distribution or quantity of payload placed in or upon the vehicle.

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6.158,for a riding or trim height establishing suspension, which may or may not be responsive to a distribution or quantity of payload placed in or upon the vehicle, including means deferring incipient operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 6.16]    6.16Lateral vehicle attitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.159.  Subject matter wherein the riding or trim height adjustment controls the sideways or transverse disposition of the vehicle relative to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame centerline.
(1) Note. Either a specific limitation directed to controlling lateral disposition or sole disclosure of controlling the running gear at lateral sides of a single vehicle axle are required for placement in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7]    7With tank leveling device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 830.  Vehicle comprising (a) means for keeping the tank or boiler portion of a vehicle level responsive to a means sensing an actual or incipient nonlevel condition, or (b) an adjustable means extending between the running gear and the tank or boiler of the vehicle which is operative to level the tank or boiler.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.1]    7.1CONVERTIBLE (I.E., VELOCIPEDE TYPE):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Velocipedes in which the parts may be manipulated to convert the vehicle into some other device or some other type of vehicle.
(1) Note. Velocipedes are those vehicles including skates, adapted to be propelled by the occupant including those pushed by the occupant by contact of the hands or feet with the surface over which the vehicle moves.

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1.188,for convertible figure type velocipedes.
9+,for wheel and runner vehicles with retractable wheels or runners.
13,for runners applied to the wheels of wheeled vehicles.
30,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle which is convertible to a nonvehicular structure.
87.01+,for coasters.
200+,for occupant propelled-type land vehicles.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 95 for trackman"s car convertible to bicycle.
297Chairs and Seats,   subclasses 1+ for chair or seat convertible from wheel mounted to nonwheel mounted by reorienting the entire device, and subclasses 130+ for a chair or seat having alternately usable supporting devices, as wheels, rockers, suspending hangers and the like.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.11]    7.11To drop frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Velocipedes in which the conversion is from an ordinary frame to a drop frame, i.e., one which is commonly known as a ladies" bicycle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.12]    7.12Wheel to or from runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Velocipedes in which the conversion is from a wheeled velocipede to a runner type or vice versa.

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8+,for wheel and runner vehicles.
13,for wheel runner type vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.13]    7.13Skates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.12.  Velocipedes which have means adapting them to be attached to the feet of the occupant.

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841+,for skates not convertible.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.14]    7.14Substituted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.12.  Vehicles in which a wheel is substituted for a runner or vice versa.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.15]    7.15Occupant propelled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Vehicles which have means adapting them to be propelled by the occupant.

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7.12,for vehicles convertible to the runner type and having occupant propelling means.
200+,for nonconvertible vehicles with occupant propelling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.16]    7.16To or from plural occupant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.15.  Vehicles in which the conversion is to or from a plural occupant propelled vehicle.

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209,222, 231+, and 273 for occupant propelled vehicles having provision for plural occupants.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 7.17]    7.17To nonpropelled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.15.  Vehicles in which the conversion is from an occupant propelled vehicle to a nonoccupant propelled vehicle or vice versa.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 8]    8WHEELED AND RUNNER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicles provided with both supporting wheels and runners.

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7.12+,for convertible velocipedes of the wheel and runner type.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 196 for a motor vehicle which includes one or more ski-like or runner members and wherein the vehicle is provided with at least one surface-engaging propulsion element and further wherein the element comprises a traction wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 9]    9Retracting wheel or runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Vehicles in which either the wheel or the runner gear may be moved to an inoperative position, leaving the other in position for use.

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86.5,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including an auxiliary axle assembly which is selectively disposable between a use and a nonuse position.
638+,for a vehicle constructed in such manner that the physical dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof may change or vary, particularly subclasses 639+ wherein the vehicle is foldable to a collapsed or more compact form or subclasses 43+ wherein the vehicle is provided with vertically adjustable wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 10]    10Wheel-runner type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Vehicles in which the runner gear in its operative position engages the wheels of the wheeled gear.

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13,for wheel runner type sleds.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11]    11Pivoted lateral axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Vehicles in which the adjustable running-gear is pivoted to swing about an axis laterally of the vehicle.

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641+,for folding vehicles having pivoted wheel carriers with transverse axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.115]    11.115With propulsion means driven by occupant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 841.  Skates provided with means to cause them to move relative to the surface on which they are supported, which means is driven by the manual effort of the person utilizing the skates.

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200+,for a vehicle of the wheeled type which is provided with means whereby it may be propelled by the occupant thereof.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 181 for a motor vehicle of the ski- or skate-type for imparting movement to a person standing thereon and wherein the power means or a portion thereof is affixed to or built into the ski or skate.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.12]    11.12Runner type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 841.  Skates which are supported by runners.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.14]    11.14With resiliently mounted foot supports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.12.  Skates in which the foot plates are resiliently supported on the runner.

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11.15,for jointed runners and foot supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.15]    11.15Jointed runner and foot supports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.12.  Skates in which the skate is made up of two or more runner supported sections pivotally connected, or in which the foot supports are movably jointed to the runners.

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11.14,for resilient connections between the foot plates and runners.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.16]    11.16Extensible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.12.  Skates in which the foot supports are extensible to fit different size shoes.

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11.26,for extensible wheeled skates.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.17]    11.17Tubular foot posts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.12.  Skates in which a runner is secured in a frame including hollow foot posts.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.18]    11.18Runners:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.12.  Devices in which only the runner structure is claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.19]    11.19Wheeled skate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 841.  Skates which are provided with wheels.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 18+ for casters generally and subclasses 97+ for wheel mounts for panel hangers.
301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   subclass 5.301 for skate wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.201]    11.201With retrogression prevention:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Subject matter having means to prevent motion of the skate except in a forward direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.202]    11.202Including skate ventilation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Subject matter wherein a skate boot includes a device for air circulation to and from the skate boot.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.203]    11.203Including lighting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Subject matter having a device which illuminates the skate or area around the skate.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.204]    11.204With brake:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Subject matter including a skate wheel motion reducing or retarding member (i.e., a brake member).

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188Brakes,   subclasses 2+ for vehicle brakes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.205]    11.205Continuously applied brake:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.204.  Subject matter wherein the brake member is in constant engagement with the wheels or the skating surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.206]    11.206Brake includes roller engagable with skating surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.204.  Subject matter wherein the brake member includes a rotational element which when actuated by a rider contacts the skating surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.207]    11.207Brake element rigidly attached to skate frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.204.  Subject matter wherein the brake member is firmly and non-movably secured to the skate.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.208]    11.208Brake element engagable with skating surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.207.  Subject matter wherein the brake member contacts a surface upon which skate wheels are rolling.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.209]    11.209Element attached to front end of skate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.208.  Subject matter wherein the brake member is mounted at or near the bow of the skate.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.211]    11.211Brake element movably mounted to skate frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.204.  Subject matter wherein the brake member moves relative to the skate upon braking.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.212]    11.212Hand actuated brake controller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.211.  Subject matter including a hand operated means mounted on the skate to regulate the movement of the brake member.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.213]    11.213Wireless brake controller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.212.  Subject matter wherein the movement of the brake member is regulated by an electromagnetic or sonic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.214]    11.214Leg operated brake controller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.211.  Subject matter wherein the brake member is regulated by a pivotal movement of skater’s leg relative to the skater’s foot.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.215]    11.215Brake element pivotally mounted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.211.  Subject matter wherein the brake member is hingedly secured to the skate for permitting the movement of the brake member during braking.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.216]    11.216Brake element engagable with skating surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.215.  Subject matter wherein the brake member contacts a surface upon which the skate wheels are rolling.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.217]    11.217Brake element engaging skating surface and wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.211.  Subject matter wherein the brake member contacts the skating surface and a skating wheel during braking.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.221]    11.221In-line wheels (e.g., in-line skates):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Subject matter wherein all the wheels supporting the skate are aligned so as to share a common rolling path.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.222]    11.222Different size wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter having one wheel larger or smaller than another wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.223]    11.223Axle mounting arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter includes specific structure for rotatably securing the wheels to skates.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.224]    11.224Including pivotally mounted boot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter wherein an under surface of a boot is hingedly secured to the skate.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.225]    11.225Including shock absorbing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter includes a device between the wheels and the skate frame for dampening uneven or abrupt forces on the skate.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.226]    11.226Spherical wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter wherein the wheels are generally spherically shaped.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.227]    11.227Cylindrical wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter wherein the wheels are generally cylindrical shaped.
(1) Note. The axial length of the wheel is larger than the diameter of the wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.231]    11.231Three or four wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter wherein the skate has three or four wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.232]    11.232A wheel raised above skating surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.231.  Subject matter wherein a wheel is positioned out of contact with a surface upon which the wheels are rolling.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.233]    11.233Two wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.221.  Subject matter wherein the skate has two wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.24]    11.24One-wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Skates having a single supporting wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.25]    11.25Two-wheeled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Skates having two supporting wheels.

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11.233,for skates with two wheels arranged in tandem.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.26]    11.26Extensible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Skates in which the foot supports are extensible to fit different sized shoes.

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11.16,for extensible runner type skates.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.27]    11.27Trucks and mountings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.19.  Devices in which the wheeled trucks and/or the truck mounting are claimed, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.28]    11.28Resiliently yieldable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.27.  Devices in which the trucks are resiliently yieldable relative to their supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.3]    11.3Shoe attaching means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 841.  Devices in which the means to attach or secure a skate to a rider"s shoe are claimed. The mere inclusion of the runner or wheels broadly will not keep the patent out of this subclass.

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36Boots, Shoes, and Leggings,   subclasses 62+ for detachable antislipping devices for shoes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.31]    11.31Toe and/or heel clamps:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.3.  Devices in which the securing means comprises clamps engaging the toe and/or heel of the shoe.

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36Boots, Shoes, and Leggings,   subclasses 64+ for clamping means for attaching antislipping devices to shoes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.32]    11.32Screw actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.31.  Devices in which the clamping means is actuated by a screw device.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.33]    11.33Lever actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.31.  Devices in which the clamping means is actuated by a lever mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.34]    11.34With screw adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.33.  Devices having a screw adjustment.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 11.36]    11.36Ankle braces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.3.  Devices in which means is provided to support or brace the ankle of a skater.

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602Surgery: Splint, Brace, or Bandage,   subclasses 27 and 65 for ankle braces, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 12.1]    12.1With occupant propelled means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles which have means adapting them to be propelled by the occupant, not merely pushed by the hands or feet of the occupant.

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14.27+,for the push type sled vehicle, which is pushed by a standing occupant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 12.11]    12.11Intermittent ground engaging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.1.  Vehicles in which the propelling means pushes the vehicle by intermittent contact with the surface over which the vehicle travels.

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219,for wheeled vehicles similarly propelled.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 187 for a motor vehicle which includes one or more ski-like or runner members and wherein the vehicle is provided with at least one surface-engaging propulsion element and further wherein the element has a shuffling movement along the surface which supports it.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 12.12]    12.12Foot actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.11.  Vehicles in which the propelling means is specially designed to be operated by the feet of the occupant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 12.13]    12.13Traction wheel drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.1.  Vehicles in which the propelling means is a traction wheel contacting the surface over which the vehicle moves.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 196 for a motor vehicle which includes one or more ski-like or runner members and wherein the vehicle is provided with at least one surface-engaging propulsion element and further wherein the element comprises a traction wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 12.14]    12.14Foot actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.13.  Vehicles in which the propelling means is specially designed to be operated by the feet of the occupant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 13]    13Wheel runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles in which the runners are applied to the wheels of wheeled vehicles.

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10,for vehicles having both wheels and runners.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14]    14Hub runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles in which the runners are constructed to replace the wheels of a wheeled vehicle and fit over the wheel-axles, usually on the axle-spindles.

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26,for rocker runner type vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.1]    14.1Skis converted to sled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles using standard snow skis, normally attached to individual feet of a standing occupant, as the slidable surface attached to some occupant or load supporting structure.

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818,for skis interconnected for training.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.21]    14.21Standing occupant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Subject matter wherein a floor (i.e., platform) of the vehicle is adapted to support both feet of an occupant in standing position and intended primarily to coast down a snow slope or ice (i.e., supporting surface).
(1) Note. These vehicles are analogous to skateboards or surfboards but may be used on snow or ice.

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14.28,for a standing occupant sled with steering handles.
23.1,for runner vehicles intended to be pushed using some upwardly extending superstructure, by an attendant who does not ride on the sled.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.22]    14.22With two bindings mounted on single platform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.21.  Subject matter wherein the vehicle includes two foot securing and fastening devices mounted on a single gliding member.

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11.3+,for means to attach a shoe to the skate.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.23]    14.23Bindings interconnected for simultaneous release:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.22.  Subject matter wherein the feet securing and devices fastenings are connected by a linkage mechanism which allows both feet to be simultaneously detached from the feet securing and fastening devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.24]    14.24Bindings pivot about vertical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.22.  Subject matter includes a pivot connection of each binding to the platform which allows the bindings to move to selected positions about an passing perpendicular through the platform.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.25]    14.25Platform supported by tandem runners:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.21.  Subject matter wherein surfaces of the platform in contact with the supporting surface are aligned so as to share a common gliding path.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.26]    14.26Platform supported by side by side runners:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.21.  Subject matter wherein surfaces of the platform in contact with the supporting surface are laterally spaced.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.27]    14.27With handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.21.  Subject matter including an upwardly extending hand graspable member (i.e., a handle) which is fixedly secured to the skate.

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14.28,for a runner vehicle with steering handle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 14.28]    14.28Steerable handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.27.  Subject matter wherein the handle is manipulated to direct the vehicle.
(1) Note. The device may simply be a lever for flexing the runner.
(2) Note. This subclass includes scooter type vehicles with runners.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 15]    15Multiple sled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicle in which the sliding surface comprises a plurality of longitudinally spaced sliding running gear units.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 16]    16Occupant steered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Sleds arranged to be steered by the vehicle occupant.

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771+,for occupant steered wheeled vehicles.

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188Brakes,   subclass 8 for means for steering by altering the speed of one side of the vehicle as by a brake.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 17]    17Swivel and rocking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Sleds in which one sliding unit is mounted to swivel on a vertical axis, and may also rock about a lateral axis relative to the other sliding unit.

