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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 318]   CLASS 318,ELECTRICITY: MOTIVE POWER SYSTEMS
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

BASIC SUBJECT MATTER OF THE CLASS:

This is the generic class for system of electrical supply and/or of control for one or more electric motors where the electric motor is claimed in combination with such systems of supply and/or control and the electric motor as claimed constitutes the ultimate and sole electrical load device supplied by the system or constitutes the ultimate and sole electrical device being controlled.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

GENERIC OR NORMALLY RECITED ELECTRIC MOTOR.

1. Generic Motor System With Disclosed But Not Claimed Electric Motor.

Motor systems where the disclosure states that any one of a plurality of motors may be used in the system, one of which is an electric motor and another is a non-electric motor, and there is no claim limiting the system to having a non-electric motor, are classified in this class (318).

Where the system includes two or more motors, see Electric Motor Combined With Other Driving Means.

2. Motor Recited By Name Only

The mere inclusion of the electric motor by name only (e.g., an "electric motor") as an element of the combination is sufficient basis for classification in this Class. That is, no details of structure of the motor or no details of relationship between the motor and the system of supply and/or control--other than merely being connected so as to be supplied and/or controlled by the system--are necessary.

Where, however, the electric motor is not specifically claimed as such, but is claimed only broadly as "a load device", an "electric translating device", "a power consuming device", or any other general load device expression which does not necessitate that the load device be an electric motor, classification is not in this class, but in some other appropriate class which provides for the electric system, per se. This is true even if the only disclosed load or controlled device is an electric motor. However, where the load or controlled device is disclosed as an electric motor but is claimed in general terms and an operating characteristic is significantly ascribed to such device which characteristic (e.g., speed, revolutions, limit-of-travel), is substantially only associated with electric motor, classification will be in this class on the assumption that an electric motor is in fact claimed. Likewise, where characteristic parts of an electric motor are recited classification is herein even though the expression "electric motor" or its equivalent is not literally present in the claims.

MOTOR AS ULTIMATE LOAD DEVICE (FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS)

The fact that the electric motor is the ultimate load device of the system or that it is the ultimate device being controlled may not always be apparent from the language of the claims. For example, an arrangement wherein means responsive to a condition (such as motor speed) of the motor is provided to actuate motor control or supply means to control the motor is a motor system.

Applying this to a "follow-up" type of motor control wherein a motor is started, stopped and reversed in response to a condition of unbalance of an electrical network and wherein the operation of the motor also rebalances the network, the arrangement is a motor system since the network and its rebalance constitutes the control for the motor.

However, if the above motor drives a specific load device provided for in another class then the patent is excluded from this class. For example, if the above motor drives an indicator for indicating the voltage of a system to which the network is connected, the overall arrangement is a voltage measuring system classified in Class 324. Similarly if the above motor drives a rheostat which regulates the voltage of a generator, the combination is a generation system classified in Class 322.

LOAD DEVICE DRIVEN BY THE MOTOR (INCLUDING POWER, MOTION, FORCE, OR TORQUE TRANSMITTING DEVICES)

1. This class provides for systems of electric supply and/or control for electric motors in combination with load devices driven by the motor when such combination is not provided for in other classes. The definition of, and/or the patents in, the several art classes which provide for the combination of particular load devices and the motive power means therefor will determine the lines that exist between the several classes and this class. Consequently, the lines as thus determined may be different for different classes.

2. Motor Driven Device Not Significantly Claimed.

In general, however, this class provides for electric systems of supply and/or control for electric motors in combination with the load device driven thereby where the load device is claimed so broadly that it has no particular significance in the system as claimed other than a mere load device. Thus the combination of an electric motor system and a load device driven by the motor wherein the load device is recited in general terms only (such as, for example, "a load device", a "Variable load", a "highly fluctuating load", "means actuated by the motor", a "Gradually increasing load", etc.) or in specific terms, but by name only (such for example, as a "vehicle", an "airplane", a "rolling mill", "grinding rolls", "gearing". etc.) and wherein no details of the structure of the specific load device or no details of relationship between the motor system and the specific load device, other than that merely necessary broadly to locate the motor or to constitute a support for the motor or to merely connect the motor to the load device, are set forth, is classified in this class.

3. Motor Driven Device Significantly Claimed

This class, also provides for the combination of an electric motor system in combination with specific load devices wherein details of structure of the specific load device or details of relationship between the motor system and the specific load device are set forth only when no provision is made for such combination in any other class.

4. Plural Motor Driven Devices

Where two or more motor driven load devices are claimed, classification will be in some other class. For example only, in electric welding apparatus, the combination of electric motor actuating welding electrodes and a fan directed to cause air to circulate around the electrodes, which fan is actuated by another electric motor, classification is in the art which provides for such combinations; namely, Class 219. If no other class provides for the combination of the specific plural motor driven load devices, classification will be in an appropriate subclass in Class 318 depending on whether or not one or more of the load devices are significantly claimed. See Classification of Motor Driven Load Devices in this class, below. However, note that subclass 39 of Class 318 provides for work and feed or indexing combinations, that is, motor systems having two motors, one motor driving the work and tool with respect to each other, and the other motor driving the means for positioning or feeding the tool with respect to the work.

5. Classification Of Motor Driven Load Devices In This Class

The combination of a motor system and a load device driven thereby where the load device is claimed broadly (by name only) is classified in this class on the basis of the motor system and not on the basis of the combination of the motor system and the load device.

The combination of a motor system and a specific load device which is classified in this class (see Motor Driven Device Significantly Claimed above), is classified in this class on the basis of the combination in subclasses 3+. See the reference to Motor Driven Power, Force or Torque Transmitting Devices below.

6. Motor Systems And Power, Motion, Force Or Torque Transmitting Devices Driven Thereby.

The applications of Load Device Driven by the Motor above, with respect to a motor system where the motor drives a clutch or gearing is as follows:

(a) Clutches. An electric motor system where the motor drives or actuates a clutch is not classified in this class (318) when (a) details of structure of the clutch, (b) details of relationship between the motor (or the electrical system therefor) and the clutch (or its control means) other than a mere driving or connecting relationship, or (c) operating or control means for the clutch are set forth. Where, however, the clutch is so broadly claimed (such as by name only) as to merely constitute a load device actuated by the electric motor, classification is in this class. The motor driven clutches excluded from this class (318) are differently classified. Electric or magnetic clutches of the type in which the transmission of force is solely through the agency or medium of a magnetic field of force are classified in Class 310, Electrical Generator or Motor Structure, subclass 92; fluid clutches or fluid drives in which the transmission of force is solely through the agency of a fluid are classifiable in Class 60, subclasses 52+; and mechanical clutches for the main part are classified in Class 192.

(b) The combination of an electric motor system of the type classifiable, per se, in this class (318) with gearing of the type classifiable, per se, in Class 74 (Machine Element or Mechanism) is as follows: Where a gearing arrangement is set forth with or without an electric motor drive means therefor and with control means for the gearing other than the drive means, classification is in Class 74, even though the control means includes an electric motor actuator. Where a significant electric motor system is set forth as the driving means for significant gearing, classification is in this class (318), subclasses 3+, provided no means for controlling the operation of the gearing is claimed. Where a significant electric motor system is set forth as driving means for gearing recited by name only, the gearing is considered to be "load" and classification is in this class (318), the subclass depending on the significant electric motor control or supply set forth.

(c) The combination of an electric motor system of the type classifiable, per se, in this class (318) with a positive stop mechanism of the type classifiable, per se, in Class 192 (Clutches and Power-Stop Control) is as follows: Where an electric motor driven device is combined with a mechanical stop mechanism, and the mechanism stops the drive independently of any motor control or deenergization, even though the stopping of the drive incidentally causes control or deenergization of the motor, classification is in Class 192, Clutches and Power-Stop Control. Where the stopping operation requires control of the motor as well as operation of the stop mechanism classification is in this class (318).

(d) Class 477, Interrelated Power Delivery Controls, Including Engine Control, was formed in 1993 from patents in Classes 74 and 192 relating to interrelated controls between an engine and a transmission, brake, or clutch. Therefore the line between Class 318 and Class 477 is the same as exists between Class 318 and Classes 74 and 192 as set forth in Motor Systems and Power above.

7. Electric Motor Control And/Or Supply System As A Control Means In A More Comprehensive System

Where an electric motor drives or actuates specific means for controlling a specific device, classification will, in general, be in the art relating to the specific controlled device or in the art relating to the specific controlling means. For example, an electric motor control system automatically responsive to the speed of an internal combustion engine combined with means actuated by the electric motor for moving the throttle of the internal combustion engine to maintain the speed of the engine constant would not be classifiable in this Class (318), but would be classifiable in the art relating to throttle control of internal combustion engines.

Where, however, the same motor control system is claimed, per se, (i.e., without being limited to actuating the throttle) classification would be in this class. And this is true even if the motor were controlled in response to the speed of the internal combustion engine, if the motor is not limited to controlling the engine.

8. One Electric Motor Control System Connected To Operate The Controls Or The Supply For Another Electric Motor.

Where one electric motor is disclosed for the purpose of operating some useful load device and has means for controlling the motor, the controlling means including a second electric motor system whose sole purpose is to control the load motor, classification of such combination is in this class (318) on the basis of the control of the (single) load motor and not on the basis of plural motors.

ELECTRIC MOTOR SYSTEMS COMBINED WITH OTHER ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

1. Combined With Adjunctive Or Ancillary Systems.

The combination of an electrical system of supply and/or control for an electric motor of the type classifiable, per se, in this Class with electrical systems for producing some useful effect or result other than supplying and/or controlling the electric motor, which latter systems are subordinate to and operate in conjunction with the motor, the devices driven thereby, and/or the system of supply and/or control for the motor, to perform some effect or result thereupon or to indicate, test, measure, record, calibrate, etc. conditions in (or of) the motor, the devices actuated thereby and/or the system of supply and/or control for the motor, is classified in this class (318).

For example: A system of current, voltage and power-factor measurements connected to measure electrical conditions in various parts of an operative electric motor speed control system is classified in this class (318).

For example: A system for periodically recalibrating a bridge network to cause it to be maintained at some standard operating condition in combination with that bridge network connected to an electric motor so as to control the electric motor, is classified in this class (318).

2. Combined With Coordinate Electrical Systems

The combination of an electrical system of supply and/or control of the type classifiable, per se, in this Class with one or more other electrical systems the function of which other system is to produce or effect a result which is distinct from the motor control or supply system but which may, however, be related to the operation of the motor system so as to cooperate therewith or which may have some portion thereof constituting a portion in common with both systems, is classified in some other appropriate class. See References to Other Classes referencing this section.

For example: A system of supply and control for an electric motor in combination with a communication system for sending signals and messages not restricted to the control and operation of the electric transmission circuit, would not be classifiable in this class (318).

ELECTRIC MOTOR COMBINED WITH OTHER DRIVING MEANS

This class provides for the combination of one or more electric motors operating as driving means with one or more driving means which are not electric motors only when such combination is not elsewhere provide for.

In general, however, plural driving means when all or one more thereof are other than electric motors, are provided for elsewhere.

However, typical of the art not provided for elsewhere and which is included herein, are the combinations of one or more electric motor (operating as driving means) with axle-operated driving means or manually-operated driving means.

ELECTRIC MOTORS NOT USED TO CONVERT ELECTRICAL ENERGY TO MECHANICAL ENERGY

Electric machines although designated as "electric motors" but which are so connected and used to function as means not for converting electrical energy into mechanical energy but for some other purpose, are not classified herein. Electric motors to be classifiable herein must be connected or controlled so as to function as electric motors.

ELECTRIC MOTOR STRUCTURE

The structure of electric motors (as distinguished from the systems of supply and control) is excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes, below,

SYSTEMS GENERIC TO MOTORS OR GENERATORS

Where the system includes a dynamo-electric machine, and the machine is disclosed but not claimed as either an electric motor or an electric generator, the patent is excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes, below, for the appropriate class.

MOTOR SYSTEMS OTHER THAN ELECTRIC MOTOR SYSTEMS

See References to Other Classes, below, for a reference to a compilation of all types of motors.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

445+,include the motor systems where automatically controlled means control the starting and/or stopping.
543+,include the motor systems where the system includes a three or more position motor controller to control the starting and/or stopping.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   subclass 213 for ventilating devices for railway-car closets where an air pump is operated by an electric motor.
30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses for electric motor driven cutlery tools.
38Textiles: Ironing or Smoothing,   subclass 38 for platen presser smoothing, (ironing) machines having two press platens with a pivotedally electric motor operated movable head or bed.
40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclasses 470+ for electric motor operated changeable exhibitors.
57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   subclass 100 for electrically driven textile apparatus for spinning, twisting or twining.
60Power Plants,   subclass 6 for the combination of plural diverse motors (including electric motors combined with nonelectric motors), and subclass 97 for plural nonelectric motors. See Clutches in this definition.
60Power Plants,   - notably subclasses 698+ . For examples, plural, diverse types of motors which are nonelectric motors. See "Electric Motor Combined With Other Driving Means" in Lines With Other Classes, above.
60Power Plants,   in the class definition for a compilation of all types of motors. See "Motor Systems Other Than Electric Motor Systems" above.
70Locks,   subclass 271 for predetermined elapsed time interval controlled electric locks operated by an electric motor, 277 for electric motor operated lock operating mechanism, 434 for electric motor operated recorders for recording the condition of a lock operating mechanism.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   see Motor Systems and Power, Motion, Force or Torque Transmitting Devices Driven Thereby in the class definition.
84Music,   subclasses 3 , 9, 11, 19, 107, 113, 405, and 407 for electric motor operated musical devices, subclass 123 for electric motor operated note selector sheet winding and rewinding mechanisms.
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 35 and 49+ for electric motor driven locomotives.
124Mechanical Guns and Projectors,   subclass 3 for electromagnetic guns and projectors for projecting missiles through the air.
132Toilet,   subclass 75.8 for electric motor driven manicuring.
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   subclass 310 for electric motor operated roll type flexible panel or fabric (roller blinds or shades) devices, and subclass 331 for motor operated arrangements having drape type flexible panel or fabric type devices.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 220 for electric powered two wheel vehicles; subclass 65 for miscellaneous electric powered vehicles, subclass 443 for electric powered steering for vehicles.
185Motors: Spring, Weight, or Animal Powered,   is the generic class of motors.
187Elevator, Industrial Lift Truck, or Stationary Lift for Vehicle,   subclasses 247+ for computer control of an elevator, subclasses 277+ for an electric control for the power source of the drive means of an elevator, and subclass 280 for a door actuated electric control for the power source of the drive means of an elevator.
188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous braking systems and devices see subclasses 157 and 158+ for electric motor operated brakes. The general line between electric motor braking in Class 318 and the braking art in Class 188 and 303 is as follows. The nominal combination of an "electric motor" and a particular brake or braking system for braking the electric motor, in which combination no details of structure of the electric motor or no electric motor circuit relationships are set forth in the claim, is classified in Classes 188 and 303. Where any particulars of structure characteristic of an electric motor or any electric motor circuits relationships are set forth, classification is in Class 318. However, see "Note 1" appended to the search reference to Class 192, immediately following, for further information regarding the line between Class 318 and other classes for "motor control and brake" combinations. Whenever the braking means are connected or arranged or operated to brake a device actuated by the motor and thus only indirectly brake the motor, classification is in Class 318 provided that the motor is always braked whenever the brake is made effective and provided also that the load device to which the motor is connected does not determine classification elsewhere. However, if the braking means as claimed are effective at any time to brake the load device without simultaneously braking the motor or if the braking means is effective at any time to brake any device not actuated by the motor, classification is not in Class 318.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclass .02 for electric motor control and clutch; subclasses 1.1+ for electric motor control and brake. See "Motor Systems and Power, Motion, Force, or Torque Transmitting Devices" in Lines With Other Classes, above, for the line between Classes 192 and 318 with respect to motor control and clutch control. The line between Class 192, subclasses 1.1+, motor control and brake control, and Class 318 is as follows: Where there is any control of the electric motor combined with additional means for braking the motor wherein the motor is always braked whenever the braking means is rendered effective, classification is in Class 318. Where the braking means is applied to some device not actuated or driven by the electric motor, or where the braking means is applied to a device which is actuated or driven by the electric motor, but wherein means are provided for discontinuing the driving relationship between the motor and its driven device so that braking can be applied to the driven device without simultaneously braking the motor, classification is in Class 192.
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   appropriate subclasses, for electric motor driven conveyors.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclass 80 for electric motor driven centrifugal switches.
212Traversing Hoists,   subclass 226 for electric motor driven overhead cranes, subclasses 331+ for electric motor operated self propelled hoists.
219Electric Heating,   appropriate subclasses for electric motor actuated and controlled electric heating systems, see subclass 4 for electric welding apparatus having electric motors for moving the welding electrodes.
222Dispensing,   subclasses 52+ for electric motor controlled dispensing apparatus.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   for temperature and humidity regulating systems which include an electric motor, particularly subclass 74 for electric motor actuated systems.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 175+ is the generic subclass for systems and apparatus for automatically controlling the steering of a mobile device in two or three dimensions by electrical means. See the Search Notes to subclasses 175+ for the other classes which provide for systems and apparatus for the control of the steering or motion of mobile craft by means of electric motors and for a statement as to the line between the classes. Also see Load Device Driven By The Motor in the class definition of Class 318.
246Railway Switches and Signals,   subclass 221 for electric motor actuated signal systems.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclass 129.01 for electric motor actuated valves.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclasses 9+ for prime mover dynamo plants involving electric traction motors; subclasses 10+, 22+, 30, 31+, 36+, 38, 46, 47, and 48 for electric motor starters for prime mover dynamo plants.
303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake System,   for fluid-pressure brake systems, per se, of general application. The line between Class 303 and Class 318 parallels the line between Class 188 and Class 318, and is stated in the remarks under the search reference to Class 188, above.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 11+ for plural load circuit systems, and see Combined With Coordinate Electrical Systems in Lines With OTher Classes, above.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclasses for structure of electrical motors, and see Clutches and Electrical Motor Structure in Lines With Other Classes, above.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclasses for the structure of electric motors (as distinguished from the systems of supply and control). See "Electric Motor Structure" above.
314Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Consumable Electrodes,   subclass 62 for control systems for controlling the operation of a consumable electrode type discharge device (arc lamp) where the system is controlled in response to the speed of an electric motor, subclasses 68+ and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of those subclasses for electric motor driven feeding mechanism for feeding an electrode in a consumable electrode type discharge device (arc lamp), see indented subclasses 69+ where the motor is a rotary electric motor, and subclasses 105+ and 113+ consumable electrode discharge devices having electromagnetic motor means for separating the electrodes from each other.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclasses for a generator source for a battery or capacitor charging or discharging system.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   electric motor systems are found throughout the class both as driving means for the generator and as a control therefor. Although the following subclasses have many motor systems, the list is neither complete nor exhaustive. See subclass 16 for electric motor driven generator systems having simultaneous control of motor and generator; subclass 39 for electric motor driven generator systems having electric motor control; subclasses 70, 71, 80, and 84 for generator control systems employing electric motor systems therein. See Systems Generic to Motors or Generators in the class definition of Class 322.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   where the system includes a dynamo-electric machine, and the machine is disclosed but not claimed as either an electric motor or an electric generator, the patent is included in this class if the claimed system is otherwise within the definition of Class 322, and provided that no structure or circuit is claimed that limits the system to being a motor system (in case the machine is disclosed as being a motor). Where the machine is claimed as being either a motor or generator, the patent is classified in Class 322. See "Systems Generic To Motors Or Generators" above.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 201 through 204for dynamoelectric systems; and subclasses 220-354 for regulators which may include motors.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for electrical measuring systems which include electric motor systems.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 2 for electromagnetically actuated switches, especially subclasses 68+ for motor operated switches, subclasses 209+ for magnets and electromagnets with or without armatures.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclasses 15+ for thermal current thermostatically operated switches.
340Communications: Electrical,   for electric signaling systems which include electric motor systems, particularly subclass 870.43 for telemetric systems which include electric motor systems, such as, for example, follow-up systems.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 61+ and 73+ for control where reflected or otherwise returned radio wave energy (e.g., radar) is utilized. See the search notes in the class definition of Class 342 for the other subclasses and classes which provide for radiant energy systems for controlling devices and apparatus.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 139+ for relay and electromagnet circuits.
362Illumination,   subclass 272 for projectors having electromagnetic motor operated tiltable or rotatable reflector and bulb unit and subclass 286 for projectors having electromagnetic motor operated adjustable light source.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for systems for rectification, derectification, phase conversion, frequency conversion, or combinations thereof. See subclasses 102+ for dynamoelectric current converter systems; subclass 150 for dynamoelectric phase converter systems; and subclasses 174+ for dynamoelectric frequency converter systems.
368Horology,   subclasses 66 , 76, 218, and 321 for electric motor driven clocks and the electric systems therefore, and subclasses 250 and 250-254 for electrically operated alarms for clocks.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 132+ for an electric motor (piezoelectric or electromagnetic) driven recording stylus and driving circuitry.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 354+ for synchronizing systems for digital communication in general.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   for electric motor driven impellers (propellers).
417Pumps,   subclasses 410.1+ for electric motor driven pumps and subclass 416 for pumps driven by a reciprocating electric motor.
440Marine Propulsion,   for significant boat and ship structure combined with electric motor propulsion means.
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 144+ , 483, 484+ for toy electrically driven machinery.
483Tool Changing,   generally for a process or apparatus including a tool transfer means combined with a tool support or storage means.
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 150+ for high temperature (Tc > 30 K) superconducting devices, and particularly subclasses 166+ for motors or generators.
601Surgery: Kinesitherapy,   subclasses 70+ , 87+, 93+, and 101+ for electric motor operated kinesitherapy (message) devices.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 1 through 89for generic data processing control systems. This subclass will accept the following claimed subject matter: (a) electric control systems where the end load or device is not an electric motor; (b) control systems which may include a positional servo system but the ultimate claimed load is not a positional servo control; (c) control systems where a positional servo means is not the sole load; and (d) control systems where a specific stored programmable digital computer is used in a positional control system. This is generally indicated by the presence of a flow chart for data processing; subclasses 90-306 for control systems which are limited by the claims to a particular process or have a specific utility, particularly subclasses 245-264 for control systems where the ultimate load is a robot arm or arm segment.
901Robots,   subcollection 2+ for robot arm motion controllers.

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

ACCELERATION CONTROL

Controlling the change of speed of an electric motor from zero speed to some running speed value and vice versa, or from one running speed value to another running speed value. Mere starting of the motor is not considered to be acceleration control unless the acceleration of the motor is controlled after the starting operation. Acceleration control includes deceleration control. Deceleration control differs from motor braking in that in deceleration control no means are utilized for applying an opposing torque or output force to the driving member of the motor. In deceleration control, for example, the power input to the motor is varied to decelerate the motor. See the definition of braking below. Mere stopping of the motor by opening the supply circuit is not deceleration control in the absence of any means to control the rate of stopping, but is mere stopping.

For the distinction between acceleration control and running speed control, see the definition of Running Speed Control.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT COMMUTATING MOTOR

A motor having a commutator electrically connected to a winding of the motor, the motor being designed to operate on alternating current. Such motors are sometimes referred to as "series A-C motors", "universal motors". See the definition of Repulsion motor above, and the definition of self-commutated impulse or reluctance motors below.

AUTOMATIC STARTING AND STOPPING

Starting, stopping, or the combination of these two operations is treated in this class as a single motor operation. Automatic starting and stopping (i.e., starting or stopping which is initiated in response to a condition) is classified for the most part in subclass 445 or in the subclasses specified in the notes to the definition of those subclasses. If the stopping control involves motor braking, then the patent is classified in the braking control subclasses. If the stopping control involves motor deceleration control, but not motor braking, then the patent is classified in the motor acceleration control subclasses. If the starting control involves motor acceleration control, then the patent is classified in the motor acceleration subclasses. See diverse motor operations for the classification where the system has means for automatic starting or stopping of the motor and also means for performing another control operation. Where the motor is stopped and then started in the reverse direction of motion, the patent is classified in the motor reversing control subclasses. See below, for a definition of Reversing Control. Where the motor armature or primary current is controlled during the starting and/or stopping period other than for acceleration, deceleration, or braking control, see definition of Motor Load Control.

CIRCUIT MAKING AND/OR BREAKING DEVICE

A device for fully establishing and/or fully interrupting the electrical conductivity of an electrical path or circuit between two or more points in an electrical circuit by relative movement of electrically conductive elements into and/or out of physical contact with each other.

