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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 173]   CLASS 173,TOOL DRIVING OR IMPACTING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

SUBJECT MATTER OF THE CLASS

(A) The purpose of this class is to provide a search for subject matter directed to means for driving a tool and also reciting some feature relating to the tool, or reciting a combination of features peculiar to driving a tool which cause separate classification in the specific motor classes, and in the specific machine element and mechanism classes to be impractical, but which subject matter is of such general application in the tool arts that separate classification in each specific tool class is also impractical.

(B) The term, tool, as used in this class means primarily a work contacting element which functions to effect some physical alteration in the work, such as chipping or boring, but is also used to include other elements which are driven in the same manner as such a tool (e.g., a nail or post). It must be noted, however, as explained in the next paragraph, that a means which impacts a tool is not in itself, regarded as a tool.

(C) The term, impacting device, as used in this class defines a means including a mass of material (i.e., hammer head) which is specifically intended to deliver an impact or blow to a tool as defined in paragraph B and is not itself a tool but is defined as a species of means for driving a tool.

(D) This class, in accordance with the purpose of paragraph A, provides for an impacting device, as defined in paragraph C, or a means to actuate the hammer head of an impacting device, said impacting device or means to actuate said hammer head being claimed in combination with at least one of the following features relating to a tool as defined in paragraph B: (1) a nominally recited tool, (2) a means to retain or hold a tool to receive a blow, (3) a means to align a tool with respect to the hammer head to receive a blow, or (4) a means (anvil) situated between the hammer head and a tool and which is intended to transmit a blow from the hammer head to the tool.

(E.) This class also provides for a motor and/or a machine element or mechanism for driving a tool claimed in combination with one or more of the following: (1) a means for causing, controlling, or selectively preventing the advancing movement of a driven tool, (2) a cleansing means, i.e., a means for cleaning the area of tool operation or (3) a manipulating handle. In the absence of a separate drive means, a means to cause, control or selectively prevent advance claimed in combination with a cleansing means will be classified in this class.

(F) This class also provides for processes of operating apparatus included under the class definition and not claiming any additional feature limiting the process to a particular art.

(G) This class also is intended to provide for subject matter in accordance with the purpose of paragraph A not specifically provided for in paragraphs D, E and F or excluded by paragraphs H and J. Examples of such subject matter are means for driving a tool combined with (1) a vehicle support for the drive, (2) work engaging means supporting the drive or (3) means to adjust the position of the axis of tool advance. This class also includes subcombinations of impacting device structure which are not elsewhere classifiable such as a specific means to transmit an impact from a hammer head to a tool.

(H) This class is not intended to provide original classification for a claim having any specific recitation of (1) the work contacting portion of the tool, (2) plural, cooperating tools (e.g., angularly related tools), (3) and underlying work support opposed to the tool, or (4) any other specifically recited feature pointing to classification in a particular tool art and not provided for in this definition. An exception to (1) is that the recitation of the work contacting portion of the tool as being broadly provided with a cleansing fluid passage or port is not considered to define the work contacting portion of the tool with sufficient specificity to preclude classification from Class 173.

(J) Not all classes have been cleared of art such as defined herein. This class, therefore has only such art as is cleared from other classes. Section III of the class definition indicates those classes which have bodies of art in conflict with the definitions of this class.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

If both the drive means and means to cause, control or selectively prevent advance comprise merely gear or mechanical motion elements as defined in Class 74, Machine Element or Mechanism, classification is in Class 74. However, if structure is claimed which goes beyond the scope of Class 74, such as specific motor structure, a vehicle support for the drive, work engaging support means or means to adjust the position of the axis of tool advance, classification is in Class 173.

A motor vehicle having a power take-off of general utility, but which may be described as for the purpose of driving a tool is classifiable in Class 180, Motor Vehicles, particularly subclasses 53.1+. Therefor, to be included under (1) in G above, the means for driving a tool must include a structural feature of relationship which is peculiar to tool driving.

RELATIONSHIP TO SPECIFIC TOOL CLASSES

The claiming of specific work contacting tool structure in combination with subject matter of this class will cause original classification of the patent in the appropriate specific tool class, as will the claiming of plural, angularly related cooperating work contacting elements such as angularly related tools or a tool combined with an opposing support for the work. However, many of the specific tool classes have not been cleared as to original classification in accordance with this line, nor has complete cross-reference of subject matter been made. The classes which should be closely investigated when making a search for the subject matter provided for under this definition are as follows:

15, Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning

30, Cutlery

56, Harvesters

81, Tools

82, Turning

83, Cutting

125, Stone Working

142, Wood Turning

144, Woodworking

172, Earth Working

234, Selective Cutting (e.g.,Punching)

408, Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool

433, Dentistry

451, Abrading

470, Threaded, Headed Fastener, or Washer Making: Process and Apparatus

MISCELLANEOUS SEARCH NOTES

The Search Notes below include statements of the line with classes having closely related art.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

12Boot and Shoe Making,   appropriate subclass for machines and processes of operating machines for making boots and shoes.
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   appropriate subclass for a cleaning device, and particularly subclasses 3+ for cleaning machines, including in subclasses 300.1+ such machines with air blast and/or suction.
16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 110.1 through 446for handles, including handles described as for the purpose of manipulating tool drives, and including handles having vibration dampening or absorbing means. If the handle is claimed in combination with a mere named tool drive, classification will be in Class 173 only if features relating to control of or energy supply for the tool drive are claimed.
29Metal Working,   appropriate subclass for metal working apparatus, and processes of operating same, and particularly subclasses 700+ for assembling and disassembling apparatus. See subclasses 243.53+ for riveting apparatus not elsewhere classified.
30Cutlery,   appropriate subclass for hand operated cutting tools, or hand manipulated, power operated cutting tools, and particularly subclasses 272.1+ for cutting tools having blade moving means.
37Excavating,   appropriate subclass for excavating devices having drive means, and including vehicles having driven excavating elements.
56Harvesters,   appropriate subclass for driven harvesting devices, and generally comprising such devices which are advanced by a land vehicle as they operate.
60Power Plants,   appropriate subclasses for motors which may include a named type of tool as a load for the motor, and also for plural motors of diverse types. If one motor is described as a tool drive means and another as tool advance means, the patent will be classified in Class 173.
72Metal Deforming,   subclasses 429+ for apparatus for driving a metal deforming tool.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclass for a mechanical motion transmitting means, and including such means even though separate elements thereof are described as operating the drive, and causing or controlling the advance of a tool, such means merely being considered equivalent to mechanical movements or transmissions involving plural power paths. Class 74 also includes patents claiming a named type of motor, or plural named motors for imparting motion to a mechanical movement or transmission.
81Tools,   appropriate subclass for a drive device for an assembling tool, and particularly subclasses 463+ for an assembling tool with impact delivering means and subclasses 54+ for a machine wrench.
82Turning,   appropriate subclass for drive means and advance causing or controlling means used in a metal turning operation.
83Cutting,   appropriate subclass for a drive means or advance causing or controlling means used in a cutting operation.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclass for structure of a motor, or plural motors of that class. Class 91 includes a motor having a named type of tool as a load, however, a motor having impact device features as defined in section "D" of this definition a motor structure having a supplement specific passage to convey cleansing fluid to a tool, a motor described as for a tool drive and having specific structure of a manipulating handle, or plural motors, even though merely described as separately having feed and drive loads are classified in Class 173.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclass for a device of that class for driving a tool. The line between Class 92 and Class 173 is the same as the line between Class 91 and Class 173.
104Railways,   subclasses 13+ for a railway track laying tamping tool, and subclass 17.1 for railway track laying spike drivers.
111Planting,   appropriate subclass for driven planting devices, and generally comprising such devices which are advanced by a land vehicle as they operate.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   appropriate subclass for a motor of that type, even though a named type of tool is included as a load. The line between Class 123 and Class 173 is generally the same as between Class 91 and Class 173.
125Stone Working,   appropriate subclass for a drive means or advance causing or controlling means used in a stone working operation.
142Wood Turning,   appropriate subclass, for a drive means or advance causing or controlling means used in a wood turning operation.
144Woodworking,   for a drive means or advance causing or controlling means used in a woodworking operation.
172Earth Working,   appropriate subclass and particularly subclasses 35+ for a drive device for an earth working tool. Generally, such devices are advanced by a land vehicle as they operate. A described use as a drive for an agricultural earth working tool will cause classification in Class 172.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclass for a tool drive means, advance causing or controlling means, impacting device or work cleansing means which is combined with specific structure of the work contacting portion of a tool, a fluid handling head adapted to seal in a bore entrance, or a bore wall engaging guide or packing device on the tool shaft, and subclasses 293+ for a below ground hammer or impact means, either combined with a specific earth boring tool or comprising a means forming a lost motion connection in a shaft or cable string, such means comprising relatively movable members which are provided with faces that impart each other to generate a "jar" which is transmitted by the rod or cable to a means connected thereto.
180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclass for a vehicle means which may be described as supporting a tool drive means, and particularly subclasses 53.1+ for a motor vehicle having a power take-off which may be described as for operating a tool driving or advancing means. If the power take-off does not include a structural feature or relationship that is more than of general utility, classification will be in Class 180.
181Acoustics,   subclass 230 for mufflers, per se, specifically adapted to pneumatic type motors.
227Elongated-Member-Driving Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for a driver combined with a magazine for members, e.g., nails, clenching anvil or work support which would preclude classification in Class 173.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   appropriate subclass for a drive means combined with a comminuting or disintegrating means.
267Spring Devices,   subclass 137 , for a tool-movement-dampening spring device.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   appropriate subclass and particularly subclasses 29+ for a machine having a specific tool described as for disintegrating hard material in situ. In general, claiming of specific tool structure is necessary to cause classification of a machine in Class 299, with the exception that Class 299 includes some large tunnel forming machines with material handling features and chain cutter driving, advancing and manipulating machines which do not necessarily recite specific tool structure.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclass for motor of that class, including such motors having a named type of tool as a load, and particularly subclass 50 for a dynamo-electric motor for a portable hand tool.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   appropriate subclass for plural motors including a named type of tool as a load, and particularly subclass 39 for plural, diverse, or diversely controlled electric motors, in which such motors comprise work and feed motors.
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 133.05+ for tamping means and see notes thereunder.
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   for (1) a tool-drive means combined with work-recognizing structure for use in the operation of that class (2) a tool-drive means combined with a specific tool of that class type, or (3) tool-drive means combined with significant "machine frame" structure generally limiting the drive to operation in a machine of that class. "Machine frame" structure is in addition, to the housing required to support the drive structure. Such "machine frame" structure may be significantly recited by physical limitations of the structure of by a named recitation of two or more parts of the structure including the interrelationship of the parts.
409Gear Cutting, Milling, or Planing,   appropriate subclasses for a drive means or advance causing means used in a gear cutting, milling, or planing operation.
415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclass for a motor of that type for operating a tool, and particularly subclass 904 , for a tool drive turbine.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   for rotary expansible chamber devices, per se, and see the Note to Class 91 above for a statement of the line between this class (173) and Class 91, the line between Classes 91 and 418 being the same.
433Dentistry,   subclasses 103+ for power-driven dental tools, especially subclasses 118+ for power operated plugging instruments.
451Abrading,   subclasses 64+ for a machine for performing an abrading function, which machine also includes a drive means or an advance causing or controlling means which is used in the abrading operation.
470Threaded, Headed Fastener, or Washer Making: Process and Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for processes of operating machines for making articles of the class.