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124.114+,for a wheeled vehicle having running gear including a rocking and swinging axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 18]    18Toboggan:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles where the sliding surface is provided by a large flat bottom surface of the load support.
(1) Note. In these sleds the sliding running gear is the bottom of the load support.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 18.1]    18.1Bowl or saucer type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Vehicles wherein the entire vehicle serves as the sliding surface and is in the shape of a saucer or bowl.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 19]    19Drag:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Sleds having contact with intended to be pulled the supporting surface along substantially their entire width.

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18,for toboggans.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 19.1]    19.1Shelter sled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Runner vehicles provided with means to convert the vehicle to an occupant shelter for ice fishing or the like.
(1) Note. The sliding surface, in the form of runners, may remain in place or the entire device may be reorganized.

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28.12,for situations in which the vehicle is used to shelter ice fishing equipment only, in which case it is considered to be a container.

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52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   for portable buildings.
135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   for tent shelters.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 20]    20Folding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Sleds which are foldable from their condition of use into a more compact form, as for storage or shipment.

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9+,for vehicles having wheels and runners, one or both being retractable.
639+,for folding wheeled vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 21.1]    21.1Occupant steered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles having a single running gear unit arranged to be steered by the occupant of the vehicle.

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16,for occupant steered sleds with multiple sliding running gear units.
771+,for occupant steered wheeled vehicles.

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188Brakes,   subclasses 8+ for means for steering by altering the speed of one side of the vehicle, as by a brake.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 22]    22Flexible runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.1.  Sleds in which the runners are hinged sections or of flexible construction, so that they can be bent out of straight lines to steer the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 22.1]    22.1Tiltable runner type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.1.  Vehicles in which a steering effect results from the rotation of the runners about their longitudinal axes relative to the load or occupant support platform.

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21.1,for runners which tilt as a result of a compound rotation about an angular upright axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 23.1]    23.1Push:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles designed to be propelled by being pushed by a rear attendant.
(1) Note. The sled may include a front load or occupant seating platform and the rear attendant may ride on the rear of the sled as it coasts.

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47.13+,and 47.34+, for hand propelled wheeled vehicles.
87.021+,for wheeled push vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 24]    24With draft attachment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Sleds provided with means for attaching poles, shafts, or the like for draft purposes.

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63+,for a wheeled land vehicle normally traveling on two wheels including a draft connection.
124.114+,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a rocking and swinging axle which may or may not involve a draft connection.
124.12,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a resilient, shock absorbing mounted swinging axle having a draft connection.
137.501,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a turnable axle having a draft connection, noting the search notes provided therein for additional relevant subclasses.

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278Land Vehicles: Animal Draft Appliances,   subclasses 52+ for thrill couplings for vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 25]    25Spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Sleds having springs supporting the load carrier.

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79,and see the search notes thereunder.

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267Spring Devices,   subclasses 2+ for vehicle springs.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 26]    26Rocker runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Sleds in which the individual runners are mounted to rock longitudinally of the vehicle.

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14,for hub mounted runners.
15+,for multiple sleds.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 27]    27Knees:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Devices comprising connecting members between the runner base and the load support.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28]    28Runner bases:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Devices in which the sliding portion of the runner is claimed.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 544+ for a web or sheet-stock material, e.g., of indefinite length, which is all metal or has adjacent metal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.11]    28.11With brake:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicle including a device to stop or retard the motion of the vehicle.

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188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses for brakes, per se, with no significant vehicle structure, and especially subclass 8 for ground engaging brakes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.12]    28.12Container type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicle where the sliding surface or surfaces support a receptacle container for nonoccupant loads.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.13]    28.13Logging type sled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles in which a sliding running gear unit is attached to one end only of the load to be transported.

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19,for drags having no particular sliding running gear unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.14]    28.14Central runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles equipped with a central primary load carrying runner.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.15]    28.15With auxiliary outrigger runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.14.  Vehicles equipped with laterally mounted runners, in addition to the central runner, for limiting tilting or assisting in steering.
(1) Note. The laterally mounted runners are normally out of engagement with the running surface.

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47.131+,for a tiltable wheeled vehicle which is stabilized by an article or an attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.16]    28.16Auxiliary top, bottom or side runners:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicles equipped with auxiliary runners in addition to the primary running surface.
(1) Note. The vehicle is stable on its primary sliding surface, the auxiliary runners being normally out of engagement with the ground. The auxiliary runners may be located laterally to prevent overturn, on the bottom to provide additional support in loose snow or on top to enable the vehicle to be inverted for use.

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28.14+,for nonstable runner vehicles with a single central runner.
755,for an attachment preventing rolling or tilting of a general utility wheeled land vehicle past a given point.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.17]    28.17Machinery sled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 845.  Vehicle having particular runner structure to support a machine or machine parts collectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.18]    28.18Tank or vacuum cleaner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.17.  Vehicle specifically for supporting vacuum cleaners or other cylindrical container type devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 28.5]    28.5WHEEL SUBSTITUTE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicles provided with supporting wheel substitutes to engage the surface over which the vehicle moves.

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5.22,for a step or abutment ascending type vehicle provided with an endless track.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 164 for a motor vehicle provided with means for creating a fluid force to attract the vehicle to the surface upon which it travels; subclasses 116+ for a motor vehicle of the surface effect type; subclasses 180+ for a ski- or skate-type vehicle for imparting movement to a person standing thereon; subclasses 182+ for a motor vehicle which includes one or more ski-like or runner members; and subclasses 7.1+ for a motor vehicle having a special driving device. Class 180 takes all wheel substitute vehicles, unless (a) a claim is drawn to a vehicle other than a motor vehicle, or (b) the claimed vehicle is identified as only a nonmotor vehicle in the specific disclosure, noting (a) and (b) do not apply to the special suction and surface effect vehicles.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   for wheel substitutes, per se. Class 305 takes patents claiming the combination of a wheel substitute and a vehicle, if the vehicle is only nominally recited in the claims. Expressions such as a vehicle frame, an axle, a pivotal connection between the vehicle frame and the wheel substitute are considered mere nominal recitations of vehicle structure and would be classified in Class 305 if the claim is otherwise directed to a wheel substitute apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 29]    29WHEELED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Vehicles provided with supporting wheels to engage the surface over which the vehicle moves.
(1) Note. See search notes under the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 30]    30Convertible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles which are convertible from wheeled vehicles to nonvehicular structures.

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5.2+,for vehicles convertible into stair climbing devices.
6.15+,for a general utility land vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
9+,for a land vehicle provided with ground engaging means of both wheel and runner construction wherein either the wheel or the runner may be moved to an inoperative position, leaving the other in position for use.
43+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle having vertically adjustable wheels for the purpose of altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 31]    31Cradle or crib:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Vehicles convertible from wheeled vehicles to cradles or cribs where the structure accomplishing the result is a part of or attached to the vehicle.

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5Beds,   subclass 107 for rocking frames or rockers adapted for attachment to the wheels of a child"s carriage for this purpose.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 32]    32Skids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Vehicles designed to be used as vehicles or to be inverted and used as roller skids.

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28.16,for a runner vehicle provided with auxiliary runner structure which may be provided for an inverted usage of the vehicle.
47.131,for article supports or dollies.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 32.5]    32.5With worker"s support or shade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles comprising (a) a support means such as a seat, body rest or platform, for a person engaged in manual labor on or adjacent the ground, or (b) a shade for such a person combined with a load carrying means.
(1) Note. The person may drive or steer the vehicle in addition to laboring adjacent the ground, but merely driving, steering or riding on the vehicle is not within the subclass definition.
(2) Note. The vehicles in the subclass are usually for supporting or shading persons engaged in planting, cultivating, harvesting, corn detasseling or the like. If a tool is used, it is one that is held in the hand.

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32.7,for a wheeled vehicle comprising a seat for attachment to another vehicle.

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56Harvesters,   appropriate subclasses for harvesters combined with worker"s supports or shades.
111Planting,   subclasses 100+ for plant setting machines having ground working, plant handling or watering means with worker supports.
135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   subclasses 88.01+ for wheeled shades or canopies where neither the worker or any other load is supported by the vehicle and subclass 900 for worker shelters.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 431+ for an earth working apparatus with a seat or attendant"s station.
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclass 129 for nonwheeled workmen"s supports (e.g., kneeling base type) combined with receptacles (as for soap, brush, etc.) and subclass 230 for the workman"s support, per se. See the search note in subclass 230 for the line with similar devices used by nonworkers.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 63+ for land vehicle bodies with seats where the body is modified to cooperate with the seat.
297Chairs and Seats,   subclasses 184.1+ for a chair or seat with a canopy and subclasses 423.1+ for a chair or seat with a kneeling stool.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclass 508 for a self-loading or unloading vehicle having a conveyor for loading or unloading it and a support for carrying a person in working relation to the conveyor.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 32.6]    32.6Repairman"s creepers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.5.  Vehicles comprising low bed-like trucks adapted to support a repairman while working under a device such as a vehicle.

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62,and 79.11, for platform type vehicles generally.
639+,for folding vehicles generally, some of which are of the platform type.

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5Beds,   subclasses 636+ for head rest attachments for beds and also for repairman"s creepers when the body is claimed merely as a support for the rest; subclass 417 for ground mats.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 2+ for hoisting trucks.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 32.7]    32.7Riding attachment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Apparatus comprising a wheeled vehicle having a seat or station adapted to carry an operator or attendant and also adapted for attachment to another vehicle (e.g., an agricultural implement).
(1) Note. The wheeled vehicle must not carry any load other than the operator and must not support any of the weight of the implement when in operation.

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32.5+,for a wheeled vehicle having a seat or station for a workman engaged in manual labor on or adjacent to the ground.

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172Earth Working,   subclass 433 for a significantly claimed agricultural implement having a riding attachment.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.991]    33.991Nesting vehicles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles which are constructed so that they will interfit with one another to permit parts of one to be received partially within the boundaries of another to produce a nesting relation.

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401,for an articulated vehicle wherein one section is movable from a trailing position to a completely supported position upon another section of the vehicle.
402,for a vehicle train wherein the trailing vehicle is suspended upon the leading vehicle.
639+,for vehicles which are adapted to be folded and stacked in abutting relation without nesting.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.992]    33.992Attachments or accessories:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.991.  Vehicles provided with attachments or accessories such as special handles, signs, load indicators, means to prevent theft, writing pads or calculator holders, etc.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclass 308 for basket carried indicia.
224Package and Article Carriers,   subclass 411 for an article carrier attached to a shopping cart, where the organization of the shopping cart is not changed.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.993]    33.993Children"s seat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.992.  Vehicles having attachments in the form of occupant supports.

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47.35,for stable vehicles with plural load supports, one of which may be a seat.

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297Chairs and Seats,   for seats, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.994]    33.994Brake or antitheft device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.992.  Vehicles having attachments which prevent theft of either the vehicle or its contents, or to hold the vehicle stationary.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   appropriate subclasses for caster locks.
70Locks,   appropriate subclasses for locks, per se.
188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses for brake structure, per se, and braked casters.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.995]    33.995With means facilitating unloading:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.991.  Vehicles provided with perfecting features to facilitate the unloading or removal of a basket or otherwise assist in transferring purchased items to a checkout counter.

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186Merchandizing,   subclasses 62+ for car accommodation or handling, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.996]    33.996Pivoted load support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.991.  Vehicles provided with pivotally movable baskets or load supporting structures useful to facilitate nesting.
(1) Note. This subclass is not intended to receive mere pivoted walls.

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47.18,and 47.35, for other moveable load supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.997]    33.997Load supporting frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.991.  Vehicles having particular base structure between the running gear and the load support.
(1) Note. Patents contained within this subclass are restricted to those claiming novel base structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 33.998]    33.998Vertically nestable or confined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.991.  Vehicles in which the nesting takes place in a vertical direction, or where vehicles are arranged within, and supported by a lower supporting vehicle.

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108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclass 91 for vertically nesting horizontal supports.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 499 for nesting containers.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 35]    35Article support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 638.  Vehicles which are adapted to support special articles and usually propelled by pushing on the article itself.

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43.1,for a vehicle which is unstable when in transporting position and has vertically adjustable ground engaging means and which is stabilized by an attendant or an article to which the vehicle is attached.
47.131,for article supports and dollies which are not extensible.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 37]    37Traveling case:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 639.  Vehicles which are foldable into the form of a traveling bag or case, the wheels and other parts being enclosed therein.

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206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 335 for a vehicle container.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 38]    38Pivoted wheel carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 639.  Vehicles in which the wheel carriers swing on pivots when folding and unfolding.

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9+,for retracting wheels and runners for vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 39]    39Longitudinal axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.  Vehicles in which the axis of each wheel carriers pivot is arranged longitudinally of the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 40]    40Two-wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Vehicles normally traveling on two wheels.

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47.24+,and 63+, for other two wheeled vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 42]    42Lateral:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 639.  Vehicles which in folding decrease their width, the wheels remaining in vertical position.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43]    43Vertically adjustable wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 638.  Vehicle comprising a running gear and wheel means, and means whereby the wheel means may be selectively held in different positions vertically relative to the running gear.
(1) Note. Running gear is defined as the structural assembly connecting a wheel to a vehicle body, chassis, or frame comprising an axle, control arm, link, shock absorber, spring, strut, etc.