DIVERSE MOTOR OPERATIONS

For the purpose of classification in the subclasses entitled "plural, diverse motor operations control" the following limitations are applied relative to the nature of the several operations:

(I). Starting, stopping, or the combination of these two operations is treated as a single motor operation control. However, since mere starting or stopping is an incident to many other motor operations (such, for example, as acceleration, reversing, braking to a stop, etc. in which actual starting or stopping may take place) such mere starting and/or stopping will not be considered a motor operation control which is included in this subclass as combinable with other motor operations, unless means are provided for effecting an automatic starting and/or stopping in response to a predetermined condition. Thus, ordinary (e.g., manual) starting or stopping combined with running-speed control is not included in the plural diverse motor operations control subclasses, whereas automatic starting and stopping in response to thermal changes combined with means for causing the motor to run in either direction (reversing) is included as plural diverse motor operations control. For example; automatic opening of motor circuit at limit of travel plus simultaneously shorting the armature for dynamic braking is classified as combined braking and automatic starting and/or stopping. Likewise, automatically opening the circuit of the motor while running at an appreciable speed coupled with a braking operation simultaneously with or shortly thereafter is considered a plural operational control. The following motor operations controls are included in the plural diverse motor operations control subclasses: (a) Reversing control; (b) Acceleration control; (c) Running-speed control; (d) Braking control; (e) Motor load control, and (f) Automatic starting and/or stopping. For definitions of the various individual controls listed above see the other sections under Definitions of Motor Operation Control of this class which pertain to the several individual motor controls. The following are not included herein as combinable motor controls: (a) Phase or Power Factor Control; (b) Temperature control of the motor, including heating or cooling thereof; (c) Signalling, testing, indicating or measuring of conditions in or about the motor; (d) Ordinary or mere starting and/or stopping of the motor; (e) Phase splitting or phase conversion to adapt a motor for operation from a source of electrical supply having a different number of phases than that for which the motor is wound; and (f) Means for lubricating the motor.

ELECTRIC MOTOR:

A machine which transforms electric energy into mechanical energy.

IMPEDANCE OR IMPEDANCE DEVICE

A means having inductance, capacity, resistance or any combination thereof and excluding any source of electric energy.

HOMOPOLAR OR UNIFORM-FIELD MOTORS

A noncommutating motor having a magnetic field producing means combined with one or more electric conductors mounted to move relative to and in proximity to the field producing means, the field producing means being so constructed or energized that the magnetic field produced thereby is, at any instant of time, of the same polarity or direction throughout its extent with reference to the path of travel of the movable electric conductor or conductors.

IMPACT, MECHANICAL SHOCK, OR VIBRATION-PRODUCING MOTOR

An electric motor having means for moving one of the motor parts into impact or percussive contact with one or more other parts of either the motor structure or a part which is structurally combined with the motor structure, or a motor whose prime or essential function is to transmit mechanical shock or vibrations to a device or mechanism secured to the motor or upon which the motor may be mounted, (e.g., rotary motor with the rotor unbalanced to produce vibrations which are transmitted to its support.

INDUCTION MOTORS

An asynchronous alternating current motor which operates during running speed conditions as a result of electromagnetic induction and which has at least two electrical conductors which are mounted or positioned in electromagnetic relationship with each other and for movement relative to each other, and in which alternating current energy delivered to one of the conductors ("primary" or "inducing" member) induces in the other of said conductors ("secondary" or "induced" member) an alternating current and the mechanical energy is obtained as a result of the electromagnetic inductive action between the magnetic field generated by the alternating current in the one conductor and the magnetic field generated by the induced current in the other conductor. The secondary or induced winding is usually short circuited or shunted by means of an impedance. An example of an induction motor is the squirrel cage motor, that is, a motor where the secondary winding consists of a plurality of short-circuited bars. See the definition of a "repulsion motor".

LINEAR MOVEMENT MOTORS

A motor having means for causing the working element to move in a substantially linear or uni-directional path. The path may be straight, curved, tortuous, or even closed upon itself, provided the movable element is not pivoted for rotation about an axis. The motor may have means for reversing the direction of movement of the movable element. Where the reversing means includes means for periodically or repeatedly reversing the motor at predetermined intervals, the motor system is considered to be an oscillating or reciprocating motor system. See the Glossary definition of Oscillating Or Reciprocating Motor.

MAGNETOSTRICTIVE MOTOR

A motor having a magnetizable member or which has its dimensions changed as a result of changing currents in the electromagnetic field producing means which effects the magnetizable member, the physical distortion or change in dimensions producing the mechanical energy.

MOTOR BRAKING CONTROL

Includes any device or means for applying a torque or force to the power output element of the electric motor in a direction which is in opposition to the motor torque or force (resulting from electrical energization of, or the kinetic or potential energy stored in, the motor) and tending to retard, stop or prevent movement of the motor--excepting, of course, mere useful load devices actuated by the motor, or such forces that are normally inherent in the motor structure, per se, such as bearing friction, windage, eddy current reaction, etc. However, means providing for substantially increased or accentuated eddy currents in the motor structure to increase the retarding or braking effect, are classified herein. Examples of braking means included herein, include, auxiliary eddy-current disks, electric generators, fans, pumps, propellers and other motor shaft loading devices when such devices are limited in the claims to the function of braking the motor. When such shaft loading devices are not limited as claimed to the function of braking, classification is not herein, but in some other appropriate place. For the distinction between braking control and deceleration control see the definition of Acceleration Control in the Glossary. Braking of the motor to control the running speed of the motor (e.g., to maintain the speed constant) is classified in the running speed control subclasses. For the distinction between motor braking and motor reversing, see reversing control below.

MOTOR DECELERATION CONTROL

See the definition of motor acceleration control in the definition of motor deceleration control.

MOTOR LOAD CONTROL

Controlling the mechanical load actuated by the motor or controlling the motor armature or primary current during the starting and/or stopping period of the motor. Where the current is controlled to control the acceleration or deceleration of the motor, the system is classified as motor acceleration or deceleration control, see section IB4a of the class definition. Where the current is controlled to effect motor braking the system is classified as braking control see the definition acceleration control.

MOTOR OPERATION CONTROL

See the Glossary terms Acceleration Control; Automatic Starting and Stopping; Motor Braking Control, Motor Deceleration Control; Motor Load Control, Reversing Control, Running Speed Control; Starting And/Or Stopping; Diverse Motor Operations.

NONMAGNETIC MOTOR

A motor having means other than a magnetic field producing means for producing a mechanical force. Example of nonmagnetic motors are piezo-electric crystals, thermo-electric motors.

RECIPROCATING OR OSCILLATING MOTOR

A motor which is structurally arranged or constructed so as to have a limited degree of movement, and which is provided with means for moving the movable (working element) of the motor to-and-fro repeatedly over substantially the same path or arc of movement (including rotations about an axis co-incident with the geometrical or center-or-gravity axis of the movable element of the motor). Compare this definition and the definition of "LINEAR MOVEMENT MOTORS".

SPECIAL TYPES OF MOTORS:

The several designations applied to distinguish the several types of motors such as series motors, induction motors, synchronous motors, etc., shall apply to those motors whose normal running characteristics are so described. Thus a synchronous motor is one which runs as a synchronous motor under normal running or load conditions. This is true even though the motor may be driven by some other device either (mechanical or electrical) during the starting and/or accelerating period or may operate on some other motor principle during the starting or accelerating period. Such an instance may be illustrated by a synchronous motor which is provided with means to cause it to start as an induction motor and subsequently and normally run at synchronous speed. Such a motor is considered to be a synchronous motor, since under normal running conditions, it exhibits all the characteristics of a synchronous motor.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR

An alternating-current or a pulsating current motor which, under running-speed conditions, operates at an average speed which is always exactly proportional to the frequency or periodicity of the source which supplies electric energy to the armature or primary circuit of the motor and which speed is independent of the voltage of the source, the magnitude of the field excitation, or the load on the motor.

REPULSION MOTOR

An induction motor (defined in INDUCTION MOTORS above) in which the secondary or induced member is provided with a commutator, the commutator being engaged with a pair of circumferencially spaced short-circuited brushes, and in which either means (e.g., an auxiliary winding) is provided in inductive relation to the secondary to produce a magnetic field in time phase with, and displaced in relation to, the field produced by the primary or inducing member, or the brushes are displaced from the mid-position between adjacent primary (winding) pole positions whereby the motor may operate continuously under running-speed conditions. See the definition of self-commutated impulse or reluctance motors.

SERIES MOTOR

A motor having at least one field producing winding and at least one armature winding, all of the field-producing windings which are connected to be energized being electrically connected in series-circuit relationship with all of the armature windings which are connected to be energized.

SELF-COMMUTATED IMPULSE OR RELUCTANCE MOTORS

A rotary motor of the type in which the rotor element tends to assume a predetermined angular position when the motor is continuously energized and is provided with a commutator or circuit making and breaking device which is actuated by the motor to determine the instants of time at which the field producing windings thereof are energized and de-energized relative to the angular position of the rotary element. See the definition of a Repulsion Motor above.

REVERSING CONTROL

Motor systems in which means are provided for operating the motor in one direction at one time and in the opposite direction at another time, or for causing the motor to operate in a direction opposite to that in which it has previously been operating. In reversing motor systems, means must be provided for causing the motor to produce a torque in both directions of operations. Where the motor current is controlled only to bring the motor to a stop or to brake the motor, there being no operation in the reverse direction, the system is classified as motor braking or as motor deceleration control, depending upon whether the motor is merely braked or whether the rate of deceleration is controlled. See the class definition for a definition of deceleration control and motor braking control in the class definition for a definition of braking control.

RUNNING SPEED CONTROL

Motor systems in which means are provided for regulating or controlling the speed of an electric motor after it has been accelerated to some operating speed at which it is designed to run until the work or useful load device driven by the motor has performed its duty at that speed.

(1) Note. Means for controlling the speed of the motor during the starting or accelerating period of operation (i.e., means for controlling the rate of change of speed) are not classified herein even though the claims may term such control as "speed" control, but are classified under "acceleration". For a definition of acceleration control, see section IB4a, of the class definition. Since it is common practice to use the acceleration means for also controlling the running-speed of the motor, patents in which both acceleration and running-speed are claimed and in which both controls are effected by precisely the same means in whole or in part, classification will be on the basis of acceleration control only. Under these circumstances of control when some claims refer only to "running-speed" control and/or some other claims refer only to acceleration control, classification will only be on the basis of the acceleration control. When, however, acceleration and running-speed control means are claimed in combination and any means not a part of the acceleration means are used to control the running-speed, classification will be on the basis of combined motor-operation controls including acceleration and running-speed control. Where means are employed to affect the magnitude of the running-speed of an electric motor and the magnitude of the means (e.g., resistance, reactance, voltage, etc.), or the position (e.g., angle of brush position), of the running-speed control means is not varied or changed, either inherently or otherwise, at any time during the period of acceleration, classification will be on the basis of running-speed control and not on the basis of acceleration control even though there may be some effect on the rate of acceleration. For example, a motor speed control system comprising a fixed resistor connected in the armature circuit, the magnitude of the resistance of which resistor does not vary appreciably under the conditions of use and which resistor is not varied or removed from the circuit during the acceleration period is classifiable under running speed control and not under acceleration control. Since some running-speed control means may be similar or even identical with some acceleration control means, searches for motor acceleration control should be, in appropriate instances, extended to include the running-speed control art.

STARTING AND/OR STOPPING

Generally, the only motor systems classified as starting and stopping are those where the supply circuit to the motor is merely closed in the case of starting, or the supply circuit is opened in the case of stopping, there being no control of the rate of starting or stopping, or no auxiliary means to brake the motor. See the definition of acceleration control of the class definition for the starting and/or stopping systems which include motor acceleration and/or deceleration control means. See the definition of motor braking control of the class definition for the stopping systems which include motor braking. See the definition of motor braking control for the class definition for motor systems where the armature or primary circuit is controlled during the starting and/or stopping period for purposes other than motor acceleration, deceleration or braking control. Motor systems having only starting and/or stopping control are classified in the miscellaneous subclasses of this class. See Subclass References to the Current Class for motor systems where automatically controlled means control the starting and/or stopping and for the motor systems where the system includes a three or more position motor controller to control the starting and/or stopping.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 1]    1ELECTRIC MOTOR WITH NONMOTOR DRIVING MEANS (E.G., AXLE DRIVE, MANUAL DRIVE):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which one or more electric motors are combined with one or more means (other than a motor) for driving or actuating one or more load devices, e.g., axle drives.
(1) Note. See Electric Motor Combined With Other Driving Means in the Class Definition for the line between this class and other classes which provide for the combination of an electric motor and a nonelectric motor.
(2) Note. Where the electric motor or motors and other driving means drive or are part of an art device, classification is with the art device and not in this class. See Load Device Driven By The Motor in the Class Definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

5,for plural electric motor drives for plural particular load devices.
8,for plural electric motor drives for single particular load devices.
34+,for plural electric motor drives arranged to drive one or more general load devices.
150,and 161, for motors combined with flywheels for actuating load devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

60Power Plants,   subclass 698 for the combination of plural diverse motors, including electrical motor combined with nonelectrical motors.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 165+ and 508+ for plural expansible chamber motors.
185Motors: Spring, Weight, or Animal Powered,   is the generic class of motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 2]    2Manual driving means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter in which one or more electric motors are combined with manually actuated means for driving or actuating one or more load devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 479.01 for plural controlling or actuating elements for levers and linkages in general and subclasses 625+ for alternate hand or power operators, where no electric motor control is claimed.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 9 for systems wherein a generator is actuated by plural driving means, one of them being manual.
475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   subclasses 1+ for inputs from independent power sources to a planetary gear transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 3]    3WITH PARTICULAR MOTOR-DRIVEN LOAD DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which one or more electric motors are connected or arranged to be connected to actuate one or more particular or specific load devices which load devices must constitute a significant part of the combination; and in which means are also provided for controlling or supplying electric energy to the electric motor or motors.
(1) Note. See Load Device Driven By The Motor, in the Class Definition for a statement in regard to the combination of electric motors and load devices driven thereby included to this class.
(2) Note. Significant power, torque, force or motion transmitting mechanism is considered to be a particular or specific load device for classification in this or the indented subclasses. See Motor Systems and Power, Motion, Force or Torque Transmitting Devices Driven Thereby, in the Class Definition for the combinations of motor supply and/or control and the power, torque, force or motion transmitting mechanism driven thereby which are included in this class.
(3) Note. Where the particular load device is a flywheel merely, classification is not herein but in appropriate subclasses below. See the Search notes below.
(4) Note. See the classes listed under the class definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39,for electric motor systems of the work and feed or indexing type of motor combination where there are a plurality of motors.
161,for an electric motor driving a flywheel, see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 4]    4Plural, diverse or diversely controlled load device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter in which there are two or more particular load devices driven by one or more electric motors and in which one or more of the load devices are structurally different from or are operated or controlled differently (e.g., with respect to time, mode or degree of operation or control, particular means employed to effect the operation or control) than one or more of the other of the load devices.
(1) Note. Where the plural driven devices operate as a unit, all receiving the same kind and degree of control so that they function as a single (although sometimes variable) unit, classification will be in this class along with the single driven devices.
(2) Note. Where two or more load devices are claimed and at least one of the load devices is significantly claimed, classification will be in this subclass or a subclass indented hereunder.
(3) Note. This and the indented subclass include the combination of an electric motor driving a particular or specific load device and a power, force or motion transmitting mechanism, the latter mechanism having means for driving a load device other than the first mentioned particular or specific load device.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 5]    5Plural motor drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter in which two or more electric motors are provided to drive the driven devices and in which one of the motors is arranged to drive one of the driven devices and another of the motors is arranged to drive another of the driven devices; or, in which one of the motors is supplied with electrical energy differently or is controlled differently with respect to time, load, speed, etc., from another of the motors, or in which one of the motors is substantially different structurally from another motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1,for subject matter within the class definition having an electric motor driving means and a nonmotor driving means.
8+,for plural electric motors driving single particular load devices.
34+,for miscellaneous plural electric motor systems within the class definition.
39,for electric motor systems of the work and feed or indexing type of motor combination where there are a plurality of motors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 165+ and 508+ for plural expansible chamber motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 6]    6Tension-maintaining type of motor-control system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling one or more electric motors so as to control the tension or tautness in a material being driven, conveyed, or otherwise moved by the motor at some predetermined value or within some predetermined limits.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

362+,for patents relating to braking of load devices driven by electric motors.
432,for patents relating to constant motor current or load or torque control.
436,for patents relating to motor systems for producing torque while the motor is not running but is still energized.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

72Metal Deforming,   subclass 6 for a metal-shaping apparatus combined with a condition responsive device for automatically controlling the operation of the apparatus and subclass 183 for a metal deforming apparatus for deflecting successively presented portions of work by tension applied thereto.
112Sewing,   subclass 254 for tensioning devices for sewing machines.
114Ships,   subclasses 213+ for tension relieving devices on ships.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 10 for a feeder controlled by the tension in a strand or web.
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 410+ and 147+ for a device for controlling tension in a running length of elongated material.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 274+ for apparatus for hauling or hoisting a load, including a cable-pulling drum having a mechanism linked to the drum, or a rotating element of the drive for the drum, for generating a control impulse to the drive motor of the drum when the torque on the drum varies.
440Marine Propulsion,   subclass 34 for ship towing by cables, wherein means may be provided for controlling the cable tension or tautness.
474Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems or Components,   subclasses 101+ for means for adjusting belt tension in a power transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 7]    7Plural, diverse or diversely controlled motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Subject matter in which two or more motors are controlled and in which one or more of the motors are controlled differently from one or more other of the motors.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

34,and the subclasses specified in the notes to the definitions of those subclasses, for plural electric motor systems in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 8]    8Plural, diverse or diversely controlled driving motors (e.g., driving differential gearing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter in which two or more electric motors are employed to drive a particular load device and in which one or more of the motors (1) are substantially different, structurally, or (2) are controlled or operated differently with respect to time, load, speed, etc., from one or more other of the motors.
(1) Note. This subclass includes subject matter within the class definition where plural diverse or diversely controlled electric motors drive differential gearing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1,for subject matter within the class definition having an electric motor driving means and a nonmotor driving means.
5,for plural electric motors driving plural diverse, or diversely controlled particular load devices.
7,for this subject matter where the plural motors control the tension or tautness of a material being driven, conveyed or moved by the motor.
34,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definitions of those subclasses for other plural electric motor systems within the class definition.
39,for electric motor systems of the work and feed or indexing type of motor combination where there are a plurality of motors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

60Power Plants,   subclass 716 a system of plural motors having a common output and not provided for elsewhere. See the search note in the definition of subclass 698 of Class 60.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 165+ and 508+ for plural expansible chamber motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 9]    9Power- or motion-transmitting mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter in which the particular motor driven device comprises means for receiving and transmitting mechanical power, torque, force, or motion from the electric motor to some load device adapted to be actuated thereby.
(1) Note. Motor Systems and Power, Motion, Force or Torque Transmitting Devices Driven Thereby in the class definition for the combinations of an electric motor and a power, torque, force or motion transmitting mechanism included in this class.
(2) Note. This subclass excludes motor driven clutches and motor driven magnetic field type of transmitting device. See Search Class below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

4+,for such transmitting mechanisms in combination with other particular load devices, all actuated by electric motors, the transmitting mechanism having means for driving a load device other than the particular load device.
8,for such a transmitting mechanism driven by two or more electric motors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 75+ for electric motors having drive mechanism therefor, and subclasses 92+ for the combination of an electric motor and a magnetic field type of transmitting mechanism. See (1) Note above.
477Interrelated Power Delivery Controls, Including Engine Control,   for interrelated control between a motor and a transmission, clutch, or brake. See (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 10]    10Reversible drive mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter in which the means driven by the motor is adapted to drive a load shaft or device in a forward and in a reverse direction without reversing the direction of operation of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 202 , 355, 361, 376+, 404, and other appropriate subclasses for reversing gearing, and also "Mechanical movement" subclasses involving oscillating or reciprocating motions.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclass 21 for the combination of a clutch and a reversing gear.
474Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems and Components,   subclasses 1+ for control for forward and reverse in an endless belt power transmission.
475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   appropriate subclasses for reversing gearing in planetary transmissions.
476Friction Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   subclasses 15+ for friction gear transmissions having a forward and reverse feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 11]    11Variable speed mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter in which the transmitting mechanism is adapted to drive a load device at two or more speeds for a given single speed of the electric motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8,for variable speed power or motion transmitting mechanism (differential gearing) driven by plural diverse or diversely controlled electric motors, as by driving two input shafts, to obtain a variable speed of the output shaft of the gearing.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclasses for the particular mechanical variable speed transmission device, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 92+ for variable speed magnetic-field type clutch driven by electric or other motors.
474Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems or Components,   appropriate subclasses for a variable speed endless belt power transmission.
475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   appropriate subclasses for variable speed gearing in planetary transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 12]    12Gearing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Subject matter in which the variable speed transmission is mechanical gearing provided with means for producing two or more output speeds when the input or receiving element thereof is being driven at a single speed.
(1) Note. For a definition of "mechanical gearing", see (1) Note under subclass 15, hereinafter.
(2) Note. See the combination of an electric motor system of the type classifiable in the class definition, for a reference to the electric motor driven gearing in this class.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

15,for miscellaneous electric motor driven mechanical gearing within the class definition. See Note 1 above.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 640+ for the structure of the variable speed gearing, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 83 for gear drives for electrical generators or motors.
475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   appropriate subclasses for variable speed planetary gearing.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 13]    13Differential type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter in which the variable speed gearing is a differential gearing with means for varying the output speed of the gearing when the speed of the driving electric motor is at a predetermined single value.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8,for this subject matter where the differential gearing is driven by plural, diverse, or diversely controlled electric motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 14]    14Motion-converting mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter in which the power transmitting mechanism is a device which receives a force or motion from an electric motor having one type or kind of motion (i.e., rotary, linear, etc.) and delivers the force or motion by an element of the device which moves with a different type or kind of motion (i.e., linear, reciprocating, rotary, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses under "Mechanical Movements" beginning with subclass 20 for details of the motion converting mechanism, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 80+ for motion converting drive mechanism for an electric motor and subclasses 92+ for magnetically energized motion converting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 15]    15Mechanical gearing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter in which the power transmitting mechanism is a mechanical gearing or gear.
(1) Note. For purposes of this class, "Mechanical Gearing" is described as a device comprising two or more relatively rotatable solid bodies each provided with interengaging elements or frictional contact surfaces whereby one or more of the relatively rotating bodies, operating in rolling contact with another of said bodies, will transmit to or receive force or motion from said other body by virtue of such rolling contact. This includes belt gearing. Also a "gear" is described as one of the relatively rotating bodies in the preceding paragraph.
(2) Note. See the combination of an electric motor system of the type classifiable, for a reference to the electric motor driven gearing in this class.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8,for mechanical gearing driven by plural diverse or diversely controlled electric motors.
10,for electric motor driven reversible gearing.
12,for electric motor driven variable speed gearing.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   for gearing, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 83 for gear drives for electric motors.
474Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems or Components,   appropriate subclasses for an endless belt power transmission.
475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   for planetary gearing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 16]    16SUPPLIED OR CONTROLLED BY SPACE-TRANSMITTED ELECTROMAGNETIC OR ELECTROSTATIC ENERGY (E.G., BY RADIO):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the electric motor is supplied with and/or controlled by electric space-transmitted electromagnetic or electrostatic energy. (e.g., radio energy).
(1) Note. Unitary or structurally organized devices commonly known as electromagnets, electric motors, electrostatic motors, etc., in which an air gap or a displaceable dielectric or nonmagnetic substance is present and across which electromagnetic or electrostatic lines of force extend to an armature thereof, are not included in the above recited means.
(2) Note. The magnitude of the distance between the transmitter of energy or signals and the receiver is not critical since they may be separated merely by a thin membrane, a wall between rooms, or miles between stations.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for motor systems within the class definition which are controlled by radiant energy, other than electromagnetic or electrostatic energy.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

191Electricity: Transmission to Vehicles,   subclass 10 for electrical transmission to vehicles by magnetic induction.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 175+ is the generic subclass for systems and apparatus for automatically controlling the steering of a mobile device in two or three dimensions by electrical means, including such control systems which utilize radiant energy. See the Notes to the definition of that subclass for the other classes which provide for systems and apparatus for the control of the steering or motion of mobile devices and for a statement as to the lines between the classes.
334Tuners,   subclass 9 for a remote controlled variable tuner having an electromagnetic operator.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 12.22 , 12.5-12.53, and 13.24-13.26 are the generic subclasses for systems for the control of apparatus and devices at a distance by means of radio wave energy.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 61+ for radio wave signal control if reflected or otherwise returned (e.g., radar) energy is utilized; subclasses 422+ provides for direction finding receivers having movable antennas which are orientated in the direction of the received signal by means of an electric motor system. See the search notes in Class 342 for other subclasses and classes which provide for radiant energy systems for controlling apparatus and devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 17]    17PORTABLE-MOUNTED MOTOR AND/OR PORTABLE-MOUNTED ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS THEREFOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for portably supporting an electric motor or the electrical system of supply and/or control therefor, the supporting means being particularly adapted for moving the motor or the system from one place to a different place.
(1) Note. By way of example only, the following means are illustrative of portably-supporting means included in this subclass: runners or skids, wheels or rollers, drags or "stone-boats", floating devices or boats, vehicle, airplane, lighter-than-aircraft, etc.
(2) Note. Where the motor is limited to actuating means which propel the supporting means therefor, classification is not in this class but in motor vehicles or in some other appropriate class except in those instances where the combination is nominal and is classified on basis of subcombination elsewhere in this class.
(3) Note. Handles, hooks, eyes, etc., connected to, attached, or built-in a motor are not considered as portably mounting means.
(4) Note. Electric motors with means for adjustable positioning the motor on an otherwise fixed support for the purpose of alignment, levelling, belt-tightening, etc., are not included herein.
(5) Note. See the classes listed under "Search Class" in the class definition for other classes which provide for portably mounted electric motors or portable systems for electric motors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 47 for portable or hand held rotary magnetic motors and subclass 50 for portable rotary electric motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 34]    34PLURAL, DIVERSE OR DIVERSELY CONTROLLED ELECTRIC MOTORS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which there are two or more electric motors forming the ultimate load on the system of which one or more thereof are: (1) Substantially structurally different than, or (2) Supplied by substantially different sources of electrical supply than, or (3) Controlled substantially differently than one or more others of the motors.
(1) Note. For example only, it is interpreted that: (1) Motors differ structurally when they are different in size, capacity, structural details, etc.; (2) Motors are supplied by different sources of supply when the sources differ (a) in kind or type (e.g., AC and DC, generators and electrical converters, different types of electrical converters, different types of generators, etc.) or (b) when the sources differ in size or capacity, or in magnitude of an electrical characteristic thereof, such for example as frequency, voltage; (3) Motors are controlled differently when they are controlled at different times, in different degrees or magnitude, by different control means, by control means in different motor circuits, etc.
(2) Note. When the system of supply and control is not limited as above, that is, when the motors are controlled as a unit, classification will be in the subclasses with single motors.
(3) Note. The several motors must have a useful output severally and individually (i.e., they must be "work" motors). When a motor merely actuates a control element for controlling another motor, such motor is not a useful output or work motor such as is classified herein.
(4) Note. Plural motors implies the existence of two distinct motors. Two distinct motors may be encased in a common housing, be intricately interfitting, or mounted on a common base. However, each must have its distinct field structure and its distinct primary or armature structure, and each must be magnetically distinct, from the other. A motor element having a common field structure, a common field flux or a common path for the field flux, even though excited by separate windings fed from each armature and two separate armature structures, is not considered a plural motor device. Likewise, a common armature with separate windings supplied by different sources, but in which the fluxes traverse common parts or paths is not a plural motor device.
(5) Note. Motor systems having a plurality of motors, one or more of which run at a constant speed or are not provided with any significant motor control means, and only one of the motors being provided with significant control means, are not classified in subclasses 34+, but will be found in the subclasses below which provide for the control system for the single motor which is controlled.