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

ADVANCE

The forward movement of the tool into or along the work. Such movement is in addition to the drive movement (i.e., cyclic forward and backward or lateral motion of the tool). Included under this definition as apparatus functioning under the broad meaning of advance are means for causing, controlling, or selectively preventing the forward movement of the tool into or along the work.

CLEANSING

The act of removing matter resulting from the operation of the tool on the work.

CLEANSING FLUID

A fluid which is adapted to perform a cleansing function upon work. Such a fluid may be solely described as performing some other function, such as cooling the work, so long as it is directed in such a manner as to inherently cleanse the work.

DRIVE

The motion of a tool which performs a function upon work. Impact is included under the definition of this term. Also, any means to cause the drive motion of a tool such as a motor, cooperating gearing or mechanical movement elements, or an impacting device.

HAMMER HEAD

The striking element of an impacting device.

IMPACTING DEVICE

A means including a mass of material (i.e., hammer head) which is specifically intended to deliver a blow to a tool. The mass of material need not necessarily strike the tool directly, but may deliver the blow through an intervening element (e.g., anvil).

IMPACTING

A type of drive function which includes striking a mass of material (e.g., tool) with another mass of material (e.g., hammer head).

MANIPULATING

Moving the tool drive from one place to another to perform a function upon work. This movement is separate from or in addition to the advance movement of the tool.

MANIPULATING HANDLE

A means specifically intended to be grasped by the hand or hands of an operator to move the tool drive, of which it forms a part, to different positions with respect to the work, and to be continually grasped by the operator as the tool advances in performing a function upon work.

MOTIVE FLUID

A fluid used to drive a motor, and including fluid taken from a stream supplying a motor, or from a stream exhausting from a motor. Fluid fuel for or fluid exhaust from a combustion motor is included under this definition.

TOOL

A work contacting element which functions to effect some physical alteration in the work, such as chipping or boring, but also includes other elements which are driven in the same manner as a tool such as a nail or post.

WORK

The object or mass of material which is contacted by the tool to be physically altered thereby.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 1]    1PROCESSES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Methods for operating tool driving or impacting devices to perform a function which is not limited by a manipulative step to a specific tool art.
(1) Note. This subclass is not intended to form a complete search for all described processes of operating tool driving or impacting devices as provided for under the class definition. Therefore, the search for process claims falling herein should be completed in the appropriate apparatus subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 2]    2AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF POWER OPERATED MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising (1) means for sensing a condition or change of condition, which condition or change of condition may or may not occur, (2) a separate control means and (3) a separate power operated means to initiate, modify, or terminate the functioning of the apparatus, said three means being so related that the sensing means controls operation of the control means and the control means controls operation of the power means, all without the intervention of a human operator.
(1) Note. Apparatus wherein the driven tool constitutes the sensing means and controls the control means for the power operated means is included under this definition only if the control means moves relative to the driven tool. An apparatus having structure integral with or fixed to the tool as the sole means to control the operating means is not considered to be automatic, and is classified on other features.
(2) Note. A valve having one specific area which senses the condition of a fluid, and a completely different area which controls the flow of the same or a different fluid to operate as power means is included under this definition as separate sensing and control means. A valve which senses and controls with the same surface (i.e., a check valve), is not included and is classified on other features.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

13+,for a drive controlled by relative axial movement of a tool.
18,for drive controlled by relative movement of advance causing or controlling means or manipulating handle.
58,for work cleansing controlled by relative movement between the drive and tool, advance causing or controlling means or manipulating means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 72+ for a cutting device having means to monitor a control operation.
172Earth Working,   subclasses 2+ for an earth working device having automatic power control.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 3]    3Responsive to condition of cleansing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the sensing means senses the condition of (1) a specific modification of the tool drive which is for the purpose of removing unwanted material from the work face being operated on by the tool or (2) structure combined with the tool drive which functions to remove unwanted material from the work face being operated upon by the tool.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 38 for automatic control of an earth boring means in response to drilling fluid circulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 4]    4Tool advance causing or controlling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the sensed condition of operation controls a power operated means to initiate, modify, or terminate the operation of the means to positively cause or progressively control the forward movement of the tool into or along the work.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   subclasses 5+ and 8+ for a boring or drilling machine having automatic or tool position control of tool movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 5]    5Responsive to torque or speed condition of drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Apparatus in which the sensing means senses a condition of (1) force applied to the tool to drive the tool about an axis or (2) rate of motion of the drive means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   subclasses 6 and 8+ for a drilling machine having torque or penetration resistance responsive control of a feed mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 6]    6With additional control by means sensing condition of advance means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.  Apparatus in which the sensing means includes a means to also sense the condition of the means which causes or controls forward movement of the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 7]    7Drive motor motivating energy condition initiates control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.  Apparatus in which means driving the tool comprises a motor, and the sensing means senses a condition of the motor power material or electric current.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 39 for electrical work and feed motors which are interrelated.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 8]    8Motive fluid flow or pressure condition of drive motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Apparatus in which the drive motor power material comprises a fluid which operates a fluid motor (e.g., expansible chamber type motor or turbine).
(1) Note. Included under this definition are those motors which derive power solely from the pressure or flow of a fluid stream. An internal combustion engine, for example, which may utilize a fluid fuel, but requires a chemical reaction to operate, is excluded from this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 9]    9Fluid flow or pressure operated advance means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.  Apparatus in which the means which causes or controls forward movement of the tool comprises a motor operated by fluid.
(1) Note. Included under this definition are those motors which derive power solely from the pressure or flow of a fluid stream. An internal combustion engine, for example, which may utilize a fluid fuel, but requires a chemical reaction to operate, is excluded from this definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8,for automatic control of tool advance causing or controlling means in response to motive fluid pressure or current sensed torque or speed condition of a drive.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 10]    10Responsive to length of stroke of means reciprocating hammer head or tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Apparatus in which the sensing means senses the distance of cyclic to and fro motion of a (1) hammer head or (2) tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 11]    11Drive means responsive to condition of advance causing or controlling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the power means comprises a drive means and the sensing means senses a condition of a means to positively cause or progressively control the forward movement of the tool into or along the work.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclass 76 for cutting means combined with means to monitor and control operation, including means to compensate tool speed for work-feed variations.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 13]    13DRIVE CONTROLLED BY RELATIVE AXIAL MOVEMENT OF TOOL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a tool drive means and a tool or means to receive or retain a tool for actuation by the drive means, the tool or tool receiving or retaining means being adapted to move relative to the drive in a direction parallel to the axis of tool advance, said relative movement being adapted to initiate, modify, or terminate the operation of the tool drive means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

2+,for automatic control of power operated means.
93.5+,for a rotary tool drive in which torsional load causes relative movement between a drive element and a tool to cause delivery of torsional impact.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 14]    14Reciprocating drive member connected to pulsing fluid column:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus in which the relative movement starts the operation of the tool drive by causing a reciprocating element of the tool drive to be mechanically coupled to and directly operated by the pulsation or reciprocation of a confined mass of fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 15]    15Drive motor controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus in which the tool is driven by a motor and the relative movement initiates, modifies or terminates the operation of the tool drive motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 16]    16Modified internal motor operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Apparatus in which the operation of the drive motor is initiated, modified, or terminated by a change in internal relationship of the parts of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 17]    17Motor piston movement modified relative to motive fluid port:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Apparatus in which the tool drive motor is of the cyclically operable, expansible chamber type and the path of reciprocatory movement of a motor piston is altered relative to a port which supplies fluid to a working chamber of the motor or a fluid operated distributor motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 18]    18DRIVE CONTROLLED BY RELATIVE MOVEMENT OF ADVANCE CAUSING OR CONTROLLING MEANS OR MANIPULATING HANDLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a tool drive means and a means to positively cause or progressively control the forward movement of the tool or a means specifically adapted to be engaged by the hand of the operator to manipulate the drive, and one of the latter means is adapted to move relative to the drive means to operate a means to initiate, modify, or terminate the operation of the tool drive means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

