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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 327]   CLASS 327,MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVE ELECTRICAL NONLINEAR DEVICES, CIRCUITS, AND SYSTEMS
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the residual class for electrical devices, circuits or systems having an output not directly proportional to its input and comprising at least one component which can provide gain or can route electrical current and which device, circuit or system does not form a complete system such as is classified specifically elsewhere or a subcombination of utility only in such elsewhere classified system.

(1) Note. The scope of patents classified herein can be determined only by determining the scope of other related classes which are listed below under SEARCH CLASS. Also, consult search notes and definitions of these classes.
(2) Note. Typical active components are solid-state components, vacuum tubes, and gas filled tubes. However, also included would be components broadly claimed to have active properties, but which are not specifically limited to a particular embodiment such as a vacuum tube. MAIN SUBDIVISIONS OF THIS CLASS A. Specific Signal Discriminating (e.g., Comparing Or Selecting) Without Subsequent Control Included here are circuits for the comparison, selection, or distinguishing of specific characteristics of either an input signal or signals without continuous regulation of such characteristic. B. Signal Converting, Shaping, Or Generating Included here are circuits wherein: (a) an inherent input signal parameter such as phase, frequency, amplitude or current is modified, maintained at some value, or changed to an entirely different parameter; (b) an input signal having a particular waveform modified into an output signal having a partially or a completely different waveform; or (c) an output signal of specified waveform is produced. C. Specific Input To Output Function Included here are circuits wherein an output signal is proportional to a mathematical expression involving an input signal or signals.
(1) Note. Characteristically, the input signals are continuous and slowly varying.
(2) Note. Circuitry performing Boolean Algebra functions, per se, are excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes, below.
(3) Note. The input signals of this subclass do not contain information (data). For data processing see References to Other Classes, below. D. Gating (i.e., Switching Input To Output) Included here are electron tube or solid-state gating circuits which distribute unmodified input signals to selected outputs. E. External Effect Included here are circuits, not elsewhere classified responsive to or compensating for an ambient nonelectrical condition such as heat or magnetism. F. With Particular Control Included here are circuits where current or power to a broadly recited device is controlled in response to a control signal. The control signal may be derived from an external source or from a feedback structure responsive to the condition of the load.
(1) Note. Where a specific load device is recited, classification will be in the particular class providing for the specific load device. G. Specific Identifiable Device, Circuit, Or System Included here are circuits having a particular structure, arrangement, or construction not classifiable elsewhere. H. Miscellaneous Included here are systems or circuits not provided for elsewhere.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

ACTIVE FILTERS

The filters proper for this class include at least one active device utilized in producing the transfer function defining the frequencies that will be passed.

A filter in combination with a specific load will be classified in the class providing for the load. See References to Other Classes, below for filtering of data within an electrical digital calculating computer or analog computer.

The filters within the Specific Identifiable Device, Circuit, Or System area (see above) are active filters that suppress an unwanted input signal. See Noise Filters below for additional noise filter areas within Class 327.

NOISE FILTERS

Limiting, clipping, or clamping circuits which achieve transient or signal noise reduction by filtering or otherwise are classified in this class.

Compensation for a noise signal which is a by-product of switching thereof is found in this class.

Miscellaneous unwanted signal suppression is classified in this class.

See Subclass References to the Current Class below for these art areas.

PHASE LOCK LOOP

A nonlinear phase lock loop circuit, per se, is classified in Class 327. A phase lock loop circuit in combination with a special art device, is classified with the special art device. For example, a phase lock loop claimed in combination with an oscillator is classified in Class 331, subclasses 172+, a phase lock loop in combination with a telecommunication system is classified in Class 455, and a phase lock loop in combination with a pulse or digital communication system is classified in Class 375, subclasses 111+.

See Subclass References to the Current Class below for a phase lock loop to synchronize one signal with another for the creation of a replica signal.

DIGITAL LOGIC

Digital logic, per se, is classified in Class 326 and this includes, for example, multiple connections of AND, OR, or NOT gates. However, combinations of multiple AND or OR gates, etc., which perform a particular function proper to some other class are classified in that other class. For example, an AND gate claimed to be used as a comparator, for example, will be classified in Class 327, whereas a claimed AND gate, per se, would be classified in Class 326.

MULTIVIBRATOR

Patents reciting a free running astable multivibrator, per se, are classified elsewhere. For example, see References to Other Classes for a relaxation oscillator multivibrator.

Multivibrators having one or more stable states are classified in Class 327. See Subclass References to the current Class.