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5,for this subject matter where two or more motors drive plural particular load devices.
7,for this subject matter where the plural motors control the tension or tautness of a material being driven or moved by the motors.
8,for this subject matter where two or more motors drive a particular load device.
19,for this subject matter where the system has two or more follow-up motors.

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60Power Plants,   subclasses 698+ for plural motors in general, including the combination of an electrical motor and a nonelectrical motor. See the search notes in the definition of subclass 698 of Class 60 for a listing of plural motor subclasses.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 165+ and 508+ for plural expansible chamber motors.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclass 4 for electric generation systems having two or more prime movers, at least one of which is a nonelectric prime mover, for actuating a generator or generators.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 112+ for plural rotary dynamo-electric units electrically distinct but structurally united; subclasses 114+ for rotary electric motors or generators having plural rotors; subclasses 127+ for electric motors having two or more commutator and/or sets of slip rings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 35]    35Motors with diverse motions (e.g., reciprocating and rotary motors):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which there are one or more motors having one kind of driving or output motion (e.g., rotary motion) and one or more other motors having another king of output or driving motion (e.g., linear motion) and wherein the motors are each adapted to drive or actuate a useful load device separately or in common.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 37]    37Plural reciprocating or oscillating motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which two or more of the diverse or diversely controlled motors are reciprocating or oscillating motors.
(1) Note. See Reciprocating or Oscillating Motor, for the definition of a "reciprocating or oscillating" motor.

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119+,for miscellaneous reciprocating or oscillating motor systems in this class.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 15+ for reciprocating motors and subclass 36 for oscillating motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 38]    38Plural linear-movement motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which two or more of the diverse or diversely controlled motors are linear-movement motors.
(1) Note. For the definition of "linear-movement motors", see Linear Movement Motors. of the class definition.

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135,for miscellaneous linear-movement motors in this class.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 12.01 through 12.33for a linear motor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 39]    39Work and feed motors (e.g., indexing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which one or more electric motors, hereinafter referred to as "work" motors, are arranged to actuate means for producing relative motion between: (1) a thing to be treated, traversed or operated on, hereinafter referred to as the "work", and (2), a tool, or traversing or operating mechanism, hereinafter referred to as the "tool", the tool being adapted to perform some work or operation on or with respect to the work, combined with one or more other electric motors, hereinafter referred to as the "feed" or "indexing" motors, arranged to control; (3) the rate of feed of the "work" to the "tool" or vice versa, or (4) the position of the "tool", spacially or angularly, relative to the path of movement of the work or the tool whichever is driven by the work motor.
(1) Note. In accordance with the class definition, when the work and feed motor combination is limited to actuating particular driven devices, classification will not be in this subclass (39) but will be classified in some other class. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class. Inclusion of the devices operated by the motors by name only, such as a "reciprocating table", or "a carriage", a "movable tool holder" where no significant structure of the machine operated by the motors, will not be sufficient to exclude the patent from this subclass. When, however, the motors are claimed as being related as work and feed or indexing motors with respect to each other and their operations are related to each other, classification will be in this subclass. Designation of the motors as "work" and "feed" or "indexing" motors is sufficient basis for classification herein.

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3+,for motor systems having particular load devices, see subclass 4 where the motors drive a plurality of load devices, and subclass 8 for plural motor drives for a single particular load device.

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29Metal Working,   work and feed motor arrangements are found throughout the class, particularly note subclasses 33+ for combined machines employing work and feed motor combinations.
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   subclasses 5+ , 8+ and 14+ for the combination of a drilling machine of that class type with a control means actuated by an external stimulus.
409Gear Cutting, Milling, or Planing,   especially subclasses 10+ , 50+, 75+, 79+, 183+, 185+, 332, and 339+ for a work feed motor arrangement in combination with a gear cutting machine.
451Abrading,   cork and feed motor arrangements are found throughout the class, most being found in subclasses 1+ , 294, and 331+.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 40]    40Motor biased against rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means, other than an electric motor, are provided for causing the rotary work-element of one or more of the electric motors to tend to return to a previously occupied position when moved therefrom as a result of energization of the motor.

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119+,for motor systems having reciprocating or oscillating motors which are biassed to cause the movable element of the motor to move in one direction of the reciprocating movement.
159+,for miscellaneous motor systems having a motor which is biassed against rotation.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 470 for resiliently connected levers and linkage systems.
267Spring Devices,   for structure of spring devices, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 15+ for the structure of reciprocating motors having biasing means for causing the movable element to move in one direction of the reciprocating movement.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 131 for electric meters having biased pointers or indicators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 41]    41Having electrical synchronizing interconnections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for electrically interconnecting the winding of an electric motor to the winding of another electric motor, or for electrically interconnecting a winding on an auxiliary dynamo-electric machine connected to the rotor of an electric motor to the winding of an auxiliary dynamo-electric machine connected to the rotor of another electric motor; said interconnections being so arranged that when the two electric motors operate at predetermined relative speeds and/or phase relationships substantially no current flows in said interconnections, but that when said relative speeds or phase relationship depart from said relationships current flow occurs in the interconnection in a direction which tends to restore the said speed and/or phase relationships between the motors.

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24,and 30, for follow-up electric motor systems of the synchronous type in which the transmitter (a dynamo-electric machine) is electrically interconnected with the receiver (an electric motor) and in which movement of one machine tends to cause intercirculating currents to flow resulting in a tendency toward synchronous movement therewith of the other dynamo-electric machine.
45,for mechanically interconnected electric motors.
68,for miscellaneous plural motor systems having means for controlling the relative speeds of the motor.

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60Power Plants,   subclass 702 for synchronizing arrangements for nonelectric motors.
348Television,   subclasses 500+ for television systems having synchronizing systems for synchronizing motors at the transmitting and receiving stations with respect to each other.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 409 through 424for facsimile systems having synchronizing systems for synchronizing motors at the transmitting and receiving stations with respect to each other.
370Multiplex Communications,   subclasses 303+ for a multiplexing system having a rotary distributing switch at the transmitting and receiving stations.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 354+ for synchronizing systems for digital communications in general.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclass 34 for plural impellers having synchronizing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 42]    42Between windings on auxiliary dynamo-electric machines:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter in which an auxiliary dynamo-electric machine is connected to the rotors of each of two or more electric motors, and the synchronizing interconnections are connected between the windings on the auxiliary dynamo-electric machines.
(1) Note. These dynamo-electric machines normally operate as generators when the motors are operated at a predetermined speed and/or phase relationship and develop voltages that are substantially equal and in opposition to each other. When, the predetermined speed and/or phase relationships do not exist the magnitude or the phase of the opposing voltages is such as to cause one of the dynamo-electric machines to supply electric energy to the other, the delivering dynamo-electric machine thereby tending to load and hence reduce the speed of the motor to which it is connected and the receiving dynamo-electric machine tending to aid the electric motor to which it is connected and, hence, to tend to increase the speed thereof whereby the two motors are subjected to forces tending to restore the predetermined speed and/or phase relationship therebetween.

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71,for two or more motors each driving a tachometer generator the armature circuits of which are connected in series opposition with each other and also in series with some electric current responsive device to detect current flow in the circuits of the interconnected generators and as a result initiate changes in the relative speeds of the motors.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 32 for electrical systems in which two or more load circuits have control means for proportioning or dividing the total load therebetween; subclass 84 for parallel generators which supply energy to a useful load.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 43]    43D.C. or A.C. commutator motors with slip rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter in which each of the interconnected motors is either a direct-current motor or an alternating current motor having both a commutator and one or more slip rings, the synchronizing interconnections being connected to the slip rings.
(1) Note. See Alternating-Current Commutating Motor, for a definition of an "alternating current commutator" motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 44]    44Between induction motor secondaries:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter in which two or more of the motors are induction motors, the interconnections being made between the secondaries (induced windings).

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818+,for controlling induction motors by controlling the secondary circuit thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 45]    45Mechanically coupled in fixed ratio of movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for coupling, mechanically, the driving or output members of two or more motors in a fixed or predetermined ratio of movement.
(1) Note. Where one motor is connected to actuate an element of a second motor which element is not the working or output member of the second motor, classification is not in this subclass or subclasses indented hereunder but in some other appropriate subclass.
(2) Note. The following coupled motors are included in this subclass: (1) two motors rigidly and directly connected to a common load shaft whether in a common or separate housing so long as each of the motor units is a distinct unit capable of operating by itself; (2) two or more motors coupled together through a variable speed gearing which is adjustable to effect different coupling or speed ratios between the motors but when adjusted to any particular ratio, does not permit the motors to operate at any other ratio of speeds; (3) two or more motors positively but resiliently, connected to a common load shaft so that each motor is capable of slight movement relative to its shaft but further movement in the same direction is inhibited; (4) Two or more motors geared to a common load.
(3) Note. The following motors are not included in this subclass: (1) Two or more motors connected to a common load by any means where slippage or racing of one motor may occur relative to another; such, for example, as two motors driving separate wheels of a vehicle which wheels are not positively geared or linked together by a means other than the common smooth rail or roadbed. See subclass 52 for this subject matter.

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52,see Note 3 above.
137,for motor systems which include an auxiliary motor for producing mechanical torque on the principal during starting or acceleration periods only.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 49+ for multiple motored electric locomotives the several wheels or axles of which may be mechanically interconnected by means of parallel or side rods.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclass .02 for two motors coupled through a clutch.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 46]    46Motors having unlike operating characteristics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter in which one or more of the motors have electrical or mechanical characteristics which are different than the corresponding characteristic of one or more others of the motors.
(1) Note. For example, two motors having materially different speed-torque characteristics are included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 47]    47Synchronous and nonsynchronous motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter in which one or more of the motors is a synchronous motor and one or more others of the motors is a non-synchronous motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of a synchronous motor, see Synchronous Motor, of the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 48]    48Mechanically coupled in torque opposition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter in which one or more of the motors are connected to a rotary member so as to exert a torque therein in one direction and one or more others of the motors are connected to the same rotary member so as to exert torque therein in the opposite direction (either simultaneously or otherwise).
(1) Note. Usually, where the torque is applied simultaneously, the shaft is turned in one direction by the motor generating the largest torque.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 49]    49Motors electrically connected in cascade or tandem:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which there are one or more motors adapted to be connected to one or more sources of electric energy to convert part of the energy into mechanical energy and part into electrical energy and in which there are one or more other motors combined with means for supplying the last named motors with the converted electrical energy.
(1) Note. Arrangements within the definition of this subclass include: (1) a wound-secondary induction motor in the secondary circuit of which is connected the primary or armature windings of another AC motor, both motors, being adapted to perform useful work; (2) A direct current motor adapted to perform useful work and in addition thereto driving a d-c generator the output of which is supplied to another electric motor.
(2) Note. Means may be provided for also connecting the same motors in other relations with each other. For example the circuit may be arranged so that the motors may be connected in cascade, or in series or in parallel.
(3) Note. For cascade arrangements the armatures of the several motors may not be connected conductively in series; that is, the same current may not pass through one motor and then be conducted on to another motor electrically in series with said one motor. Usually, the armature of one motor is connected to the secondary of another (induction) motor. The s:graphic in this Note may be considered to depict plural motors with separate sources of supply, also they may be considered to be electrically in series.

Image 1 for class 318 subclass 49

(4) Note. When electric energy is led to one machine which may be referred to as a "motor" but which serves only to convert electrical energy and to supply the converted energy to a motor which has a mechanical energy output, the first machine is merely considered a converter and not a motor.

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45+,for this subject matter where two or more cascade connected motors are mechanically coupled together in a fixed or predetermined ratio of movement.
731+,for doubly fed induction motor systems e.g., where both the primary and secondary windings of the motor are connected to sources of electric energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 50]    50With means for effecting other motor interconnections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 49.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the motors in electrical relationship with each other in other than cascade or tandem relation.
(1) Note. For example, the system may be arranged so that the motors may be connected in cascade or tandem, or in series, or in parallel.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 51]    51Plural, diverse motor controls for different motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling one or more motors to effect one operational control thereof and for controlling one or more other motors to effect a different operational control thereof.
(1) Note. This subclass is designed to include systems in which the controls for different motors (which may be of the same type) differ from each other; i.e., substantially the same operational control is not exercised over all motors. The same kind or type of control applied to different motors merely at different times is not included herein. For example, see subclass 67 for plural motor systems where means are provided for running one motor at a different speed from another, and subclass 91 for plural motor systems having means to accelerate or decelerate the motors in succession or selectively.
(2) Note. For example, means may be provided for controlling the running speed only of one motor and for controlling the rate of acceleration only of another motor whether at the same or different times.

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35,for plural motor systems where one motor has a different type of motion from the motion of another motor (rotary motor and reciprocating motor).
39+,for work and feed or indexing motor combinations involving different controls for different motors.
53,for plural motor systems where the system includes means for effecting two or more diverse operations of the motors (reversing, running speed control, braking, acceleration, deceleration, automatic stopping or starting) the control operations being effected upon all the motors, either simultaneously or in sequence.
67,see Note 1 above.
91,see Note 1 above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 52]    52Slipping and/or racing control for electric motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for reducing the speed of, or reducing the electrical power input to, one or more electric motors when one or more of the electric motors is slipping or racing while operating as a motor.
(1) Note. This subclass includes means which sense: (1) A sudden increase in speed (that is, a high rate of change of speed) of one or more electric motors, or (2) A speed of one or more electric motors the speed of which is considerably in excess of normal or rated speed thereof, or (3) A substantial change in the relative speeds of two or more motors connected to operate a common load device or physically interconnected load devices so that the motors normally tend to operate at a predetermined ratio of speeds and effects a reduction in speed of one or more of the motors when the above speed conditions exist.
(2) Note. "Slipping" usually occurs when the motor fails to drive its load, through failure of the mechanical connection between the motor and load, and thereby increases its speed due to a lack of load on the motor. An example of slipping is the case of a traction motor driving a wheel, the wheel may fail to grip the rail or road bed and "spin", thereby reducing the load on the motor.
(3) Note. Where the control means affects the operation at all speeds loads such as maintaining the speed of or load on the motor or motors constant, or maintaining a predetermined load division between several motors, classification is not in this subclass, but is classified herein below in the appropriate subclasses.

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68+,for plural motor systems having relative running speed control of plural motors.
98+,for plural motor systems having loads or currents division between two or more motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 53]    53Plural, diverse motor controls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for effecting two or more diverse operations of two or more motors.
(1) Note. Combinations of the following single operations are included in this subclass: (a) Reversing control, (b) Acceleration control; (c) Running-speed control; (d) Braking control; (e) Motor Load control; (f) Automatic stopping and/or starting. The following are not considered to be a single operation such as when combined with only one of the operations in (a) to (f) or with each other form plural diverse motor-operation control for classification in these subclasses: (1) Phase or Power Factor control; (2) Temperature control of the motor; (3) Signalling, Testing, Indicating or measuring conditions in the motor or its system; (4) Ordinary (manual) stopping and/or starting; (5) Phase splitting or phase conversion to supply the motor; (6) Lubricating the motor. For example, operation (a) with any one or more of operations (1) to (6) are not classified in these subclasses.

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51,for this subject matter where the system includes plural motors in which one or more of the motors is controlled differently than one or more of the others.
67,for plural motor systems where the system includes means for running one of the motors at a different speed from the speed of another motor.
255+,for motor systems having plural, diverse motor operations control the single electric motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 54]    54Motor-reversing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Subject matter in which one of the control means is a means for reversing the motors.

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65+,for plural motor systems having means for controlling the reversing of the motors.
256+,for single motor systems having control means for reversing the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 55]    55With running-speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the running-speed of the motors.
(1) Note. When the means which is used for controlling the acceleration and/or deceleration of the motors is also used for controlling the running speed of the motors, no other running-speed control means being claimed, classification will be in an appropriate subclass which includes acceleration control. See subclasses 58, 61, 64 below.

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59+,and the subclasses specified in the search Notes thereto for other plural motor systems having means for running-speed control of plural motors, and another means for a different motor control operation.
64,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for other plural motor systems having means for controlling the acceleration of the motor and means for performing a different type of motor control operation. See Note (1) above.
257+,for single motor systems having the combination of reversing and running-speed controls.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 56]    56And braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for controlling the motors by braking the same.

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63,and the subclasses specified in the search Notes thereto, for other plural motor systems having controls of plural motors including braking thereof and another diverse type of operation.
258+,for single motor systems having means for the combined reversing, running-speed control and braking.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 57]    57And braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for controlling the motors by braking.

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56,for this subject matter where the system includes means for reversing and braking with running-speed control of the plural motors.
63,and the subclasses specified in the search Notes thereto, for other plural motor systems having means for controlling the braking and another different type of operation of the motor.
258+,and 261+, for the single motor systems having control means for reversing and braking the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 58]    58And acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the rate of the motors acceleration and or deceleration.

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64,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having means for controlling the acceleration and/or deceleration of the motors and means for performing a different motor control operation.
259,and 260, for single motor systems having means for the reversing and acceleration and/or deceleration of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 59]    59Running-speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the running speed of the motors in addition to one or more other motor operations.
(1) Note. Where the same means which is used for controlling the acceleration and/or deceleration of the motors is also used to control the running speed of the motors, no other running speed control being claimed, classification will not be herein but in the appropriate acceleration subclass.

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64,and the subclasses specified in the definition of that subclass for plural motor systems having means for controlling the acceleration of the motor and for performing another motor control operation.
66+,for plural motor systems having means for controlling the running speeds of the motors.
101+,for this subject matter where the system includes running-speed control and reversing control.
268,for single motor systems which have means for controlling the running speed of the motor and having means for performing another control operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 60]    60And braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for braking the motors.

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56,for this subject matter where the system includes means to control the running-speed, the braking and reversing.
63,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for plural motor systems having means for controlling the braking of the motors and for performing another control operation.
269+,and the subclasses specified in the search Notes thereto for single motor systems having combined running speed control and braking control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 61]    61And acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the acceleration and/or deceleration of the motors.

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55+,for this subject matter where the system includes means to control the running speed, acceleration and/or deceleration and reversing and with or without braking control of plural motors.
58,for this subject matter where the system includes means to control the acceleration and/or deceleration and reversing.
64,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for other plural motor systems having means to control the acceleration and/or deceleration and to perform a different motor control operation.
271,and the subclasses specified in the search Notes thereto, for combined running speed and acceleration and/or deceleration controls of single motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 62]    62And automatic starting and/or stopping and/or with time delay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for automatically starting and/or stopping the motors in response to one or more predetermined conditions and/or with means to effect a predetermined time delay in one or more operational controls of the motors.

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101,for plural motor systems having means for controlling the starting and/or stopping of the motor.
272,for single motor systems having combined running speed control and automatic starting and/or stopping for single motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 63]    63Braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Subject matter in which means are provided for braking the motors in addition to one or more other operational controls of the motors.

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56,for this subject matter where the system includes means for braking, controlling the running speed and reversing.
57,for this subject matter where the motor system includes means for braking and reversing.
60,for this subject matter where the motor system includes means for braking and controlling the running speed.
273,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto for single motor systems having braking control combined with other motor-operation-controls.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 64]    64Acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the rate of acceleration and/or deceleration of the motors.

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55,for this subject matter where the system includes means to control the acceleration and/or deceleration, the running speed and reversing.
58,for this subject matter where the system includes means to control the acceleration and/or deceleration and reversing.
61,for this subject matter where the system includes means to control the acceleration and/or deceleration and the running speed.
63,for this subject matter where the system also includes means to control the braking.
90+,for plural motor systems provided with means for controlling the acceleration and/or deceleration of the motors.
276,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for single motor systems having acceleration and deceleration control combined with other motor operational controls.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 65]    65Motor-reversing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for causing two or more electric motors to operate in one direction at one time and in a reverse direction at another time.
(1) Note. Reversing the motor connections or reversing the application of power to the motors while running, and terminating the application of power to the motors prior to or substantially at the time when the speed of the motors approach zero speed is not included herein but is classified under braking. See subclasses 86+, for braking control for plural motors. There must be a substantial operation of the motors in a reverse direction to be classified herein.

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54+,for this subject matter where the system has means for reversing and performing a different control of plural motors.
86+,see Note (1) above.
280+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition for single motor systems with reversing control.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 127 for switching systems which respond to a reverse polarity.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclasses, especially Digest 15, for polarity control in a battery or capacitor charging or discharging system.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 5+ for generator polarity control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 66]    66Running-speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the running speed of two or more electric motors.
(1) Note. Where the same means which is used to control the acceleration and/or deceleration of the motor is also used to control the running speed of the motors, no other running control means being claimed, classification will not be herein but in the more appropriate acceleration subclass.

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59+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of those subclasses for this subject matter where the system includes means for running speed control and another different type of motor control.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 53+ for load current division among a plurality of generators, frequently by control of their running speed.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 800+ and 825+ for single motor running-speed control systems with, and without, feedback, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 67]    67Diverse speeds for different motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Subject matter in which means are provided for running one or more motors at one speed and one or more other motors at another speed simultaneously.
(1) Note. At times, all the motors may be run at the same speed.

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39,for work and feed or indexing motor control systems in which the work and feed motor may operate at different speeds.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 68]    68Relative motor speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling or regulating the speed of one or more electric motors relative to the speed of one or more other electric motors.
(1) Note. This or the indented subclasses do not include systems where the running speed of all the motors is controlled as a group.

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41+,for this subject matter where there are electrical synchronizing connections between a plurality of motors so that when the speed of one motor changes with respect to another motor, one of the motors will act either as a prime mover for a generator or as a generator to supply electric energy to the other motor.
45+,for plural motor systems where the motors have the driving members coupled mechanically together.
52,for this subject matter where means are provided for reducing the speed of or reducing the electric energy supplied to a motor when such motor is "slipping" or racing.
90+,for plural motor systems where the acceleration and/or deceleration of one motor may be related to the acceleration and/or deceleration of another motor.