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5.28,for adjustable running gear adapted to render a vehicle capable of ascending a step or abutment.
5.5+,for a vehicle including suspension modification enacted as a result of a force encountered during travel, especially subclass 5.514 where the modification provides a regulation of riding or suspension height.
6.15+,for a vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame, especially subclasses 6.157+ wherein the height or levelness regulation is for the proximate utility of positioning the vehicle body, chassis, or frame in a posture to enable proper operation of the suspension mechanism.
83,for vertically adjustable tongue trucks.
86.5,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including an auxiliary axle assembly which is selectively deployed in either a use or nonuse position so as to assist the primary running gear when in the use position.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclasses 354+ for a vertically adjustable work contacting nozzle supporting carriage for vacuum cleaners.
16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclass 19 for vertically adjustable casters used to support furniture or the like on a floor.
56Harvesters,   subclasses 208+ for platform adjustments for harvesters involving vertically adjustable wheels.
111Planting,   subclasses 52+ for vertically adjustable ground supports for frames of drilling machines for planting operations.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 139 for unearthing apparatus having a frame and vertically adjustable wheels.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 395+ for devices comprising an earth working element, a mounting frame therefor, and a vertically adjustable ground support for said frame. The earth working element must be separately mentioned in the body of the claim for classification in Class 172. A claim merely to a frame and relatively adjustable vertical wheels is classified in Class 280 even if the device is identified as an earth working implement in the claim preamble.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 24.02 for a motor vehicle having a wheel arrangement comprising five or more wheels and wherein one of the wheels is adjustably, or otherwise, mounted to move vertically for the purpose of modifying the proportion of the load imposed upon at least one other wheel of the vehicle; and subclass 209 for a motor vehicle having a special wheel base and provided with means which may comprise means for changing the number of wheels utilized to support the vehicle, which change may involve moving at least one of the wheels vertically.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 2+ for hoisting trucks. The devices comprise wheeled hoists comprising a running gear and a load support and means for vertically adjusting said load support other than a means for vertically adjusting said load support by vertical adjustment of the wheels relative to the running gear.
472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclass 15 for an occupant propelled roundabout used as a trainer for foot travel.
482Exercise Devices,   particularly subclasses 66+ for an occupant support frame having a movement facilitating feature for foot travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.1]    43.1Tiltable vehicle stabilized by attendant or article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicle in which the vehicle directly or contacting (a) is inherently unstable when in transport position but is stabilized by an attendant who propels and balances the vehicle by contacting a handle or harness attached to the vehicle, (b) is inherently unstable when in transport position, is adapted to be temporarily attached to articles to transport them and is stabilized by some outside force (such as an attendant or other vehicle) contacting the article, or (c) is inherently unstable when in transport position but adapted to be stabilized by temporary attachment to articles for transporting them either because more than one of the unstable vehicles of this subclass are temporarily attached to the article or because the article has other wheels.
(1) Note. An attendant is a person who is not an occupant of the vehicle under consideration.
(2) Note. A receptacle which is intended to be loaded or to have portions of the load removed therefrom while associated with the wheels of the unstable vehicle is considered to be a part of the vehicle, i.e., a removable vehicle body, rather than an article. An example of such a receptacle is a golf bag.

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35,for extensible article supports.
43.14+,and 43.24, for nonwheel means engageable with the ground when the wheels are raised vertically.
47.131+,for tiltable vehicles not having vertically adjustable wheels.
63+,and 78, for other vehicles normally traveling on two wheels and one wheel, respectively, and not stabilized by an article or attendant.
107,for running gear provided with means for retaining a vehicle body or load in position thereon.
179,for load binders as attachments to vehicles.
200+,for occupant propelled vehicles stabilized by the occupant, e.g., bicycles.

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190Trunks and Hand-Carried Luggage,   subclass 18 for the combination of an article of baggage with transporting wheels where more baggage structure is claimed than necessary to mount or house the wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.11]    43.11Load surface below wheel axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicle comprising a load carrying surface and in which the highest position of vertical adjustment of the wheel relative to the vehicle is such that the wheel axis is above the carrying surface.

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2,for a vehicle having a portion of its body or load supporting framework depending between the vehicle axles to form a part of the running gear.
6.151+,for a vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for the proximate utility of facilitating cargo movement which may entail lowering the cargo support surface below the usual running gear level.
47.23,for a handle propelled vehicle having its load base below the wheel axis with no means to elevate the wheels.
414,for articulated vehicles constructed to accommodate a boat.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.12]    43.12Pallet truck type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicle comprising a load carrying surface and in which the highest position of vertical adjustment of the wheel relative to the vehicle is one in which the upper peripheral portion of the wheel is substantially tangential to and is always below the load carrying surface.

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108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 51.11+ for an industrial platform.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.13]    43.13Interconnecting means for adjusting wheels on different axles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicle in which a plurality of wheels are independently mounted on different axles and there are additional means interconnecting the wheels whereby they may be moved simultaneously vertically with respect to the running gear or so that the movement of one influences movement of the other, and there is an actuator for moving a wheel.
(1) Note. A structure comprising a single axle having a crank axle on each end with a wheel mounted on each crank axle is not considered to be a structure having wheels independently mounted on different axles.

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6.15+,for a land vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.

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172Earth Working,   subclasses 400+ for interconnected vertically movable ground supports for earth working element frames.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.14]    43.14With nonwheel means for engaging the supporting surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.13.  Vehicle wherein the vertically adjustable wheels are replaced as a support for the vehicle running gear by leg or skid means when the wheels are vertically adjusted to a given position.

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43.1,for an unstable vehicle stabilized by an attendant or an article.
43.24,for vehicles having vertically adjustable wheels and nonwheel means for engaging the supporting surface when the wheels are adjusted to a given position.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 32+ for casters for supporting furniture or other like objects wherein the caster is vertically adjustable to a position above the floor.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.15]    43.15With means to vary distance between wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.14.  Vehicle wherein the distance between any two vertically adjustable wheels is varied as they are vertically adjusted.

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43.16,for wheeled vehicles having means for adjusting wheels on different axles and having means to vary the distance between the wheels as they are vertically adjusted.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.16]    43.16With means to vary distance between wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.13.  Vehicle wherein the distance between any two vertically adjustable wheels is varied as they are vertically adjusted.

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43.15,for wheeled vehicles having means for adjusting wheels on different axles and having nonwheel means for engaging the vehicle supporting surface and means to vary the distance between the wheels as they are vertically adjusted.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.17]    43.17With actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicle comprising actuating means to vertically move the wheel means relative to the running gear.

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414.5,for an articulated vehicle wherein the trailing vehicle has a ground engaging wheel which is vertically movable with respect to the trailing vehicle frame.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 215.1+ for a railway truck having primary wheels and supplemental wheels to be moved to operative position at will.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 399 , 400+, 407+, 414, 418+, and 423+ for an earth working element frame having a ground support which is vertically movable relative to the frame by an actuator.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 418+ for raising and lowering landing gears on semi-trailers and for lifting vehicles off the ground and/or turning the vehicle about a given point.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.18]    43.18With resilient mounting for body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.17.  Vehicle comprising spring means to support a vehicle body on the running gear.

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79,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle provided with springs between the wheel or wheels and the load support, noting the search notes provided therein.
124.1+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle running gear providing resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
275+,for a wheeled land vehicle of occupant propelled type including steering having a yielding frame and running gear (it is noted that in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses).
283+,for a wheeled land vehicle of occupant propelled type including a yielding frame and running gear lacking steering.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.19]    43.19With flexible connection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.17.  Vehicle in which the actuating means includes a flexible member.

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172Earth Working,   subclass 414 for an earth working element frame connected ground support which is vertically adjustable relative to said frame by an actuator connected thereto which allows free movement between the two in at least one direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.2]    43.2Screw-jack type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.17.  Vehicle wherein the means causing actuation comprises a threaded stud member whose threads engage the threads of a threaded nut member.

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172Earth Working,   subclass 419 for an earth working implement and frame having a ground engaging support which may be caused to translate vertically relative to the frame by means of a screw jack type actuator and subclass 427 for a screw jack type actuator to move the ground engaging support of an earth working element frame vertically relative to the frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.21]    43.21Rack and pinion or ratchet type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.17.  Vehicle wherein the actuating means comprises a rack member meshing with a gear or engageable by a ratchet member.

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172Earth Working,   subclass 420 for rack and pinion or ratchet type actuators for ground support members adapted to move with a translating motion relative to the earth working frame supported and subclass 428 for rack and pinion or ratchet actuators to move a ground support for an earth working implement vertically relative to the implement frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.22]    43.22Translating motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.17.  Vehicle in which the motion caused by the actuator is such that all points of the wheel means have at any instant the same velocity and direction of motion.

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172Earth Working,   subclasses 415+ for an earth working element frame having a ground support which has a translating motion relative to the frame when moving from one vertical position to another.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.23]    43.23Power operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.17.  Vehicle wherein the actuating means is operated by a motor.

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172Earth Working,   subclasses 407+ for an earth working element frame connected ground support which is vertically adjustable by power means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 43.24]    43.24With nonwheel means for engaging the supporting surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicle wherein the vertically adjustable wheels are replaced as a support for the vehicle running gear by leg or skid means when the wheels are vertically adjusted to a given position.

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43.14,for vehicles having means interconnecting wheels on different axles whereby the interconnected wheels are vertically movable to a position where they are replaced as the vehicle supporting means by a nonwheel means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 46]    46Tongue:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicles in which the elevating mechanism is operated by manipulation of the vehicle tongue.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47]    47Wheel adjusted by its own power:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Vehicles in which power derived from the rolling motion of a ground wheel as the vehicle is propelled over the ground is used to vary the elevation of the wheel relative to the body.

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172Earth Working,   subclasses 402 , 404 and 408+ for earth working tools carried by frames which have wheels which are vertically adjusted by power derived from the adjusted wheels. The recitation of an earth working implement by name only having a wheel which is vertically adjusted by its own power is classifiable in Class 280, Land Vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.1]    47.1Body rocking by wheel rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles in which the body, generally intended for occupation by a child, is connected to its wheel support in such a manner that body rocking will occur as the wheels rotate during travel.

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47.38+,for other vehicles of the "Baby Carriage" type.
827,for simulating type velocipedes providing body rocking during travel.

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446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 269+ for a wheeled figure toy having means to move a figure portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.11]    47.11Wheel steering by attendant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles adapted to be propelled (pushed or pulled) by an attendant who is not an occupant of the vehicle, generally by handle means, provided with steerable wheel means and operating mechanism therefor under control of the attendant to effect positive steering movement of the wheel means relative to the vehicle body, the controlling action by the attendant to actuate said mechanism involving either (a) exertion of a lateral thrust on the vehicle directly or by way of the handle means when guiding the vehicle to make a turn, or (b) manipulation of the handle or other means operatively connected to said wheel operating mechanism.
(1) Note. Vehicles which are propelled and steered by tongues or shafts connected to the running gear, not disclosed or claimed for hand propulsion, are placed in the subclass providing for the running gear structure involved.
(2) Note. Vehicles which are propelled and steered by tongue or shaft means connected to the running gear, even if disclosed for propulsion by a walking attendant, are not here classified if the portion of the running gear to which said means is connected comprises a wheel carrying frame or shaft pivotally connected to the said body, so that upon lateral swinging of the tongue or shaft means by the attendant the wheel frame or wheel shaft will merely swing as a unit with the tongue or shaft means about the pivotal connection, and will not effect relative steering movements of any additional wheel frame or shaft. In cases where the aforesaid wheel carrying frame or shaft is operatively coupled to any of the other wheel means of the running gear so as to cause the latter to have steering movement relative to the body as well, classification is in this subclass.

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79.11+,for wheeled vehicles having separate unconnected castering wheels to facilitate steering in response to a side thrust.
87.01+,for coaster vehicles having steering means.
98+,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle specially constructed so as to enable execution of arcuate travel within a short radius of curvature (i.e., short turn).
124.12,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a resilient, shock absorbing mounted swinging axle having a draft connection neither disclosed or claimed as a handle nor claimed in a combination of plural interconnected vehicles (i.e., a vehicle train).
137.501,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a turnable axle having a draft connection, noting the search notes provided therein for additional relevant subclasses.
442+,for vehicle train draft devices adapted to effect positive wheel steering.

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56Harvesters,   subclass 14.7 for a motor-driven harvester steered by a walking attendant.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 256+ for an earth working apparatus comprising a propulsion unit guided by a walking attendant.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 19+ for motor vehicles steered by a walking attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.12]    47.12Vehicles with rocker or fulcrum supports auxiliary to wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles provided with ground or ledge engaging rocker or fulcrum means additional to the fulcrum formed by the traction wheels on which the vehicle customarily travels about whose axis the load body may normally be tilted.
(1) Note. Generally, rocking about the added fulcrum results in the traction wheels being lifted from the ground to place the vehicle in a load receiving or removing position. Legs or other supports on which tiltable type vehicles are rested when not propelled are not considered fulcrums.

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5.32,for vehicles having fulcrums with wheel means to facilitate movement on steps or similar obstructions.

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248Supports,   subclass 129 for wheeled receptacle stands having special provisions for supporting and holding a receptacle in position for use, storage, display or for manipulating the same, in which wheels are provided to make it more readily movable.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 444+ for similar vehicles having self-loading features.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.131]    47.131Tiltable vehicles, stabilized by attendant or article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles which (a) are inherently unstable when in transport position but are stabilized by an attendant who propels and balances the vehicle by contacting the vehicle directly or contacting a handle or harness attached to the vehicle, (b) are inherently unstable when in transport position, are adapted to be temporarily attached to articles to transport them and are stabilized by some outside force (such as an attendant or other vehicle) contacting the article, or (c) are inherently unstable when in transport position but adapted to be stabilized by temporary attachment to articles for transporting them either because the articles have other wheels or because more than one of the unstable vehicles of this subclass are temporarily attached to the article.
(1) Note. An attendant is a person who is not an occupant of the vehicle under consideration.
(2) Note. A receptacle which is intended to be loaded or to have portions of the load removed therefrom while associated with the wheels of the unstable vehicle is considered to be a part of the vehicle, i.e., a removable vehicle body, rather than an article. An example of such a receptacle is a golf bag.

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35,for extensible article supports.
43.1,for a vehicle having vertically adjustable ground engaging means and which is unstable when in transporting position but which is stabilized by an attendant or an article to which the vehicle is temporarily attached.
63+,and 78, for other vehicles normally traveling on two wheels and one wheel respectively and not stabilized by an article or attendant.
107,for running gear provided with means for retaining a vehicle body or load in position thereon.
200+,for occupant propelled vehicles stabilized by the occupant, e.g., bicycles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.15]    47.15Vehicle axle, shaft, or spring engaging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.131.  Vehicles which are constructed (a) for attachment to a vehicle axle and/or to the spring means suspending said axle whereby a damaged vehicle may be moved to a desired place, or (b) for temporary attachment to a machine comprising a shaft having ground working or other tools thereon whereby such machine may be wheeled from place to place.