2+,for automatic control of power operated means.
13+,for drive controlled by relative axial movement of tool.
58,for work cleansing controlled by relative movement between drive and tool, advance causing or controlling means or manipulating handle.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 19]    19SELF-ACTING ADVANCE AND RETRACTION CYCLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a means to positively cause or progressively control the forward movement of the tool into or along the work, and which is adapted to reverse the movement of the tool upon the tool reaching a predetermined position without the intervention of a human attendant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclass 69 for cutting means combined with stopping means effective on completion of predetermined number of tool cycles.
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   subclasses 5+ for boring and drilling combined stopping means effective on completion of predetermined number of tool cycles; subclasses 10+ for automatic or tool position control of tool movement; subclass 17 for drive structure of that class to cyclically reciprocate the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 20]    20WITH INDICATING OR SIGNALING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with a means to indicate or signal a condition or the occurrence of a condition to a human attendant.
(1) Note. Means which signal or indicate are dials, graduations, horns, bells, etc., but a means to form a mere stop or single fixed reference point are not included under this definition and are classified on other features.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for electrical automatic condition responsive indicating systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 21]    21Distance of advance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Apparatus in which the means signals or indicates a position or condition of the forward movement of the tool into or along the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 24]    24Movement of vehicle causes tool advance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the travel of the vehicle is utilized to positively cause forward movement of the tool into or along the work.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

56Harvesters,   appropriate subclass for a harvesting device, and generally including a harvesting device which is advanced by a vehicle while operating.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   appropriate subclass for an unearthing device which is generally advanced by a vehicle while operating.
172Earth Working,   appropriate subclass, and particularly subclasses 35+ for a driven earth working tool, generally advanced by a vehicle while operating.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 29+ for a machine for disintegrating hard material in situ and which is generally carried on a vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 25]    25Vehicle motor mechanically coupled to drive tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the means to power the transporting movement of the vehicle is provided with a mechanical power take-off to drive the tool.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 53.1+ for a motor vehicle in which the motor acts as an external source of power.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 26]    26Drive gearing displaced relative to source of power:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Apparatus in which the means to drive the tool includes gear means, and elements of the gear means are adapted to move relative to the power take-off of the vehicle to (1) adjust the axis of tool advance or (2) accommodate movement of the tool into or along the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 27]    27Vehicle motor and drive motor powered by same energy source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the same source of energy (e.g., current, pressure, fuel, etc.), motivates the power means for the vehicle and the tool drive.
(1) Note. One of the power means may operate a pump or generator to supply pressure or current for the other power means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 28]    28Drive structure moved to nonuse position for transport:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the supporting structure of the tool drive is constructed in such a manner as to adapt the tool drive to be moved from the position in which the tool normally works to a position which better facilitates transportation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 111+ for a mechanism or relatively movable shaft assembly, e.g., a power erected tower and subclass 143 for a residual building structure with a transportation feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 29]    29CONVERTIBLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which means are provided to perform a tool drive function and a tool drive function in a different manner or a function other than tool driving after (1) removal of a significant portion of the apparatus (2) installation of additional parts or (3) substantial rearrangement of existing parts.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

47,for a drive which is adjustable to completely change the kind of drive motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 30]    30WITH MEANS ENGAGED BY PART OF HUMAN OTHER THAN HAND:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with structure particularly adapted to be engaged by some portion of the body of a human, with the exception of the hands.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 31]    31WITH WORK ENGAGING MEANS SUPPORTING DRIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with the structure of means other than the tool, which is specifically adapted to engage the material upon which the work is being performed, said structure bearing the weight of the tool drive or resisting the reactive force of the means causing forward movement of the tool while the tool drive is operative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

184,through 28 for a work engaging vehicle support of a tool drive.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

248Supports,   subclasses 637+ for a machinery support.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 32]    32Anchored to work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Apparatus in which the work engaging means comprises a structure adapted to positively engage the material being worked at a point in the face being worked (e.g., the face perpendicular to the axis of tool advance), in such a manner as to resist reactionary movement of the means causing forward movement of the tool into the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 33]    33Balanced with respect to axis of tool advance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.  Apparatus in which the axis of tool advance forms substantially the geometric center of points of engagement of the means which positively engages the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 34]    34Structure extends between opposed points:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Apparatus in which the material being worked is engaged by the structure at opposed points, such as opposed positions on the walls of a shaft or tunnel.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 35]    35Tool advanced laterally of structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Apparatus in which the drive is adapted to operate a tool to advance along an axis substantially perpendicular to a line extending between the opposed points of engagement.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 36]    36Structure engages work at point diametrically opposed to tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Apparatus in which the structure engages the material being worked at a point opposite to the working point, generally being the opposed wall of a shaft or tunnel.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 37]    37Relatively adjustable work engaging elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Apparatus in which the work engaging structure includes plural work engaging elements, and an element is adapted to be adjusted relative to the tool drive means and relative to another work engaging element.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 38]    38SWINGING ARM CAUSES ADVANCE WITH MEANS TO GUIDE RECTILINEAR TOOL ADVANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having means to cause forward movement of the tool into or along the work comprising a lever, one end of which is mounted to pivot about a fixed or shifting point and the opposite end being connected to the tool or tool drive, the forward movement of the tool being substantially rectilinearly controlled by (1) shifting the pivot point or (2) directly guiding the tool or tool drive.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 39]    39WITH MEANS TO ADJUST POSITION OF AXIS OF TOOL ADVANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which the tool drive means is adjustably connected to a substantially fixed structure (e.g., support), and means are provided to hold the tool drive means in different positions relative to the fixed structure to provide plural selective positions of the axis along which the driven tool moves forward into the work.

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299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 29+ for a hard material disintegrating machine having means to adjustably manipulate a chain cutter or the like.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 40]    40Drive gearing displaced relative to source of power:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Apparatus in which the tool drive includes a source of power and a driven gearing element, and said gearing element being shifted bodily relative to the source of power in adjusting the axis along which the tool moves forward.

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26,for a vehicle support for a drive in which the vehicle motor operates the drive, and means are provided whereby drive gearing may be displaced relative to the vehicle motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 41]    41With plural relatively displaced gearing sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Apparatus in which the tool drive includes plural driven gearing elements, and the gearing elements being relatively bodily shifted and each bodily shifted relative to the source of power in adjusting the axis along which the tool moves forward.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 42]    42Plural adjustments:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Apparatus in which plural separate adjustments are provided between the tool drive and fixed structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 44]    44Adjustment powered by motor or mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Apparatus in which a motor or mechanism is provided to move the tool drive to relatively adjusted position.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 45]    45WITH MEANS TO SPACE AXIS OF TOOL ADVANCE RELATIVE TO PRIOR POSITION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with means such as a template or element of predetermined length to locate an axis along which the driven tool will move forward into the work relate to a position in which the driven tool previously moved forward into the work.

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20+,for a tool drive means combined with signaling or indicating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 46]    46COMBINED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with apparatus which is not included under the class definition and is not merely ancillary to the driving means, a means for advancing the tool, a tool drive manipulating means, or a work cleansing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 47]    47DRIVE ADJUSTABLE TO COMPLETELY CHANGE KIND OF DRIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus including an adjustable drive means so constructed that the basic kind of motion imparted to the tool may be changed by manipulating a drive part (e.g., shifting gears in a transmission).

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29,for a drive means changeable from one basic drive motion to another which requires disassembly or assembly of parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 48]    48Adjustable to impacting device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Apparatus in which the drive means is adjustable to or from means to deliver an impact to a tool.

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93.5+,for a tool drive which rotates a tool under one torsional load condition and which rotary drive slips or yields under another torsional load condition to cause torsional impact to be delivered to the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 49]    49DRIVE BY MEANS REACTING TO ROTATING ECCENTRIC MASS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which the tool drive means includes a mass which is driven about an axis, the axis of rotation being eccentric relative to the center of weight of the mass, said mass causing movement of an element which supports said axis of rotation when the center of weight of the mass reaches a certain position relative to the axis of rotation of the mass to drive the tool.
(1) Note. The element which supports the axis of rotation of the mass generally (1) is guided against movement in other than line movement, and moves when the center of weight of the mass substantially corresponds with the guided line, or (2) supports a pair of masses rotating in opposite directions, and said element moves when the combined centers of weight of the masses are unbalanced.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 61 for a mechanical movement including an unbalanced weight.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 50]    50POWER PATHS TO PLURAL TOOLS FROM SINGLE DRIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a motor or drive element connected to plural power paths to simultaneously drive plural tools.
(1) Note. If the tools cooperate as a tool "gang" to perform a function requiring interaction upon the work, a claimed relative position of the tools is considered to define specific work engaging tool structure, and classification will be in the appropriate art class.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 51]    51Drive plural means to reciprocate hammer heads or tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus in which at least two of the power paths include means to impart a rectilinear to and fro movement to a tool or the hammer head or an impact delivering device.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 52]    52SINGLE ADVANCE CAUSING OR CONTROLLING MEANS OR MANIPULATING FOR PLURAL DRIVES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising plural separately operable tool drive means which are supported by a common rigid structure combined with a single advance causing or controlling means or manipulating means for the rigid structure.