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60Power Plants,   subclass 700 for plural motors of other types in which the speed of one or more motors may be controlled with reference to the speed of one or more other motors.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 511+ for controlling one expansible chamber motor in response to a condition of another.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclass 4 for plural prime movers one of which is nonelectric, driving electric generators in which the speed of one or more prime movers may be controlled relative to speed of one or more other prime movers.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 69]    69With speed-difference detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter in which means are provided for detecting or sensing a difference in speed between two or more of the motors and for initiating the operation of the means for controlling the relative speeds of the motors.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 507 for a device responsive to the difference in speed between two bodies.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 36 for systems wherein the speed of a generator is compared with the speed of a reference device (which might be an electric motor) and means are provided for regulating the speed of the generator relative to the reference device.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 800+ for single motor running-speed control systems with feedback.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 70]    70Electrical-type detectors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter in which the speed difference detecting or sensing means comprises an electrical device which, per se, generates, converts or controls electrical energy, or is activated thereby.
(1) Note. The detecting or sensing means itself must be an electrical device an not merely a nonelectrical device constituting an actuator for an electrical device. For example, an electromagnet having two windings and an armature actuated thereby wherein one winding is energized by current varying with the speed of one motor, the other winding energized by current varying with the speed of another motor and the armature, responsive to the resulting energization of the electromagnet, constitutes an electrical type detector; namely, an electromagnet. However, a differential gearing device, one gear of which is moved at a rate which varies with the speed of one motor, another gear which is moved at a rate varying with the speed of another motor and the output element of the gearing connected to actuate an electric switch is not an example of an electrical detector; but is a mechanical type detector (namely, a differential gear) functioning as an operator for an electrical device; namely, the switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 71]    71Voltage and/or current difference detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which each of two or more of the motors is provided with means for generating electrical voltages and/or currents or is provided with means for controlling a separate voltage or current, the detecting or sensing means being operated by the difference in magnitude between the two separately generated or controlled voltages or currents.

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41+,for plural motor systems where there are electrical synchronizing connections between a plurality or the motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 72]    72Dynamoelectric machine detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which a dynamoelectric machine is provided for sensing or detecting the difference in speed between two or more motors.
(1) Note. A common arrangement of a dynamoelectric machines as a detector comprises connecting the armature structure thereof to one motor and the field structure thereof to another motor with the result that when the motors run at the same speed both parts of the dynamoelectric machine will operate at the same speed and, no e.m.f. will be generated in the machine. When the motors operate at different speeds, the parts of the dynamoelectric machine will have relative motion with respect to each other and will generate an e.m.f. which will have a magnitude which is proportional to the magnitude of the difference in speeds of the two parts of the dynamoelectric machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 73]    73Synchronously operated impedance detectors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the detector comprises an impedance device having one or more parts driven synchronously with one or more motors and one or more other parts of the impedance driven synchronously with one or more other motors; or one or more parts of an impedance is actuated synchronously with one or more motors and one or more parts of another impedance device is actuated synchronously with one or more other motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 74]    74Synchronously actuated switch detectors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the detector comprises one or more electric switches one or more parts of which switches are operated synchronously with one or more motors and one or more other parts of the switches are operated synchronously with one or more other motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 75]    75Plural switches connected in series:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Subject matter in which the detector comprises two or more electric switches connected electrically in series with each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 76]    76Differential-gearing detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter in which the detector comprises a differential gearing device in which an input element of the gearing is driven by one or more motors another input element is driven by one or more other motors so that the differential or output element of the gearing operates in response to the relative speeds of the motors.

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8,for motor systems in this class having a plurality of motors driving a differential gearing as the load device for the motors.

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475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   appropriate subclasses for control of plural power sources and for differential planetary gearing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 77]    77Controlling motor speed in response to speed of another motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the speed of a motor in response to changes in speed of another motor.

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41+,for plural motor systems having synchronizing interconnections between the motors so that one motor may supply energy to another motor when the speed ratio varies.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 78]    78Controlling A.C. frequency or rate of electrical impulses to other motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the speed of said other motor by controlling the frequency of alternating current supplied to said motor or by controlling the rate at which electrical impulses are supplied to said other motor.

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723+,for synchronous motor systems having frequency control of the supply current for the motors.
807+,for induction motor systems having frequency control of the supply of AC to the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 79]    79Control of both armature (or primary) and field (or secondary) circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the armature (or primary) circuit of one or more of the motors in combination with means for also controlling the field (or secondary) circuit of one or more motors, simultaneously or separately.
(1) Note. The armature and field which are controlled may be of the same or different motors.

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82+,for plural motor systems having means for controlling the group speed of plural motors by controlling the armature circuit of the motors.
84,for plural motor systems having means for controlling the group speed of plural motors by controlling the field circuit of the motors.
92,for plural motors systems having acceleration and/or deceleration control by the combined control of the armature and the field circuits.
493,and the subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems with combined control of the armature and the field circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 80]    80Armature or primary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the armature or primary circuit of one or more of the motors.

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41+,for plural motor systems having synchronizing interconnections between the motors so that the armature of one motor may be supplied with energy from the other motor when the speed ratio varies.
79,for this subject matter where the system includes armature circuit control combined with field circuit control.
82+,for plural motor systems having means for controlling the (group) speed of the plurality of electric motors by controlling the armature or primary circuits.
94+,for plural motor systems having armature circuit control means for controlling the acceleration and/or deceleration of a plurality of electric motors.
494+,and the subclasses specified in the search notes thereto, for motor systems having means for controlling the armature circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 81]    81Field secondary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the field or secondary circuit of one or more of the motors.

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79,for this subject matter where the system includes field or secondary circuit control in combination with armature or primary circuit control.
84,for plural motor systems having field or secondary circuit control for controlling the (group) speed of a plurality of electric motors.
97,for plural motor systems having field circuit control for acceleration and/or deceleration control of the motors.
521+,and the subclasses specified in the search notes thereto, for motor systems having field circuit control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 82]    82Armature or primary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the armature or primary circuits of a plurality of motors to control the (group) speed of the motors.

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80,for this subject matter where the armature or primary circuit control is for controlling the relative speed of one motor with respect to another motor.
94,for plural motor systems having armature circuit control for controlling plural motors during the acceleration and/or deceleration of the motors.
494,and the subclasses listed under the search notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having armature circuit control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 83]    83Series-parallel armature circuit connections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the armature conductors or windings of one or more motors in series relationship with the armature conductors or windings of one or more other motors at one time and in parallel relationship therewith at another time; or for connecting the armature conductors or windings of one or more motors in series with the armature conductors or windings of one or more other motors and simultaneously connecting the armature conductors or windings of one or more third motors in parallel with the armature conductors or windings of one or more other motors.

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93,for plural motor systems having series parallel connection of the armature circuits of plural motors during the acceleration thereof.
111,and the subclasses listed in the search notes thereto, for other plural motor systems having series parallel connections of the armature windings.
497,and the subclasses specified in the search notes thereto, for single motor systems having parallel connections of two or more armature or primary windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 84]    84Field or secondary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the field circuit or the secondary circuit of two or more motors for controlling the (group) speed of the motors.

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79,for plural motor systems having combined armature and field circuit control for controlling the relative speed between two or more motors.
81,for plural motor systems having fields or secondary circuit control for controlling relative speed between two or more of the motors.
97,for plural motor systems having field or secondary circuit control of two or more motors during the acceleration period thereof.
521+,and the subclasses listed in the search notes thereto, for single motor systems having field circuit control for the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 85]    85Synchronizing or phasing control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for causing a movable motive element of one or more electric motors to occupy or assume a predetermined relative position or phase with respect to a movable motive element of one or more other electric motors either while stationary or while in motion.

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41+,for plural motor systems having electrical synchronizing interconnections between a plurality of motors for maintaining the motors in substantially constant speed and phase interrelationship.
45+,plural motor systems having a plurality of motors mechanically coupled (e.g., as by a common shaft) in a fixed or predetermined ratio of movement.
52+,for plural motor systems having means for controlling "slipping" or racing of one or more electric motors.
68+,for plural motor systems having speed control systems for controlling the running speed on one or more electric motors relative to the speed of one or more other electric motors including means for maintaining equal speeds and/or the same angular or phase relationships.
437,for single motor systems having means for phasing, or angular or linear positional control, of the motor.

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60Power Plants,   subclasses 698+ for means for synchronizing plural motors in general.
178Telegraphy,   see the classes referred to in the search notes of subclass 53 for other classes which provide for electrical systems for synchronization of rotary shafts.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 85+ for systems for connecting or disconnecting a plurality of previously synchronized generators.
370Multiplex Communications,   subclasses 304+ for synchronization of rotary switches in a multiplex system.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 354+ for synchronizing systems for pulse communications in general.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclass 34 for plural impellers having synchronizing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 86]    86Braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for braking the motors.
(1) Note. See Motor Braking Control, of the class definition for a definition of braking control.

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51,for plural motor systems having means for braking one or more motors and means for performing some other operational control to one or more other motors.
63,and the subclasses listed in the search notes thereto, for plural motor systems having means for braking plural motors combined with some other motor operation control for the motors.
362+,and the subclasses listed in the search notes thereto, for single motor systems having means for braking the motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 87]    87Motor used as braking generator (dynamic braking):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter in which braking is effected by means which cause one or more of the motors to operate as a generator thus retarding the motor and load devices operated thereby.

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375+,and the classes and subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto, for single motor systems having dynamic braking of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 88]    88Load or current division during braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the magnitude of the current delivered by one or more of the motors being braked relative to the magnitude of the current delivered by one or more others of the motors being braked.

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51+,for plural motor systems having means for braking one of the motors and means for performing a different control operation upon another motor.
98+,for plural motor systems having means for load or current division between plural motors during motor operation.

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290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   appropriate subclasses for load division between nonelectric motor driven generators in general.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 53 for systems of load current division among a plurality of generators or sources.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 89]    89Motor as exciter for another motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the generating or armature circuit of one or more of the motors to the field or exciting circuit of one or more others of the motors during the braking period to supply the exciting or field current to said other motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 90]    90Acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the acceleration and/or deceleration of two or more electric motors.
(1) Note. See the class definition, Glossary for a definition of "Acceleration Control".

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64,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having means for acceleration and/or deceleration control of two or more motors combined with another motor-operation control for the motors.

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388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 842+ and 848+ for single motor acceleration control systems with, and without, feedback, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 91]    91Accelerating motors in succession or selectively:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Subject matter in which means are provided for accelerating and/or deceleration of one or more electric motors and subsequently accelerating and/or decelerating one or more other electric motors; or in which means are provided for accelerating and/or decelerating two or more electric motors and with which means one or more of the motors can be accelerated and/or decelerated without accelerating one or more others of the motors.

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102,for plural motor systems having means for sequential or successive starting and/or stopping of two or more motors.
103,for plural motor systems having means for selectively starting and/or stopping one or more electric motors without starting and/or stopping one or more others of the motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 92]    92Control of both armature (or primary) and field (or secondary) circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling both the armature (or primary) circuits and the field or (secondary) circuits of the motors.

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79,and 82, for plural motor systems having combined armature (or primary) and field (or secondary) circuit control for running speed control of plural motors.
493,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having combined armature (or primary) and field (or secondary) circuits control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 93]    93Series-parallel connected armature or primary circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the armature or primary circuits of two or more electric motors in series circuit relationship with respect to each other at one time and in parallel circuit relationship with respect to each other at another time; or for connecting two or more electric motors in parallel circuit relationship with respect to each other and simultaneously two or more motors in series circuit relationship with respect to each other.
(1) Note. One of more of the motors in the parallel connected group referred to in the latter part of the above definition may constitute one or more of the motors in the series connected group. For example, a single motor may be connected in series with a group of three motors which three motors are all connected in parallel relationship with respect to one another.

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95,for plural motor systems having means for connecting the motor armatures in series-parallel connections for acceleration and/or deceleration control.
111,and the subclasses listed under the Search Notes thereto, for other plural motor systems having series-parallel arrangements of the plural motors.
497,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for single motor systems having series-parallel connections of two or more armature or primary windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 94]    94Armature or primary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the armature or primary circuits of the motors.

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82+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of the subclass, for armature or primary circuit control of plural motors during the running speed operation thereof.
92,for this subject matter where the system has armature circuit control combined with field circuit control for acceleration and/or deceleration control.
104,for plural motor systems having armature or primary circuit control of the motors during starting and/or stopping of the motor.
494,and the subclasses specified in the search notes thereto, for single motor systems having armature or primary circuit control of single motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 95]    95Series-parallel connections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the armature or primary circuits of two or more electric motors in series circuit relationship with respect to each other at one time and in parallel circuit relationship with respect to each other at another time; or for connecting the armature or primary circuits of two or more electric motors in series circuit relationship with respect to one another and simultaneously connecting the armature or primary circuits of two or more motors in parallel circuit relationship with respect to one another.
(1) Note. One or more of the motors in the parallel connected group, referred to in the latter part of the above definition, may constitute one or more of the motors in the series connected group. For example, a single motor may be connected in series with a group of three motors which three motors are all connected in parallel relationship with respect to one another.

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93,for this subject matter where means are provided for series parallel connection of the motor armatures combined with motor field control.
111,and the subclasses listed under the Search Notes in the definition of that subclass, for plural motor systems having series parallel arrangements of the motors.
495,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for miscellaneous motor systems having series parallel armature connecting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 96]    96With armature circuit impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter in which means are provided for providing impedance in the armature or primary circuits of the motors.
(1) Note. See Impedance or Impedance Device of the class definition for a definition of "impedance".
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 97]    97Field or secondary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the field or secondary circuits of the electric motors.

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84,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for plural motor systems having field circuit control for controlling the running speed of the motors.
100,for plural motor systems having field control for load control of the motors.
521,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having field or secondary circuit control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 98]    98Load control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the magnitude of the load which is driven or actuated by the motors, or for otherwise controlling the magnitude or amount of work done by the motors; or for controlling the division of load or current between the motors.

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5,and 8, for plural motor systems having plural motors employed to drive particular load devices, the system including motor load control means particularly in subclass 8 where plural motors drive an ultimate load device through a differential gearing whereby a predetermined ratio of load may be effected on the motors.
7,for plural motor systems where the relative torque on the motors may be controlled to effect a predetermined tension in a material driven or conveyed by the motors.
39,for plural motor systems of the work-and-feed-motor combination type where control of feed-motor may affect load on the work-motor.
41,for plural motor systems where the motors have electrical synchronizing interconnections in which the interconnection may affect the relative loads on the several motors.
45+,for plural motor systems where the armature or work output members of the motors are mechanically interconnected.
52,for plural motor systems having racing or slipping control which may affect the load on or between the several motors.
68+,for plural motor systems having the relative speed control between motors which may affect the load on or between the motors.
88,for plural motor systems having control of the load or current division between several motors during dynamic braking of motors.
101,for mere starting and/or stopping of the motors,
430+,for single motor systems having motor load control during the starting or stopping.
432,for single motor systems having means for maintaining a substantially constant load upon the motor.
434,for single motor systems having means for maintaining the load upon the motor from exceeding predetermined limits or going below a predetermined limit.
474,for single motor systems having automatic control of the motor in response to load conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 99]    99Fixed ratio of load or current division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the division of load current so that the ratio of division is or can be maintained at some fixed or predetermined ratio.
(1) Note. The means may be adjustable so that the ratio can be varied from one fixed or predetermined value to another.

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88,for plural motor systems having load or current division between motors when acting as generators during dynamic braking.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 32 for systems for proportioning the electrical energy supply to a plurality of load circuits and subclass 53 for systems of load division among a plurality of generators or sources.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 100]    100By field or secondary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the field or secondary circuits of the electric motors.

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521+,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor circuits having field circuit control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 101]    101Starting and/or stopping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for starting and/or stopping one or more of a group of two or more electric motors.
(1) Note. This subclass is a residual subclass for patents relating primarily to starting and/or stopping of electric motors. Starting and/or stopping of electric motors is an incident of, or is combined with many other motor operations controls. For example, when accelerating a motor from rest to its normal running speed the motor is started as a necessary incident; likewise in decelerating, or braking to a condition of inaction, a motor is stopped. Also in reversing, a motor is usually stopped and started in the reverse direction.

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18+,for follow-up systems of electric motor control wherein the motor is started as a result of the movement of the transmitter and stopped as a result of the stoppage of the transmitter.
53,for plural motor systems having automatic starting and/or stopping of plural motors in combination with other motor operations control.
90+,for plural motor systems having starting and/or stopping as a part of the acceleration and/or deceleration control of plural electric motors.

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192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclasses 116.5+ for means for terminating the transmission of power to various driven devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 102]    102Sequential or successive starting and/or stopping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Subject matter in which means are provided for starting or stopping two or more electric motors one after another.

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91,for plural motor systems having means for selectively accelerating and/or decelerating two or more motors one after another.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 103]    103Selective starting and/or stopping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Subject matter in which means are provided for starting or stopping one or more electric motors without starting and/or stopping one or more other electric motors.

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91,for plural motor systems having means for accelerating and/or decelerating plural motors, the system being arranged so that one or more motors can be accelerated and/or decelerated without accelerating and/or decelerating another motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 104]    104Armature (or primary) circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Subject matter in which means are provided in the armature (or primary) circuit for starting and/or stopping the motors.

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494,particularly 519+, for single motor systems having starting and/or stopping control by means of armature circuit control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 105]    105Plural, diverse or diversely controlled sources of armature (or primary) supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which two or more sources of electrical supply are provided to supply energy to the armature or primary circuits of the motors, one or more of which sources of supply are different in kind, type, degree or magnitude or are differently controlled, with respect to one or more others of the sources.

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440+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for other systems which comprise plural sources of supply for the armature circuits of motors.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 18+ for systems including a plurality of sources of supply for a plurality of loads, and subclasses 43+ for systems having a plurality of supply circuits or sources.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 86+ for generators having a field circuit energized from plural sources of supply.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 106]    106Diverse sources:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Subject matter in which one or more of the sources are substantially different in respect to (1) structure of the sources or (2) the nature or magnitude of an electrical characteristic of the sources, than one or more others of the sources.
(1) Note. For example, an internal combustion engine driven dynamo and an electric converter, or a secondary battery and a thermocouple are examples of diverse or unlike sources by virtue of their different structures; while two sources may differ from one another in their nature in that one may be AC and the other DC, or in the magnitude of electrical characteristics such as having different voltages or different frequencies, or different capacities.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 107]    107A.C. and D.C.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter in which the sources comprise one or more AC sources and one or more DC sources.
(1) Note. A "pulsating" source is a DC source for purposes of this class. Where, however, a DC source and an AC source are connected to a circuit to produce a pulsating current or voltage in the circuit, classification will be on the basis of plural Sources.

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441,for motor systems having the combination of AC and DC sources for a single motor.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 72+ for systems having a plurality of supply circuits or sources having unlike electrical characteristics.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 108]    108Different voltages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Subject matter in which one or more of the sources of supply, supply electric energy at one voltage magnitude and one or more others of the sources supply energy at another magnitude of voltage.
(1) Note. Two voltages are of different magnitudes if, at any time during normal operation, one of them has a magnitude substantially different in effective value than the other. Hence, if the magnitude of one of the sources is varied relative to the magnitude of the other so as not to be the same, the two sources are considered to be of different voltages.

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109,for plural motor systems having similar types of sources (e.g., all ac sources or all DC. sources) for the motors in which one or more of the sources differ in voltage magnitude from one or more others of the sources.
442,for motor systems having plural sources of supply for a single motor in which the voltages of the sources differ in magnitude from one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 109]    109Different voltages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter in which one or more of the sources differs in magnitude from one or more others of the sources.
(1) Note. Two voltages differ in magnitude when at any time one of them has a magnitude which differs in effective value from the magnitude of the other. Hence, if the magnitude of the voltage of one of the sources is varied relative to the magnitude of the voltage of another source, in order to make them different the two sources are considered to be of different magnitudes.

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108,for this subject matter where one of the voltage sources is an ac source and another is a DC source.
442,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to that subclass for motor systems having plural sources of supply for single motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 110]    110Different frequencies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter in which one or more of the sources have a different frequency than one or more others of the sources.

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440,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having plural sources of supply for a single motor which sources may differ in frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 111]    111Series-parallel connected motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the armature or primary windings of one or more electric motors in series circuit relationship with the armature or primary windings of one or more other electric motors at one time and in parallel circuit relationship at another time; or for connecting the armature or primary windings of one or more electric motors in series circuit relationship with the armature or primary windings of one or more other electric motors, and simultaneously connecting the armature or primary circuit of one or more electric motors in parallel circuit relationship with the armature of primary circuit of one or more other electric motors.
(1) Note. In the simultaneous series parallel relationship set forth in the latter half of the above definition, one or more of the motors connected in the series circuit relationship may constitute one or more of the motors which are connected in the parallel relationship.

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83+,for this subject matter where the series parallel connection of armature of primary circuits of the motors is for running speed control.
84,and 97, for series parallel connections of field windings of plural motors for running speed control and acceleration control, respectively.
93,and 95+, for this subject matter where the series parallel connection of the armature or primary circuits is for acceleration control.
95,see subclass 93 above.
97,see subclass 84 above.
497,and the subclasses specific in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having series parallel connections of plural armature or primary windings of a single electric motor.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 37 for plural load circuit systems in which the load circuits may be connected either in a series or parallel relationship, and subclass 71 for systems of plural electrical sources in which the sources may be connected either in a series or parallel relationship.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclass 192 and the Search Notes thereto for series parallel connected lamps and space discharge devices.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclasses for series or parallel connection of batteries in a system for charging or discharging a battery, especially subclasses 116+ .
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 112]    112Parallel connected motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the armature or primary circuits of one or more electric motors in parallel circuit relationship with the armature or primary circuits of one or more other electric motors.

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88,for this subject matter where the armature or primary circuits are connected in parallel for load or current division during braking.
98,for this subject matter where the armature or primary circuits are connected in parallel for load control.
111,for this subject matter where the armature circuits are connected in series at one time and in parallel at another, or where there are parallel connected armature circuits of plural motors and series connected armature circuits of plural motors.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 11+ for systems in which a plurality of loads or load circuits may be connected in parallel, and subclasses 43+ for systems in which a plurality of sources or supply circuits may be connected in parallel.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 312+ and the Search Notes thereto for parallel connected lamps and space discharge devices.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclasses for series or parallel connection of batteries in a system for charging or discharging a battery, especially subclasses 116+ .
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 113]    113Series connected motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the armature or primary circuits of one or more electric motors in series circuit relationship with the armature or primary circuits of one or more other electric motors.

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49+,for motor systems having plural motors electrically connected in cascade or in tandem (that is, where the electrical output of one constitutes the electrical input to another).
111,for plural motor systems in which the armature or primary circuits of a plurality of motors are connected both in series and in parallel.

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315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 185+ and the Search Notes thereto, for plural series-connected-electric lamp and space discharge devices.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclasses for series or parallel connection of batteries in a system for charging or discharging a battery, especially subclasses 116+ .
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 114]    114IMPACT, MECHANICAL SHOCK, OR VIBRATION-PRODUCING MOTORS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which (1) means are provided for actuating one or more parts of an electric motor relative to and into impact or percussive contact with one or more other parts which are either parts of the motor structure or are structurally combined with the motor (i.e., not merely other parts which constitute a device or work piece to be operated on by the motor and to which the motor may be attached or relatively positioned temporarily); or (2) the motor is a shock or vibration producing type of motor the prime or essential function of which motor is to transmit mechanical shock or vibrations to a mechanism or device upon which the motor may be supported or to which the motor may be clamped or otherwise secured.
(1) Note. A motor system having electric motor which is limited to having any useful output member other than that for producing impact shock or vibration as defined in parts (1) and (2) above, is not classified herein, but is classified in one of the other appropriate subclasses and cross-referenced to this subclass for the impact, shock or vibration producing feature.
(2) Note. The shock or vibration producing motor may be a rotary electric motor in which the rotary element is decidedly unbalanced dynamically so that upon rotation it will produce pronounced reactive forces to cause the motor frame to transmit forces to the support or body with which it may be in contact and, hence, cause shock or vibration in said support or body. For example, mere reciprocating or oscillating motors which may or may not produce impact by the movable motor element, depending on the proximity of the motor having the movable element to the work or device to be operated upon or to be actuated by the motor are not included herein but will be found in subclass 119.

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119,see Note 2 above.

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81Tools,   subclasses 463+ and see Notes thereto.
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   subclass 117 for an impacting device having a hammer head driven by an electric motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 115]    115MOTOR WITH DIVERSE MOTIONS (E.G., ROTARY AND RECIPROCATING):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for giving the working or output member of the motor two or more types of motion either simultaneously or not.
(1) Note. For example only, an electric motor which is adapted to rotate and simultaneously reciprocate is included herein. Likewise, a motor designed to rotate while DC is applied to its terminals and reciprocate when pulsating or AC is applied to its terminals is classified herein.

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35,for plural motors systems in which one or more motors has one type of motion another motor has a different type of motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 116]    116NONMAGNETIC MOTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which the electric motor converts electric to mechanical energy by means other than magnetic induction.
(1) Note. Examples of nonmagnetic motors are piezoelectric crystals, thermal-electric motors, electrostatic motors.