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56Harvesters,   subclass 228 for transporting attachments for harvesters.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 2+ for hoisting trucks and subclasses 418+ for continuously attached vehicle jacks.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.16]    47.16With auxiliary wheel stabilizing means at both ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.131.  Vehicles which may be tiltably balanced by an attendant to either side of an intermediate wheel axis, and provided with wheel means adjacent each end spaced from the ground while the vehicle is being balanced which serve as stabilizing wheel means on which the carrier may rest or travel when the load body is tilted sufficiently to engage the wheel means at the one end or the other with the ground.

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47.2,for handle propelled vehicles with auxiliary wheel means to selectively provide a tiltable or stable type load body.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.17]    47.17Handle-propelled vehicles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.131.  Vehicles provided with handle means by which an attendant may apply a propelling force thereto.
(1) Note. Vehicles which are propelled by tongue or shaft means connected to running gear or body, if not disclosed or claimed for hand propulsion, are placed in the subclass providing for the running gear structure involved.

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47.34+,for handle-propelled vehicles which are stable and not ordinarily balanced against tilting by the attendant during propulsion.
63+,and 78, for tiltable load carriers, some having tongues or shafts connected to the running gear but not stabilized by an article or attendant.
124.12,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a resilient, shock absorbing mounted swinging axle having a draft connection not disclosed or claimed as a handle.
137.501,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a turnable axle having a draft connection, noting the search notes provided therein for additional relevant subclasses.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 110.1+ and see the Notes thereunder for vehicle handle structures, per se.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 329+ for earth working apparatus guided or propelled by a walking attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.18]    47.18Convertible, selective, or changeable body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles in which parts thereof (a) are adapted to be manipulated to convert the same to or from a wheeled device other than one intended for transporting a load, e.g., the frame of a lawnmower, (b) in which the body comprises a plurality of different type load carrying portions each of which may be moved selectively to an operative transporting position, or (c) in which parts of the load body may be manipulated or detached to form load carrying bodies of different characters for transporting different types of loads.

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1.188,and 7.1+, for convertible velocipede type vehicles.
30+,for vehicles convertible to nonvehicular structures.
47.28,for vehicles with selectively usable loading toes or racks.
638+,for vehicles whose overall dimensions may be varied substantially.

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296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 10+ for convertible load bodies, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.19]    47.19Plural load supports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles provided with plural simultaneously usable distinct load supports which may take the form of plural platforms, receptacles, compartments or seats, or combinations thereof.

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47.35,for similar plural load supports for stable handle-propelled vehicles.

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211Supports: Racks,   appropriate subclasses for portable rack type supports for plural articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.2]    47.2With auxiliary wheel stabilizing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles provided with auxiliary wheel means so positioned or mounted as to be selectively brought into ground engagement to render the vehicle stable.

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5.32,for stair or other obstruction climbing vehicles having fulcrums with wheel means about which the vehicle may be tilted.
47.16,for vehicles tiltable to either side of an intermediate wheel axis to selectively bring into ground engagement auxiliary stabilizing wheel means at either end.
767,for other auxiliary wheels for vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.21]    47.21With shiftable main axle support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles in which the axle or axles about which the body is tiltable are shiftable or adjustable to vary the axle and wheel position relative to the body or to the center of gravity of its load, either to facilitate loading or transporting the load.

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6.151+,for a vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for the proximate utility of facilitating cargo movement.
43+,for wheels adjustable to vary the elevation of the load frame.
47.16,and 47.2, for vehicles with auxiliary wheels shiftable to and from a ground engaging position to provide alternate wheel bases.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.22]    47.22Spring suspension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.21.  Vehicles in which relative shifting of the axle or axles occurs because of the presence of a spring.

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65+,79, and 87.03, for similar springing between wheel or wheels and the load support.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.23]    47.23Load base below wheel axis (e.g., drop body type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles in which a portion or all of the load supporting base of the frame or vehicle body is either suspended from the axle means or otherwise disposed below the wheel axis, as for example by support in the bight of a "U-shaped" or "drop" axle. The load base or body portion must be positioned below a horizontal plane including the wheel axis at all times in normal use of the carrier, both when the carrier is at rest and in transporting position.

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2,for similar body and wheel axis relations in vehicles which are not article or attendant stabilized or handle propelled.
6.151+,for a vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for the proximate utility of facilitating cargo movement which may entail lowering the cargo support surface below the usual running gear level.
43.11,for a vehicle having a vertically adjustable wheel, the axis of which may be moved to a position above the load carrying surface of the vehicle.

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296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclass 25 for bodies with dropped bottoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.24]    47.24Laterally spaced wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles which have wheels spaced apart in a direction laterally of the direction of movement of the vehicle.

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63+,for other vehicles normally traveling on two wheels and not stabilized by an article or attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.25]    47.25With occupant seat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.24.  Vehicles with a single seat for an occupant.
(1) Note. Most of the patents in this subclass comprise children"s carts.

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32.5,for vehicles supporting workers adjacent to the ground.
47.19,for tiltable vehicles with plural seats.
47.35,for stable hand propelled vehicles with plural seats.
47.38+,for stable hand propelled vehicles with a single seat.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.26]    47.26With receptacle body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.24.  Vehicles comprising a container which acts as a body for the vehicle.
(1) Note. The container of this subclass is intended to be loaded while associated with the wheels to form a vehicle.
(2) Note. A golf bag attached to a wheeled frame is considered to be a receptacle body type vehicle.

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79.2+,for platform type trucks with receptacle-type bodies.

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248Supports,   subclass 96 for supports adapted to be secured to and/or support a golf bag and subclass 98 for bag supports having wheels.
298Land Vehicles: Dumping,   subclasses 2+ and 5+ for this type vehicle provided with receptacle bodies movable relative to the vehicle frame to facilitate dumping or for vehicles provided with bodies having a gate or cover adapted to be actuated in connection with the dumping operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.27]    47.27With toe (e.g., warehouse truck):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.24.  Vehicles having means usually referred to as a toe, extending from the lower part of the vehicle frame at an angle relative thereto to form a projecting load engaging or load stop part which is adapted, when the vehicle frame is tilted to a loading position, to engage or be brought closely to the surface on which the vehicle travels so as to enable said part to be pushed beneath a load to facilitate manual lifting and tilting of the load about the axis of the wheels.
(1) Note. Most of the patents in this and the indented subclasses comprise vehicles of the well known "Warehouse Truck" type.

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414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 444+ for similar devices having additional load engaging means, as a clamp or tie, as distinguished from a mere load supporting toe in the form of a platform, spade or the like, for taking hold of the load to facilitate the picking up and transporting of the load.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.28]    47.28With auxiliary toe or rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.27.  Vehicles which are provided with an auxiliary toe, shelf or rack means which is positioned adjacent to the main toe and movably related thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.29]    47.29Movable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.27.  Vehicles in which the toe means is adjustable or otherwise movable relative to the frame on which it is mounted.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.3]    47.3Single wheel vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles which are disclosed as having only a single wheel or roller.
(1) Note. A plurality of single wheel vehicles secured to an article may be classified in this subclass, provided at least one vehicle has a propelling handle.

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47.32,and 78, for other one wheeled vehicles of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.31]    47.31With receptacle body (e.g., wheelbarrow):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.3.  Vehicles providing a receptacle body.
(1) Note. Most of the vehicles in this subclass are wheelbarrows.
(2) Note. A golf bag attached to a vehicle is considered a receptacle body.

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47.23,for vehicles of this type with a portion or all of the receptacle body below the level of the wheel axis at all times in the normal use of the vehicle.
47.26,for handle propelled receptacle body vehicles with laterally spaced wheels.

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298Land Vehicles: Dumping,   subclass 3 for dumping vehicles having one wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.315]    47.315Adjustable handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.17.  Vehicles where the handle may be moved selectively between different use positions.

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655.1,for an extensible vehicle wherein only a handle member thereof is collapsible.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.32]    47.32Single wheel vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.131.  Vehicles which are provided with only a single wheel or roller.
(1) Note. A plurality of the vehicles of this subclass may be used to transport an article.

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78,for one wheel vehicles not stabilized by an article or attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.33]    47.33With leg supports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.131.  Vehicles having leg structures for supporting them in rest position.

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293+,for attachments to an occupant propelled-type wheeled land vehicle (it is noted that in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses).
763.1+,for attachments to a general utility wheeled land vehicle providing auxiliary ground support when the vehicle is in a rest condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.331]    47.331Boat carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.131.  Vehicles in the form of an attachment to a boat to facilitate its transportation over land.
(1) Note. Attachments with mere nominal recitation of boat structure, necessary only to associate the attachment to the boat should be classified here. If significant boat structure is claimed and necessary, as where the wheel will remain with the boat after launching, then proper classification is in Class 114.

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414.2,where the attached devices include means to form an articulated vehicle, such as by the inclusion of a trailer tongue.

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114Ships,   subclass 344 for wheeled attachment which remain with the boat and in which the attachment pierces or otherwise cooperates with specifically formed boat structure, and where the attachment includes flotation devices to facilitate handling in the water.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 101 for landing gear attached to seaplanes where significant plane structure is claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.34]    47.34Stable vehicles, handle-propelled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles which are stable when travelling and specially characterized as being provided with a handle means whereby the vehicle may be propelled by an attendant.
(1) Note. Vehicles with tongues or shafts not disclosed or claimed for hand propulsion are placed in the subclass providing for the running gear structure involved.

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33.991+,for interfitting or nesting vehicles which may or may not include a handle.
47.11,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including wheel steering by an attendant wherein the wheel steering affects other than a mere swinging axle.
47.17+,for handle propelled unstable vehicles stabilized by an article or attendant.
124.12,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a resilient, shock absorbing mounted swinging axle having a draft connection neither disclosed or claimed as a handle nor claimed in a combination of plural interconnected vehicles (i.e., a vehicle train).
137.501,for running gear of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a turnable axle having a draft connection, noting the search notes provided therein for additional relevant subclasses.
400+,for an articulated vehicle or plural interconnected vehicles (i.e., vehicle train) which may or may not include a handle.
655.1,for an extensible vehicle wherein only a handle member thereof is collapsible.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 110.1+ , and see the Notes thereunder for vehicle handles, per se.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 329+ for earth working apparatus guided or propelled by a walking attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.35]    47.35Plural load supports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.34.  Vehicles provided with plural simultaneously usable distinct load supports which may be in the form of plural platforms, receptacles, compartments or seats, or combinations thereof.

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47.19,for plural load supports on handle propelled vehicles stabilized by an article or attendant.
79.2+,for plural load supports on vehicles having bracketed type or nonsuspended axles.

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211Supports: Racks,   appropriate subclasses for portable rack type supports for plural articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.36]    47.36Reversible handles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.34.  Vehicles in which the handle is specially adapted to be shiftable to a position at either end.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.371]    47.371Adjustable handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.34.  Vehicles where the handle may be moved selectively to different use positions.

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47.315,for adjustable handles on tilting vehicles.
47.36,for reversible handles on stable vehicles for use at either end of the vehicle.
655.1,for handles folded out of the way so as to change the vehicle to a nonuse configuration.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclass 429 for adjustable handles, per se.
56Harvesters,   digest 18 for adjustable handles in combination with a harvester device such as a lawn mower.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.38]    47.38Occupant seating type (e.g., baby carriages):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.34.  Vehicles provided with means for seating occupants, the vehicles in this and the indented subclasses being usually of the "Baby Carriage" type.

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32.5,for vehicles seating workers near the ground.
47.19,for tiltable vehicles with plural seats or a single seat and a load support.
47.25,for tiltable vehicles with a single seat.
47.35,for stable, handle propelled vehicles with plural seats or a single seat and a load support.
62,63+, and 79, for occupant carrying vehicles having running gear as specified in the respective subclasses in which either no handle is provided or tongues and shafts for other than hand propulsions are disclosed.
87.01+,for coasters.
639+,for extensible vehicles including baby carriages of the folding type.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 166 for a vehicle in the nature of a wheeled infant carriage or crib having motor means for moving it back and forth in the direction of its longitudinal axis (e.g., for inducing the infant to sleep); if used alternatively to transport the infant from one place to another, the vehicle ordinarily is propelled by an attendant.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   appropriate subclasses for vehicle bodies where no running gear is claimed or where the running gear is claimed by name only and where no propulsion handle is claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.39]    47.39Reversible body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.38.  Vehicles in which the body is mounted to be reversible end for end.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.4]    47.4Seat with back and/or foot rest:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.38.  Vehicles in which a back or foot rest or both are specially modified in connection with the seating means, and generally provide for relative adjustment whereby the occupant may be selectively accommodated in either a lying or sitting position.

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31,for vehicles convertible to cribs or cradles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 47.41]    47.41Body movably supported relative to wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.38.  Vehicles in which the body is supported by means, generally springs, either directly connected to the wheel axle means or connected to members attached thereto, whereby the body may have movement relative to the wheels.

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79,and see the search notes thereunder, for vehicles with springs.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 62]    62Three-wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles normally traveling on three wheels.

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47.34+,for stable hand propelled vehicles which may be provided with three wheels.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 210+ for a motor vehicle having a wheel arrangement comprising three wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 63]    63Two-wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles normally traveling on two wheels.
(1) Note. "Sulkies" and "gigs" are included in this group.

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40,and 47.131+, for other two wheeled vehicles.
43.1,for a vehicle having vertically adjustable ground engaging means and which is unstable when in transporting position but which is stabilized by an attendant or an article to which the vehicle is temporarily attached.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 218+ for a motor vehicle having a wheel arrangement comprising two wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 64]    64Adjusting wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Vehicles in which the wheels are adjustable during the vehicle travel, usually to turn or to "bank" them on curves.

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5.52+,for a land vehicle including a suspension responsive to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion for altering a spatial relationship between structural elements of the running gear which may or may not involve wheel banking.
98+,for vehicles running gear especially constructed for short turning.
200+,for an occupant propelled-type wheeled land vehicle which may or may not involve wheel banking (it is noted that in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses).
771+,for occupant steered vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 65]    65Spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Vehicles provided with springs between the wheels and the load carrier.

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79,and see search notes thereto.