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50+,for power paths to plural tools from single drive, which may include a single advance causing or controlling or manipulating structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 53]    53HAMMER OR TOOL SHAFT RECIPROCATED BY GRIPPING MEANS WHICH RELEASE OR YIELD TO PERMIT ADVANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which a hammer head or tool includes a rod or rod like structure rigidly connected thereto, and the drive means includes means to grasp said rod or rod like structure, and a means to reciprocate the grasp means, said grasp means permitting the hammer head or tool to move forward relative to the reciprocatory path of the grasp means by (1) cyclic release by the rod or rod like means by the grasp means or (2) relative slippage between the grasp means and rod or rod like means as the work progresses.

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72Metal Deforming,   subclasses 429+ for a tool driving means in a metal shaping machine, especially subclasses 431+ for a yieldable connection and subclasses 435+ for a "drop-hammer".
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 54]    54With fixed means cyclically contacted by grip structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Apparatus in which during each cycle of reciprocation the grasp means engages a stationary structure to cause the grasp means to release or slip the rod or rod like means to permit the hammer head or tool to move forward as the work progresses.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 55]    55Contact moves grips out of shaft engagement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Apparatus in which cyclic engagement of the grasp means with the stationary structure positively releases the grasp means from the rod or rod like structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 56]    56Means concurrently moving shaft about an axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Apparatus in which the grasp means, or means causing reciprocatory movement thereof, simultaneously causes the rod or rod like means to rotate or oscillate during each cycle of reciprocation of the grasp means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 58]    58Controlled by relative movement between drive and tool, advance causing or controlling means or manipulating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which the operation of work cleansing is initiated, modified, or terminated by relative movement between the tool drive and (1) the tool, (2) the means to positively cause or progressively control the forward movement of the tool or (3) a means specifically adapted to be engaged by the hand of the operator to manipulate the drive.

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18,for drive controlled by relative movement of advance causing or controlling means or manipulating handle.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 59]    59By motive fluid for drive motor or advance causing or controlling motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which the cleansing is performed by fluid derived from a motive fluid stream supplied to or exhausted from a drive motor or an advance causing or controlling motor.
(1) Note. The motive fluid supply to or fluid exhaust from any type motor is included under this definition, including fluid exhaust from an internal combustion motor, which may utilize solid fuel for an energy supply, but exhausts a fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 60]    60Motive fluid does not contact work but induces flow of another fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Apparatus in which the motive fluid stream does not contact the work face, but is provided with means to induce flow of an ambient fluid (e.g., a venturi) to cause the ambient fluid to circulate over and cleanse the work face.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 61]    61Additional cleansing fluid source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Apparatus in which a means is provided to utilize a fluid from a nonmotor source for cleansing, as well as a fluid derived from the supply or exhaust of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 62]    62With means providing for independent use of either fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Apparatus in which means are provided to selectively control the supply of both fluids, whereby either one of the fluids may be separately admitted to the work face.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 63]    63Motive fluid for cleansing bypasses motor chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Apparatus in which means are provided to derive motive fluid to be utilized for cleansing from the stream which supplies the motor, before the fluid passes into a motor chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 64]    64Supply for cleansing bypasses motor chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Apparatus including means which are provided to derive motor fluid to be utilized for cleansing from the stream which supplies the motor, before the fluid passes into a motor chamber.

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63,for the use of motive fluid for cleansing which bypasses a motor chamber, in which cleansing fluid from an additional source is also utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 65]    65Controlled by motor inlet throttle valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Apparatus having the means which controls the rate of flow of motive fluid to the motor chamber said means being provided with additional structure to control the supply of motive fluid which is to be utilized for cleansing.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 66]    66Fluid supplied through working chamber of idled cyclically operable drive motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Apparatus in which the drive motor comprises a cyclically operable reciprocating type expansible chamber fluid motor, and a specific modification of the motor is provided whereby the motor may be controlled to stop operation and simultaneous continuously direct the flow of the motive fluid stream through one working chamber of the motor for direction upon the work to perform a cleansing function.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 67]    67Supplied through distributor maintained in fixed position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Apparatus in which the cyclically operable motor includes a relatively movable motive fluid distributor, and means are provided to stop relative movement of the distributor during the continuous flow of motive fluid through one working chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 68]    68Motor inlet throttle valve maintains distributor fixed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Apparatus in which the motor is provided with a throttle valve controlling the inlet of motive fluid, and the throttle valve is adapted either by direct engagement or through a linkage to stop relative movement of the distributor for the purpose of maintaining cleansing fluid supply through one working chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 69]    69Motor exhaust throttled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Apparatus in which the motor is provided with a throttle valve to control the exhaust of motive fluid from the motor, and actuation of said valve to control exhaust also functions to stop the distributor and maintain cleansing fluid supply through one working chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 70]    70Mechanically maintained in fixed position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Apparatus in which a mechanical means is provided to stop relative movement of the distributor while cleansing fluid is continuously supplied through one working chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 71]    71With means to inhibit return of detritus into cleansing passage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Apparatus in which means are provided for the purpose of preventing unwanted material (such as material removed from the work face) from entering the motor through a cleansing fluid passage.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 72]    72Fluid supplied through chamber of advance causing or controlling motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Apparatus in which the motive fluid for cleansing is exhausted from a motor which causes or controls advance.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 73]    73Directed into passage in tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Apparatus having means to direct the motive fluid into a passage in a tool or tool shaft, from which passage the fluid is directed upon the work face.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 74]    74Plural cleansing fluid sources:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which means are provided to selectively or simultaneously utilize fluids from separate supplies for cleansing.

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60,for motive fluid caused flow of another fluid to cleanse the work.
61+,for motive fluid cleansing in which fluid from an additional source is also provided for the purpose of cleansing.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 75]    75Cleansing fluid pump operated by drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which the tool drive means pumps or mechanically drives a pump means to pressurize or cause circulating of a fluid material which performs a cleansing function.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 76]    76Pump comprises hammer head or impact transmitting anvil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.  Apparatus in which the pump means to pressurize or cause circulation of the fluid material comprises the hammer head or impact transmitting anvil of an impacting device.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 77]    77Cleansing fluid controlled by control for drive or advance causing or controlling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which the fluid material for cleansing is controlled by an element which also controls the drive means or advance causing or controlling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 78]    78Cleansing fluid passage through hammer head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which the mass of material which comprises the hammer head of an impacting device is provided with a passage which is specifically described as for the purpose of conveying fluid cleansing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 79]    79Drive motor or advance causing or controlling motor provided with passage for cleansing fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which structure necessary to the operation of a tool drive motor, or advance causing or controlling motor is provided with a passage which is specifically described as for the purpose of conveying fluid cleansing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 80]    80Cleansing fluid passage in impact transmitting anvil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus in which a mass of material which is adapted to transmit an impact from a hammer head to a tool is provided with a specific passage which is described as for the purpose of conveying fluid cleansing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 81]    81MEANS TO CONTROL ADVANCE AND CYCLICALLY RECIPROCATE A CABLE-OPERATED HAMMER OR TOOL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising the combination of means to cause reciprocation of a hammer head or tool by a cable, or similar flexible element, and a means to control the cable for the purpose of controlling the forward movement of the path of reciprocatory movement of the hammer head or tool.
(1) Note. The means to reciprocate and cause forward movement of the hammer head or tool may comprise a common element such as a cable drum which oscillates to reciprocate the hammer head or tool, while progressively rotating to control the forward movement of the hammer head or tool.
(2) Note. These devices are commonly known as "Cable Tool Rigs", in the well drilling and pile driving arts.

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53+,for a hammer or tool shaft reciprocated by a gripping means which releases or yields to permit advance.

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254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 264+ for apparatus for hauling or hoisting a load including a driven device which contacts and pulls on a cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 82]    82With means to synchronize advance with reciprocating drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Apparatus in which the means to reciprocate the hammer head or tool cyclically actuates a means to control forward movement of the hammer head or tool so that the advance is only permitted at a certain point in each cycle of reciprocation.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 83]    83Advance means bodily reciprocated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Apparatus in which the means to control forward movement of the hammer head or tool is bodily reciprocated by a separate means which causes the reciprocation of the hammer head or tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 84]    84Hammer or tool cyclically disconnected from cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Apparatus in which means are provided to cyclically release the driving connection between the cable, or similar flexible element, and the hammer head or tool.

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55,for a hammer or tool shaft reciprocated by gripping means which release or yield to permit advance, and in which contact with a fixed structure moves the grips out of shaft engagement.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 85]    85With plural cable drums:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Apparatus including at least two drums which receive plural turns of cable.
(1) Note. For inclusion under this definition, at least one of the drums must be claimed as part of a combination to reciprocate and control forward movement, while the other drum may be completely independent of the combination.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 86]    86Relatively elevated guide engaging cable between drive and hammer or tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Apparatus in which a structure is provided to support the cable or similar flexible element against gravity at a relatively elevated point between the means causing the cable or similar flexible element to reciprocate, and the hammer head or tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 87]    87Drive is oscillating cable drum:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Apparatus in which the means causing the cable or similar flexible element to reciprocate comprises a drum receiving plural turns of the cable, the drum being oscillated about an axis to cause the reciprocation.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 88]    88Drive is oscillating cable engaging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Apparatus in which the means causing the reciprocation of the cable comprises a cable engaging element which is oscillated.

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87,for an oscillating cable drum which causes reciprocation of a cable operated hammer or tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 89]    89Drive permits hammer or tool to freely drop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Apparatus in which the drive to the oscillating cable engaging element is cyclically disconnected to permit the hammer head or tool to substantially freely drop under the sole influence of gravity.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 90]    90IMPACTING DEVICES (E.G., HAMMERS):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a mass of material (i.e., hammer head) which is specifically intended to deliver a blow to a tool.
(1) Note. Included under this definition are means to transmit an impact from a hammer to a tool (e.g., an anvil).