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36,for this subject matter where the system includes a plurality of non-magnetic motors.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 300+ for nondynamoelectric motors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 117]    117Thermoelectric motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 116.  Subject matter in which the motor comprises a member which undergoes substantial changes in shape, position and/or dimensions when heated, and means for electrical heating, the member.
(1) Note. When electric current is conducted through the above mentioned member thereby causing the member to become heated, separate heating means are not necessary.

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60Power Plants,   subclass 523 for a motor in which a confined unit of mass of gas is heated electrically to produce expansion; subclass 528 for a motor operated by the expansion of a solid mass heated by its resistance to flow of an electrical current; and subclass 513 for a motor operated by the expansion of fluid in an expansible chamber containing an electric heating means.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 306 for thermal or pyromagnetic electric motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 118]    118MAGNETOSTRICTIVE MOTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the motor is of the magneto-striction type.
(1) Note. See the class definition for a definition of a magneto-strictive motor. Commonly, the magnetizable member is (1) restrained from moving at a point along a dimension thereof but is free to move at other points along and in the direction of such dimension, and is (2) combined with a solenoid or winding which surrounds the magnetizable member and the axis of which winding is concentric or parallel with such dimension; as a result of which the magnetizable member will change in dimension when, the magnetic field is changed the mechanical motion of the member being available for power output purposes.

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119,for other motor systems having magnetic motors of the reciprocating or oscillating type.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 300 for magneto-strictive motors, per se.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 215 for magnetostrictive magnets, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 119]    119RECIPROCATING OR OSCILLATING MOTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the motor is a reciprocating or oscillating type of electric motor.
(1) Note. See the class definition for a definition of reciprocating or oscillating type motor.
(2) Note. Either of the terms "reciprocating" or "oscillating" when used separately in the titles and definitions in this class will be construed to include the other, unless clearly indicated otherwise.
(3) Note. For motor systems having the conventional rotary electric motor constructed for unlimited degree of movement in a given direction combined with means for periodically reversing the motor (e.g., reversed (1) in response to a "limit of travel" in either direction of rotation, (2) under control of some time-measuring mechanism, (3) after a predetermined number of revolutions, (4) etc.), see appropriate subclasses hereinafter under "Reversing, periodic or repetitious", subclass 281. Where the "motor" has means for actuating in one direction only (including arrangements whereby electric means or gravity and electric means can effect actuation in the one direction only) and consequently, the return movement must be effected manually or by some nonmotor means; classification is not herein. For example, a motor system having a motor having a vertically disposed and freely movable element and electrical means for effecting an upward motion only and wherein gravity can effect the return or downward motion; classification is herein. However, where the movable member of the motor is horizontally disposed and no energy storing means, such as a spring or compressible gas chamber, is provided to return the member after actuated by electric means (which are effective in one direction only), classification is not herein, but is classified as "linear motor" system or as an electromagnet with armature.

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14,for reciprocating or oscillating motors combined with motion-converting mechanisms. (For example, the combination of a reciprocating electric motor supply and/or control system combined with means for converting the reciprocatory motion of the motor to a rotary motion will be found in subclass 14).
21,for this subject matter where the motor system is a follow-up system having a reciprocating or oscillating motor.
35,for this subject matter where the motor system has the combination of an oscillating or reciprocating motor and another motor having a different type of motor (e.g., combination of a reciprocating and a rotary motor).
37,for this subject matter where the system includes a plurality of reciprocating or oscillating motors.
116+,for this subject matter where the motor is a magneto-striction type of motor in which periodic magnetization of the core part effects periodic dimensional changes in the core part thus resulting in reciprocating motion of the core part.
135,for motor systems having a linear-movement motor.
159+,for motor system which has the rotor element biased against rotation by virtue of which the rotor element is returned when the motor is deenergized or the energization is reduced. 281+, see (3) Note above.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclasses for reciprocating and oscillating type expansible chamber motors.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 1 through 3and 18+ and 198+ for internal combustion engines of the reciprocating type.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 15 for reciprocating electric motor structure, per se, and subclass 36 for oscillating electric motor structure, per se.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 3 for reciprocating and/or oscillating generator systems.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 220 for electromagnets with armatures.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclass 64 for impellers of the reciprocating type and subclass 79 for impellers of the oscillating type.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 120]    120Stopping after predetermined number of reciprocations or cycles (including single cycle):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter in which means are provided for stopping the motor after it has made a predetermined number of reciprocations or cycles.
(1) Note. For example, a reciprocating motor which when started operates to make one reciprocation, stroke or cycle and stops, is classified herein.
(2) Note. Where the stopping is effected by mechanical stopping means, such as brake, stop means, classification is not in this class but in some other appropriate class. Note Class 192, subclasses 116.5+.

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463,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having automatic stopping of rotary motors after a predetermined degree of movement of the motor.

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192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclass 116 , see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 121]    121Having means to produce a progressing or traveling motor field flux:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter in which means are provided for producing a magnetic field of force in the motor, which field (or the resultant of the component elements thereof) is caused to occupy a succession of positions in the path or direction of travel of the reciprocable member of the motor.

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135,for motor systems having linear-movement motors with means for producing progressing or travelling field.
148,for induction and synchronous motors supplied by controlled generators.
195+,for motor systems having an induction motor with means for producing a travelling magnetic field.
700+,for motor systems having a synchronous motor with means for producing a travelling magnetic field.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 122]    122Plural, diverse or diversely controlled motor windings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter in which the motor is provided with two or more energizing windings one or more of which are different structurally, or energized or controlled differently than one or more others of the windings.

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121,for this subject matter where the system includes two or more windings for producing a travelling or progressive magnetic motor field flux.
495,and the subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor control systems in which the motor has two or more energizing windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 123]    123Polyphase or diverse or diversely controlled sources of motor supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Subject matter in which there is either a polyphase alternating current supply, or two or more sources of supply, one or more of which are different or differently controlled than one or more others of the sources, connected to supply energy to the two or more of the motor windings.
(1) Note. All the phases or sources of supply may be connected to each of the several windings, or one or more of the sources or phases may be connected to one or more of the windings and one or more others of the sources or phases may be connected to one or more others of the windings. The several sources or phases may be connected simultaneously or at different times.

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495+,and the Search Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having winding motors with plural sources therefor.
500,and the Search Notes thereto, for motor systems having plural sources of supply for a single motor having a single armature or primary winding.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 124]    124A.C. and D.C. sources:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Subject matter in which at least one of the sources is a unidirectional current source (including pulsating DC current) and at least one other of the sources is an alternating (i.e., reversing polarity) current source.

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441,and the subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor systems having AC, and DC sources of supply for the motor.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 22 for plural load circuit systems supplied either from an AC of DC source, and subclasses 43+ for systems having a plurality of supply circuits or sources which may be AC or DC.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 125]    125Unidirectionally conductive devices in energizing circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Subject matter in which one or more unidirectionally conductive devices are connected in the energizing circuit of one or more of the windings.
(1) Note. Systems where the unidirectionally conductive devices are connected in series with or in shunt to the windings are included.

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505,and the Search Notes thereto for other motor systems having space-discharge devices in the circuits thereof.

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363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 111 and 125+ for rectifying systems including unidirectionally conductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 126]    126Energizing winding circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the electric circuit which supplies the electric energy to the energizing winding of the motor.
(1) Note. The control of the electric circuit includes (1) control of the immediate circuit to the windings (as, for example, opening and closing the circuit, controlling a space-discharge device or an impedance connected in series with the circuit and the motor winding, or introducing an aiding or opposing source of e.m.f. in the circuit in addition to the main or prime source of e.m.f.) and also (2) control of the source of energy which supplies the energizing current to the motor (as, for example, controlling the energy input to the source, as by controlling a prime mover which drives a generator, or by controlling the electrical input to an electrical converter).

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140,for generator fed motor systems wherein the motor is controlled by controlling the generator.
494,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems wherein the armature or primary circuit thereto is provided with control means.
521,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems where in the field or secondary circuit thereto is provided with control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 127]    127Automatic in response to predetermined position, movement or condition in or of the motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter wherein automatic means are provided so that the energizing winding is controlled in response to the position, movement, limit of travel, amplitude or rate of change of movement of the motor or the device actuated thereby; or in response to the noise, sound or mechanical vibrations produced by the motor parts or by the motor actuated device; magnitude of energizing current or occurrences of pulses in the energizing circuit.
(1) Note. This is a limited automatic subclass and does not include sensing means responsive to any but the above specified conditions.

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445+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor systems having automatic control responsive to predetermined conditions in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 128]    128Noise, sound, vibration, movement or position of motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter in which the sensing means responds to noise, sound, or mechanical vibrations of or emanating from the motor being controlled or the device actuated by the motor, or responds to the amplitude or magnitude or the rate of movement of, or the limit-of-travel or other position of the motor being controlled or the device actuated by the motor.

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,For other motor systems having automatic control in response to the particular conditions enumerated in the definition above, search the following subclasses and the pertinent subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto.
452,for plural diverse conditions.
456,for rate-of-change of a condition.
460,for noise, sound, or mechanical vibrations.
461,for speed or rate of movement of motor or other body.
466,for movement, position, or limit-of-travel of motor or other device or body.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 129]    129By means for producing periodic electrical pulses in the energizing circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter in which means are provided for producing a succession of electrical pulses in the energizing circuit of the winding, the periodicity of the pulses being such that the motor to which the pulses are supplied is maintained in substantially continuous motion by the succession of pulses.
(1) Note. A mere means for producing electric pulses (i.e., there being no details of structure of the means or any details of relationship between the means and the motor to which the pulses are supplied--other than the mere connection thereto) is insufficient basis for classification herein. For example, recitation by name only of the means for producing periodic pulses such as "an a-c source", a "source of pulsations", an "oscillator", etc., does not constitute a means for producing periodic pulses which is classifiable herein.
(2) Note. Where the means for producing the pulses may or may not produce the succession of pulses, classification is not herein. For example, a manually operated circuit interrupter in the supply circuit to the motor may be operated to produce a single pulse or a succession of pulses depending on the will of the operator and is not classifiable herein. Likewise, a circuit interrupter which closes the circuit in response to a condition (such as temperature or pressure) which condition may sometimes vary to cause the circuit to be periodically interrupted, is not classified herein. However, in the latter case, if the condition response means causes electrical pulses from a source of pulsating current to be supplied to the winding, such a system would be classified herein.

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122+,for systems under subclass 119 which include means for periodically energizing one or more windings of a plural winding motor.
127+,for this subject matter where the system includes means responsive to predetermined conditions in or of the motor for controlling the motor, including controlling the application or the periodicity of pulses to the motor.
503,and the subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor control systems in which periodic pulses are supplied to the motor.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 96+ for circuit interrupting systems for regulating the average value of current flowing through an electrical circuit, and subclass 132 for intermittent circuit interruption systems, such as "flashing systems", of general application.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 69+ for systems wherein a generator field circuit is interrupted to regulate the field current.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 130]    130Electrical oscillation or condenser charging and/or discharging circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter in which the means for producing the periodic pulses comprise either an electrical self-oscillating circuit or a condenser changing and/or discharging circuit.
(1) Note. Where the condenser changing and/or discharging is merely an adjunct to the system of supply such as a filter means, for example; and does not operate to have a substantial effect in determining the rate which the pulses are supplied to the motor, classification is not herein.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 108 for systems wherein a condenser is charged and discharged to produce a series of pulses.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   subclasses 166+ for a system for charging or discharging a capacitor.
331Oscillators,   appropriate subclasses, for self-sustained electric wave generators, per se, particularly subclasses 111+ , 129+ and 143+ for relaxation oscillators utilizing an RC time constant network to determine the period of oscillation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 131]    131Motor or escapement-controlled means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter in which the means for producing the periodic pulses includes a device of means which is actuated or controlled by a motor, or escapement device to control the periodicity of the pulses.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 1.5 for escapements, per se, of general application.
185Motors: Spring, Weight, or Animal Powered,   subclasses 5 , 31, and 38 for escapement controlled spring and weight motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 132]    132By space-discharge or unidirectionally conductive devices in energizing circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter in which the means for controlling the energizing circuit of the motor includes a space-discharge device or an unidirectionally-conductive device connected in series with or in shunt to the energizing winding of the motor.

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125,for this subject matter where the motor has plural windings.
505,and the subclasses specified in the search notes thereto, for other motor control systems having space-discharge devices in the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 518+ for miscellaneous electron discharge device control circuits.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 111 and 125+ for rectifying systems including space discharge devices and other unidirectionally conductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 133]    133By impedance devices in energizing circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter in which the control means comprises one or more impedance devices in series and/or in shunt to the motor windings.

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132,for this subject matter where the impedance device is a space-discharge or unidirectionally conductive device.
508+,and subclasses specified in the search notes appended thereto, for other motor control systems wherein impedance devices are employed in the energizing circuit of an electric motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 364 through 370for miscellaneous impedance systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 134]    134By circuit making and/or braking devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter in which the control means comprise circuit making and/or breaking devices in series with the energizing circuit of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

129+,for this subject matter where the system includes circuit making and/or breaking devices combined with means for periodically actuating them.
519+,and the subclasses specified in the search notes appended thereto, for other motor control systems having circuit making and/or breaking means in the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

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307Electric Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 112+ for searching systems.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1+ for safety systems using circuit breakers, and subclass 139+ for relay and electromagnetic switch circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 135]    135LINEAR-MOVEMENT MOTORS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the motor is linear movement type of electric motor.
(1) Note. See Linear Movement Motors, of the class definition for a definition of a linear movement motor.

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22,for linear-movement motors in follow-up systems.
35,for linear-movement motor combined with another electric motor having a different type (e.g., rotary) of movement.
38,for plural linear-movement motor systems.
115,for motor systems which have single motors having diverse types of motion, including linear movement.
119,for reciprocating or oscillating type motor systems.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

104Railways,   subclasses 282 and 290+ for a railway vehicle and track claimed in combination with a linear propulsion motor and control system therefor.
124Mechanical Guns and Projectors,   subclass 3 for electromagnetic guns and projectors.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 12.01 through 12.33for a linear motor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 136]    136AUXILIARY MEANS FOR PRODUCING MECHANICAL STARTING OR ACCELERATING TORQUE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means, other than the motor being controlled and its electrical circuits, are provided for producing a mechanical turning effort to the rotor element of the motor during the starting and/or the accelerating period of operation of the motor, and which means is deenergized, disconnected, or otherwise incapacitated to assist in actuating the motor under running-speed conditions.
(1) Note. This subclass is designed to include those devices which are employed to start an electric motor which is inherently not-self-starting and also to include those which assist the motor in attaining running speed conditions in order to reduce the heavy demand of electric current required to bring a motor up to running speed when operating without starting assistance. The device must be distinct from the motor and produce a turning effort independently of the magnetic turning effort produced by the motor itself. The device can be structurally united with motor.

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1+,for motor systems which have an electric motor combined with a nonmotor driving means.
45+,for electric motor systems having plural motor mechanically connected or coupled in a fixed predetermined ratio of movement during normal running periods.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 6+ for mechanical devices, per se, for starting engines in general.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 53 for expansible chamber motors of the engine rotating or starting type.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 179.1+ , for starting devices for internal combustion engines.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclasses 10+ , 18+, 22+, 27, 28, 30, 31+, 36+, 38, 46, 47, and 48 for dynamo-electric machines used as starting motors for prime-mover dynamo plants.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 137]    137By auxiliary motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Subject matter in which the auxiliary means comprises a motor.
(1) Note. See Search Notes for subclass 136 above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 139]    139BATTERY-FED MOTOR SYSTEMS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the armature or primary circuit of an electric motor is supplied by electric energy from one or more primary or secondary electric batteries which constitute the only source of supply for the motor.

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440+,for motor systems where there are plural sources of electric energy for the armature or primary circuit which include nonbattery sources.

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320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclass for charging or discharging a battery.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 140]    140GENERATOR-FED MOTOR SYSTEMS HAVING GENERATOR CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which an electric generator is provided for supplying electric energy to the armature or primary circuit of an electric motor and in which means are also provided for controlling the generator to thereby control the operation of the electric motor.
(1) Note. An "electric generator" includes any means for converting nonelectrical energy into electrical energy. Thus it includes photo-electric and thermoelectric generators, primary or secondary batteries, etc.
(2) Note. Where more than one generator is provided to supply the energy, means must be provided for controlling each generator. See subclasses 440+ where no means are provided for controlling one of the generators.
(3) Note. Where the only generator control means comprises means connected in the circuit between the generator terminals and the motor terminals, classification is not in this or its indented subclasses but in some other appropriate subclass in the class.
(4) Note. Mere inherent regulation of the generator (i.e., regulation of the output of the generator resulting merely from structural features of the generator) is not sufficient basis for classification herein except in those instances where the regulation functions to substantially vary the operation of the motor. Thus a flat-compounded generator operates to produce a substantially constant output voltage with varying load and, hence, performs or produces no regulating function on the motor other than would any constant voltage source. Likewise, the proportion of parts and airgaps, degree of excitation, resistance of the several conductive elements of the generator, etc., are instrumental in determining the operating characteristics of the generator and generally tend toward generator operating characteristics which have no particular effect on the operation of the motor supplied thereby other than to supply a source of energy, the voltage variation of which is not substantially disadvantageous. However, a series-generator, or a decidedly over-compounded or a decidedly under-compounded generator, or one with a differentially wound series field exciting winding may have operating characteristics which very materially varies the operation of the motor with changes in motor load. This type of regulation is considered sufficient basis for classification herein. Any control or regulating means for maintaining constant current or power output from the generator with a varying motor load, by generator control, is sufficient basis for classification herein.
(5) Note. Means for "controlling the generator" include means for varying the speed of the generator by controlling the driving means therefor, or for adjusting the structure of the generator.
(6) Note. Means for controlling excitation of AC generator (supplying energy to primary circuit of synchronous motor) in response to motor primary circuit current to control pullout torque or to "stiffen the coupling between the generator and motor" is included herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

139,for this subject matter for motor systems having electric batteries for supplying electric energy to the motor.
440,see Note 2 above.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   for generator control of general application. The appropriate subclass or subclasses would depend on the particular generator control involved.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 141]    141Automatic generator control and/or with time-delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which means are provided for automatically controlling the generator in response to a predetermined condition, or in which time-delay means are provided for retarding or delaying the operation of the generator control means, whether initiated manually or otherwise.
(1) Note. The condition need not be one that exists in, about or pertaining to the motor or generator of the system.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

445+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other automatic control systems for electric motors, and for other motor control systems which include a time-delay means for the control.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclasses 1 through 44for prime-mover generator plants in which the generator may be automatically controlled in response to some predetermined condition.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclass for a battery charging system supplied by a generator source.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 17+ for automatic control of generators in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 142]    142Responsive to diverse conditions or with time-delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter in which means are provided for automatically controlling the generator in response to two or more diverse conditions, or for automatically controlling the generator in response to one condition and with means for introducing a time-delay in the operation of the generator control.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are systems in which the only time delay means operates to delay the operation of the means responsive to the condition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

452+,and the classes specified in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having the motor controlled in response to plural conditions.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 18 for automatic generator control with time delay; subclasses 22+ for automatic generator control in response to plural conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 143]    143Plural electrical conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Subject matter in which two or more of the conditions comprise electrical conditions.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

454+,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having the motor controlled in response to plural electrical conditions.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 24+ for automatic generator control in response to plural electrical conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 144]    144Armature or primary current of motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the generator in response to the magnitude or rate of change of magnitude of the current in the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

458,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems which are responsive to the rate of change of an electrical condition.
474+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems which are responsive to the current in the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 27 for automatic generator control in response to generator armature current.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 145]    145Terminal voltage or counter e.m.f. of motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the generator in response to the magnitude or the rate of change of magnitude of the terminal voltage or the counter electromotive force of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

458,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems which are responsive to the rate-of-change of an electrical condition.
459,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems which are responsive to the terminal or counter electromotive force of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 19 for generator control systems responsive to rate-of-change of an electrical condition; subclass 29 for automatic generator control in response to generator voltage.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 146]    146Speed of motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the generator in response to the speed of the motor or a device driven thereby.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

145,for this subject matter where the generator control is responsive to the terminal voltage or c.e.m.f. of the motor, which may vary with the speed of the motor.
461,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems which are responsive to the speed of the motor or of other devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 147]    147Speed or frequency of generator or its drive means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the generator in response to the speed of the generator or the frequency of the voltage or current generated thereby, or in response to the speed of the generator driving means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

145,for motor control systems which are responsive to the terminal voltage or the c.e.m.f. of the motor which may correspond with the armature circuit voltage of the generator and hence to the speed of the generator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 29+ for automatic generator control in response to the speed or frequency of the generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 148]    148Alternating-current-motor system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which the motor is an alternating current motor (i.e., a motor which operates when the armature or primary circuit is supplied with alternating current) and in which the generator supplies an alternating current to the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

244,for other alternating current commutating motor systems.
700+,for other synchronous motor systems. 725+ for other repulsion motor systems. 727+ for other induction motor systems.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 159 for structural details of alternating current motors, per se.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   appropriate subclasses for alternating current generator control systems. In Class 322 classification is not determined by whether the generator output is AC or DC and the appropriate subclass would depend on the particular control or response of the generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 149]    149With plural, diverse or diversely controlled generators:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which there are two or more generators which supply the armature or primary circuits of the electric motor, in which one or more of the generators are structurally different or are controlled differently (e.g., with respect to time, degree or magnitude, etc.) than one or more others of the generators, and in which means are provided for controlling a plurality of generators.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

440+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto; for motor systems having plural sources of supply for the armature or primary circuit of electric motors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 72+ for plural generators or sources, having unlike electrical characteristics, which supply a common load circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 150]    150With flywheel on generator or on motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which a flywheel or other massive body is mounted for rotation with the rotor of either the generator or the motor.
(1) Note. Where the rotor, per se, of the generator or of the motor is specifically limited to being massive, classification is herein. Also where the flywheel or other massive body is mounted other than directly on the shaft of the rotor of the generator or motor but is mechanically connected in driving relation to the rotor, classification is herein.

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161,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor systems wherein the motor has a flywheel or other massive rotary member.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 572.1 for energy storage-type flywheels.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 4 for generator systems where the generator is provided with flywheels or massive moving parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 151]    151Control of both the generator and the circuit to the motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the electric circuit which extends from the generator armature to the motor armature and additional means are provided for controlling the generator.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

139,for this subject matter where the system is a battery-fed motor systems having control of the battery and the circuit therefrom to the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   appropriate subclasses for control of electrical transmission lines either with or without control of the supply or load connected thereto.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclass for battery charging or discharging from a regulated source.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 7+ for combined control of generator and load circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 152]    152With motor control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 151.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for controlling the motor, which means is in addition to the control of the supply circuit extending to the primary circuit of the motor and the control of the generator.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

491,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having combined motor circuit and motor structure control.
493,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having combined armature or primary circuit and field or secondary circuit controls.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 153]    153Control of both the generator and the motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the generator and additional means are provided for controlling the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

139,for the subject matter where the system includes a battery-fed motor and both the battery and the motor are controlled.
152,for this subject matter where the system includes means for the combined control of the generator, the transmission circuit to the motor, and of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   for combined control of nonelectric prime-mover and the generator driven thereby, which generators may supply electric motors.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 14+ for combined control of the generator and the driving means therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 154]    154Control of excitation (field) circuit of both:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Subject matter in which the control means effect control of the field or secondary circuit of both the generator and of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

521,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for motor field or secondary circuit control in motor control systems in general.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 59+ for generator field circuit control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 156]    156Plural, diverse or diversely actuated, generator control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which two or more distinct means are provided for controlling the generator, one or more of which control means are different structurally or are controlled differently (e.g., at different times, different degree or magnitude of control, etc.) than one or more others of the control means.
(1) Note. Means for controlling the generator driving means so as to vary the generator speed is considered a "generator control means."