Generally, detailed flip-flops, per se, are in this class, subclasses 185+; however, multifunctional or programmable logic having a flip-flop is in Class 326, subclasses 37+ and redundant logic having a flip-flop is in Class 326, subclass 12.

INTEGRATED STRUCTURE

An integrated circuit chip, per se, is classified in Class 257.

Lead frames, per se, are classified in Class 257 since these are only used to connect an integrated circuit chip externally.

An integrated circuit chip in combination with a single lead, a battery or bias without any additional circuit configuration, is classified in Class 257.

An integrated circuit chip in combination with an external circuit proper for Class 327 will be classified in Class 327 since Class 327 is higher than Class 257 in the overall class hierarchy.

Circuit interconnections (e.g., point to point, lead interconnections, diode and transistor interconnections, etc.) within the confines of the integrated circuit chip itself are classified in Class 257, whereas circuit interconnections outside the environment of an integrated circuit chip are not.

If an integrated circuit is recited with other than a nominal recitation of a utility, the patent will be classified in the utility class.

CHARGE COUPLED DEVICES

CCD"s recited as part of the circuitry within an integrated circuit chip are classified in Class 257.

CCD"s recited with other than a nominal recitation of utility are classified in the utility class. See References to Other Classes, below.

POWER SUPPLIES

Power supplies in combination with another art device, classifiable elsewhere, will be found with the other art device. Tubes or solid-state device power supplies for a nonlinear device, circuit, or system, not elsewhere classified, will remain in this class (327).

A power supply in combination with a load, (i.e., a single power supply and a single load) without any claim to a substrate circuit is classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below.

The power supply patents of this class, subclasses 530+ require a nonlinear device, circuit, or system as a load or control for the power supply. A claim to a power supply circuit in combination with a substrate containing a nonlinear device, circuit, or system is classified in Class 327.

SYSTEMS WITH SPECIFIC SOURCE OF INPUT ENERGY ONLY IDENTIFIED BY CHARACTERISTIC

This class does not provide for the subject matter included herein in combination with a specific type of electromagnetic wave energy since the broad recitation of the specific source would be classifiable with the art containing that particular source of energy. However, this class will take the systems and networks of the class in combination with a source of wave energy wherein the energy is expressed only as being composed of a band of frequencies or a source of pulses, etc., or wherein the source is recited by name only as a wave energy generator (such as an oscillator, pulse generator, etc.). Where the specific details of the source are recited such systems are classified with the art which provides for systems utilizing such specific source.

MECHANICAL STRUCTURE

Claims to a specific mechanical structure in combination with generic circuitry are classified with the mechanical structure. However, claims to broad mechanical structure in combination with specific circuitry is classified in this class unless provided for in a mechanical or electrical class and provided the circuitry is nonlinear.

MEMORY CIRCUIT

A generic nonlinear circuit claimed with a memory inside the circuit is classified in this class (327), whereas a claim to generic circuitry in combination with a memory external to the circuit would be classified with the memory class.

MONITORING, TEST OR CALIBRATING

The following areas reciting monitoring, testing or calibrating take precedence over Class 327:

Class 73, subclasses 1.01+ for instrument proving or calibrating; and subclass 865.9 for testing of apparatus.

Class 324, subclass 601 for calibration, and subclasses 74+ for testing and calibrating of electric meters.

Class 342, subclasses 165+ for testing or calibrating a radar system.

Class 348, subclasses 180+ for television monitoring or testing.

Class 358, subclass 406 for facsimile measuring or testing.

Class 374, subclasses 1+ for thermal measuring and testing.

Class 455, subclass 115 for measuring, testing or monitoring of a transmitter and subclass 226 for measuring, testing, or monitoring of a receiver. Only monitoring, testing, or calibrating, not elsewhere classified, and related to nonlinear devices, circuits and systems are classified in Class 327. The following are examples of those found in Class 327: subclasses 20, 262, 292, 378, 509, and 538.

Class 600, subclass 486 for testing means inserted in the human body.

Class 702, appropriate subclasses for testing and measuring which includes a computation.

FUNCTION

Only those nonlinear circuits or systems whose function is not specifically provided for elsewhere would be classified in this class (327) subclasses 334+.

SWITCHING

See References to Other Classes, below for examples of other areas for switching;

CIRCUITS WITH ELECTRON OR OTHER CHARGED PARTICLE BEAM TUBE

Only those nonlinear circuits utilizing electron or other charged particle beams that are not classifiable in other areas would be classified in Class 327.

Examples of electron or other charged particle beam tube circuits classified elsewhere are the cyclotron and CRT circuits of Class 313.