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48,for a drive adjustable to completely change kind of drive, in which the drive is adjustable to function as an impacting device.
51,for power paths to plural tools from single drive, in which at least one of the tools is driven by an impacting device.
53+,for a hammer head or tool shaft reciprocated by gripping means which release or yield to permit advance.
78,for a cleansing fluid passage through the hammer head of an impacting device.
81+,for means to control advance and cyclically reciprocate a cable operated hammer or tool.

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7Compound Tools,   subclasses 143+ for hand type hammers combined with other tools.
72Metal Deforming,   subclasses 435+ for a "drop-hammer" driving means in a forging press.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclass for a mechanical movement or gearing for operating a hammer head.
81Tools,   subclasses 463+ for tools combined with impact delivering means, and subclasses 20+ for hand type hammers.
104Railways,   subclasses 10+ for track laying tampers, and subclass 17.1 for track laying spike drivers.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 135 for an above ground impacting device combined with a specifically claimed earth boring or penetrating tool and subclasses 293+ for hammer or impact means located below ground in an earth bore, either combined with a specific earth boring feature or comprising a means forming a lost motion connection in a shaft or cable string, such means comprising relatively movable members which are provided with faces that impact each other to generate a "jar". See the class definition of Class 175, sections I, C and IV B.
227Elongated-Member-Driving Apparatus,   appropriate subclass for a driver, e.g., hammer, having a member, e.g., nail, staple, etc., engaging feature.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 18+ for a nail-extractor type puller combined with a hammer head structure.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 69+ for a hard material disintegrating machine operating a specifically claimed percussive type cutter.
404Road Structure, Process,   or Apparatus subclasses 133.05+ for tamping means and see notes thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 91]    91Selective axial direction of impact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the hammer is selectively operable to deliver impacts in axially opposed directions.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 92]    92With means to grip and release tool in timed relation to impact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus including a means to mechanically clutch and release the tool or tool shaft during each cycle of operation of the hammer.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 93]    93With anvil arranged to transmit torsional impact to tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus including an anvil which is related to a hammer head in such a manner as to transmit a blow from a hammer to the tool to rotate the tool about an axis.

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81Tools,   subclasses 463+ for a tool combined with torsional impact delivering means.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   appropriate subclass for a clutch which may be suddenly applied to cause a torsional impulse and particularly subclasses 3.21+ for a vortex-flow drive and clutch.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 93.5]    93.5Rotary tool drive having torque responsive impact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.  Apparatus in which driving means for the hammer head rotates the tool without impact under one torsional load condition and includes means which release or yield under a different torsional load condition whereby the hammer head delivers a blow to the anvil to cause rotary movement of the tool.

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48,for a tool drive which is selectively adjustable to completely change the type of tool drive from rotary to impact.

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464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclasses 30+ for rotary displacement between a shaft and a driven member occurring upon imposition of excessive torsional load.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 93.6]    93.6Hammer head reciprocates along rotary axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.5.  Apparatus in which the hammer head reciprocates on a line coincident with or parallel to the axis of rotation of the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 93.7]    93.7Torque transmitted from hammer head traveling axially only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.  Apparatus in which the anvil is adapted to transmit a tool rotating blow from a hammer head which is limited to rectilinear movement along or parallel to the axis of rotation of the tool.

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109+,for an impacting device having a hammer head delivering rectilinear impact to the tool in which the tool is rotated by the hammer head or drive for the hammer head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 94]    94Hammer head moves in arcuate path or rotates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the hammer, or a portion thereof, travels substantially upon some portion of a path generated by a point moving at a constant distance about a relatively fixed axis.

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93+,for a hammer having an anvil arranged to transmit torsional impact to a tool, the hammer normally being moved about an axis.

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72Metal Deforming,   subclass 406 for a "rocking" tool in a metal shaping machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 95]    95Hammer head reciprocates along fixed transverse axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Apparatus in which the hammer reciprocates on a path coincident with or parallel to the axis.

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93.6,for a hammer having an anvil arranged to transmit torsional impact to a tool having rotary drive with torque responsive impact and in which the hammer reciprocates along the rotary axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 96]    96Arcuate or rotary movement selectively releasable or variable independent of reciprocation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Apparatus in which means are provided to selectively release or vary the movement in the path generated about an axis without stopping or changing the reciprocation in the path coincident with or parallel to the axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 97]    97Arcuate or rotary movement transmitted to tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Apparatus in which the hammer is coupled to the tool to cause the tool to move in the path generated about an axis.

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96,for a hammer head which rotates and reciprocates, in which means are provided to selectively release or vary rotation, generally such rotation being transmitted to the driven element.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 98]    98Hammer head moves out of arcuate or rotary path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Apparatus including means for permitting or causing the hammer to detour from the path generated about an axis, this movement being usually for permitting the hammer to clear the tool or anvil after the delivery of a blow thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 99]    99Movement out of path is about rotating pivot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Apparatus in which the hammer detours from the path generated about an axis by moving in a second path generated about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 100]    100Hammer head movement is oscillatory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Apparatus in which the hammer cyclically reverses direction of movement in the path generated about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 101]    101Plural relatively moved hammer heads:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the hammer includes plural relatively movable impacting heads which are adapted to alternately impart cyclic impacts to a tool.
(1) Note. The impacting heads do not necessarily directly impact the tool but may impact one another or a common anvil.

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51,for power paths from a single drive to plural hammer heads or tools.
94+,for an impacting device having a hammer head which moves in an arcuate path, and including such devices having plural hammer heads.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 102]    102One impacts another:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Apparatus in which one impacting head imparts impact to a tool by striking another impacting head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 103]    103Concentric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Apparatus in which the relatively movable impacting heads are arranged in such a manner that a common line passes through the geometric centers of both heads.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 104]    104With means for rotating tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus including means to cause the tool to move about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 105]    105Rotated by separate motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 104.  Apparatus in which the tool is moved about an axis by a motor which does not drive the hammer head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 106]    106Rotation motor exhaust is motive fluid for hammer motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus in which the hammer head is driven by a fluid motor and means are provided to convey fluid which has been utilized in a fluid motor which causes the tool to move about an axis to the second motor which drives the hammer head, said fluid being further utilized as motive fluid in said second motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 107]    107Motive fluid supplied to rotation motor is hammer motor exhaust:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus in which the hammer head is driven by a fluid motor and means are provided to convey the fluid which has been utilized in the hammer head driving motor to a fluid motor which causes the tool to move about an axis, said fluid being further utilized as motive fluid in said second motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 108]    108Reciprocating type separate motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus in which the motor which causes the driven element to move about an axis is provided with a working member which cyclically moves to and fro.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 109]    109Rotated by hammer head or drive for hammer head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 104.  Apparatus in which means are provided to transmit movement of the hammer head or the means driving the hammer head to the tool for the purpose of moving the tool about an axis.

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93+,for an impacting device having an anvil arranged to transmit torsional impact to a tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 110]    110Rotation is intermittent or oscillatory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 109.  Apparatus in which the tool is moved about an axis step by step or cyclically reversed.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 111]    111Rotary drive path is directly through hammer head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Apparatus in which the hammer head comprises an element in the drive train for moving the tool about an axis.

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97,for an impacting device having a hammer head that reciprocates and moves about an axis, and in which the movement about an axis is transmitted to the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 112]    112With means to cause or control advance of hammer head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus including a means to positively cause or progressively control the forward movement of the hammer head in driving the tool into or along the work, such motion being in addition to the regular impacting motion of the hammer head.

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141,and see the search notes therein for an advance causing or controlling means for a tool or tool drive.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 113]    113Advance operated by hammer drive or actuated in response to hammer vibration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Apparatus in which the means for positively causing or progressively controlling the forward movement of the hammer head is actuated by (1) mechanical connection to the hammer head or drive therefor or (2) pulsations caused by the cyclic impacts or reversal of direction of the hammer element or a drive element therefor.

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142+,for an advance causing or controlling means operated solely by vibrations from the reciprocating element in a tool drive means.
144,for an advance causing or controlling means in which reciprocatory drive and advance originate from the same mechanical element.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 114]    114With means to reciprocate tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus including an additional means to reciprocate the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 115]    115Length of cyclic travel of hammer head selectively adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus including means selectively operable to change the distance that the hammer head moves in delivering an impact.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 117]    117Hammer head driven by electric motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the motion of the hammer head is caused by an electric motor.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclass for an electric motor, including a hammer head claimed as a mere load, and particularly subclass 50 for a dynamo-electric rotary portable or hand tool motor.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 114 for an impact, mechanical shock or vibration producing electric motor system.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 118]    118Spring bodily cyclically moved with hammer head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which a resilient member is arranged to transmit force to a hammer head, and said member moves in entirety during each stroke of the hammer head.
(1) Note. A fluid spring is included as a resilient element for purposes of this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 120]    120With means to adjust spring force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus in which a means is included to selectively vary the degree to which the resilient element is strained.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 121]    121Spring retracts hammer head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus in which the recoil of the resilient element retracts the hammer head from delivering a blow.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 122]    122Hammer head driven by relatively moving motion transmitting element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the means transmitting drive motion from a source of power to the hammer head includes an element which cyclically moves relative to the hammer head.

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53+,for a hammer or tool shaft reciprocated by gripping means which release or yield to permit advance.
81+,for means to control advance and cyclically reciprocate a cable operated hammer or tool.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclass for a mechanical movement or gearing of general utility, and including a hammer head as a nominal load.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 124]    124Cyclically disconnected from motion transmitting element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Apparatus in which the hammer head and motion transmitting element are coupled and uncoupled during each blow delivering cycle of movement of the hammer head.