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 45 for combined diverse generator controls.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 157]    157Generator speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the speed of the generator by controlling the driving means therefor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

700+,for this subject matter where the system includes means for controlling the speed of the generator combined with other control means for the generator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   for variable speed nonelectric prime movers which drive generators.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 14+ for combined control of generator and driving means; subclasses 29+ for automatic control of generator or driving means control in response to speed or frequency of the generator; subclasses 38+ for generator driving means control; subclasses 40+ for power transmitting mechanism control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 158]    158Generator field circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the field circuit of the generator.
(1) Note. Providing the generator with plural, diverse or diversely arranged, field windings, or providing means for varying the active length (such as by tapping) of the field winding are included in field circuit control, when such are such as to substantially modify the operation of the electric motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

154,for this subject matter where the system includes means for the combined control of the generator field and the motor field.
156,for motor circuits under subclass 140 having field circuit control combined with other control means for the generator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 59+ for generator field circuit control in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 159]    159HAVING ROTOR ELEMENT BIASED AGAINST ROTATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the motor comprises a rotatable power output element (rotor) combined with means for exerting a torque in opposition to and simultaneously with the motor torque.
(1) Note. Examples of means for producing the opposing torque which are included in this subclass: elastic or spring devices interconnecting the rotor and stationary part of the motor; a pulley or drum mounted on the rotor with a weighted flexible member attached thereto and adapted to rotate the rotor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1+,for motor systems having nonelectric means for actuating a load device in addition to an electric motor as an actuator.
45+,see Note 2 above.
119+,for reciprocating motor systems in which the reciprocating element may be biassed by gravity or by force-producing means in one direction of actuating and electrically in the other direction of actuation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclass 129.01 for valves with electrical actuators.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 15+ for reciprocating electrical motors having a biassing means present.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 131 for electrically driven or actuated meter movements having biassed indicating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 160]    160By resilient biasing means (e.g., spring):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Subject matter in which the biassing means comprises a spring or other means which when flexed or distorted inherently tends to reassure its previous shape or dimension.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

267Spring Devices,   for structural details of springs, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 161]    161WITH FLYWHEEL OR MASSIVE ROTARY MEMBER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which a flywheel or other massive rotatable mounted body is mounted in driving relationship with the motor rotor or other working member in such manner that energy transfer can take place from the motor to the flywheel or other massive rotary member and vice versa.
(1) Note. Systems in which the rotary or other working element, per se, of the motor is limited to being massive are included herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

45+,for motor systems in which the movable working element of one motor is mechanically interconnected with the movable working element of another motor which may have a flywheel effect.
150,for generator-fed motor systems which have flywheels or other massive bodies on the rotary elements of either the generator or the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 572.1 for energy storage-type flywheels.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 179.1+ for inertia starters for internal combustion engines in which an electric motor may store energy in a rapidly revolving flywheel which is then connected to the engine to start it.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclasses .02 through .098and 116.5 for flywheels in combination with clutching means for connecting and disconnecting the flywheel through the clutch to the load or driven device, particularly to permit or to cause immediate stoppage of the load or driven device in cases of necessity.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 4 for generators system which have generators with flywheels or massive moving parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 162]    162CONTROL BY PATTERNS OR OTHER PREDETERMINED SCHEDULE MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the operation of an electric motor in accordance with a predetermined schedule, said means comprising patterns, templates, perforated sheets, or other shaped or treated control devices having a configuration or design varying in accordance with a predetermined schedule of control to which it is desired to subject the motor. The systems included herein are "open-loop" controls and thus are not servomechanisms.
(1) Note. The operations of the motor may comprise plural, diverse motor operations or variations in a single operation such as operating the motor at a plurality of running speeds.
(2) Note. For example merely, speed control means which are actuated by a perforated sheet running at constant speed in which a sensing or detecting means contacting the sheet senses the presence of the perforations and initiates the operation of speed control means to cause the motor to operate at one speed when sensing device contacts unperformed portion of the sheet and at other speeds when contacting the perforated portions of the sheet, would be included herein.
(3) Note. For plural cams on a common shaft, each effecting a single change in electric motor control, classification is elsewhere in this class.
(4) Note. Where the system is a closed loop position servomechanism, the classification is not herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

543+,for plural cams on a common shaft, each effecting a single change in electric motor control.
567,for where the system is a closed loop position servomechanism,

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclass 64 wherein the speed of metal working machines is controlled by pattern, templates, etc.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 567+ for cam means, per se.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclass 46 for pattern sheet controlled electric switches.
901Robots,   subcollection 3 for the programming of a robot arm.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 163]    163Motor running-speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter in which means are provided for automatically varying the running speed of a motor in accordance with a predetermined schedule means.
(1) Note. For example merely, speed control means which are actuated by a constant speed perforated sheet or by a constant speed cam and follower arrangement so as to cause the motor to run at different speeds as different portions of the perforated sheet or cam surface past a control position, are included in this group.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 164]    164Cyclically varying or repeated speed schedules:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter in which means are provided for repeating a predetermined speed schedule as a result of which the same speed-control cycle is traversed two or more times.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 244]    244ALTERNATING CURRENT COMMUTATING MOTORS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the motor is an alternating-current commutation motor.
(1) Note. See Alternating-Current Commutating Motor, of the class definition for a definition of alternating current commutator motor. Such motors are commonly referred to as a "series a-c motors", a "universal motor", and an "a-c commutator motor".

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

43,for plural motor systems having alternating-current commutating motors with electrical synchronizing interconnections between the windings of the motors.
135,for linear-movement motor systems with commutating means for progressively energizing an a-c supplied field winding of the motor.
400.1,through 400.42, for synchronous motor commutation control systems.
700+,for synchronous (AC motor systems where the motor is provided with commutators.
725+,for repulsion motor systems where the motor is provided with commutated windings.
737,and 738, for induction motor systems where the motor is provided with a commutated winding.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 173 for AC commutator motors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 245]    245Universal or A.C.-D.C. motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.  Subject matter in which the motor is designed and constructed to run when connected directly and solely to either a direct-current or an alternating-current source.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

246+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of those subclasses for series motor systems having series motor provided with commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 246]    246SERIES MOTORS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the motor is provided with means for causing it to operate only as a series motor for at least an appreciable portion of its operation as a motor.
(1) Note. See Series Motor, of the class definition for a definition of a series motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

244,for AC series commutated motor systems.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 158 for universal (AC or DC) motors, and subclass 177 for DC motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 247]    247Convertible for nonseries motor operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter in which means are provided for operating the motor as a series motor, and also operating the motor as a nonseries motor.
(1) Note. As an example, an elevator motor may be provided with means for causing it to operate as a series motor during the lift period, and as a shunt motor during the return period.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

375+,for motor systems having means for operating a motor as a generator during dynamic braking of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 248]    248With plural, diverse or diversely connected or controlled sources of e.m.f.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter in which two or more immediate sources of e.m.f. are provided to supply electric energy to the conducting elements of a series motor.
(1) Note. Two sources of e. m. f. connected in series opposition in the circuit of a motor winding are included herein. Two circuits from a single voltage divider or from spaced sets of brushes on a single generator commutator, are examples of sources of electro-motive-force included herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

500,and the subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having plural sources of armature circuit supply for the motor.
530,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for motor systems having plural sources of supply for the field or secondary circuit of the electric motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 43+ for systems having plural sources of supply of electrical energy for a single load circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 249]    249Control by motor circuit impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter in which impedance means are provided for controlling the series motor circuits.
(1) Note. Space-discharge devices (including grid controlled vacuum tubes and gas-filled or vapor-filled tubes) are considered impedance devices when used to regulate the magnitude of current flow in a circuit having a source of electric voltage connected therein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

493,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor systems controlled by means of impedance devices in the armature and field circuits of the motors.
508,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems controlled by means of an impedance in the armature circuit.
533,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for motor systems controlled by means of an impedance in the field circuit.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 364 through 370for miscellaneous impedance systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 250]    250Impedance in series with field windings and in parallel to armature winding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Subject matter in which the impedance means is connected in series with all, or a part, of the series field winding and simultaneously connected in parallel with part, or all of the armature winding of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 251]    251Field circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the circuit of the field-producing winding.
(1) Note. The mere provision of a plurality of diverse or diversely controlled field coils is sufficient basis for classification herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

249,for field-control of a series motor by means of impedance devices in the field circuit.
521,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for motor systems having field circuit control means for the motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 252]    252Plural, diverse or diversely connected or controlled field coils:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter in which the motor is provided with two or more field windings, one or more of which are structurally different, or connected in the motor circuit differently, or controlled differently (e.g., with respect to time, degree or magnitude of control, etc.) from one or more others of the windings.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

523,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor control systems wherein the motors have plural field windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 253]    253HOMOPOLAR OR UNIFORM FIELD MOTORS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the motor is a noncommutating electric motor and comprises a magnetic-field producing means combined with one or more electric conductors mounted to move relative to and in proximity to the field-producing means, said field-producing means being so constructed and/or energized that the magnetic field produced thereby is, at any instant of time, of the same polarity or direction throughout its extent with reference to the path of travel of the movable electric conductor or conductors.
(1) Note. The motors in this subclass are known as "homopolar motors".
(2) Note. This subclass includes alternating current and direct current motors.
(3) Note. In the case of direct current field energization, the direction of the generated c.e.m.f. in the armature conductors is always unidirectional when the conductors move in a continuous direction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 178 for homopolar dynamoelectric machines.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 254.1]    254.1SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MOTOR COMMUTATION CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the rotor element tends to assume a predetermined angular position when the motor is continuously energized and is provided with a commutator or circuit making and breaking device which is actuated by the motor to determine the instants of time at which the field producing windings thereof are energized and de-energized relative to the angular position of the rotary element.
(1) Note. In a switched reluctance motor, there are no permanent magnets and no windings on the rotor and the rotor assumes a position to minimize reluctance. Therefore, these motors are capable of high speeds, but produce little torque.
(2) Note. Typically, three-phase switched reluctance motors are in a 6/4 form, that is six stator and four rotor poles.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

701,for reluctance synchronous motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 254.2]    254.2Having asymmetric half-bridge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Subject matter wherein the circuit making or breaking means includes a bridge circuit wherein each side of the bridge contains both a transistor (or switch) and a diode and the motor is connected between the transistor and the diode.

Image 1 for class 318 subclass 254.2

Figure 1. Typical circuit configurations.

Figure 1. Typical circuit configurations.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

701,for reluctance synchronous motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 255]    255PLURAL DIVERSE MOTOR CONTROLS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for effecting or causing two or more diverse operations of an electric motor.
(1) Note. See Definition of Motor Operation Control, of the class definition for the various motor operations which are included in or excluded from the list of operations comprehended by this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

53+,for plural motor systems having means for effecting plural, diverse motor-operations for the motors.
201+,for induction motor systems having means for effecting plural diverse operations.
280+,for motor reversing systems.
301+,for motor running-speed control systems.
362+,for motor braking systems.
384+,for motor acceleration control systems.
432+,for motor load control systems.
445+,for automatic motor starting and/or stopping systems.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 800+ and 825+ for single motor running-speed control systems with, and without, feedback respectively; and subclasses 842+ and 848+ for single motor acceleration control systems with, and without, feedback respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 256]    256Motor-reversing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Subject matter in which means are included for causing an electric motor to reverse its direction of operation.
(1) Note. For a definition of "motor-reversing", see Reversing Control, of the class definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

54+,for plural motor systems provided with means for effecting plural, diverse motor-operations control, including reversing.
280+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of those subclasses for motor-reversing in single motor systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 257]    257With running-speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the running-speed of an electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "running-speed control" see the class definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

55+,for plural motor systems having means for effecting plural motor operations including reversing and running speed control.
268+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having means for effecting running speed control and another control operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 258]    258And braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also effecting braking of the electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "braking" as applied to electric motors, see Motor Load Control, of the class definition.

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56,for plural motor systems having means for effecting reversing, running speed and braking operations for the motors.
273+,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having means for effecting motor braking control and another motor operation control.
362+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of those subclasses for miscellaneous motor braking systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 259]    259And acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling acceleration of an electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "acceleration", see Acceleration Control, of the class definition.

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56,for plural motor systems having means for effecting reversing, running-speed control, braking and acceleration of the motors.
276,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having means for effecting acceleration control and another control operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 260]    260And acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the acceleration of an electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "acceleration", see Acceleration Control, of the class definition.

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55,for plural motor systems having reversing, running-speed control and acceleration control for a plurality of electric motors.
259,for motor systems having acceleration control with braking, running speed control and reversing of the motor.
276+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having motor acceleration control and another motor control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 261]    261With braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for effecting braking control of the electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "braking", see Motor Load Control, of the class definition.
(2) Note. Where braking is effected by phase reversal (i.e., by "plugging") while the motor is running and the application of power is terminated when motor substantially comes to a stop, braking only is effected. If power is left on and motor runs in reverse direction, classification is under combined reversing and braking controls in this subclass.

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57,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for plural motor systems having braking and reversing control for the motors.
258+,for motor systems having braking control and reversing control.
273+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having braking control and another control.
362+,for miscellaneous motor systems having braking control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 262]    262And acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for acceleration control of the electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "acceleration", see Acceleration Control, of the class definition.

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57,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having acceleration with braking and reversing of the motors.
259,for this subject matter where the system is also provided with means for running-speed control.
276+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having acceleration control and another motor operation control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 263]    263With acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the acceleration of the motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "acceleration", see Acceleration Control, of the class definition.

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58,for plural motor systems having acceleration control and reversing control.
259,for this subject matter where the system includes means for running-speed control and braking control.
260,for this subject matter where the system includes means for running-speed control.
262,for this subject matter where the system includes means for braking control.
276,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having acceleration control and another motor-operation control.
384+,for miscellaneous motor systems having acceleration control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 264]    264With automatic starting and/or stopping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for automatically starting and/or stopping the motor in response to predetermined conditions.
(1) Note. See Automatic Starting and Stopping, of the class definition for limitations on starting and/or stopping controls included herein.

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18,for follow-up motor systems in which reversible motors are started in one direction or the other either manually or automatically and stops automatically after the motor runs an amount proportional to (1) the change in position of a transmitter or (2) the change in some condition.
54+,for automatic starting and/or stopping combined with reversing in plural motor systems.
272,for motor systems having running-speed control and automatic starting and/or stopping control.
275,for motor systems having motor braking control and automatic starting and/or stopping control.
277,for motor systems having acceleration control and automatic starting and/or stopping control.
445+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic starting and/or stopping of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 265]    265Stopping upon predetermined movement of or position of motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter in which means are provided for effecting stopping of the motor after it or the load device driven thereby has moved a predetermined amount or has reached or attained a predetermined position.

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18+,for follow-up control systems for electric motors in which the motors are generally reversible and automatically stop when they reach a position (angular or linear) which corresponds to the degree of change of a transmitter.
54+,for plural motor systems having reversing with automatic starting and/or stopping including stopping upon predetermined movement or position of a motor.
466+,for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic starting and/or stopping in response to predetermined movement or position.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 266]    266At limit-of-travel of motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 265.  Subject matter in which means are provided for stopping the electric motor when it, or a load device driven thereby, substantially reaches its limit of travel.

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468+,for miscellaneous motor system having limit-of-travel stopping control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 267]    267Dual control circuits alternately energized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter in which the control means for reversing and starting and/or stopping comprise two circuits the energization of one of which controls the starting in one direction and the energization of the other of which effects starting in the opposite direction and in which the arrangements are such that, with one of the circuits energized for operation in one direction, when the motor is automatically stopped at its limit of travel, it cannot be started until the other circuit is energized.
(1) Note. In the systems in this subclass, each time the motor is stopped at the limit of travel it can only be restarted in the reverse direction by another circuit, i.e., it cannot be restarted in the same direction of operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 268]    268Running-speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for controlling the running-speed of the motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "running-speed control", see the class definition.

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59+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having running-speed control means and another diverse motor control means.
257+,for this subject matter where the system includes motor reversing control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 269]    269With braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also effecting braking of the electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "braking", see the Glossary in the Class Definition.

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60,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for plural motor systems having braking control and running-speed control.
258+,for this subject matter where the system includes running-speed control means and motor reversing control.
261+,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control.
273+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having braking control and another motor operation control.
362+,for miscellaneous motor systems having braking control.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 76 and 77 for structured combinations of an electrical motor and a brake.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 270]    270And acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the acceleration of the motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "acceleration", see Acceleration Control, of the class definition.

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60,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for plural motor systems having running-speed control, braking control and acceleration.
259,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control.
276+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having motor acceleration control and another motor-operation control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 271]    271With acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for controlling the acceleration of the motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "acceleration", see Acceleration Control, of the class definition.

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61,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having running speed control and acceleration control.
259,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control and braking control.
260,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control.
270,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor braking control.
273,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having acceleration control and another motor operation control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 272]    272With automatic starting and/or stopping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also automatically starting and/or stopping the motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "Automatic Starting and/or Stopping" see the class definition.

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62,for plural motor systems having running-speed control and automatic starting and stopping.
445+,for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic starting and/or stopping control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 273]    273Motor braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also braking the electric motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "braking" see Motor Load Control, of the class definition.

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63,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having means for motor braking control and means for effecting another motor operation.
258+,for this subject matter where the system includes means for running-speed control and motor reversing control.
261+,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control.
269+,for this subject matter where the system includes means for running speed control.
362+,for miscellaneous motor systems having braking control.

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188Brakes,   for braking means, per se, for general purposes.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 76 and 77 for structured combinations of an electrical motor and a brake.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 274]    274With acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling acceleration of the motor.
(1) Note. For a definition of "acceleration" see Acceleration Control, of the class definition.

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63,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having braking control and acceleration control.
259,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing and for running-speed control.
262,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control.
270,for this subject matter where the system includes means for running-speed control.
276,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having acceleration control and another motor operation control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 275]    275With automatic starting and/or stopping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also automatically starting and/or stopping the electric motor.

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445+,for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic starting and/or stopping control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 276]    276Acceleration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Subject matter in which means are provided for also controlling the acceleration of the motor.
(1) Note. See the Glossary of the class Definition for "Acceleration Control".

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39,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having means for effecting acceleration control and another motor control operation.
259,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control, running-speed control and braking control.
260,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control and running-speed control.
262,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control and braking control.
263,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor reversing control.
270,for this subject matter where the system includes means for running speed control and braking control.
271,for this subject matter where the system includes means for running-speed control.
274,for this subject matter where the system includes means for motor braking control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 277]    277With automatic starting and/or stopping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter in which means are also provided for automatically effecting the starting and/or stopping of the motor in response to one or more predetermined conditions.
(1) Note. For limitations on the starting and/or stopping controls included in this subclass, see the Class Definition, Glossary, "Automatic Starting and Stopping."

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64,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having acceleration control means and means for effecting another control operation, such as automatic starting and/or stopping.
445,and the miscellaneous motor systems having automatic starting and/or stopping control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 278]    278In response to an electrical condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter in which means are provided for starting and/or stopping the electric motor in response to one or more conditions of which at least one is an electrical condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 279]    279Automatic stopping means less responsive during acceleration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter in which the automatic control means comprises means responsive to an electrical condition for stopping the motor which means, however, has been rendered inoperative or is otherwise less responsive to the electrical condition during the acceleration period of the motor.
(1) Note. Characteristic of the subject matter of this subclass are those acceleration systems in which overload or excessive-current cut-outs are provided for automatically stopping the motor by opening the armature or primary circuit thereof when the armature or primary current exceeds a predetermined value during the full-speed operation of the motor but wherein means are provided for preventing or reducing the tendency of such cut-out to operate during the acceleration period of such motor.

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447,for miscellaneous automatic electric motor control systems in which the condition sensing means is rendered inoperative or less responsive during particular limited periods of operation of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 280]    280MOTOR-REVERSING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for causing an electric motor to operate in one direction at one time and in the opposite direction at another time, or for causing an electric motor to operate in a direction opposite to that in which it has previously been operating.
(1) Note. In reversing motor systems, means must be provided for establishing an electrically produced torque in both directions of operation.

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10,for the combination of an electric motor and reversible power or motion transmitting means actuated thereby.
48,for plural motor systems having the motors mechanically coupled in torque opposition.
65,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for reversing control in plural motor systems.
119+,for reciprocating or oscillating motor systems in which periodic reversal is an inherent function during normal operation of the motor.
159+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for biassed motor systems, in which the biassing means will cause the motor to move to a prior position when the energization of the motor is reduced.
256+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for motor systems having reversing control means and means for effecting another control operation.
739+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for reversal of induction motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 281]    281Periodic- or intermittent-reversing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which means are provided for repeatedly reversing the direction of operation of the motor in accordance with the schedule of operation of a continuously operating controller.
(1) Note. Means which operate to cause a motor to operate in one direction or another depending on a change in a condition, and in which the change may or may not occur, are not included herein. However, reversing means actuated repeatedly by a continuously running motor or a timing mechanism are included. The periodicity of reversal need not be regular, i.e., not as uniformly spaced periods of time.

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119,for reciprocating or oscillating motor systems having motors which periodically reverse their directions of operation.
443,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor systems having periodically actuated motor control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 282]    282In response to movement or position (e.g., limit of travel) of motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter in which means are provided for reversing the motor in response to a predetermined number of revolutions of or other movement or position of the electric motor or of the load device actuated thereby.

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286,for means for effecting a periodic reversals of electric motors automatically in response to the movement or position of the motor or the device driven thereby.
461+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having the motor automatically controlled in response to the speed or rate of movement of the motor or device driven thereby.
466+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having the motor automatically controlled in response to the movement, position or limit of travel of the motor or other body or device.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 283]    283Automatic and/or with time-delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter wherein means responsive to a predetermined condition are provided for controlling the motor reversing means or where time delay means are provided for controlling the motor reversing means after operation thereof has been initiated.
(1) Note. Where time delay means are provided, the control operation may be initiated manually.

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445+,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for other automatic control systems for electric motors having the motor automatically controlled in response to predetermined conditions and/or having time delay means for the motor control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 284]    284With means to delay reversing until motor substantially stops:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter in which means are provided for delaying the application of electric energy to the motor in the reverse direction for reversing the motor until the motor has substantially stopped or has substantially come to rest from a previous operation in the opposite direction.

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285,for motor systems with means for initiating the reversal of an electric motor at a particular instant of time or after the lapse or a predetermined interval of time, or to effect reversal thereof a predetermined time after the initiation of the reversing control of the motor.
374,for motor braking systems wherein braking is produced by "plugging" and the flow of energy is interrupted when the motor speed drops to zero.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 285]    285Instant of, or passage or predetermined time or having time-delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter in which means are provided for initiating the reversal of a motor at a particular instant of time (e.g., 8:30 A.M., 5:00 P.M.) or after the lapse or passage of a predetermined interval of time (e.g., 4 seconds, 4 hours) or for delaying or retarding the application of reverse power to a motor for a predetermined interval of time after the reversing control operation has been initiated.

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281,for this subject matter where there are periodic or intermittent reversals in response to passage or lapse of time.
284,for motor systems having means for delaying reversing of the electric motor until it has substantially stopped from a previous operation.
484+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor systems having time-delay means for controlling the motor control means after operation of the control means has been initiated.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 286]    286Movement or position of motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter in which means are provided for reversing the motor in response to a predetermined number of revolutions or other movement of, or to a predetermined position of, the motor or a load device actuated thereby.

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119+,for reciprocating or oscillating motor systems in which reversal of the motor is automatically effected as the motor approaches the end or limit of its movement in each direction of movement.
282+,for this subject matter where there is periodic or repetitious reversal of the motor controlled in response to movement or position of the motor or the device driven thereby.
461+,and 466, and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor systems having automatic control of the motor in response to the movement or the position of the motor or a device driven thereby. See subclass 887 where the control is in response to the speed or rate-of-movement of the motor or driven device.
466+,see the reference to subclass 461.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 287]    287Armature or primary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which means are provided for effecting reversal of the motor by means in the armature or primary circuit of the motor.
(1) Note. This subclass includes armature or primary circuit control combined with the field circuit control and/or with motor structure control means for reversing the motor.

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126,for reciprocating or oscillating motor systems with armature or primary circuit control of the motor.
494+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for miscellaneous motor systems having armature or primary circuit control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 288]    288Plural, diverse or diversely controlled armature windings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which the reversal is effected by means of two or more armature or primary winding, one or more of which are structurally different or controlled differently from one or more others of the windings.

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297+,for reversing motor systems where the motor has plural, diverse or diversely controlled, field windings.
495+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor systems where the motor has plural armature or primary windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 289]    289Phase-reversal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Subject matter in which the motor is an alternating current motor having two or more phase windings and in which means are provided for reversing the time phase sequence of the currents supplied to two or more of the phase windings.

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121,for reciprocating or oscillating motor systems with means for reversing the motor by phase reversal.
207,for induction motor systems with means for reversing the motor by phase reversal.
373+,for motor systems having means for braking the motors by "plugging" which may be effected by phase reversal.
496,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems where the motor has polyphase windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 290]    290Selectively energized windings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Subject matter in which means are provided for selectively energizing one or more of the armature windings without energizing one or more others thereof to effect reversal of operation of the motor.

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122,for energizing two or more windings in sequence or alternation in reciprocating or alternating motor systems.
297+,for motor reversing systems where the motor is reversed by selectively energized field windings.
495+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems where the motor has a plurality of diversely controlled armature windings.
750,for motor systems having means for reversing the motor by shading coils wherein one coil may be selectively operated (closed) for one direction or operation and another operated for a reverse direction of operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 291]    291Armature or primary current reversal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which means are provided for reversing the direction of current flow in the armature or primary circuit conductors of the motor.

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151,for generator-fed motor systems having means for reversing the motor.
300+,for motor systems having means reversing a motor by reversing the field circuit current.
373+,for motor systems having means for braking the motor by "plugging" or by reversing the power applied to the motor which includes reversing the armature current.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 127 for switching systems responsive to polarity or reverse current flow.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 5 for generator systems having means to control the polarity of the generated voltage.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 292]    292By shifting motor brushes or selecting appropriate set of brushes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter in which means are provided for shifting the commutator brushes to which the armature circuit is connected, or in which means are provided for selectively using one set of brushes at one time and using another set at another time.