MODULATION OR COMMUNICATION

Nonlinear circuits used in combination with a modulated signal are classified in the classes containing the communication of information via a modulated signal.

ELECTRICAL CONTROL OF MACHINES

Electrical control with a broad machine is classified with the machine, if a class exists for the machine. Only those electrical control patents, not provided for in the machine classes, would be classified in Class 327, provided the circuit is nonlinear.

NEURON CIRCUITS OR NETWORKS

Patents reciting neuron simulator circuitry, per se, and neural networks are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes below.

FUSIBLE LINK AND INTENTIONAL DESTRUCT CIRCUIT

Miscellaneous circuits of this type are classified in this class (327) subclass 525.

OSCILLATORS

Free running oscillators (including the asynchronous type) are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes below.

PERSONNEL OR DEVICE PROTECTIVE CIRCUITS

Circuits used to protect personnel from harm, or protect devices from failure (e.g., overload, power surge) are excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes below.

SYSTEMS WITH SPECIFIC LOADS IN THE OUTPUT CIRCUIT

This class does not provide for the subject matter in combination with a specific load device even though the load device is recited by name only (as a motor, loud-speaker, etc.). Such systems are classified in general with the particular art device constituting the load.

AMPLIFIERS

This class does not include electronic circuits, per se, wherein a variable electric current or voltage input signal is applied to an electrical amplifying device to control a source of electrical energy applied to the same device, and from which is derived an output signal of substantially the same waveform as the input signal and substantially linearly related thereto.

LINEAR DEVICE, CIRCUITS OR SYSTEMS

This class excludes linear resistors, reactive apparatus and insulators, per se. Although the claimed solid-state device may be active or passive and have some insulative or reactive properties, it cannot be classified in this class if the device is generally thought of as being only an insulator or reactive apparatus such as a capacitor, inductor, transformer, motor, etc.

COUNTERS

See References to Other Classes for electrical pulse counters, pulse dividers, or shift registers.

PASSIVE FILTERS

See References to Other Classes for filters utilizing lumped or distributed parameter passive elements.

SPECIAL ART DEVICES

Special art devices are to be classified with the specified device.

GAS TUBE

Circuitry utilizing gas tubes not elsewhere provided for are included here. See, Subclass References To The Current Class, below, for an example.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

147+,156+ provide for a phase lock loop to synchronize one signal with another for the creation of a replica signal.
185+,for multivibrators having one or more stable states.
310+,for limiting, clipping, or clamping circuits which achieve transient or signal noise reduction by filtering or otherwise. (See "Noise Filters" above)
379+,for compensation for a noise signal which is a by-product of switching thereof. (See "Noise Filters" above)
551+,for miscellaneous unwanted signal suppression. (See "Noise Filters" above).
601+,for circuitry utilizing gas tubes (see "Gas Tube" above)