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53+,for a hammer or tool shaft reciprocated by gripping means which release or yield to permit advance.
84,for a means to control advance and cyclically reciprocate a cable operated hammer or tool, in which the hammer or tool is cyclically disconnected from the cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 125]    125Hammer head constitutes or fixed to drive motor cylinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the mass of material which forms the hammer head includes an internal chamber which receives the piston of a motor, said internal chamber being adapted to receive motive material to cause the mass of material to move relative to the piston and deliver a blow.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 196+ for an expansible chamber motor in which the cylinder necessarily moves, and including a moving cylinder which may be recited as a hammer head.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 117+ for a moving cylinder, and including a move cylinder which may be recited as a hammer head.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 52.1+ for an internal combustion engine having a moving cylinder, and including a moving cylinder which may be recited as a hammer head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 126]    126Hammer head comprises plural parts or diverse materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the hammer head is composed of (1) at least two separate elements or (2) at least two separate materials.

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118,for a hammer head having a spring bodily cyclically moved therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 127]    127Piston of drive motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Apparatus in which the hammer head comprises or is rigidly connected to a mass of material forming an element which is received in a chamber, said element having surface which is acted upon by motive material in the chamber to cause the element to move and deliver a blow.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 172+ for the piston of an expansible chamber device which is formed of specific or diverse materials, and including a piston which may be recited as a hammer head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 128]    128Impact transmitting anvil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus comprising a mass of material which receives the direct blow from the hammer and transmits the blow to the tool or tool shaft.

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76,for a cleansing fluid pump which comprises a hammer head or impact transmitting anvil.
80,for an impact transmitting anvil provided with a cleansing fluid passage.
93+,for an impact drive having an anvil arranged to transmit torsional impacts to a tool.

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72Metal Deforming,   subclasses 476+ for an "anvil" tool in or for a metal shaping machine.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 245+ for anvils for driving hollow piles which are provided with a wall supporting core portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 129]    129Attachable at plurality of points along tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Apparatus in which the impact transmitting mass of material is specifically adapted to be attached at more than one point to the tool or tool shaft in a direction parallel to the path of travel of the hammer head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 130]    130Adapted to fit tool noncircular in cross section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Apparatus in which the impact transmitting mass of material is specifically adapted to engage a tool or tool shaft of a specific shape, other than circular in cross-section, at the location of engagement.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 131]    131Formed of plural transmitting part or separate layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Apparatus in which the impact transmitting mass of material comprises structure arranged such that the impact is transmitted through (1) separate parts or (2) specified different materials.

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93.7,for an anvil means which translates longitudinal impact relative to a tool shaft to impact in a torsional direction, and which may comprise plural parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 132]    132With means to directly connect anvil to tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Apparatus in which the impact transmitting mass of material is provided with means to provide a direct and positive connection to the tool or tool shaft.

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279Chucks or Sockets,   appropriate subclass for means to attach an anvil to a tool and particularly subclasses 19+ for a socket type, lost motion tool retainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 133]    133Anvil retained for limited movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Apparatus in which the impact transmitting mass of material is arranged relative to the tool in such a manner as to permit relative movement between said mass and said tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 135]    135Motive fluid applied to striking face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Apparatus in which fluid motive material is applied to cause movement of the element, upon the surface of the element that strikes the blow.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 136]    136Supplied through passage in striking face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Apparatus in which the surface of the element which strikes the blow is provided with a port through which fluid motive material is supplied.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 137]    137Reduced area striking face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Apparatus in which the total area of the surface of the element to which fluid motive material is applied is greater than the area of the surface that strikes the blow.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 138]    138With means to conduct motive fluid to or from striking face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Apparatus in which a passage or port is provided to conduct fluid motive material to or from the surface of the element that strikes the blow, generally for the purpose of cooling, lubrication or the removal of leakage motive fluid.

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135+,for a hammer head which constitutes the piston of a drive motor, in which motive fluid is applied to the striking face.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 140]    140DRIVE GEARING ADVANCES RELATIVE TO SOURCE OR POWER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a relatively fixed source of power for driving a tool and cooperating mechanical motion converting elements for transmitting the power from the source to the tool, said cooperating mechanical motion converting elements advancing with the tool and relative to the source of power.

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26,for a vehicle having a motor mechanically coupled to drive a tool, and in which drive gearing is displaced relative to the vehicle motor.
40+,for means to adjust the position of the axis of tool advance, in which drive gearing is displaced relative to a source of power.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 141]    141ADVANCE CAUSING OR CONTROLLING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a means to positively cause or progressively control the forward movement of the tool into or along the work, such movement being in addition to a cyclic forward and backward or lateral motion of the tool.
(1) Note. The forward movement and cyclic motion of the tool may be caused by the same power source or by a different power source.
(2) Note. For classification under this definition the means to positively cause or progressively control forward movement of the tool must be adapted to urge or resist forward movement continuously during the forward movement of the tool. Means which are adapted merely to stop the advance at specific points are classified on other features.

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4+,for automatic control of tool advance causing or controlling means.
11,for automatic control of drive means in response to sensed condition of advance causing or controlling means.
19,for a means to advance the tool through a self acting advance and retraction cycle.
24,for running gear structure of a vehicle support for the tool drive, in which the movement of the vehicle causes the tool to advance.
38,for a swinging arm advance causing means with the drive means guided to rectilinear advance.
52,for a single advance or manipulating structure for plural tool drives.
53+,for a grip drive to cyclically reciprocate a tool and permit advance.
58+,for work cleansing controlled by relative movement between the advance causing or controlling means and the drive.
59+,for work cleansing by fluid for advance causing or controlling motor.
77,for cleansing fluid controlled by control for advance causing or controlling means.
81+,for a means to control advance and cyclically reciprocate a cable operated tool.
112+,for an impacting device combined with a means to cause or control advance of a hammer head.
165+,for a relatively fixed means to drive an advancing tool about an axis combined with a means to stop relative tool advance.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclass for a mechanical movement or transmission to cause or control advance or drive a tool, and particularly subclasses 829+ for constant length alternation stroke with means operable during motion to displace the end limits, and subclasses 840+ for a rotary driven device with means operable during motion to adjust the position of the device relative to its supporting structure.
83Cutting,   subclasses 401+ for means to convey work relative to a cutting station.
142Wood Turning,   subclass 47 for a carriage feed for a wood turning tool.
144Woodworking,   for a feed means for a wood working machine.
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   subclasses 129+ for a drilling machine with a feed mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 142]    142Operated solely by vibrations from reciprocating element in tool drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus in which the means to cause or control forward movement of the tool operates with no power input other than pulsations resulting from the cyclic change of direction of movement of an element of the tool drive means, which element moves to and fro in a substantially rectilinear path.

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49,for tool drive by means reacting to a rotating eccentric mass.
113,for an impacting device including a means to advance a hammer in which the advance may be operated by hammer vibrations.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 143]    143Intermittent unidirectional rotation of advance element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Apparatus in which the movement resulting from the pulsations causes an element of the means moving the tool forward to move unidirectionally step by step about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 144]    144Reciprocatory drive and advance originate from same mechanical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus in which one mechanical motion converting element transmits motion from a source of power to cause cyclic to and fro rectilinear motion of a tool and to simultaneously cause or control forward movement of the tool.

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53+,for a hammer or tool shaft reciprocated by gripping means which release or yield to permit advance.
81+,for means to control advance and cyclically reciprocate a cable operated tool.
142+,for advance causing or controlling means operated solely by vibrations from reciprocating element in tool drive.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 829 for a constant length alternating stroke with means to displace the end limits.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 145]    145Rotary drive and advance originate from same mechanical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus in which one mechanical motion converting element transmits movement from a source of power to drive the tool by rotating the tool about an axis and to simultaneously cause or control forward movement of the tool.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 840+ for a rotary driven device with means to adjust during operation the position of the device relative to its supporting structure.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 113+ for an earth boring tool combined with means to feed and rotate the tool from a single mechanical element.
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   subclasses 129+ for a drilling machine with a feed mechanism.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 431+ for apparatus for advancing and rotating an elongated article by means adapted to engage the article between its ends.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 146]    146Friction clutch or torque yielding couple in connecting train:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Apparatus in which the means connecting the mechanical motion converting element to the means to cause tool rotation or cause or control forward movement is provided with (1) a clutch having frictionally engaging elements or (2) a coupling which yields without breaking the drive train in response to the imposition of an excessive torque load.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 147]    147Driven flexible member causes advance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus in which force to cause forward movement of the tool is imparted to the tool or tool drive through an easily bendable element which in normal operation is repeatedly curved and straightened such as a belt, cable, chain, etc.

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299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 47+ for a side wall working mining machine having a driven flexible member which causes advance of the machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 148]    148Tool advances relative to drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus in which the tool drive remains substantially axially fixed during operation while the tool axially moves forward relative thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 149]    149Advance means engageable with tool shaft at any point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Apparatus in which the means to cause or control forward movement of the tool includes structure adapted to engage the tool or tool shaft at any point along the axial extent thereof, whereby the axial extent of the forward movement of the tool or tool shaft is not limited by the advance stroke of said advance means.

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53+,for a grip drive which reciprocates a hammer or tool and permits relative advance.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   appropriate subclass for a means for advancing an element of indeterminate length.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 29+ for pipe and rod jacks, and including devices which are adapted to advance a pipe or rod by grasping the pipe or rod at any point.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 431+ for apparatus for advancing and rotating an elongated article by means adapted to engage the article between its ends.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 150]    150Advance motor working member coaxial with tool shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Apparatus in which the means to cause or control forward movement of the tool includes a motor having a moving power applying member which during operation is adapted to move forward upon an axis substantially coaxial with the axis upon which the tool is moving forward.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 151]    151Cable means controls advance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Apparatus comprising a means to coil or otherwise drive a cable or similar flexible element which is connected to the tool to control forward movement of the tool.