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267Spring Devices,   appropriate subclasses, for vehicle spring devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 66]    66Thill and axle connected:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Vehicles in which the thills are connected to the axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 67]    67Interposed spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Vehicles in which the spring is interposed between the axle and thill.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 68]    68Body thill mounted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Vehicles in which the vehicle load carrier is supported solely by the thills.

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70+,for vehicles with thill mounted body but no interposed spring.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 69]    69Body axle mounted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Vehicles in which the vehicle load carrier is supported solely by the axle.

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72+,for vehicles with axle mounted body but no interposed spring.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 70]    70Body thill mounted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Vehicles in which the vehicle load carrier is supported solely by the thills.

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68,for similar vehicles having a spring interposed between the thill and axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 71]    71Adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Vehicles provided with adjustments to accommodate various loads or draft animals.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 72]    72Body axle mounted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Vehicles in which the vehicle load carrier is supported solely by the axle.

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69,for similar vehicles having a spring interposed between the thill and axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 73]    73Adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Vehicles provided with adjustments to accommodate various loads or draft animals.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 74]    74Adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Vehicles provided with adjustments to accommodate various loads or draft animals.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 75]    75Thill and body connected:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Vehicles in which the thills are attached to and the draft is exerted through the vehicle body.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 76]    76Adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.  Vehicles provided with adjustments to accommodate various loads or draft animals.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 77]    77Adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Vehicles provided with adjustments to accommodate various loads or draft animals.

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71,73, 74, and 76, for other vehicle adjustments for various loads or draft animals.

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278Land Vehicles: Animal Draft Appliances,   subclass 1 for vehicles where the adjustment is solely in the thills or their attachment to the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 78]    78One-wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles normally traveling on one wheel.

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43.1,for a vehicle having vertically adjustable ground engaging means and which is unstable when in transporting position but which is stabilized by an attendant or an article to which the vehicle is temporarily attached.
47.3+,47.32, and 205+, for other one wheel vehicles.
84,for one wheel tongue trucks.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 13 for one wheel motor carrying attachments for vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79]    79Spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles provided with springs between the wheel or wheels and the load support.

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11.14,for skates with resilient foot supports.
11.28,for skates with resilient trucks and mountings.
25,for sleds with springs.
47.22,for tiltable handle propelled vehicles with spring suspension.
47.41,for stable handle propelled occupant seating type with springs.
65+,for two wheel vehicles having springs.
80.1+,for particular wheeled land vehicle running gear construction. Attention is directed to subclass 86.1 for a swivel truck resiliently supported upon the vehicle; subclasses 124.1+ for resilient, shock absorbing suspension arrangements in general; subclasses 676+ for tandem axle suspensions; or subclasses 781+ for a wheeled land vehicle including specific frame construction and its running gear.
87.03,for yieldable occupant pushed coasters.
184,for spring clamp rein holders.
275+,for a wheeled land vehicle of occupant propelled type including steering having a yielding frame and running gear (it is noted that in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses).
283+,for a wheeled land vehicle of occupant propelled type including a yielding frame and running gear lacking steering.
483+,for resilient draft devices for vehicle trains.

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267Spring Devices,   appropriate subclasses for vehicle spring devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79.11]    79.11Body with bracketed-type or nonsuspended axles (e.g., platform type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles in which (a) each wheel axle is attached to a platform or other type body solely by means of a bracket type support, or in which (b) each axle or axle bearing is secured directly to the body itself, without the interposition of shock absorbers.
(1) Note. Vehicles having platform type bodies and generally known as "baggage" trucks are found in this subclass.
(2) Note. Patents in this subclass must have some positive inclusion of specialized body structure so as to receive and transport a load as a vehicle. The primary function of the claimed device must be transporting as opposed to merely supporting.

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32.6,for repairmen"s creepers.
47.11,for an attendant steered wheeled land vehicle for other than a mere swinging axle.
47.131,for unstable bodies, which when supporting a load become stable.
47.34,for stable load supporting vehicles which are handle propelled.
62,63+, and 78, for similar vehicles restricted to the running gear respectively specified.
80.1+,for particular wheeled land vehicle construction directed to that portion immediately concerned with enabling the wheeled land vehicle to move along the surface. Attention is directed to subclass 86.1 for a swivel truck resiliently supported upon the vehicle; subclasses 124.1+ for resilient, shock absorbing suspension arrangements in general; subclasses 676+ for tandem axle suspensions; or subclasses 781+ for a wheeled land vehicle including specific frame construction and its running gear.
87.01+,for "coaster" vehicles with similar running gear attachments, most of which have tongues or shafts.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 18+ for casters, per se.
108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 51.11+ for pallets.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 134+ for shelved racks.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79.2]    79.2Receptacle or occupant seating body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.11.  Vehicles in which the body is in the form of a container or for occupant seating.

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47.38,for handle propelled occupant seating vehicles, and see the search notes thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79.3]    79.3Rack-type body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.11.  Vehicles in which the body is of the open upright frame type, usually providing a load support in the form of brackets, racks, shelves or trays.

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47.19,and 47.35, for plural load support handle propelled vehicles.

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108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   appropriate subclasses for a horizontal planar support having plural or single surfaces which may be provided with wheels or casters to render it incidentally movable.
211Supports: Racks,   appropriate subclasses for open or rack type structures, per se, which may have wheels to render them incidentally movable.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 3+ for rack type vehicle bodies for special loads.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79.4]    79.4Wheel or tire support body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.11.  Vehicles with attachments or particular body structure configured to support the tire or wheel of another vehicle.

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402,for a vehicle train wherein a trailing vehicle is supported upon the leading vehicle including structure configured to support the tire or wheel of the supported, trailing vehicle.
476.1,for a wheeled draft connection interconnecting plural wheeled land vehicles.

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254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclass 28 for wheel lifters.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 426+ for wheel handlers which include some manipulation of the wheel in addition to mere transport.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79.5]    79.5Bucket or can support body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.11.  Vehicles which include attachments or specifically shaped body structure for carrying cylindrical objects with their axis extending vertically.

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248Supports,   subclasses 95+ for can supports and bag holders.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79.6]    79.6Cylindrical objects with elongated horizontal axis support body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.11.  Vehicles which include attachments or specifically shaped body structure for receiving cylindrical objects with their axis horizontally.
(1) Note. This subclass includes wheeled cradles for rugs and other roll goods.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 79.7]    79.7Vertically elongated rectangular object support body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.11.  Vehicles which include attachments or specifically shaped body structure for receiving panels and other sheet goods, or other rectangular objects of little thickness, on their sides.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 80.1]    80.1Running gear:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles with special reference to that portion of the vehicle which is immediately concerned in enabling it to be moved along the surface.

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93.512,for a kingpin, steering knuckle, steering arm, or wheel carrier construction for an occupant controlled steerable road wheel comprising a stub axle.
124.1+,for resilient, shock absorbing suspension arrangements in general.
274+,for a wheeled land vehicle of occupant propelled type including steering having a frame and running gear (it is noted that in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses).
281.1+,for a wheeled land vehicle of occupant propelled type including a frame and running gear lacking steering.
419,for a vehicle train wherein each of the interconnected vehicles includes steerable wheels and a steering means connection is provided therebetween for simultaneous movement of the relative steerable wheels.
426,for an articulated vehicle of semitrailer construction wherein the trailer includes steerable wheels which are controlled through the articulative movement between the tractor and the semitrailer.
442+,for a vehicle train including steerable wheels of other than a mere swinging axle.
676+,for tandem axle suspensions.
781+,for a wheeled land vehicle including specific frame construction and its running gear.

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152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 1+ for resilient wheels.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 669+ and the subclasses there cited for earth working apparatus with a wheel frame.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 21+ for motor vehicles with special wheel base.
301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   for wheeled and nonwheeled implement frames.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   for wheel substitutes.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 81.1]    81.1Multiple truck:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Vehicles having running gear composed of a plurality of sets of supporting wheels, the wheels of each set being so mounted as to constitute a substantially complete running gear unit.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 22+ for motor vehicles which have wheel bases comprising five or more wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 81.5]    81.5Occupant steered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.1.  Vehicles provided with means for steering the vehicle by the occupant.

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771+,for occupant steered vehicles.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 400+ for motor vehicle steering devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 81.6]    81.6Self-steered trucks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.1.  Vehicles in which the steering occurs in response to a deviation of the body from movement in a straight line to permit the trucks to turn for proper tracking.

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442+,for devices wherein the steering is due to an articulative linkage.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 82]    82Tongue truck:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Devices specially adapted to support and guide the tongue of a vehicle.
(1) Note. These trucks are usually used for the tongue of such agricultural machinery as harvesters to eliminate "side draft."
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 83]    83Vertically adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Devices which are adjustable to vary the height of the tongue.

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43+,and see the notes thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 84]    84One-wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Devices normally traveling on one wheel.

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78,and see the notes thereto.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 18+ for casters.
384Bearings,   subclasses 428+ for bearing mounting, or supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 85]    85Swinging axle and rocking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Devices in which the axle is mounted for pivotal swinging movement about a vertical axis and rocking movement about a horizontal axis normal to its length.

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124.114+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle having a pivotally mounted axle or axle assembly having horizontal rocking and vertical swinging motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86]    86Swivel truck:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Vehicle in which a wheel or plural wheels are rotatably mounted upon an axle supported at both ends by a bracket or framing which is attached to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame about a vertical pivot axis for free pivotal motion.
(1) Note. An apparatus including means for creating pivotal motion for steering purposes is excluded from this subclass and the subclasses indented hereunder.

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81.1,for running gear comprising multiple trucks.
82+,for a swivel truck specifically provided to support and guide a draft connection or tongue of a vehicle.
93.504+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including occupant controlled steering of a swinging axle.
124.117+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a vertical pivot axis mounted axle or axle assembly having resilient, shock absorbing means.
137.5+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a turnable axle lacking resilient, shock absorbing means.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 18+ for casters.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.1]    86.1Including resilient mounting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the swivel truck is resiliently supported to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.

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79,for a vehicle including a spring interposed between the wheel or wheels and the load support, noting the search notes provided thereunder for other relevant subclasses.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclass 44 for spring supported casters.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.5]    86.5Auxiliary axle assembly (e.g., lift or tag axle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Subject matter wherein the vehicle includes a selectively employed supplemental running gear unit to assist primary running gear units when transporting an extra heavy or oversize load.
(1) Note. The supplemental running gear unit must be movable between a use and nonuse position upon the vehicle, not merely an additional running gear unit such as commonly known tandem axles or wheels.

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6.157+,for a vehicle suspension provided with means for establishing riding or trim height which may or may not involve the deployment of an auxiliary axle.
9+,for a vehicle having both a wheel and runner provided with means for moving either the wheel or runner to an inoperative position.
28.16,for a runner equipped vehicle provided with an auxiliary runner structure.
104+,for a vehicle provided with means for transmitting weight from the running gear to the wheels on different axles in substantially equal proportion regardless of inequalities of the travelled surface. Conventionally known tandem axle and wheel arrangements are included in these subclasses.
149.2,for a vehicle having longitudinally shiftable running gear.
405.1+,for an articulated vehicle or vehicle train including means for selectively adjusting the proportion or the longitudinal placement of load application between the vehicle sections or the interconnected vehicles.
638+,for a vehicle constructed in such manner so as to allow the physical dimension of the vehicle, or a part thereof, to vary or change, especially subclasses 43+ for vertically adjustable wheels.
767,for a vehicle provided with an auxiliary or substitute wheel for assuming the weight of the vehicle when either the tires, wheels, or axles thereof are disabled for any reason.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 24.02 for a vehicle of that class (Class 180) having five or more wheels and provided with movable running gear for shifting or proportioning load; or subclass 209 for a vehicle having a special wheel base as defined in Class 180, subclass 21, which further includes means for changing the number or position of supporting wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.75]    86.75Alignment adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Subject matter wherein the vehicle running gear includes means enabling static alteration of a spatial relationship of the running gear upon the vehicle.
(1) Note. Included herein are means enabling alteration of the spatial relationship of either an axle or a wheel.

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5.52+,for alteration of running gear geometry which is caused to occur in response to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 203+ for a wheel alignment gauge, subclasses 335+ for a vehicle running gear inclination gauge, or subclass 608 for a frame alignment gauge.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.751]    86.751Camber or caster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.75.  Subject matter wherein the spatial alteration comprises an inclination or tilt of (a) a wheel relative to the ground surface as measured in degrees from true vertical (i.e., camber) or (b) a steering axis relative to the center line of the wheel as measured in degrees from true vertical (i.e., caster).
(1) Note. Camber is the tilting inward (negative camber) or outward (positive camber) of the top of the wheel as viewed from the front of the vehicle.
(2) Note. Caster is the tilting forward (negative caster) or backward (positive caster) of a line extending through upper and lower ball joints or a kingpin as viewed from the side of the vehicle.

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5.521,for a suspension wherein camber or caster adjustment is caused to occur in response to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.752]    86.752Vertical strut to tower:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.751.  Subject matter wherein the camber or caster alteration is achieved through an adjustable attachment at the vehicle body, chassis, or frame of an upper end of an erect member extending between the wheel or wheel carrier and the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.

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267Spring Devices,   subclasses 217+ for upper strut mount constructions of that class (Class 267), especially subclass 220 for elastomeric coupling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.753]    86.753Shim (e.g., cam):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.751.  Subject matter wherein the camber or caster alteration is achieved through an interposed, replaceable, or shiftable wedge element of the running gear.

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384Bearings,   subclass 626 for a bearing shim,per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.754]    86.754Eccentric coupling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.751.  Subject matter wherein the camber or caster alteration is achieved through an asymmetric union within the running gear.
(1) Note. Only true asymmetric unions will be found in this and the indented subclasses. An asymmetric union achieved or assisted through the use of an interposed, replaceable, or shiftable wedge element is not proper for this and the indented subclasses.