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541,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor control systems having motor brush adjustment or control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 293]    293Reversing polarity of current supplied to armature circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter in which means are provided for reversing polarity of the current supplied to the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

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140+,for the subject matter in generator-fed motor systems.
300+,for motor reversing systems where the polarity of the field circuit current is reversed.
373+,for motor braking by "plugging" wherein the armature current polarity is reversed.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 138 for polarity reversing systems for electrical switch contacts.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 294]    294Wheatstone bridge type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter in which a plurality of electrical devices are provided and connected in a Whetstone bridge arrangement, the output circuit of which arrangement is connected to the armature circuit of the motor.
(1) Note. For definition of Wheatstone-bridge arrangement" see (1) Note to the definition of subclass 29.

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29,for follow-up motor systems having a Wheatstone bridge arrangement for causing the motor to run in one direction or the other by controlling the polarity of the motor current.
509+,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for miscellaneous motor systems having a Wheatstone bridge in the armature circuit.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 365 for miscellaneous Wheatstone bridge arrangements.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 169 for wave filters of the Wheatstone bridge or lattice type.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 295]    295Potentiometer-controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter in which means for providing current of reversible polarity comprise an impedance device having one or more conductors positionable in energy transfer relationship to the impedance and movable therealong.
(1) Note. Typical of polarity-reversing potentiometers is a resistor having DC input leads connected to the ends of the resistor and two output conductors connected to the motor armature each output conductor slidably engaging the resistor intermediate the ends thereof, so that by sliding one of the output conductors past the other, the polarity of the DC current supplied to the armature circuit is reversed.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 15 for voltage divider systems.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation,   subclass 364 for miscellaneous resistance systems.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclass 68 for mechanically variable electrical resistors, per se, such as rheostats and potentiometers.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 296]    296Field circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which means are provided for effecting reversal of the motor by means in the field circuit of the motor.

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521,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having motor field circuit control.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 104 for systems containing electromagnets or other highly inductive devices.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 180 for structure of the field windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 297]    297Plural, diverse or diversely controlled field windings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 296.  Subject matter in which the motor is provided with two or more field-producing windings one or more of which is structurally different, differently connected, or controlled differently than one or more others of the windings.

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523,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems in which a motor has two or more field windings.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 298]    298Simultaneous energization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Subject matter in which means are provided for energizing all of the field windings at the same time.

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521+,particularly 524 to 527 and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous control systems for motors having two or more field windings which are simultaneously energized.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 299]    299With means for short-circuiting a winding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter in which means are provided for establishing an electrical path of negligible impedance across the terminals of one of the field producing windings so that said winding becomes substantially de-energized when the electrical path is closed.

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528,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems wherein one or more windings of a plural field windings motor are short circuited.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 300]    300Field-circuit current reversed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 296.  Subject matter in which means are provided for reversing the flow of current in the motor field producing winding.

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293+,for motor systems having means for reversing the motor by reversing the current in the armature or primary circuit thereof.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 127 for switching systems responsive to polarity or reverse current.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 6 for generator systems having means to control the polarity by controlling the generator excitation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 362]    362BRAKING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for braking the motor.
(1) Note. For definition of motor braking control, see Class Definition, Glossary, "Motor Load Control".
(2) Note. Whenever the motor is braked by "plugging" (i.e., by power reversal while motor is running) and energization is continued so that motor operates in the reverse direction, classification is in combination reversing and braking. See subclass 261.

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86,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for plural motor systems having braking control.
159,for motor systems where the motor has means (e.g., springs) for biassing the motor against rotation.
161,for motor systems where the motor has a fly-wheel or other massive rotary member for retarding an increase in speed of the motor.
273,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having braking control and another motor-operation control.
703,for braking means in synchronous motor systems.
757,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for braking means in induction motor systems.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous braking devices in general. See the class definition of Class 318 for the line between Class 188 and 318.
303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake Systems,   for miscellaneous fluid pressure brake systems. See the reference to Class 303 in the Notes to the class definition of Class 318 for the line between Class 303 and Class 318.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 76 and 77 for structured combinations of an electrical motor and a brake.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   art collection 932 for other single motor running-speed control systems wherein means are provided for braking the motor while still electrically energized for operation in the same direction in which the motor operated prior to the braking.
477Interrelated Power Delivery Controls, Including Engine Control,   for interrelated control between a motor and a transmission, clutch, or brake. See the notes in Motor Systems and Power, Motion, for the line.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 363]    363"Spotting" or adjustment of braking controller during coasting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the back voltage or counter-electro-motive-force of the motor while the motor is in motion and its armature or primary circuit is disconnected from its power source so that if or when the motor is reconnected to its source of power, a surge of current flow from the motor to the source will not take place, thus avoiding excessive or undesirable braking action at the time of reconnection to the source.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 364]    364Automatic and/or with time-delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter in which means are provided for sensing the existence of a predetermined condition which sensing means in turn initiates the operation of means for controlling the braking of the motor, or where time delay means are provided for controlling the motor braking means after the operation has been initiated.
(1) Note. Where time delay means are provided, the control operation may be initiated manually.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

445,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor control systems which operate in response to predetermined conditions and/or with time delay means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 365]    365Plural diverse conditions or with time delay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Subject matter in which sensing means are provided which respond to two or more conditions which are diverse in kind (e.g., temperature, voltage, current, etc.), or which respond to different characteristics (e.g., magnitude and rate-of-change of a condition) of a single condition, or which respond to one or more conditions in combination with means for effecting a predetermined time delay in the functioning of the braking means after the operation thereof has been initiated manually or otherwise.

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452,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems which are responsive to plural diverse conditions and/or to a single condition and which are also provided with time delay means for the control operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 366]    366Condition of motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Subject matter in which the sensing means are responsive to a condition in or of the motor being braked or a device actuated by the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

449,through 477, inclusive, and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems responsive to conditions in or of the motor being controlled or in or of the device actuated thereby.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 367]    367Armature or primary current:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Subject matter in which the sensing means is responsive to the magnitude or the rate-of-change of the magnitude of the electric current in the armature or primary circuit of the motor being braked.
(1) Note. Where the sensing means comprises a relay which is responsive to the terminal voltage of the electric motor (i.e., connected to shunt to the motor armature circuit) such sensing means is treated as being responsive to the terminal or c.e.m.f. voltage of the motor and not to the armature current thereof, and is classified in subclass 368.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

368,see (1) Note above.
474,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems responsive to the armature or primary current of the motor being controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 368]    368Armature or primary circuit voltage or terminal or counter e.m.f. voltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Subject matter in which the sensing means are responsive to the magnitude of, or the rate-of-change of the magnitude of the terminal voltage or the counter-electromotive-force of the motor being braked.

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459,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor control systems which are responsive to the terminal voltage or counter-electromotive-force of the motor being controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 369]    369Speed, acceleration, movement or position of motor or driven device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Subject matter in which the sensing means are responsive to the speed (or rate-of-change thereof) degree or amount of movement, or the position (angular or linear) of the motor or device driven thereby.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

456,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic control means responsive to the rate-of-change of a condition.
460,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic control means responsive to sound, supersonic vibration or mechanical vibration.
461,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems with automatic control means responsive to the speed or rate-of-movement of a body.
466,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for miscellaneous motor systems with automatic control means responsive to the movement, position or limit of travel of the motor or a device driven by the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 370]    370Plural, diverse or diversely controlled braking means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter in which two or more braking means are provided, one or more of which braking means are structurally different, or are differently controlled or are controlled by structurally different means than one or more others of the braking means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

188,Brakes, appropriate subclasses, particularly noting subclasses 4, 35, 64, 65.3, 68, 79, 105, 143, 156, and 204 for plural brake systems of general applications.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 371]    371Including both friction braking "plugging" and/or dynamic braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Subject matter in which the plural braking means includes friction braking means combined with "plugging" and/or with dynamic braking.
(1) Note. For definition of "friction", "plugging", and "dynamic" braking, see definitions of subclasses 372, 373 and 375, respectively.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

372,for motor braking systems of the friction brake type.
373,for motor braking systems of the "plugging" or application of reverse power to the motor type.
375,for dynamic motor braking systems.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses, for the combination of diverse types of braking devices in general. Particularly note subclass 159 wherein one form of braking means is actuated by current from a motor (acting as a generator) which also brakes by virtue of its dynamic action.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 372]    372Friction braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter in which the braking means comprises a frictional contact surface adapted to engage a cooperating frictional surface which is connected to or is a part of the movable output element of the motor being braked.

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370,for this subject matter where the system includes frictional braking means and another type of braking means.

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188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses, for the structure of friction braking means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 373]    373"Plugging" or application of reverse power to motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter in which means are provided for applying electric energy to an electric motor in such a direction or manner that a torque or force is developed in the motor as a result of such energization which torque or force opposes the tendency of the motor to continue in motion if in motion, or to move if not in motion.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those motor control systems in which the flow of energy to the motor is reversed while the motor is still in motion, or in which the motor is energized in a direction to hold the motor stationary or motionless when the motor is urged to move, while not energized.
(2) Note. Where the application of reverse power is continued after the forward motion of the motor has been reduced to zero so that the motor operates a substantial amount in the reverse direction, classification is not herein, but under combined reversing and braking controls in preceding subclasses. Note particularly subclass 261.

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210,for braking of induction motors by phase-reversal (i.e., by plugging).
261,and the subclass specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having braking by application of reverse power combined with continued reverse energization with consequent reverse operation of the motor. See (2) Note above.
280,and the Search Notes thereto, for motor systems having means for reversing the application of power to a motor for effecting a substantial operation of the motor in the reverse direction (Motor-reversing control).

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 61 for electric controls for electric-motor driven locomotives that may involve "plugging" or application of reverse power for braking purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 374]    374Energy flow interrupted when motor stops:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter in which means are provided for interrupting the flow of energy to the motor substantially at the time that the motor speed is reduced to zero.
(1) Note. The termination of the flow of electric energy to an electric motor as the motor speed substantially reaches zero is considered part of the operation of braking and not another motor control operation, such as automatic stopping of the motor; and hence, such systems are not considered combined braking and automatic stopping systems but rather merely a braking system, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

461,for motor systems having automatic control means for merely stopping the motor when the speed of the motor falls below a predetermined value.
519,for motor systems having an armature or primary circuit making and/or braking device for stopping the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 375]    375Dynamic braking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter in which the motor to be controlled is braked as a result of the motor being converted into an electric generator, which supplies electric energy to an electric circuit.
(1) Note. An electric motor to be controlled can be converted into an electric generator (1) merely as a result of change in the operating conditions (such as mere change in speed of the motor so that its c.e.m.f. exceeds the applied voltage), (2) by appropriately changing the electric circuits of the motor, or (3) by properly changing the circuit constants in existing motor circuits so that the c.e.m.f. generated by the motor exceeds any value of voltage applied to the motor. An electric motor is converted to a braking generator whenever the generated e.m.f. within the motor exceeds in magnitude the opposing potentials, if any, that are applied to the motor and whenever the generating circuit is simultaneously connected to a closed electric circuit. The "closed electric circuit" may comprise a low resistance (dead) short circuit, a useful-load circuit (including the circuit which supplies the electric energy to the motor during motoring operation) or a purely resistive (dissipating) circuit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

87,for dynamic braking of two or more electric motors.
373,for miscellaneous systems for "plugging" (application of reverse power) an electric motor.
759,for dynamic braking of an induction motor.
763,for "plugging" (application of reverse power) of an induction motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 49 (particularly noting subclass 61) for dynamic braking of electric locomotives.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 65 for vehicles having electric motors to supply the motive power and wherein dynamic braking may be effected to retard the vehicle.
188Brakes,   subclass 159 for electric operators for braking devices in which the operator therefor is energized by motors operating as generators.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 93 for dynamoelectric brakes.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   for generation systems, per se, and the controls therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 376]    376Regenerative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 375.  Subject matter in which means are provided for returning or delivering the electrical energy generated in the motor while operating as a generator to the circuit which supplies the electric energy to the motor when operating as a motor.
(1) Note. This type of braking is commonly referred to as "regenerative" to "recuperative" braking.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 377]    377With additional source of e.m.f.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 376.  Subject matter in which means are provided for producing a voltage comprising means other than that which constitutes the source of armature or primary circuit voltage for the motor when operating as a motor and other than the motor itself when operating as a generator during braking.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

89,for braking in plural motor systems wherein one or more motors are converted into generators for supplying exciting current to other motors operating as generators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 378]    378In series with armature or primary circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Subject matter in which means are provided for connecting the additional source of e.m.f. in series with the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

440,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems in which two or more diverse sources of supply are used for electric motors.
500,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems in which two or more electrical sources of supply are connected electrically in series with each other and in series with the armature or primary winding of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 379]    379Locally closed armature circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 375.  Subject matter in which means are provided for immediately connecting the terminals of the generating circuit of the motor through an electrical circuit, with or without additional control or dissipative devices in the last named circuit.
(1) Note. Where the motor is connected to supply energy to a distribution circuit adapted to supply various and sundry electrical devices and appliances at remote or indefinite points, classification is not herein. See Class 307, Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems, subclass 11.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 11 , see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 380]    380Closed through impedance or the like:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Subject matter in which impedance devices or other current-controlling devices are connected in the locally closed circuit.
(1) Note. Where the "other current-controlling device" is a useful electric load device for performing some useful purpose other than as a mere current-controlling device, classification is not herein. For example, where the load device is a light generating device used for illumination purposes or is a secondary battery in which energy is stored indefinitely for any purpose, classification is not herein. See Class 307, electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems, subclass 11.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

508,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems wherein impedance devices are connected in the armature or primary circuit of the motor.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 11 , see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 381]    381With field or secondary circuit control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the field or secondary circuit of the motor.

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493,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having both armature circuit control and field circuit control.
521,and the subclasses specified in the Search Notes thereto, for other motor control systems having field or secondary circuit control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 382]    382By auxiliary electric generator or by magnetic attraction or repulsion devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter in which the braking means comprise (1) an electric generator connected to be driven by the motor for the purpose of braking the motor or (2) Magnetic-Flux-producing means which operate directly through the agency of the flux, per se, to oppose, by magnetic repulsion or by magnetic attraction, the tendency of the motor to continue in motion, if in motion, or to move if not in motion.
(1) Note. Magnetic operators for other types of brakes (e.g., friction, fluid, etc.) are not included herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

375,for systems wherein the motor itself is converted into an electric generator to operate as a braking means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

188Brakes,   subclass 104 for means for braking devices in general by means of generators or other magnetic devices.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 39 and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto for generator systems having a motor driven generator.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   art collection 931 for single motor running-speed control systems wherein a generator is driven by the motor, while the motor is electrically energized, which generator acts as a retarding or braking means to affect the running-speed of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 383]    383"ANTI-BRAKING" OR BRAKING-PREVENTION MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for preventing braking of an electric motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

362,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for means for merely applying or removing the brakes (brake operators) from electric motors, and see indented subclasses.
364,and 365, for motor braking systems having means for merely delaying the application of braking to an electric motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

188Brakes,   subclasses 105 through 189for brake operators, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.01]    400.01Brushless motor closed-loop control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 700.  Subject matter for controlling the currents or voltages in (or supplied to) the motor phases (or windings) to control motor performance (or produce torque) without motor-controlled mechanical switches (i.e., commutators, brushes, slip rings, etc.) by generating a feedback signal in response to any motor parameter (e.g., speed, position, load, torque, current, voltage, acceleration, etc.) and controlling the motor in response to the feedback signal.
(1) Note. Brushless motors are often called "self-commutating" motors.
(2) Note. This subclass may also include subject matter wherein the motor is controlled by an additional or remote parameter signal (e.g., light, temperature, fluid flow, position of a work piece, etc.). However, in this case, the motor is also controlled by a feedback signal in response to any motor parameter (e.g., speed, position, torque, load, current, voltage, acceleration, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 800 through 824for closed-loop speed control of motors having commutators and subclasses 842-847 for closed-loop acceleration control of motors having commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.02]    400.02Vector control (e.g., dq-axis control, 3-2 phase conversion, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which the feedback loop includes a means to convert multiphase currents or voltages supplied to the motor phases (or windings) to a two-phase representation of a related motor parameter (e.g., flux, rotor angle current vector, etc.) which is used to control the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 151 for miscellaneous electrical conversion systems.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   appropriate subclasses for conversion of data, per se.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 1 through 12for frequency and phase converters and subclass 150 for phase conversion using dynamoelectric machines.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.03]    400.03Plural reference comparison (e.g., reference changes during startup, upper/lower reference, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which the feedback signal is compared against more than one reference value.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.04]    400.04Specific processing of feedback signal or circuit therefore (i.e., A-D conversion, compression, or modification):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which the feedback signal is altered, modified, or converted.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include nominally recited feedback circuits or processes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

615,for auxiliary feedback loops in a servomotor control circuit.
667,for a bridge feedback circuit.

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73Measuring and Testing,   for measuring (or sensing) nonelectrical parameters.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 160 through 180for electrical speed measuring.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 236 through 244for speed measurements and signal processing thereof.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 923 through 934for specific feedback circuits for motors having commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.05]    400.05With reference signal generation (e.g., from external system, mechanical oscillator, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.04.  Subject matter comprising a circuit or method for obtaining or generating a parameter or value (i.e., the reference signal) by which a feedback signal can be compared.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

449,for automatic motor control with respect to a fixed standard.
451,for motor control via a mechanical reference, such as a tuning fork.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.06]    400.06Comparator circuit or method:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.04.  Subject matter comprising a circuit or technique by which to compare the motor feedback signal with a reference or value.

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601,for digital comparison techniques in servo systems.
607,and 608, for frequency and phase comparison techniques in servo systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.07]    400.07Plural diverse feedback (e.g., torque and speed, load and speed, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.04.  Subject matter wherein two or more motor conditions or parameters are detected and used as feedback signals.
(1) Note. The use of plural feedback circuits measuring the same parameter does not qualify to be included in this subclass (e.g., speed measurement for each phase of a three-phase motor).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

601,for digital comparison techniques in servo systems.
607,and 608, for frequency and phase comparison techniques in servo systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.08]    400.08With nonmotor parameter or remote condition detected (e.g., temperature, light, airflow, position of diverse object, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.04.  Subject matter in which the control signal is a function of a condition spatially separate from the motor structure.
(1) Note. In the case of light sensing, this subclass does not include subject matter where optical means are used to sense rotor position for feedback to the commutation control circuit.
(2) Note. The motor shaft is a part of the motor structure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

400.4,for light sensing of rotor position.
471,for automatic motor control via thermal conditions.
638,through 670, for "error" detecting means, especially subclass 641 for temperature, subclass 643 for moisture, and subclass 644 for flow.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   for measuring (or sensing) nonelectrical parameters.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   for measuring (or sensing) electrical parameters.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.09]    400.09Plural mode control (e.g., open and closed loop, starting and braking, plural-phase and single-phase operation, open and closed loop, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which the motor is controlled in more than one distinct set or range of operational characteristics (e.g., high/low speed, forward/reverse, running/braking, high/low torque, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

255,through 279, for plural motor control systems.
362,through 382, for motor braking systems.
590,through 598, for multiple mode servo systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.1]    400.1With timing or delay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.09.  Subject matter in which a second mode of operation is initiated after a specified period of time.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

445,through 489, for automatic motor control with a time-delay means (e.g., automatic starting or stopping).
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.11]    400.11With separate starting mode or "ramp-up" mode (e.g., open-loop control for startup, startup initialization, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.09.  Subject matter wherein the motor is controlled with one distinct set or range of operational characteristics prior to reaching running speed and a second set or range of operational characteristics at running speed.
(1) Note. Running speed is any speed for which the motor was designed to operate. A separate starting mode may, for example, be used to quickly establish a speed (by supplying more torque), prevent over-current situations (when starting from standstill), or to establish a set of starting parameters (e.g., position, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.12]    400.12With table lookup, stored map, or memory table (e.g., speed table, stored current profile, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.09.  Subject matter wherein the control information for each of the plural modes is predetermined and stored in a table, map, or memory.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

567,for program- or pattern-controlled servo systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.13]    400.13With timing, delay, or clock pulse counting circuit or generation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter wherein a means by which a temporal assessment is used within the feedback system to provide control.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

445,through 489, for automatic motor control with a time-delay means (e.g., automatic starting or stopping).
484,for time-delay means in automatic motor control systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.14]    400.14Phase shifted as function of speed or position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.13.  Subject matter wherein the currents or voltages to the motor phases or windings are advanced and/or made to lag in accordance with detected speed and/or position.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for the miscellaneous systems for controlling phase angle or voltage and/or current magnitude, and for the miscellaneous transformer and impedance systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.15]    400.15With torque or load determination (e.g., by calculation, detection, or estimation, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter wherein the rotational force of the motor or resistance to rotation is determined by calculation, estimation, or detection.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.16]    400.16Control or position information digitally stored on disk (e.g., computer hard drive position detection, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter wherein information concerning the position or control of the motor is digitally stored on a computer disk (e.g., a hard drive).
(1) Note. This subclass does not include disk control systems, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

720Dynamic Optical Information Storage or Retrieval,   for optical disks, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.17]    400.17Modification or waveshaping of switching control signal (e.g., switching control input to inverter, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which switching control signals used to control motor performance (or produce torque) are processed, modified, manipulated, or generated.
(1) Note. Typically, these "switching control signals" are used to control the inverter switches. This subclass does not pertain to the currents or voltages sent to the motor windings, but instead pertains to the signals that control or cause the currents or voltages to be sent to the motor windings.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 106 for waveform determinative or pulse-producing systems.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 100 through 333for signal or waveform converting, shaping, or generating.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclass 915 for waveform generators used to control motors with commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.18]    400.18With manual control (e.g., foot switch, surgical tool, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter wherein a human operator provides motor control via an interface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

551,for foot- or knee-controlled motor systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.19]    400.19Slew rate control (e.g., slew limiting, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter wherein the time rate of change (or gradient) of voltage or current in either the phase windings or in a circuit for controlling the voltages or currents is varied or regulated.
(1) Note. Slew rate control is often employed to prevent switching transients, electromagnetic interference, and noise.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.2]    400.2Phase voltage wave-shaping circuit or method (e.g., output from inverter, phase energizing signal, trapezoidal wave, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which the energy supplied to the motor field windings is modified and/or altered to achieve a desired result (e.g., wave shaping the drive pulses).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

43,for inverter input waveshaping (i.e., waveshaping ciruits for driving the inverter).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 106 for waveform determinative or pulse-producing systems.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 100 through 333for signal or waveform converting, shaping, or generating.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclass 915 for waveform generators used to control motors with commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.21]    400.21Having protection means (e.g., switching circuit protection, stall protection, failure to start, "wrong" direction, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which any part of the motor, switches, feedback system, and/or commutation control hardware is protected against adverse effects.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

563,through 566, for servo systems having protective features.
706,and 707, for motor synchronization systems wherein failure to synchronize is determined.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1 through 138for safety and protection of systems and devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.22]    400.22Current or voltage limiting (e.g., over-voltage or over-current protection, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.21.  Subject matter in which current and/or voltage is limited, reduced, or compensated to prevent failure or malfunction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

635,for current or voltage limiting in servomotors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1 through 138for safety and protection of systems and devices, especially subclass 93.9 for current limiting.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.23]    400.23Torque ripple stabilization or acoustic noise attenuation (e.g., cogging prevention, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which the sound or mechanical vibration of the motor is attenuated or eliminated (or otherwise modified) and/or the motor torque is stabilized and variations are reduced.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

128,for controlling motor in response to noise, sound, vibration, or position of a motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.24]    400.24Electrical noise attenuation (e.g., EMI, EMR, RFI, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter for reducing or eliminating electromagnetic radiation or electrical disturbances (e.g., transients or perturbations) which interfere with desired operation (e.g., feedback signal) of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclass 19.4 for noise-preventing switching.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclass 800 for shielding structures.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.25]    400.25Switching noise transient attenuation (e.g., switching error prevention, masking, blanking, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.24.  Subject matter in which the electrical disturbances or transients that result from transistor (i.e., in the inverter) switching during motor control are reduced or eliminated.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclass 19.4 for noise-preventing switching.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclass 800 for shielding structures.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.26]    400.26Switching circuit structure or component (e.g., inverter, bridge circuit, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter directed to circuits to make or break (i.e., switches) the electrical power to the windings.
(1) Note. This subclass includes single-phase inverters.
(2) Note. This subclass also includes the rectifier circuit commonly associated with inverter circuits to rectify an ac source to dc for use by the inverter switches.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   for switches, per se.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 135 through 139for inverter systems (e.g., having thyristor).
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.27]    400.27Having both high-side and low-side switching elements for plural-phase motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.26.  Subject matter having a means to connect and disconnect a motor winding to a power supply (i.e., the high-side switching elements) and to connect and disconnect a motor winding to ground (i.e., the low-side switching elements).