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81+,for a means to advance and cyclically reciprocate a cable supporting a tool.
147,for a cable means to forcibly advance a tool.

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254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 264+ for apparatus for hauling or hoisting a load which includes a driven device which contacts and pulls on a cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 152]    152Motor causes or controls advance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus in which the means for causing or controlling forward movement of the tool includes a motor.

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59+,for work cleansing by motive fluid for the drive motor or advance causing or controlling motor.
79,for a cleansing fluid passage provided in an advance causing or controlling motor.
142+,for advance causing or controlling means operated solely by vibrations from a reciprocating element of a means causing drive motion of a tool, said reciprocating element usually being a motor or motor driven.
144,for reciprocatory drive motion and advance which originates from the same mechanical element, said element usually being motor driven.
145+,for rotary drive motion and advance which originate from the same mechanical element, said element usually being motor driven.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 153]    153Drive motor exhaust is motive fluid for advance motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which the motor for causing or controlling forward movement is a fluid motor and in which the tool is driven by a separate fluid motor, the motive fluid exhausted by the drive motor being utilized as motive fluid in the motor causing or controlling forward movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 154]    154Drive motor generates advance motor motive energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which the tool is driven by a separate motor, and the separate motor also operates a means (e.g., a pump or generator), to produce a supply of motivating energy for use by the motor which causes or controls forward movement of the tool.

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27,for a tool drive combined with running gear structure of a vehicle support for a tool drive in which the vehicle drive motor actuates a means to generate tool drive or advance motivating energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 155]    155Advance motor exhaust is motive fluid for drive motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which the motor for causing or controlling forward movement is a fluid motor and in which the tool is driven by a separate fluid motor, the motive fluid exhausted by the motor causing or controlling forward movement being utilized as motive fluid in the drive motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 156]    156With lock or brake operable during advance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus combined with a lock or brake operable at least one point between the limits of a complete forward movement stroke to inhibit or prevent the tool from moving forward.
(1) Note. The lock or brake may be operable while the motor is causing or controlling forward movement, or may only operate while the motor is stopped or disconnected.
(2) Note. The "complete forward movement stroke" is the distance that the tool may move forward without stopping or altering the operation of the forward movement causing or controlling means, therefore, structure which functions to lock or brake forward movement at merely the beginning or end of such a stroke is not classified under this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 157]    157Common control element for advance and drive motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which the tool is driven by a separate motor, and a single element is provided to start and stop or regulate the flow of motivating energy to both the drive motor and the motor for causing or controlling forward movement of the tool.

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153,for a means for causing or controlling advance in which drive motor exhaust is motive fluid for an advance motor.
154,for a means for causing or controlling advance in which the drive motor generates advance motor motive energy.
155,for a means for causing or controlling advance in which the advance motor exhaust is motive fluid for a drive motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 158]    158With relatively movable advance motor control element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Apparatus in which an additional, separately movable means to start and stop or regulate the flow of motivating energy to the motor for causing or controlling forward movement of the tool is provided to control said motor independently of the drive motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 159]    159Common energy supply for advance and drive motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which the tool is driven by a separate motor, and a supply of motivating energy flows from one source to both the drive motor and the motor for causing or controlling forward movement of the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 160]    160Advance means includes relatively movable transmission element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which an element is moved relative to both basic motor structure and the tool for transmitting motion to the tool to cause or control forward movement of the tool.
(1) Note. Elements such as the stator and rotor of a turbine motor, piston and cylinder of an expansible chamber motor, etc., are considered to be "basic motor structure", and the transmitting element must be moved relative to all such basic motor structure for inclusion under this definition.

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38,for a swinging arm advance means with tool guided to rectilinear advance, said swinging arm usually being motor operated.
144,for reciprocatory drive and advance which originate from same mechanical element, said element usually being motor driven.
145+,for a rotary drive and advance which originate from same mechanical element, said element usually being motor driven.
147,for a flexible member usually motor driven to cause advance.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 161]    161Advance motor control in tool drive manipulating handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which means specifically adapted to be engaged by the hand of an operator to manipulate the tool drive is provided with a relatively movable means to regulate the flow of motivating energy to the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 162.1]    162.1INCLUDING MEANS TO VIBRATIONALLY ISOLATE A DRIVE MEANS FROM ITS HOLDER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having structure which a) is positioned between an apparatus causing motion of a tool, i.e., tool drive means of the apparatus, and b) functions to attenuate oscillatory or shock motion originating in the tool drive means hindering its transfer to the manipulating or supporting means.
(1) Note. A means to dampen transmission of vibrations within the tool drive means, i.e., between a power source and the tool, is not included under this definition.

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210,through 212 for an impacting device combined with a separate impact cushioning means.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 56 for subject matter dealing with vibratory type earth boring, and including vibration cushioning or absorbing structure.
248Supports,   subclasses 560+ for resilient supports, per se, and subclass 638 for means for isolating or reducing vibrations from a supported member to the supported means.
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 136+ for spring devices which do not provide support to any members, and are used to absorb shock or vibratory forces.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 162.2]    162.2Handle type holder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.1.  Subject matter wherein the means for supporting or manipulation the apparatus causing motion of the tool includes a part that is designed to be grasped by a terminal appendage of an arm of a user, i.e., a hand.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclass 431 for insulated handle structure for a tool or the like.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 164]    164Means to hold and relatively rotate sections of tool shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus comprising a means which is specifically described as performing the dual functions of moving a tool about an axis to cause a tool to perform work, and to prevent movement about an axis of a section of tool shaft while moving another section of tool shaft about an axis.

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81Tools,   appropriate subclass for a wrench, and particularly subclasses 54+ for a machine wrench.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 165]    165Relatively fixed drive for an advancing tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus in which the means to move the tool about an axis remains fixed relative to the axis of tool advance and is adapted to impart torque to the tool while the tool relatively advances.

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148+,for a drive for a relatively advancing tool combined with a means to cause or control advance.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclasses, and particularly subclasses 434+ for a gear train or gear element, per se, adapted to drive a relatively advancing shaft.
464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclasses 162+ for a torque transmitting coupling which accommodates relative axial movement between coupled members.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 166]    166With advance stopping means having selectively operable actuating mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Apparatus combined with a means which is selectively useable to prevent relative tool advance, said means including a motor or a relatively movable operating element to actuate the means into advance preventing condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 167]    167With advance stopping means adapted to grip tool shaft at any point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Apparatus combined with a means to prevent relative tool advance by grasping the tool or tool shaft at a plurality of positions along the longitudinal axial extent of the shaft, which positions do not have to be preconditioned compared with other positions on the shaft to cooperate with the particular grasping means.

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149,for a means to cause or control tool advance relative to a drive such means including means to grasp a tool shaft at any point.

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188Brakes,   subclass 67 for pipe or rod braking means utilized in the advancing thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 168]    168PASSAGE IN MANIPULATING HANDLE FOR DRIVE MOTOR MOTIVE FLUID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which a means specifically adapted to be engaged by the hand of the operator to manipulate the drive is provided with internal structure to convey motive fluid to a fluid operated tool drive motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 169]    169Motive fluid control valve in handle passage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 168.  Apparatus in which the internal structure of the means engaged by the hand of the operator is further provided with a means to permit or stop flow or adjust the rate of flow of fluid to the fluid operated tool drive motor.

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18,for a tool drive controlled by relative movement of a manipulating handle.
161,for an advance causing or controlling motor control in a tool drive manipulating handle.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 170]    170DRIVE CONTROL OPERABLE BY HAND ENGAGING MANIPULATING HANDLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which a tool drive means is provided with a means specifically adapted to be engaged by the hand of an operator to manipulate the drive and a means to control a tool drive (such as a motor control or clutch operating means), the control being related to the hand engaged manipulating means in such a manner as to enable the tool drive to be controlled and manipulated by a single hand of the operator.
(1) Note. Pistol grip type handle apparatus is classified under this definition.

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18,for a tool drive controlled by relative movement of a tool drive manipulating handle.
161,for an advance motor control in a tool drive manipulating handle.
169,for a means to control a drive motor motive fluid supply passage which is located in a tool drive manipulating handle.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 171]    171MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus not provided for in other subclasses.
(1) Note. This subclass includes, for example, a collection of tool drive motors provided with specific manipulating handle structure.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 110.1+ for handles of general utility, and including a handle for manipulating a tool drive.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 176]    176Drive means responsive to torque speed condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the power operated means comprises a drive means and the sensing means senses either (1) a condition of force applied to the tool to move the tool about an axis or (2) the rate of motion of the drive means.

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93.5+,for a rotary tool drive which yields under torsional load and delivers torsional impact on a tool.