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86.753,for camber or caster alteration which is achieved or assisted through the use of an interposed, replaceable, or shiftable wedge element.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.755]    86.755Including tool means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.754.  Subject matter wherein an applied instrument is employed to influence the alteration of the asymmetric union.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.756]    86.756Ball joint or bushing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.754.  Subject matter wherein a spherical coupling member (i.e., ball joint) or a resilient coupling member (i.e., bushing) is employed in the asymmetric union.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.757]    86.757Adjustable control rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.751.  Subject matter comprising an alterable elongate link or member between the wheel or wheel carrier and the vehicle body, chassis, or frame to achieve camber or caster adjustment.
(1) Note. The alteration of the elongate link or member may be an extension or a repositioning of the link or member to achieve the camber or caster adjustment.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 86.758]    86.758Steerable wheel toe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.75.  Subject matter comprising an adjustment in a difference in distance between extreme front and rear edges of laterally opposed, pivotally navigatable wheels relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
(1) Note. "Toe-in" results when the distance difference for the extreme front edges is smaller than for the extreme rear edges. "Toe-out" results when the distance difference for the extreme front edges is greater than for the extreme rear edges.
(2) Note. Toe adjustment for a nonsteerable wheel is not included within this subclass.

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5.522+,for a suspension wherein toe adjustment is caused to occur in response to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion.
86.75,for toe adjustment for a nonsteerable wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.01]    87.01Coasters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Vehicles comprising small vehicles for children"s use, intended as wheeled coasters. Includes patents showing the type of vehicle known as "scooter-wagons."

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7.1,and 827, for simulations of this type and such vehicles convertible to other types.
12+,for coaster sleds.

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297Chairs and Seats,   subclasses 5+ for a wheeled skater support or walker pushed ahead of the walker or skater and provided with a seat used by the occupant for resting between periods of walking or skating.
482Exercise Devices,   subclasses 51+ for an exercise device involving user translation or a physical simulation thereof, particularly subclasses 66+ for an occupant support frame having a movement facilitating feature for foot travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.021]    87.021Occupant-pushed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.01.  Vehicles which are specially designed to be pushed along by contact of the occupant"s hands or feet with the surface over which the vehicle travels.

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23.1,for push type sleds.
32.6,for repairman"s creepers.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.03]    87.03Yieldable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.021.  Vehicles in which the vehicle is made to yield under the weight of the occupant.

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79,and see the search notes thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.041]    87.041Standing occupant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.021.  Vehicles which are designed to be pushed along by a standing occupant (i.e., scooters).
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.042]    87.042Steered by tiltable platform (e.g., skateboard):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.041.  Vehicles where steering is achieved by inclining the occupant supporting platform.
(1) Note. These devices may be scooters with a post, but without rotation of the wheels by manipulation of the post. More typically vehicles in this subclass are skateboards.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.043]    87.043Rear steering platform on coaster wagon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.041.  Vehicles where wheel steering is accomplished by manual manipulation of a steering device accessible to a standing occupant at the trailing end of the vehicle.
(1) Note. The rear steering station may be in addition to a front steering device manipulated by a first, usually sitting, occupant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.05]    87.05Extensible or knockdown:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.021.  Vehicles which are extensible or knockdown.

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278,287, and 638+, for other extensible or knockdown vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.051]    87.051Baby walker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.021.  Vehicles for supporting an infant or toddler who propels the vehicle.
(1) Note. The vehicle has no steering mechanism but is merely pushed in a desired direction.

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87.03,for a baby walker with a spring suspension enabling bouncing.
827+,for simulations.

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297Chairs and Seats,   appropriate subclasses for specific seats, per se.
472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclass 15 for an occupant propelled roundabout used as a trainer for foot travel.
482Exercise Devices,   particularly subclasses 66+ for an occupant support frame having a movement facilitating feature for foot travel.
D12Transportation,   subclass 130 for baby walker designs.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.1]    87.1Foot operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Devices operated by the foot of the occupant.

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265,for foot steered occupant propelled vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 87.2]    87.2Outrigged wheel controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Devices in which the steering gear controls a wheel which is offset from the main running gear of the vehicle and which does not support any appreciable weight of the vehicle.

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442+,for articulated vehicles with wheel steering by articulative movement.

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104Railways,   subclass 244.1 for vehicles with furrow followers which may be connected to the steering gear of a vehicle and which are usually outrigged from the vehicle. In the devices classified in Class 104 the follower (usually a wheel) running in the furrow guides the vehicle, and to do this may be connected to the steering gear of the vehicle, with the result that the steering gear of the vehicle may control the wheel running in the furrow. In these devices the steering gear has a branch running to the main steered wheels of the vehicle and a branch running to the furrow following wheel so that this wheel and the main vehicle wheel are steered together. In the type of device classifiable in Class 280 the steering gear runs to the outrigged wheel (which may be a furrow following wheel) to control that wheel which by its turning movement caused the main vehicle wheels to follow without any interconnection with the steering gear.
172Earth Working,   subclass 26 for an earth working device guided by a wheel running in a furrow and subclasses 278+ for an earth working device with wheel steering means.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 401 for a motor vehicle provided with steering gear which includes a land based steering datum and means on the vehicle for sensing the datum, which means cooperates with a steering motor on the vehicle for the purpose of controlling the course of the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 88]    88Combined brake:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Vehicles in which the steering gear is associated with brake mechanism.

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264,for occupant propelled vehicles having similar steering and braking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 89]    89Checked:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Vehicle including means for inhibiting or prohibiting unintended variant operation due to road surface irregularity.

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108,for tongue antivibrators.
268,for an occupant propelled-type wheeled land vehicle including means for holding or returning two steered wheels to a centered or straight line travel orientation (it is noted that in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses).
271,for an occupant propelled-type wheeled land vehicle including means for holding or returning a single steered wheel to a centered or straight line travel orientation.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 89.1]    89.1Stub axle supported wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including mechanism inhibiting or prohibiting unintended variant operation of laterally opposed steerable road wheels mounted upon a limited length shaft (i.e., stub axle) due to road surface irregularities encountered during travel.
(1) Note. Included herein are shimmy or wobble inhibiting or prohibiting mechanisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 89.11]    89.11Center or neutral angulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.1.  Subject matter wherein the steerable road wheels are (a) restrained in or (b) returned to a straight-line travel position.
(1) Note. Patents properly classified herein require sufficient resistive or restorative force to preclude unintended variant excursion of the steerable road wheels from straight-line travel position.

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268,for an occupant-propelled-type wheeled land vehicle including means for holding or returning two steered wheels to a centered or straight line travel orientation. Further, in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in theses subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 89.12]    89.12Linkage member or attachment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.1.  Subject matter wherein the inhibiting or prohibiting mechanism is (a) included within or (b) connected to a mechanical link element interconnecting a steering knuckle of a steerable road wheel to a drag link, an idler arm, a pitman arm, or a steering knuckle of a laterally opposed steerable road wheel.

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89.1,for inhibiting or prohibiting mechanism interconnecting a steering knuckle of a steerable road wheel to stationary vehicle structure or other movable vehicle structure neither performing nor providing a steering feature.
89.11,for inhibiting or prohibiting mechanism intended to restrain or return the steerable road wheels to center or neutral angulation which may or may not involve a mechanical link element or attachment.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 89.13]    89.13Fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.12.  Subject matter comprising either a gaseous or liquid flowable medium providing the resistive force.

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90,for a fluid check device not included within or connected to a mechanical link element within a stub axle supported occupant controlled steering gear arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 90]    90Fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Devices in which the checking means comprises a fluid mechanism.

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188Brakes,   subclasses 266+ for a fluid-resistance brake or dashpot of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 91.1]    91.1Four-wheel controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Subject matter wherein the steering means controls four supporting wheels.

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99+,for four-wheel controlled short turning vehicles.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 234+ for a motor vehicle having four wheels driven and provided with means for steering all of the driven wheels, and subclasses 409+ for a motor vehicle wherein all of the power for steering the wheels is provided by the occupant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 92]    92One-wheel controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Vehicles in which the steering gear controls but one supporting wheel.

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270+,for occupant propelled vehicles controlled by one wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.5]    93.5Monitoring or indicating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Subject matter including means for registering or signaling operation or a position of the steering means or the steerable road wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.501]    93.501Neutral position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.5.  Subject matter wherein the monitoring or indicating means registers or signals normal straight-line travel of the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.502]    93.502Linkage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 771.  Subject matter wherein the running gear provided with steering means operable by the occupant of the vehicle includes mechanical interconnecting elements for translating motion of a steering control manipulated by the occupant of the vehicle into pivoting movement of steerable road wheels for executing arcuate travel.

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47.11,for a vehicle steered by an attendant located external to the vehicle rather than an occupant of the vehicle for other than a mere swinging axle.
47.34+,for a stable, handle-propelled vehicle which may or may not include steering means.
81.5,for a vehicle having multiple trucks including one which is occupant steered.
86.75+,for wheeled vehicle running gear provided with means enabling static adjustment of a spatial relationship of an axle or wheel upon the vehicle.
87.01+,for a coaster vehicle which may or may not include steering means.
87.1,for an occupant steered vehicle having steering means operable by the foot of an occupant.
89+,for checked steering means within an occupant steered vehicle.
91.1,for an occupant steered vehicle wherein four supporting wheels are each steered.
92,for an occupant steered vehicle wherein a single wheel is controlled.
98+,for a vehicle having running gear specially constructed to provide a small turning radius.
124.1+,for a suspension arrangement for resiliently, shock absorbingly supporting a vehicle body, chassis, or frame upon an axle or wheel, which axle or wheel may or may not be steerable. The superiority given to placement of the suspension arrangement subclasses prior to the occupant steered subclasses is due to the fact that the suspension arrangement provides for attaching and controlling movement of the axle or wheel relative to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame whereas the occupant steered feature is limited to pivotal motion about a single axis.
137.5+,for a vehicle having an articulated axle (i.e., swinging axle) lacking resilient, shock absorbing support that is controlled by a shaft or tongue which is neither disclosed or claimed as being a handle nor claimed in a combination defining an articulated vehicle train.
263+,for an occupant-propelled-type vehicle including steering means, noting the search notes appearing therein for additional relevant subclasses. Further, in accordance with the (2) Note of Class 280, subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses.
419,for articulated vehicles including interconnected steering of plural vehicles.
426,for an articulated semitrailer vehicle including steering by articulative movement therebetween.
442+,for articulated vehicles, not of semitrailer construction, including steering by articulative movement therebetween.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 79+ for a land vehicle either (a) proper for that class (Class 180) including guiding or steering means or (b) having power assisted guiding or steering means. Note also the search notes appearing therein for additional relevant subclasses. Class 180 is superior to Class 280 in the class hierarchy.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.503]    93.503Auxiliary or redundant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.502.  Subject matter comprising alternate or repetitive means for creating pivoting movement of the steerable road wheels for executing arcuate travel of the vehicle.

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774,for an occupant controlled steering arrangement including plural spaced operator"s positions.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.504]    93.504Swinging axle or half-axle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.502.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical interconnecting elements are provided to pivot an axle or axle assembly mounted about a vertical pivot axis to execute arcuate travel of the vehicle.
(1) Note. Excluded from this subclass and the indented subclass are plural, laterally disposed, steered swivel trucks, which have been deemed analogous to stub axle structure and thus the control linkage therefore equivalent.
(2) Note. An axle or half axle within this subclass and the indented subclass provides the rotational axis for the wheel.

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124.117+,for a vehicle having a vertical pivot axis mounted axle or axle assembly including resilient, shock absorbing interconnection to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame, which may or may not include occupant controlled steering means.
137.5+,for a vehicle having a vertical pivot axis mounted axle or axle assembly lacking a resilient, shock absorbing interconnection to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame, which vertical pivot axis mounted axle or axle assembly enables steering through horizontal swinging by other than an occupant controlled steering means of the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.505]    93.505Narrow track (e.g., tricycle-type tractor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.504.  Subject matter wherein the steerable road wheels attached to the axle or axle assembly are disposed in close proximity to the vertical pivot axis.

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92,for a vehicle having occupant controlled steering of a single wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.506]    93.506Differential steering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.502.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical interconnecting elements cause unequal angular pivoting of laterally opposed steerable road wheels.
(1) Note. This is also known as "Ackerman steering."
(2) Note. The unequal angular pivoting must be claimed for proper classification in this subclass.

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103,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle running gear specially constructed for enabling arcuate travel within a reduced radius of curvature (i.e., short turn) including stub axles which may or may not involve differential steering. Typically, a draft or tongue attachment for pivoting the steerable road wheels is included.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.507]    93.507Idler arm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.502.  Subject matter comprising an intermediary link member pivotally attached to both (a) the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; and (b) the mechanical interconnecting elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.508]    93.508Articulated joint structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.507.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a pivotal union of the idler arm to either (a) the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; or (b) the mechanical interconnecting elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.509]    93.509Motion modifier (e.g., lash, play):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.508.  Subject matter including means for modifying the pivotal union.

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384Bearings,   subclass 626 for a bearing shim, per se.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for pivotal unions of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.51]    93.51Link member details (e.g., configuration, construction):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.502.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to linkage interconnecting a steering knuckle of a steerable road wheel to (a) a drag link, (b) an idler arm, (c) a pitman arm, or (4) a laterally opposed steering knuckle.
(1) Note. For this subclass, the inclusion of an idler arm is by nominal recitation only whereby the idler arm is merely referenced as a connection point for a connecting rod (i.e., tie rod). More than a nominal recitation of the idler arm in combination with a connecting rod configuration or construction is provided for earlier in the class schedule.

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5.52+,for an active suspension including means for governing a geometric or spatial relationship in response to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion which may or may not involve a connection rod.
86.75+,for a wheeled vehicle running gear provided with means enabling static adjustment of a spatial relationship upon the vehicle which may or may not involve a connection rod.
89.11+,for an occupant steered wheeled vehicle running gear including means inhibiting or prohibiting unintended variant pivotal operation of laterally opposed steerable road wheels.
93.507+,for a steering linkage combination requiring an idler arm.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.511]    93.511Terminal attachment detail (e.g., ball joint):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.51.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to an end attachment of the link member.