Figure 1. T1a, T2a, and T3a are high-side switching elements;T1b, T2b, and T3b are low-side switching elements; and A, B, andC indicate connections to the motor windings

Figure 1. T1a, T2a, and T3aare high-side switching elements;T1b, T2b, and T3b are low-side switching elements; and A, B, andC indicate connections to the motor windings

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 135 through 139for inverter systems (e.g., having thyristor).
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.28]    400.28Diverse high side or low side switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.27.  Subject matter wherein the means to connect and disconnect a motor winding to a power supply (i.e., the high-side switching elements) and the means to connect and disconnect a motor winding to ground (i.e., the low-side switching elements) are controlled in a different manner or by a different method.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 135 through 139for inverter systems (e.g., having thyristor).
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.29]    400.29H-bridge type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.26.  Subject matter in which the motor is connected between two switches for connecting the motor to a voltage supply (high-side switching elements) and two switches for connecting the motor to ground (low-side switching elements).

Figure 1. S1 and S3 are high-side switching elements; andS2 are S4 are low-side switching elements.

Figure 1. S1 and S3 are high-side switchingelements; andS2 are S4 are low-side switching elements.

  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.3]    400.3Power supply voltage feature (e.g., power supply voltage, Vcc compensation, rectifier circuit, power regulator, auxiliary or secondary power supply, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter pertaining to the supply of voltage or current to a circuit for controlling the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 149 through 157for miscellaneous "power pack" systems.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 91 through 93for cathode or cathode heater including anode supply circuit but not including any grid-biasing circuit.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for the miscellaneous systems for controlling phase angle or voltage and/or current magnitude, and for the miscellaneous transformer and impedance systems.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 530 through 550for miscellaneous circuits combined with power supply or bias means.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for inverter and/or converter systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.31]    400.31Utilization or dissipation of stored or collapsing field energy (e.g., freewheeling, discharging one winding through another, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter wherein energy stored in a motor winding is controlled, modified, dissipated, or used.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.32]    400.32Sensorless feedback circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which motor parameters (e.g., rotor position, speed, etc.) are determined by measuring phase current or voltage.
(1) Note. While phase currents and voltages are "sensed," per se, sensors typically refer to physical units attached to the motor (or rotor) (e.g., Hall effect sensors, tachometers, etc.). Therefore, sensorless motors are those without the physical unit attached to the motor (or rotor).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

615,for auxiliary feedback loops in a servomotor control circuit.
667,for a bridge feedback circuit.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   for measuring (or sensing) nonelectrical parameters.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 160 through 180for electrical speed measuring.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 236 through 244for speed measurements and signal processing thereof.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 923 through 934for specific feedback circuits for motors having commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.33]    400.33Voltage injection detection (e.g., voltage injected at startup to determine position, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.32.  Subject matter wherein a usually small or test voltage (typically not large enough to generate torque) is applied to (i.e., "injected") the motor winding to determine position.
(1) Note. This is typically done to determine motor position prior at startup.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.34]    400.34Electromotive force sensor (e.g., back or counter EMF sensor, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.32.  Subject matter in which phase EMF is detected to determine a motor attribute (e.g., rotor position and/or speed) which is fed back to provide commutation control data.
(1) Note. Back-EMF (or BEMF or counter-EMF or CEMF), is the voltage produced across motor windings, due to the winding turns (of the rotor/armature) passing through a magnetic field (of the stator/field), during rotation of the motor. The back-EMF is directly proportional to rotor velocity and opposite in polarity to the applied voltage. This static voltage arises from the generator action in a motor, even if the motor windings are not energized.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

459,for automatic motor control with time-delay using counter-electromotive force of controlled motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   for measuring (or sensing) nonelectrical parameters.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 160 through 180for electrical speed measuring.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 236 through 244for speed measurements and signal processing thereof.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 923 through 934for specific feedback circuits for motors having commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.35]    400.35With zero-crossing detection (e.g., polarity reversal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.34.  Subject matter in which a polarity reversal (i.e., a change in sign) in an induced voltage or current in an undriven winding/coil is determined or sensed.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.36]    400.36With center-tap feedback circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.32.  Subject matter in which motor field windings are electrically connected to a common point and electrical parameters (i.e., current and/or voltage) are determined from the common point.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.37]    400.37With sensor structure (e.g., tachometer, reed switch, cam-controlled switching, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter in which any motor parameter (e.g., speed, position, etc.) is generated into a feedback signal.
(1) Note. Here, the sensor is more than a sensing circuit and typically includes a physical unit attached to the motor, motor shaft, or any other structure and capable of determining a motor parameter.
(2) Note. In "sensorless" motors, motor parameters are determined by the use of a measuring circuit and not some physical unit attached to the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

463,for automatic motor control using a tachometer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 31 for tachometer devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.38]    400.38Magnetic field sensor or responsive device (e.g., Hall element, magneto-resistance, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.37.  Subject matter in which a magnetic field is used to determine a motor parameter (e.g., position, speed, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 514.31 for inductive or magnetic sensing.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   appropriate subclasses for a magnet or an electromagnet, per se.
336Inductor Devices,   subclass 30 for an inductor device having an acceleration responsive inductance adjusting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.39]    400.39Rotating sensor component separate from motor structure (e.g., resolver, magnetically sensed rotating disk, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.38.  Subject matter wherein the magnetic field is generated remotely (i.e., separately) from the motor structure (e.g., detected from a rotating disk attached to a shaft turned by the motor rotor).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

605,for the use of resolvers in servo systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.4]    400.4Optical sensor (e.g., encoder, photodetector, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.37.  Subject matter wherein light or radiant energy is used to determine the motor parameter (e.g., position or speed, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

577,for optical line followers for servo systems.
640,for photoelectric "error" detecting systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.41]    400.41Having specific motor structure (e.g., bifilar windings, airgap dimension, auxiliary winding, phase winding with midtap, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.01.  Subject matter wherein the motor being controlled has a structural characteristic or feature (e.g., an element or dimension, etc.) that enhances, modifies, or otherwise affects motor performance.
(1) Note. The intent of this subclass is to include subject matter other than the controlling circuitry.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

491,for motor control of both circuit and motor structure.
538,through 542, for motor structure adjustment control.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 400.42]    400.42Brushless motor open-loop control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 700.  Subject matter for controlling the currents or voltages in (or to) the motor phases (or windings) to control motor performance (or produce torque) without motor-controlled mechanical switches (i.e., commutators, brushes, slip rings, etc.) and without feedback of any motor parameter.
(1) Note. This subclass contains documents that control a motor without the use of specific feedback parameters, such as position, speed, torque, load, voltage, current, etc.
(2) Note. Brushless motors are often called "self-commutating" motors.

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34,through 113, for plural, diverse, or diversely controlled motors.
362,through 382, for motor braking.
560,through 688 , for servo system motors (e.g., stepper motors, etc.).
700,through 724, for synchronous motors.
727,through 832, for induction motors.

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388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 825 through 841for open-loop speed control of motors having commutators and subclasses 848-860 for open-loop acceleration control of motors having commutators.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 430]    430MOTOR LOAD, ARMATURE CURRENT OR FORCE CONTROL DURING STARTING AND/OR STOPPING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the mechanical load actuated by the motor or for controlling the motor armature or primary current, torque or force during the starting and/or the stopping period of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

255,for this subject matter where there is motor load control combined with automatic starting and/or stopping of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 842+ and 848+ for single motor acceleration control systems with, and without, feedback, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 431]    431Initial, "cracking" or "starting from rest" torque control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 430.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the motor torque at the instant of starting in order to insure that the motor torque is great enough to overcome the starting-from-rest or static friction opposition to motor movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 432]    432CONSTANT MOTOR CURRENT, LOAD AND/OR TORQUE CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for maintaining substantially constant the magnitude of the motor armature or primary current, the watts supplied to the motor, the mechanical load connected or applied to the motor, or the torque or force exerted by the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

434,for motor systems in which means are provided for preventing the load driven by the motor, the motor current, or the watts supplied to the motor, or the torque exerted by the motor from exceeding a predetermined maximum or a minimum value. Where the system includes means to prevent the motor load, motor current, watts or torque from exceeding both a maximum and minimum value, the patent is classified in this subclass 432.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 220 through 354for constant current systems in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 433]    433Control of motor load or device driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 432.  Subject matter in which means are provided for maintaining a constant motor current, load, and/or torque control by controlling the physical load device actuated by the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 434]    434LIMITATION OF MOTOR LOAD, CURRENT, TORQUE OR FORCE (E.G., PREVENTING OVERLOAD):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for preventing the load connected or applied to the motor, the armature or primary current of the motor, the watts supplied to the motor, or the torque or force exerted by the motor from merely exceeding a predetermined maximum or predetermined minimum value.

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432,for this subject matter where the system includes means for preventing the motor current, load, or the torque or force exerted by the motor, from exceeding both a predetermined maximum and minimum value.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 274 and 284 for regulators with threshold detection.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 436]    436NONRUNNING, ENERGIZED MOTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for energizing an electric motor to produce a substantial output force or torque which is insufficient under prevailing conditions to cause the motor to start.
(1) Note. This subclass is designed to include mere torque or force producing motors which, under the conditions of loading, cannot cause the useful load device to move appreciably, other than to effect a mere slack, play or back-lash take-up movement, but which motor nevertheless exerts a sustained torque or force on the load device.

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6,for motor systems specifically limited to maintain a tension in a cable, belt, strand or strip material under running or stationary conditions.
40,for plural motors systems having at least one motor biased against rotation.
159,for motor systems having means (other than a useful load device) for biassing the motor against rotation.
430,for motor systems having means for controlling the motor torque at the starting period to insure that the motor will start, and for motor systems having means for stalling or overloading the motor while the motor is energized.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 98 for electric meters wherein the motive-power element of the meter is energized to exert torque on a non-moving pointer to hold it in an indicating position.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   subclasses 848+ for single motor acceleration control systems wherein a motor is energized while stationary, but which motor immediately starts and controllably accelerates to a running condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 437]    437PHASING OR ANGULAR OR LINEAR POSITIONAL CONTROL OF MOVABLE ELEMENT OF THE MOTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for positioning or phasing the movable (working) element on an electric motor with reference to some object, fixed or in motion, or with reference to cyclic conditions or time.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

18,for follow-up systems of electric motor control wherein a motor is positioned relatively to a transmitting or controlling member or with reference to a predetermined condition.
41,for this subject matter where one motor is in predetermined relative position with respect to another motor by means of electrical synchronizing interconnections between the motors.
45,for this subject matter where two or more motors are mechanically coupled together so that their movable elements are constrained to maintain a predetermined relative phase or angular position with respect to each other.
68,for this subject matter where one motor has its speed and/or phase relationship controlled with respect to another motor under running speed conditions.
85,for miscellaneous motor systems having means for synchronizing, resynchronizing or phasing control of two or more electric motors.
136,for motor systems having means for starting or accelerating motors other than by electrical energization of the motor, including means for synchronizing or phasing the motors relative to an AC source of supply to which the motors are to be connected.
466,for motor systems having means for automatically stopping a motor when it reaches a predetermined position.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 438]    438POWER FACTOR CONTROL OF ARMATURE OR LINE CIRCUIT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for controlling the power factor (i.e., the phase angle between the line voltage and resulting line current which is supplied to the primary circuit) of the energy supplied by an alternating current source to the armature or primary circuit of an electric motor.
(1) Note. For the combination of power factor control and one or more motor operations control, see appropriate subclass for the particular operations control. Power factor control is not such a control as is combinable with other controls to constitute plural diverse controls.

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165,for motor systems having synchronous motor control, particularly field-circuit control, which may modify the power factor of the energy supplied to the motor. Particularly note subclass 179 for synchronous motor systems having automatic control means which is responsive to power factor, phase angle, power, or watts in the motor armature circuit.
508,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition thereof for miscellaneous motor systems having the armature circuit controlled by means of impedances (reactors, condensers, etc.) in the armature circuit.
729,and the subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto, for power factor control in induction motor systems.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 205 through 211for power factor control systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 440]    440HAVING PLURAL, DIVERSE OR DIVERSELY CONTROLLED SOURCES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which two or more sources of electrical energy are provided for the armature or primary circuit of electric motors one or more of said sources (1) having one or more characteristics (e.g., size, frequency, voltage, etc.) which are substantially different from one or more corresponding characteristics of one or more others of the sources, or (2) are controlled substantially differently (e.g., with respect to time, degree of control, type of control means, etc.) from one or more others of the sources.
(1) Note. Where a plurality of sources are connected in electrical series, or in series, or in series parallel in the armature or primary circuit of a motor, there being no significant diverse characteristics of the sources claimed or no different control of the sources claimed, the patent is excluded from this subclass. See subclass 504 and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of that subclass for such excluded subject matter.

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105,for motor systems having plural diverse, or diversely controlled sources of armature or primary circuit supply for plural motors.
119,and 123, for motor systems having a polyphase source of supply for a reciprocating or oscillating motor.
149,for motor systems having plural, diverse or diversely controlled generators for supplying electric energy to the armature or primary circuits of motors.
248,for motor systems having plural, diverse or diversely controlled sources of e.m.f. for a series motor.
500,see Note 1 above. 731, for motor systems having plural sources of supply for an induction motor.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 18 for systems interconnecting a plurality of sources of electrical energy so that they supply a plurality of load devices or load circuits; subclass 43 for systems interconnecting a plurality of sources of electrical energy so that they can supply a common load or load circuit.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclass 86 for automatic substitution of power supply; subclass 137 for polyphases source of supply; subclass 160 for plural power supplies, all for lamp or space-discharge device systems.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclass 138 , for a plural source of supply for a battery or condenser in a charging or discharging system.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 441]    441A.C. and D.C.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 440.  Subject matter in which one or more of the sources are an alternating current type of source and one or more others of which are a direct current type of source.
(1) Note. A pulsating source in which the instantaneous polarity never reverses is classified as a direct current source.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

107,for plural motor systems having AC and DC sources of supply.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 442]    442Different voltages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 440.  Subject matter in which one or more of the sources have a different (effective value) voltage than one or more others of the sources.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

108,and 109, for plural motor systems having plural sources of supply one or more of which sources have a voltage which is different (in effective value) than the voltage of one or more others of the sources.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 443]    443PERIODIC, REPETITIOUS OR SUCCESSIVE OPERATIONS CONTROL OF MOTOR, INCLUDING "JOG" AND "INCH" CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which means are provided for effecting a motor operation two or more times in succession at regular or irregular intervals of time.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those systems of repetitious, periodic, or successive operations of a motor in which once the operation of the motor is initiated, either manually or automatically, the operation will take place a plurality of times by virtue of the inherent law or mode of operation of the control means.
(2) Note. Where the operation is controlled by some condition-sensitive device and the operation is effected each time a predetermined condition exists but where the condition may or may not exist so that as a result the operation may or may not occur or take place, classification is not herein but in some other appropriate subclass. See subclass 445 herein below, and the subclasses listed in the Search Notes thereto.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

102,for motor systems having means for successively starting and/or stopping or for periodically or repeatedly starting and/or stopping two or more electric motors.
119,for this subject matter where the motor is a reciprocating or oscillating electric motor which is periodic or repetitious in its operation by virtue of its normal mode of operation (i.e., its working or useful output member periodically stops and reverses).
162,for pattern, template, perforated sheet or other predetermined schedule means which can be operated to give repeated or cyclic motor operation controls.
281,for motor systems having means for periodically reversing a motor.
431,for motor systems having means for repeatedly applying starting impulses to a motor to overcome starting friction.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 444]    444Variable periods or intervals between controlling operations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter in which means are provided for changing the periodicity or time interval of different motor operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 445]    445AUTOMATIC AND/OR WITH TIME-DELAY MEANS (E.G., AUTOMATIC STARTING AND/OR STOPPING):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which (1) means are provided for sensing the existence of or the magnitude of a predetermined condition (e.g., temperature, time, speed of a device, etc.) combined with means for controlling the motor and in which the sensing means initiates the operation of the motor control means upon the occurrence of the predetermined condition; and/or (2) in which time-delay or retarding means are provided for retarding or delaying the operation of the motor control means whether the operation is initiated manually or automatically.
(1) Note. This subclass and the subclasses indented hereinunder will be the places where automatic starting and/or stopping, per se, of electric motors will be classified. See the class definition for automatic starting and/or stopping of electric motors.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

18,for electric motor follow-up systems in which a motor starts (including automatic starting in response to a change in a condition) and automatically stops when motor moves a distance proportional to the degree of movement of a controller or to the degree of change of a condition.
69,for speed difference detectors in plural motor systems for automatically controlling the relative speeds of the motors in response to a difference in speed between the motors.
77,for motor systems having devices responsive to speed of one motor which controls speed of another electric motor.
120,and 127, for motor systems having means for automatically controlling a reciprocating or oscillating motor.
141,for generator supplied motor systems having means for automatically controlling the generator.
162,for motor systems having means for automatically controlling an electric motor by means of templates, perforated sheets and other predetermined schedule means.
174,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of those subclasses for automatic control of synchronous motors.
221,for induction motor systems having automatic control and/or time delay means for the control of an impedance type converter or dephasing means for controlling the armature or primary circuit of the motor.
283,and the subclasses specified in the Notes to the definition of those subclasses for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic control of the reversing of electric motors.
364,for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic controls of the braking of electric motors.
432,for miscellaneous motor systems having automatic means for maintaining constant load or constant current in electric motors.
700,for induction motor systems having automatic control and/or time delay means for the control of a primary circuit impedance of the motor.
822,for induction motor systems having automatic control of an impedance in the secondary circuit of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   see (4) Note of class definition and the search notes thereto, for condition responsive systems, per se.
334Tuners,   subclass 9 for remotely controlled variable tuners having an electromagnetic operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 446]    446With nonautomatic control means (e.g., manual):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Subject matter in which means other than automatic means (e.g., manual means) are also provided for effecting a particular control of an electric motor.
(1) Note. The automatic control means and the nonautomatic control means may be arranged to operate conjointly or exclusively of each other.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1,for motor systems having means in addition to an electric motor for actuating a load device.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 479.01 and the Search Notes thereto, for plural operators or controlling elements for single load devices in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 447]    447Nonresponsive or less responsive for limited periods:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Subject matter in which means are provided for rendering the sensing mechanism entirely nonresponsive or incapacitated, or less responsive to the predetermined conditions for a particular and limited period of time which is less than the time required for an operating cycle of the motor.
(1) Note. For example, an overload cutout may be rendered inoperative during the starting period of a motor so that it will not trip during the particular and limited period that the motor is starting, but will be fully operative during the running period of the motor.
(2) Note. Where the sensing or control means is merely delayed or retarded (e.g., by means of a dash pot or other retarding means), so that the rate at which the sensing means responds or the control means operates is reduced, classification is not herein, but in subclass 484 below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

279,for means for rendering the overload sensing mechanism less responsive during the accelerating period of the motor.
484,see Note 2 above.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 448]    448Anti-hunting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Subject matter in which means are provided for preventing or for reducing the tendency of the motor control means to cause the motor to "hunt" overtravel or to be over-compensated. The systems included herein are "open loop" controls and thus are not servomechanisms.
(1) Note. "Overcompensation" is defined for the purposes of this class as that condition which exists when the automatic control means, in consequence of its sensing means responding to a change in some predetermined condition, cause the operation or control of the motor to be extended or continued beyond that necessary to restore the condition to the desired value. "Overtravel" is defined as the movement of the motor, or devices actuated thereby, beyond that necessary to cause the condition to be restored to the desired value and is the direct and proximate result of the "overcompensation" defined above. "Hunting" is defined as that condition which exists as a result of "overcompensation" or "overtravel" in which the sensing means again responds to the extended or excessive change in condition beyond that desired to cause the control means to effect a control of the motor in the opposite direction. Should the control means again overcompensate, the operation of the control means may be initiated for several or for an indefinite number of times. These successive operations or controls of the motor in an attempt to restore the condition to a predetermined value is known as "hunting"; and the means provided to prevent or reduce hunting are known as "anti-hunting" means.
(2) Note. Where the system is a closed loop position servomechanism, classification is not herein, but in subclass 611, above.

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362,and the subclasses specified in the Notes thereto, for motor systems having means for braking a motor in order to prevent overtravel of a motor after the energy flow thereto has been terminated.
611,see Note (2) above.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 39 for anti-hunting means in electric generating systems.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 19 for differentiating or integrating networks of the passive type.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 449]    449With respect to a fixed standard, master or reference device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Subject matter in which means are provided for producing a force, motion, or other quantitative characteristic constituting a standard, master, or reference value or quantity, in combination with means for comparing such value or quantity with a value or quantity of a corresponding characteristic derived from or as a result of the operation of the motor to be controlled, and for controlling the motor in accordance with the magnitude or variations in magnitude of the resultant of the compared values or quantities.

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18,for electric motor follow-up systems in which when the "transmitter" is operated continuously the follow-up motor may vary in speed (see particularly subclass 23) in accordance with variations in the speed of operation of the transmitter which thus acts as a standard or reference device.
69,for plural motor systems having means for controlling the relative speed of two or more electric motors wherein a speed difference detector is employed for comparing the relative speeds of the motor with respect to each other and means are provided responsive to the speed difference detector for controlling the speed of one motor relative to that of another.
77,for plural motor systems in which means responsive to the speed of one motor constitutes a speed controlling means for another motor.
329,for motor systems having means to control the motor running-speed in response to the speed or frequency of any master device other than the source of supply for the armature circuit.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 36 for generator control with respect to a standard master or reference device.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 450]    450Electrical detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Subject matter in which the comparing means (i.e., the means which detects a change in, or a difference between, the values or quantities being compared) comprise electrical means, e.g., coils, electric meters or indicators, dynamoelectric machines, electrical impedances, etc.

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70,for plural motor systems having electrical type detectors in running-speed control systems wherein the speed of one motor is compared by electrical means with the speed of another.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 451]    451Mechanically vibrating device as reference device (e.g., tuning fork):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Subject matter in which a tuning-fork or other mechanically vibratable device is used as a standard, master, or reference device with which the operation or control of the motor is compared and controlled.

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119,for motor systems where the motor is an electrically driven tuning-fork.

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84Music,   subclass 457 for tuning-fork, per se, when used for producing musical notes.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 452]    452Plural, diverse conditions or with time-delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Subject matter , (1) in which the sensing means are provided with means which respond to two or more conditions, one or more of which are diverse in type or character than one or more others of the conditions or (2) in which means are employed for sensing one or more conditions, diverse or otherwise, in combination with means for delaying or retarding the operation of the sensing means or the control means after control thereof has been initiated by the sensing means.
(1) Note. The magnitude of a condition (e.g., 40-volts) and the rate-of-change (e.g., 1 volt per second) of a condition are considered plural, diverse conditions for purpose of classification herein. Two magnitudes of a different order of the same condition (e.g., 40-volts and 60-volts) are not considered plural diverse conditions for purposes of classification herein.
(2) Note. Automatic starting of a motor in response to one condition and stopping in response to different kind of condition is included herein, for example.
(3) Note. The sensing means which responds to two or more diverse conditions may comprise either separate means one of which responds to one condition and another of which responds to another condition, or a single means which is simultaneously responsive to diverse conditions (e.g., an electromagnet having the winding made of a thermally responsive material, such as iron wire, which is inherently responsive to voltage or current and also temperature).

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142,for automatic control in response to plural diverse conditions and/or with automatic control in response to a condition in combination with time delay or retarding means, of a generator in a generator-fed-motor system.
365,for automatic control of motor braking in response to plural diverse conditions and/or with time-delay means.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 40 for generator control responsive to plural conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 453]    453Electrical condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Subject matter in which the sensing means is responsive to one or more electrical conditions (e.g., voltage, frequency, current, etc.).

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142,for automatic control of a generator in a generator-fed-motor system in which the sensing means is responsive to plural diverse conditions including one or more electrical conditions.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 41 for generator control in response to plural conditions including an electrical condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 454]    454Plural, diverse electrical conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 453.  Subject matter in which the sensing means respond to two or more predetermined electrical conditions, one or more of which conditions are different in kind or character (e.g., voltage, current, frequency, watts, power-factor, etc.) than one or more others of the conditions.
(1) Note. The magnitude of an electrical characteristic (e.g., 50-volts, 10 amperes, etc.) and the rate-of-change of magnitude of the same characteristic (e.g., 1-volt per second change, or 2-amperes per minute change) are considered to be diverse electrical conditions and, hence, are included within the definition of this subclass.

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143,for automatic control of generator-fed motor systems in response to plural, diverse electrical conditions.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 42 for generator control in response to plural electrical conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 455]    455Voltage and current (e.g., watts):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 454.  Subject matter in which the sensing means are responsive to both voltage and current including watts or watthours based on both voltage and current.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 43 for generator control in response to voltage and current.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 136 , 137, 139, and 140 for watt or watt-hour meters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 318 subclass 456]