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81Tools,   subclasses 467+ for an assembling type tool with predetermined overload yielding means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 177]    177Fluid pressure change controls drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Apparatus wherein the torque or speed of the device is measured by sensing the force exerted on a surface by a gas or liquid, the sensed condition effecting a valve which modifies the tool operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 178]    178Having torque responsive clutch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Apparatus wherein a device to engage or to disengage the connection between the drive means and the power means is provided and operates in response to a change in the force applied to the tool to move the tool about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 179]    179With speed responsive governor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Apparatus including a regulator controlling the rate of motion of the drive means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 180]    180With torque indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Apparatus wherein a means to display the amount of torque is provided.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 181]    181Having torque sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Apparatus wherein a means is provided to detect the torque produced by the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 182]    182Strain gauge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 181.  Apparatus wherein the torque sensor converts mechanical motion into electrical impulse.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 183]    183Proximity angle detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 181.  Apparatus wherein the torque sensor detects the amount of rotation of the drive means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 184]    184WITH VEHICLE SUPPORT FOR DRIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with the significant structure of a vehicle which is (1) adapted to move the tool drive from work station to work station or (2) adapted to support and advance the tool drive during operation.
(1) Note. By significant vehicle structure is meant more than a mere nominal vehicle or part of the vehicle, such as a bed, which is not peculiar to a transporting device. However, the inclusion of a nominal vehicle and the recitation of power take-off, plural wheels or plural skids, etc., comprises sufficient vehicle structure for inclusion under this definition.

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180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclass for a motor vehicle of general utility and particularly subclass 53.1 for a vehicle in which the driving motor functions as an external source of power.
280Land Vehicles,   appropriate subclass for a land vehicle of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 185]    185Pivoted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the tool drive means is mounted to the transport means such that the drive swings about an axis in relation to the transport.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 186]    186Nontransporting means to support vehicle during tool operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the vehicle is combined with additional means to support the vehicle structure in a nontransporting condition during the time the tool drive is operative.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 6.15+ for a land vehicle of general utility including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; subclasses 43+ for a land vehicle of general utility having vertically adjustable wheels for altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof, especially subclasses 43.14 and 43.24 wherein additional nonwheel means engage the support surface; subclass 475 for a vehicle train provided with retractable ground support upon the draft connection for at least partially supporting one of the vehicles when disconnected from each other; subclass 755 for an attachment designed to stabilize or otherwise keep the vehicle from rolling or tilting past a given point; or subclasses 763.1+ for an exteriorly located retractable stabilizer, prop, or support attachment.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 187]    187Adjustable nontransporting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.  Apparatus wherein the nontransporting means to support the vehicle has means to vary its supporting position.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 188]    188Having screw threads:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Apparatus wherein the means to vary the support position includes a helically threaded member.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 189]    189Having fluid cylinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Apparatus wherein the means to vary the support position includes an air or gas powered expansible chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 190]    190Powered by motor or mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Apparatus in which a device is provided to operate at least one of the adjustments which either (1) converts chemical or electrical energy or fluid pressure into mechanical energy or (2) contains a mechanical linkage.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 191]    191Having screw threads:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Apparatus wherein the mechanism has continuous helical grooves.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 192]    192Having turntable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Apparatus wherein the mechanism is a circular rotating platform.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 193]    193Having fluid motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Apparatus wherein the motor is a pneumatic or hydraulic piston and cylinder type device.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 194]    194With mechanical movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 193.  Apparatus wherein the fluid motor operates in conjunction with a mechanical device such as linkages, gears, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 195]    195With flexible endless member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 194.  Apparatus wherein the fluid motor operates in conjunction with a pliable, continuous line (e.g., rope or chain).
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 196]    196Having flexible endless member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Apparatus wherein the mechanism is a pliable, continuous line such as a rope or chain.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 197]    197WORK CLEANSING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus including (1) a specific modification of the tool drive which is for the purpose of removing unwanted material from the work face being operated upon by the driven tool or (2) structure combined with the tool drive which functions to remove unwanted material from the work face being operated upon by the driven tool.
(1) Note. The arrangement of structure which will inherently perform a work cleansing function is included in this definition even through the described function may not include work cleansing (e.g., cooling or lubricating the tool).

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3,for automatic control of a power means in response to the condition of a cleansing means.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclasses 300.1+ for a cleaning machine, per se, including blast or suction.
83Cutting,   subclass 168 for a cutting machine combined with means to clean the work or tool.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 207+ and see the search notes therein for an earth boring means combined with means to handle drilling fluids or cuttings.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 64+ and see the search notes therein for a hard material disintegrating machine having means to handle material.
409Gear Cutting, Milling, or Planing,   subclass 249 for a broaching tool with means to clean, lubricate, or modify the temperature of the work or tool.
451Abrading,   subclasses 2+ for an abrading machine, device, or process with condition responsive control for sandblasting; subclasses 75+ for a sandblast abrading machine; and subclasses 103+ for an abrading machine with a scouring device.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 198]    198Using vacuum or reverse circulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus using either (1) a suction or (2) a circulation of fluid up through a tool in a direction opposite normal operation to remove unwanted material.
(1) Note. Reverse circulation usually involves the flow of drilling mud or lubricant up through a drilling bit instead of down to the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 199]    199Having outside conduit to supply cleansing fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Apparatus wherein a supply line delivers a fluid to the tool without going through the working parts of the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 200]    200Hammer head driven by pulsating fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which a force is applied and subsequently released in rapid succession to a hammer head by a mass of fluid.

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13,for a drive motor controlled by a reciprocating drive member being connected to a pulsating fluid column.

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60Power Plants,   subclasses 537+ for a self-cycling reciprocating motor of the pulsator type that may include a hammer head as a nominal load for the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 201]    201Pulsation caused by mechanical movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Apparatus wherein application and subsequent release of the fluid force is caused by movable, mechanically operated elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 202]    202Hammer head driven by spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the motion of the hammer head, at least in one direction, is caused by the recoil of a resilient element which has been strained or compressed.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 203]    203Having cam to compress spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus including an eccentric or irregularly shaped surface used to squeeze the spring.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 204]    204Fluid spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus wherein the resilient element is a fixed volume of a compressible pneumatic or hydraulic fluid contained in a chamber on either side of the hammer head.

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212,for a fluid spring used as an impact cushioning means.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 205]    205Rotary cam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Apparatus in which the relatively moving means which transmits drive motion includes an element which moves about an axis, and which element includes a movement imparting slide surface impacting movement to another element, said slide surface being arranged at variable distances relative to the axis of rotation whereby rotation of the element imparts relative motion to said other element.

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203,for a cam and spring operated impact tool.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 53 , 54, and 55+ for mechanical movements of the rotary to or from reciprocating or oscillating type which includes a cam.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 206]    206Hammer head constitutes piston of drive motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus in which the hammer head comprises or is rigidly connected to a disk or cylinder within a chamber, said disk or cylinder having a surface which is acted upon by a motive fluid in the chamber which causes the disk or cylinder to move and deliver a blow.
(1) Note. These devices differ from fluid springs in Class 173, subclasses 204 and 212 in that a fluid spring contains a closed fixed volume of fluid.

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127,for a piston formed of plural or diverse materials and which forms the hammer head of an imparting device.
200+,for a hammer head, generally comprising a piston, which is driven by pulsating fluid.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclass for an expansible chamber motor having a piston that may be recited as a hammer head.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclass for piston of an expansible chamber device that may be recited as a hammer head.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   appropriate subclass for an internal combustion engine having a piston that may be recited as a hammer head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 207]    207Having valve not directly associated with motive fluid for piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Apparatus having a means to control fluid flow not immediately involved with the force transmitting fluid for the hammer head.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 208]    208With accumulator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Apparatus wherein a reservoir to contain the motive hydraulic or pneumatic fluid is provided.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 209]    209Driven by internal combustion engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Apparatus whereinthe drive motor is powered by a gasoline or diesel piston engine in which fuel is burned within the engine proper.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 210]    210With impact cushioning means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Apparatus including resilient or flexible structure which is external to the hammer head or drive therefor which functions to absorb a blow under some condition of operation, or is adopted to cushion against the transmission of vibrations resulting from the operation of the hammer drive.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 211]    211Mechanical spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 210.  Apparatus wherein the impact cushioning means is a resilient element that recovers its shape after being stretched or compressed.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 212]    212Fluid spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 210.  Apparatus wherein the impact cushioning means is a fixed volume of compressible hydraulic or pneumatic fluid contained in a chamber.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

204,for a hammer head driven by a fluid spring.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 213]    213MEANS TO DRIVE TOOL ABOUT AN AXIS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus including means to impart torque to a tool and move the tool about an axis.
(1) Note. The movement of the tool about an axis may be unidirectional or oscillating.

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5+,for an automatic control of a power operated advance means in response to a torque or speed condition of the drive.
93+,for an impact type tool drive having an anvil arranged to deliver torsional impact to a tool.
94+,for a hammer head which moves about an axis.
104+,for a tool impacting device combined with means to move the tool about an axis.
140,for drive gearing which advances relative to a source of power, and including gearing moving a tool about an axis.
145+,for a rotating tool drive which originates from the same mechanical element as the means causing or controlling advance.
148+,for an advance causing or controlling means for a tool advancing relative to the tool drive, said drive generally moving the tool about an axis.
176+,for an automatic control of a drive means in response to a torque speed condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 214]    214Plural tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus wherein the drive means can power more than one tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 215]    215Endless flexible drive means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus wherein a pliant, continuous line (e.g., rope, chain, etc.) powers the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 216]    216Gear drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus wherein the drive means consists of toothed interengaging mechanical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 217]    217Electric motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus wherein the drive means is a device which converts electrical energy to mechanical energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 218]    218Fluid motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus wherein the drive means is a pneumatically or hydraulically operated power device.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 219]    219Having sound attenuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Apparatus wherein a means is provided to muffle or absorb acoustic vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 220]    220With means to rotate reciprocating piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Apparatus wherein a means is provided to revolve a linearly oscillating piston about its radial axis during its oscillation.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 221]    221With manual means to control motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Apparatus wherein a means is provided that is directly actuable by an operator of the tool to regulate the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 173 subclass 222]    222Plural motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Apparatus having more than one motor.
  

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