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184Lubrication,   subclasses 6+ for lubrication systems of general utility, especially subclass 6.19 for lubrication of linkage mechanisms.
384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for bearings of general utility.
403Joints and Connections,   subclasses 52+ for unions of general utility, especially subclasses 122+ for ball and socket pivotal unions.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.512]    93.512Kingpin, steering knuckle, steering arm, or wheel carrier construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.502.  Subject matter comprising an assemblage or fabrication providing a pivotal bearing support for the steerable road wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.513]    93.513Gearing arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.502.  Subject matter comprising an intermeshing drive mechanism for manipulating the direction or extent of translation motion required to generate the desired pivoting movement of the steerable road wheels.

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93.502,for drive means of other than intermeshing relation, such as cables, chains, or ropes, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.514]    93.514Rack and pinion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.513.  Subject matter wherein the gearing arrangement includes a rotating cog drive gear (i.e., pinion gear) and a reciprocating toothed driven gear of determinate length (i.e., rack gear).
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 93.515]    93.515Housing attachment detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.514.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a mounting of a protective enclosure for the rack and pinion gearing arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 98]    98Short turn:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Vehicle running gear specially constructed to make a short turn.
(1) Note. Merely a swing axle on a single pivot directly controlled by shafts or tongue is not included.

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47.11,for an attendant steered wheeled land vehicle including plural interconnected controllable steerable wheel sets. See the (2) Note within subclass 47.11 definition.
82+,for vehicle tongue trucks.
93.504+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including occupant controlled steering of a swinging axle.
93.506,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including occupant controlled steering wherein laterally opposed steerable road wheels are turned at different angles to effect arcuate travel about a common turning axis.
124.117+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a vertical pivot axis mounted axle or axle assembly having resilient, shock absorbing means.
137.5+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a turnable axle lacking resilient, shock absorbing means.
400+,for articulated vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 99]    99Four-wheel controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Vehicles in which four supporting wheels are controlled to turn the vehicle.

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91,for four wheel controlled occupant steered vehicles.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 234+ for a motor vehicle having four driven wheels and means for steering all of the driven wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 100]    100Oppositely swinging axles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Vehicles in which two axles carrying the four supporting wheels swing in opposite directions when turning the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 101]    101Pivoted and sliding reach:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Vehicles having a pair of members, one connected to swing with each axle, pivotally and slidably connected together.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 102]    102Crossed reaches:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Vehicles having a pair of members crossing each other and connecting opposite ends of the two axles together.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 103]    103Stub axle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Vehicles in which each controlled supporting wheel has its individual axle.

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47.11,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including wheel steering by an attendant wherein the wheel steering affects other than a mere swinging axle.
91.1,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including occupant controlled steering of four stub axle mounted wheels.
93.502+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including occupant control of steerable road wheels.
137.5+,for a general utility wheel land vehicle including a turnable axle (i.e., fifth wheel or swinging axle).
443+,for articulated vehicles having wheels mounted on stub axles and controlled by articulative movement between the vehicles.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 408+ for a motor vehicle provided with means for steering each wheel of the motor vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 104]    104Equalized frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Vehicles provided with means for transmitting weight from the running gear to the wheels on different axles in substantially equal proportions regardless of inequalities of the level of the travelled surface.

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79,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle provided with springs between the wheel or wheels and the load support, noting the search notes provided therein.
124.1+,for particular running gear construction of a general utility wheeled land vehicle including a resilient, shock absorbing suspension arrangement.
781+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including specific frame construction.

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267Spring Devices,   subclasses 183+ for parallel depression type springs.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 105]    105Roller bearing frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Vehicles in which the running gear is modified for roller bearings to carry the frame on the supporting wheels or rotating axles. The presence of mere roller or ball bearing wheels does not bring a patent into this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 107]    107With body or load retainers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Vehicles provided with means for retaining a vehicle body or load in position on the running gear.

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35,and 47.131+, for article supporting vehicles.
43.1,for a vehicle having vertically adjustable ground engaging means and which is unstable when in transporting position but which is stabilized by an attendant or an article to which the vehicle is temporarily attached.
143+,for bolsters and standards for vehicle running gear.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 199.1+ and 200+ for body and bolster connections for railway cars; subclass 236 for tender tanks; subclasses 335+ for freight cars; or subclass 453 for railway car body suspension and springs.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 89.1+ for body structure of a general utility self-propelled land vehicle including a feature as specified in Class 180 definition.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 35.1+ for body securing devices or subclass 42 for stay irons for vehicle bodies.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 108]    108With tongue antivibrators:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Vehicle running gear having means for locking or tending to hold the vehicle tongue or shafts from lateral swing.

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89+,for steering gear checks.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.1]    124.1Suspension arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Subject matter wherein the vehicle running gear comprises means intermediate a vehicle body, chassis, or frame and either an axle or a wheel for providing resilient, shock absorbing support (i.e., suspension) for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame upon the axle or wheel.
(1) Note. The intermediate means are inclusive of axles, half axles, control arms, linkages, shock absorbers, springs, struts, etc.
(2) Note. These subclasses provide for the mechanical hardware or structural assembly of various suspension systems not elsewhere provided. A suspension arrangement including a regulatable elastic means responsive to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion is provided for earlier in the class schedule.

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2,for a vehicle having a portion of the body or load supporting framework depending between axles forming a portion of the running gear connections.
5.5+,for a suspension arrangement responsive to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion.
6.15+,for a suspension arrangement used to alter the relative height or level of the vehicle.
62,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle normally travelling on three wheels.
63+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle normally travelling on two wheels.
81.1+,for a general utility wheeled land vehicle including multiple truck running gear.
82+,for a draft or tongue truck.
86.1,for a resilient mounting of a swivel truck (i.e., caster wheel).
86.5,for a suspension construction of an auxiliary axle assembly.
104+,for an equalized vehicle frame including suspension means, especially for a tandem wheel arrangement.
200+,for running gear of an occupant propelled vehicle; especially subclasses 274+ or 281.1+. Additionally, in accordance with the (2) Note of subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear, without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses.
400+,for running gear of an articulated vehicle or plural interconnected vehicles (i.e., vehicle train).
638+,for an extensible vehicle wherein means are provided for changing a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof, especially subclasses 43+ for vertically adjustable wheels.
781+,for a specific vehicle frame construction, especially subclass 788 wherein the specific vehicle frame construction is combined with resilient suspension means.

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180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for motor vehicles of that class (Class 180), particularly subclasses 6.2+ for a motor vehicle including means whereby the vehicle is steered through a cooperative driving arrangement or control between laterally disposed ground engaging means; subclasses 9.1+ for a motor vehicle including endless track ground engaging means; subclasses 21+ for a motor vehicle including a special wheel base as defined within the definition of Class 180, subclass 21; subclasses 89.1+ for attaching bodies of motor vehicles to the running gear thereof; subclasses 233+ for a motor vehicle including four driven wheels; subclasses 252+ for a motor vehicle including at least one wheel which is both driven and steerable; or subclasses 337+ for a motor vehicle including a transmission mechanism.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   appropriate subclasses for vehicle body construction in general, especially subclasses 35.1+ for devices securing the vehicle body to the running chassis frame including nominal recitation of running gear.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.101]    124.101Including preparatory elasticity parameter selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension includes means for selectively establishing a mode of operation.
(1) Note. Means appropriate for this subclass include means responsive to operation of a car door, actuation or insertion of an ignition switch key, parking brake engagement or release, closure or opening of a trunk lid, etc.
(2) Note. A suspension arrangement including control means which establish riding or trim height wherein the suspension arrangement is adjusted to an appropriate location for proper running gear operation is not proper for this subclass but is provided for earlier in the class schedule.

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5.5+,for an active suspension responsive to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion, especially subclasses 5.501+ for control means providing fail-safe override upon detection of a perceived abnormal handling or ride posture characteristic based upon the superiority given to the avoidance of a potentially life threatening situation presented by the perceived abnormal handling or ride posture characteristic; or subclasses 5.515+ wherein the elasticity property of the suspension is regulated during surface traversing motion of the vehicle.
6.157+,for a suspension including means for establishing riding or trim height.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.102]    124.102Manual actuation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.101.  Subject matter wherein the means are activated by a living being.

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188Brakes,   subclass 299.1 for a fluid resistance shock absorber including remotely operated means for altering the relative elasticity thereof through regulation of the fluid movement.
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 2+ for vehicle springs including elasticity adjustment means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.103]    124.103Body banking on turning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension creates or enables sideways or transverse inclination of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame toward a center of curvature about which the vehicle is executing arcuate travel to overcompensate for a resultant centrifugal force experienced by the vehicle.
(1) Note. The mere balancing, cancellation, or compensation of centrifugal force experienced by a vehicle executing arcuate travel is not proper for classification in this subclass.

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5.509,for an active suspension wherein means responsive while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion are caused to sideways or transversely incline the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
124.106+,for a suspension arrangement which balances, cancels, or compensates for the centrifugal force experienced by a vehicle executing arcuate travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.104]    124.104Antidive or antisquat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension restricts the vehicle body, chassis, or frame from inclining in the front-to-rear or fore-and-aft direction.

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5.513,for an active suspension wherein means responsive while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion are caused to restrict longitudinal inclination of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.105]    124.105Brake reaction device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.104.  Subject matter wherein the inclination restricting suspension includes linkage means associated with a wheel brake mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.106]    124.106Antiroll or antisway:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension restricts the vehicle body, chassis, or frame from tilting in the sideways or transverse direction.
(1) Note. The mere inclusion of an antiroll, sway, or torsion bar or rod does not render classification in this subclass. This subclass includes (a) a vehicle stabilizer, per se; (b) a suspension system specifically claimed as being for antiroll; or (c) a suspension system involving interconnected wheel suspension units not elsewhere classifiable.
(2) Note. The feature of an antiroll, sway, or torsion bar or rod in a combination for a wheel separately supported upon an individual spindle axle is not proper for classification in this or the indented subclass.

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5.508+,for an active suspension wherein means responsive while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion are caused to restrict lateral tilt of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
124.125+,for a suspension arrangement of a wheel separately supported upon an individual spindle axle, especially subclass 124.13 wherein a longitudinally extending swinging arm includes stabilizing means within the connection housing of the swinging arm pivot to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; subclass 124.137 wherein an upper and lower lateral control arm suspension includes a torsion bar; subclass 124.149 wherein a lateral control arm and vertical strut suspension includes a torsion stabilizer; and subclass 124.152 wherein a lateral control arm suspension includes a stabilizer bar.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.107]    124.107Centrifugal force transmission linkage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.106.  Subject matter wherein the tilt restricting suspension includes a mechanical interconnection for transferring the inertial force moment created by arcuate travel from one side to the other side of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
(1) Note. A transfer of fluid medium is not considered a mechanical interconnection for classification in this subclass.

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267Spring Devices,   subclasses 183+ for a spring device having a stabilizer bar for causing a uniform displacement along a substantially horizontal line contained in the vehicle body or chassis.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.108]    124.108Resonance vibration suppression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension specifically abates unwanted mechanical disturbances.
(1) Note. Since the proximate utility of all suspensions involve the reduction of resonant vibration for the comfort of the occupant, at least to some extent, this subclass includes only those patents which specifically claim the noise suppression.

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5.515+,for an active suspension wherein means responsive while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion are caused to govern the extent of travel surface induced vibrational force experienced by a vehicle occupant.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.109]    124.109Interposed frame structure (i.e., subframe):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension includes a structural assembly that maintains its configuration independently of its location.
(1) Note. The interposed frame structure must itself be resiliently coupled to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame. This excludes turntable-type attachments for a swinging axle or axle assembly which are provided for later in the class schedule.

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124.11+,for a resilient, shock absorbingly mounted swinging axle or axle assembly.
137.5+,for an articulated axle lacking a resilient, shock absorbing feature.
781+,for a vehicle including specific frame construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.11]    124.11Pivotally mounted axle or axle assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension comprises a structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube mounted for oscillatory movement upon the vehicle body, chassis, or frame about a mounting point which either (a) functions as a direct support for a single wheel carrier or spindle or (b) supports laterally opposed wheel carriers or spindles.
(1) Note. The oscillatory movement about the mounting point may be for other than suspension purposes (e.g., steering) and other than a defined axis of rotation (e.g., orbital, universal).
(2) Note. Included herein are half axles.
(3) Note. The mere mounting of an axle or axle assembly upon a horizontal axis upon the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for oscillatory movement within a vertical plane is sufficient to provide the resilient, shock absorbing support.
(4) Note. Excluded from this and the indented subclasses are an axle or axle assembly involving a pivotal interconnection between a coupling pole, perch, or reach, which interconnects front and rear running gear units so as to enable independent rocking motion thereof in a vertical plane, lacking a claimed feature providing resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame (i.e., a spring). Vehicle running gear including a coupling pole, perch, or reach interconnecting front and rear running gear units provided with means enabling relative oscillatory movement of the front and rear running gear units is provided for later in the class schedule.

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137.5+,for a fifth-wheel or swinging axle lacking a claimed feature providing resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame, especially subclass 137.503 wherein a spherical union interconnects a coupling pole, perch, or reach to the axle or axle assembly; or subclass 137.504 wherein bracing of the coupling pole, perch, or reach interconnection to the axle or axle assembly is claimed.
141,for vehicle running gear including a coupling pole, perch, or reach interconnecting front and rear running gear units provided with means enabling relative oscillatory movement of the front and rear running gear units.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.111]    124.111Longitudinal pivot axis (i.e., rocking axle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter wherein the structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube is mounted upon an axis directed parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for oscillatory movement in a vertical plane.
(1) Note. Included herein is a pivot axis either coaxial with or parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.

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6.154+,for running gear including means for vertically predisposing a load, load carrier, or receptacle portion so as to accommodate travel upon an inclined surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.112]    124.112Including fluid actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.111.  Subject matter comprising a hydraulic drive mechanism for creating or restricting the oscillatory movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.113]    124.113Including steerable terminal wheel spindle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.111.  Subject matter wherein the supported wheel carrier or spindle is additionally pivotally mounted to a terminus of the structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube for executing arcuate travel of the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.114]    124.114And vertical pivot axis (i.e., swinging axle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.111.  Subject matter wherein the vertically oscillatory axle or axle assembly is additionally mounted upon an erect perpendicular axis for oscillatory movement in a horizontal plane.

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124.117+,for a structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube mounted upon an erect perpendicular axis upon the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for oscillatory movement in a horizontal plane not including vertical oscillatory motion.
137.5+,for a swinging axle lacking a feature providing resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame upon the swinging axle. Also included in these subclasses are a swinging axle combined with a coupling pole, perch, or reach, which interconnects front and rear running gear units so as to enable relative independent rocking motion thereof in a vertical plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.115]    124.115Fifth wheel articulated axle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.114.  Subject matter comprising a coupling assembly of two coaxially mounted rotatable disks or disk segments defining the vertical pivot axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.116]    124.116Horizontal and transverse pivot axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter wherein the structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube is mounted upon an axis directed across the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for oscillatory movement in a vertical plane.
(1) Note. Included herein are leading- or trailing-arm type suspensions supporting laterally opposed wheels.

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86.5,for an auxiliary axle assembly which may be mounted upon a horizontal and transverse pivot axis for movement between a use and a nonuse condition.
676+,for a tandem axle assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.117]    124.117Vertical pivot axis (i.e., swinging axle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter wherein the structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube is mounted upon an erect perpendicular axis upon the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for oscillatory movement in a horizontal plane.
(1) Note. A mere swinging axle lacking a claimed feature providing resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame upon the swinging axle is not proper for classification in this or the indented subclasses but is provided for later in the class schedule. Accordingly, mere disclosure or inferential claim language that the vehicle body, chassis, or frame is resiliently, shock absorbingly mounted to the running gear element comprising the swinging axle does not control assignment to this subclass or the indented subclasses.

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124.114+,for a structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube mounted upon an axis directed parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for oscillatory movement in a vertical plane and additionally mounted upon an erect perpendicular axis upon the vehicle body, chassis, or frame for oscillatory movement in a horizontal plane.
137.5+,for a swinging axle lacking a feature providing resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame upon the swinging axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.118]    124.118Narrow track:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.117.  Subject matter wherein the wheel carrier or spindle is located in close proximity to the vertical pivot axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.119]    124.119Differential motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.118.  Subject matter wherein (a) plural wheel carriers or spindles are located in close proximity to the vertical pivot axis and (b) each respective wheel carrier or spindle is attached to move in an opposite direction so as to provide the resilient, shock absorbing support of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.12]    124.12With draft attachment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.117.  Subject matter comprising means for connecting to a source of pulling force.

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137.501,for a swinging axle lacking a feature providing resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame upon the swinging axle including draft attachment, noting the search notes provided therein for additional relevant subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.121]    124.121Resilient connection detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.117.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the mounting (i.e., resilient support) of the structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.122]    124.122Offset pivot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.121.  Subject matter wherein the connection includes displacement of the erect perpendicular axis from the longitudinal axis of the structurally rigid bar, beam, shaft, or tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.123]    124.123Telescopic members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.121.  Subject matter wherein the connection includes overlapping concentric slidably engaged elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.124]    124.124Fifth wheel supported upon transverse leaf spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.121.  Subject matter wherein the connection includes one of two coaxially mounted rotatable disks or disk segments of a coupling assembly forming the erect perpendicular pivot axis mounted upon a laterally disposed, elongated flexible strip providing flexural deflection to a force imposed perpendicular to its width dimension.

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137.502+,for fifth wheel construction lacking resilient, shock absorbing support for the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
433+,for a fifth wheel coupling between a tractor and a semitrailer.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.125]    124.125Wheel separately supported upon individual stub axle (e.g., skein, spindle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Subject matter wherein the suspension provides resilient, shock absorbing interconnection of a relatively short shaft (i.e., stub axle) providing the rotational axis for each wheel, to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
(1) Note. The requirement that the stub axle itself be resiliently mounted upon the vehicle excludes a bifurcated or yoked axle supporting a kingpin, unless the kingpin is resiliently mounted to the axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.126]    124.126Steering pivot confined within boundary of wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.125.  Subject matter wherein the suspension interconnects a steerable wheel to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame such that the connection points defining a turning axis of the wheel lie within the area defined by the perimeter and treadwidth of the wheel.
(1) Note. Excluded from this subclass is a telescopically mounted steerable or steered swivel truck wherein the pivot axis is vertically aligned with the wheel center plane but actually displaced above the rotational axis of the wheel.

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47.11,for an attendant steered vehicle having steering control means for other than a mere swinging axle.
47.34+,for a stable, handle-propelled vehicle which may or may not include a steerable wheel.
86+,for a nonsteerable swivel truck (i.e., caster wheel).
87.01+,for a coaster vehicle which may or may not include a steerable wheel.
124.117+,for a telescopically mounted steerable or steered swivel truck wherein the pivot axis is vertically aligned with the wheel center plane but actually displaced above the rotational axis of the wheel.
200+,appropriate subclasses for an occupant-propelled-type wheeled land vehicle including a steerable wheel. Additionally, in accordance with the (2) Note of subclass 200, motorcycle frames and running gear without features causing classification in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, are included in these subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.127]    124.127Sliding connection (e.g., pillar and sleeve):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.125.  Subject matter wherein the suspension includes cooperating interengaged guiding elements restricting the stub axle to rectilinear reciprocatory movement.
(1) Note. Included herein is a bifurcated or yoked axle supporting a resiliently mounted kingpin.
(2) Note. The rectilinear reciprocatory movement is usually vertical; however, the subject matter is not restricted thereto.
(3) Note. Excluded from this subclass is a telescopically mounted steerable or steered swivel truck.

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86.1,for a resiliently mounted nonsteerable swivel truck (i.e., caster wheel).
124.117+,for a telescopically mounted steerable or steered swivel truck.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.128]    124.128Longitudinally extending swinging support arm (i.e., leading or trailing swing arm):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.125.  Subject matter wherein the suspension includes an elongated member pivotally attached to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame about an axis or axis extension crossing the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle providing a longitudinally displaced pivot axis for the stub axle.
(1) Note. This subclass and the subclasses indented hereunder require that the stub axle move in an arcuate motion relative to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame whereby the rotational axis of the wheel is moved both longitudinally and vertically when undergoing deflection. A longitudinally extending support member not functioning to enable this compound motion is not proper for this subclass or those indented hereunder but rather belongs in subclasses provided elsewhere.

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124.153,for a suspension arrangement including a longitudinally extending support member or members. See the (1) Note supra.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.129]    124.129Road arm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.128.  Subject matter wherein the longitudinally extending swinging support arm encases resilient, shock absorbing means between the pivot point attachment to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and the stub axle.
(1) Note. The stub axle usually supports either a driven or nondriven wheel engaging a crawler track or an endless track; however, it is not restricted thereto.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 9+ for a motor vehicle of that class (Class 180) including an endless track. In accordance with item 9 under Class 180 definition, no power or driving means needs to be claimed for assignment to that class (Class 180). Class 180 is superior to Class 280 in the class hierarchy.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for flexible endless track wheel substitutes. Class 305 is subordinate to Class 280 in the class hierarchy.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.13]    124.13Stabilizer means within connection housing of arm pivot (e.g., bushing, spring, torsion rod):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.128.  Subject matter wherein the pivotal attachment of the elongated member includes a spring member resisting free pivotal movement.
(1) Note. The included resisting or restraining member is not restricted to any specific construction. Illustrative of such a member is a coil spring, an elastomeric spring (i.e., bushing), a fluid spring, a torsion bar or rod, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.131]    124.131Spring-like arm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.128.  Subject matter wherein the support arm is an elastically deformable or resilient member.
(1) Note. The support arm is usually either a leaf spring or a torsion bar or rod.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.132]    124.132Intermediate of support arm (e.g., semileading or semitrailing arm):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.128.  Subject matter wherein the stub axle is attached at other than a terminal end of the support arm.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.133]    124.133Arm having plural segments or dissimilar materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.128.  Subject matter wherein the support arm comprises (a) discrete elements or (b) a nonhomogeneous construction.
(1) Note. Excluded from this subclass is a parallelogram structure of vertically disposed longitudinally extending swinging support arms.

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124.153,for a suspension arrangement including plural vertically disposed longitudinally extending support members. See the (1) Note supra.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.134]    124.134Lateral control arm (i.e., suspension arm):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.125.  Subject matter wherein the suspension includes a member (a) extending transversely to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; and (b) having an inboard end coupled to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and an outboard end coupled to a kingpin, steering knuckle, or wheel carrier and the member constrains horizontal displacement of the stub axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.135]    124.135Plural lateral control arms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.134.  Subject matter including at least two transversely extending members constraining horizontal displacement of the stub axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.136]    124.136Upper and lower arms having aligned outboard ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.135.  Subject matter wherein the outboard end of one arm terminates at a position above the stub axle, the outboard end of another arm terminates at a position below the stub axle, and the outboard ends of the arms lie along a line passing through the stub axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.137]    124.137With torsion bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.136.  Subject matter wherein the suspension additionally includes an elongated rod, shaft, or tube providing a springing action resulting from a twist deformation (torque deformation) attached to one of the control arms.

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5.511,for an active suspension responsive to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion and a sway or torsion bar is regulated.
124.106+,for a mechanical hardware or structural assembly suspension arrangement provided for restricting sideways or transverse tilting of a vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
124.149,for an individual wheel suspension having a transversely extending member, a vertically extending strut, and a longitudinally extending control arm or strut wherein the longitudinally extending control arm or strut is a torsion bar or rod.
124.152,for an individual wheel suspension including a single lateral control or suspension arm and a stabilizer bar.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.138]    124.138Specific spatial location:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.136.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a spatial location of at least one of the control arms to (a) the other control arm; (b) the vehicle body, chassis, or frame (i.e., inboard end); or (c) kingpin, steering knuckle, or wheel carrier (i.e., outboard end).

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5.52+,for an active suspension responsive to a force encountered while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion which alters a spatial relationship of the running gear.
86.75+,for wheeled running gear including means for static alteration of a spatial relationship of the running gear upon the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.139]    124.139Unequal length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.136.  Subject matter wherein the control arms differ in elongate dimension.
(1) Note. The length difference must be claimed for proper classification in this and the indented subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.14]    124.14Spring-like arm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.139.  Subject matter wherein one of the control arms is a mechanical resilient member.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.141]    124.141Interposed coil spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.136.  Subject matter wherein a helical shaped elastic member is disposed within a boundary area delimited by the control arms.
(1) Note. The helical shaped elastic member is not required to engage either of the control arms but merely be placed within the bounded area defined therebetween.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.142]    124.142Coil spring disposed above upper arm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.136.  Subject matter wherein a helical shaped elastic member is positioned over or upon the upper control arm.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.143]    124.143Longitudinally spaced outboard ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.135.  Subject matter wherein an outboard end of one of the control arms is coupled forwardly of the stub axle and the outboard end of another control arm is coupled rearwardly of the stub axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.144]    124.144Resilient coupling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.143.  Subject matter wherein the coupling of one of the control arms includes an elastomeric member.

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5.516,for an active suspension responsive while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion wherein suspension stiffness for ride comfort is adjusted through bushing compliance regulation.
5.523,for an active suspension responsive while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion wherein toe angle of a wheel is adjusted through bushing regulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.145]    124.145Including vertically extending strut:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.134.  Subject matter wherein the suspension includes an erect member extending between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and the stub axle for constraining vertical displacement of the stub axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.146]    124.146Turnable telescopic strut (i.e., MacPherson strut type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.145.  Subject matter wherein the erect member comprises overlapping concentric slidably engaged and relatively rotatable elements whereby pivotal motion of the stub axle for steering purposes is attained.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.147]    124.147Upper strut mount detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.146.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for connecting a top end of the erect member to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.

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86.752,for vehicle running gear including static alignment adjustment wherein caster or camber adjustment of a wheel is affected by the connection of the upper end of a vertically extending strut to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
124.155,for a vehicle running gear including means for connecting the top end of a vertically extending telescopic strut to the vehicle body, chassis, or frame lacking a lateral control or suspension arm.

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267Spring Devices,   subclasses 217+ for upper strut mount constructions of that class (Class 267), especially subclass 220 for elastomeric coupling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.148]    124.148Including longitudinally extending control arm or strut:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.145.  Subject matter including an elongated member extending between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and the stub axle in a longitudinal direction of the vehicle and constraining longitudinal movement of the stub axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.149]    124.149Torsion stabilizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.148.  Subject matter wherein the elongated member is a bar, rod, shaft, or tube providing a springing action through twist deformation about a longitudinal axis thereof (torque deformation).
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.15]    124.15Specific spatial location:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.134.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a spatial location of the control arm.

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124.138,for a suspension including upper and lower lateral control arms having aligned outboard ends and including a specific spatial location.
124.143+,for a suspension including plural lateral control arms having longitudinally spaced outboard ends which may include a specific spatial location.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.151]    124.151Including spring retaining seat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.134.  Subject matter wherein the transversely extending member provides a base support for a resilient energy storing mechanical element.
(1) Note. The resilient mechanical element is usually a helical coil spring; however, the subclass is not limited thereto.
(2) Note. Excluded from this subclass is a connection between a sway or torsion bar and the transversely extending member because such connection does not provide a base support but rather is merely a constraining attachment.

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124.137,for a suspension including upper and lower lateral control arms having aligned outboard ends and including a torsion bar.
124.152,for a suspension including a lateral control arm and a torsion bar attached thereto. See the (2) Note supra.
  
[List of Patents for class 280 subclass 124.152]    124.152Including stabilizer bar (e.g., sway bar):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.134.  Subject matter including an elongated rod, shaft, or tube attached to the transversely extending member and wherein the rod, shaft, or tube provides a springing action resulting from a twist deformation (torque deformation) for assisting in constraining displacement of the stub axle.

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5.511,for an active suspension responsive while the vehicle is in surface traversing motion wherein a sway or torsion bar is regulated.
124.106+,for a mechanical hardware or structural assembly suspension arrangement provided for restricting sideways or transverse tilting of a vehicle body, chassis, or frame.
124.137,for a suspension including upper and lower lateral control arms having aligned outboard ends and including a torsion bar.
124.149,for a suspension having a transversely extending member, a vertically extending strut, and a longitudinally extending control arm or strut wherein the longitudinally extending control arm or strut is a torsion bar or rod.