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for systems and apparatus for making a measurement or test not provided for in other classes, particularly subclasses 1.01+ for instrument proving or calibrating, and subclass 865.9 for testing of apparatus.
84Music,   subclasses 600+ for electrical musical tone generation using transistors or space discharge devices.
136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   appropriate subclasses.
148Metal Treatment,   subclasses 33+ for barrier layer stock material.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclasses for the physical structure of conductors.
178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclasses for telegraph apparatus and systems, particularly subclass 43 for space induction systems, and subclasses 66.1+ for alternating or pulsating current telegraph systems.
191Electricity: Transmission to Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   appropriate subclasses for electric switches and circuit breakers and for electrical and mechanical switches.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for producing chemical changes through the agency of electrical wave energy.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 600 through 780for induction, electro-static or electro-magnetic heating systems and subclass 114 for welding circuits with space discharge tube control.
246Railway Switches and Signals,   appropriate subclass for electric circuits utilized in railway switches and signals.
250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses for the detection of nuclear or electromagnetic radiant energy, the testing of material by nuclear or electromagnetic radiant energy, the irradiation of material by nuclear or electromagnetic radiant energy, electron energy analysis, the deflection or focussing of an ion or electron beam, and the generation of control of nuclear or electromagnetic radiant energy.
252Compositions,   subclasses 62.3+ for barrier layer compositions and subclasses 500+ for other semiconductor compositions.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for particular nonlinear solid-state devices, per se, also for an integrated circuit chip, per se, and for lead frames, per se, since these are only used to connect an integrated circuit chip externally. An integrated circuit chip in combination with a single lead, a battery or bias without any additional circuit configuration is classified in Class 257.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   appropriate subclass for electric circuits utilized in prime mover dynamo plants.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   appropriate subclasses for circuits providing electrical transmission or interconnection such as those having plural energy sources or plural loads and class appropriate switching systems, wave form determinative networks, and circuits responsive to external effects such as temperature or magnetism.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 326+ for circuits used to protect personnel from harm, or protect devices from failure (e.g., overload, power surge). (See "Personnel Or Device Protective Circuits" above)
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclasses for the physical structure of electric generators and motors and electromagnetic clutches and for the circuits that relate to electromagnetic clutches, and particularly subclasses 314+ for piezoelectric devices in combination with tube structure where the significant structure claimed is that of the crystal, and the tube structure or circuitry is only incidentally claimed.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for the physical structure of electronic lamp and discharge devices, per se.
314Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Consumable Electrodes,   appropriate subclasses for electric lamp and discharge devices of the arc discharge type which may be combined with an electron space discharge tube.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   appropriate subclasses for circuits in combination with charged particle beam tubes, cathode-ray tubes or electric lamp and space discharge devices, particularly subclasses 8.51+ for pulse storage systems utilizing cathode-ray tubes, and subclasses 84.51+ for pulse storing systems comprised exclusively of gaseous discharge tubes.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 400.1 through 400.42for synchronous motor commutation control systems.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclass for a battery or capacitor charging or discharging application that employs a space-discharge device.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 72+ for electron space discharge tube systems for controlling a single generator.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for circuits utilized in power voltage magnitude and phase control systems.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   for a power supply in combination with a load, (i.e., a single power supply and a single load) without any claim to a substrate circuit (See "Power Supplies" above).
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for circuits utilized in electrical measuring, testing, and sensing systems.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for combinational or sequential logic, per se.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   for circuitry for performing Boolean Algebra functions, per se. (See Class Definition, "Specific Input To Output Function" above)
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   for a logical function (see "Charge Coupled Devices" above)
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   for delay (see "Charge Coupled Devices" above)
329Demodulators,   appropriate subclasses for circuits extracting information from a carrier.
330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses for electron space discharge tube apparatus combined with circuitry to form an amplifier system and subclasses 250+ for semiconductor amplifiers.
331Oscillators,   appropriate subclasses for electron space discharge tube or solid-state apparatus combined with tuned circuit apparatus forming an oscillatory system of the self-sustaining type, an asynchronous oscillator, per se, or in combination with other circuitry or an oscillator combined with a phase lock loop without any intelligence claimed; subclasses 8+ for transistorized automatic frequency control for oscillators; and subclasses 108+ for solid-state oscillators.
331Oscillators,   subclass 144 for a relaxation oscillator multivibrators.
331Oscillators,   for free running oscillators (including the asynchronous type). (See "Oscillators," above)
332Modulators,   appropriate subclasses for circuitry which superimposes information on a carrier.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 19 for passive element wave differentiating or integrating systems, subclasses 24+ for passive filters, and subclass 20 for wave shaping networks of the passive element type; subclasses 167+, 186+, and 202+ for filters utilizing lumped or distributed parameter passive elements.
334Tuners,   appropriate subclasses for tuning circuitry.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   appropriate subclasses for magnetically operated switches and circuit breakers.
336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for passive inductive devices.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   appropriate subclasses for thermal switches, per se.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 12.1 through 12.55for pulse responsive selective systems, particularly subclass 12.2 for pulse responsive counting chains which may employ an electron space discharge device; subclass 15.1 for electron beam-type selective or remote control systems; subclass 146.2 for digital comparator systems; and subclasses 870.01-870.44 for telemetering systems. (Also see "Charge Coupled Devices" above.)
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclasses 50+ for code converters and subclasses 20+, 186, and 191 for a pulse transmitter or generator having a space discharge device.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., radar, Radio Navigation),   appropriate subclasses for systems for object detection and utilizing pulse radio wave forms and subclass 165 for testing or calibrating a radar system.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   appropriate subclasses for antennas, per se.
348Television,   (see "Charge Coupled Devices" above).
348Television,   subclasses 180+ for television monitoring or testing.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 1+ for sound accompanied motion pictures including active electronic devices.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 3+ for systems using light for distance finding and subclasses 26+ for light systems for the determination of velocity.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 406 for facsimile measuring or testing.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   appropriate subclasses for optical components.
360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1+ for safety and protection of systems and devices, subclasses 100+ for current fault sensor with semiconductor circuit interrupter, subclasses 139+ for control circuits for electromagnetic devices, and subclasses 196+ for control circuits for electromagnetic devices with time delay including a semiconductor device.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1+ for circuits used to protect personnel from harm, or protect devices from failure (e.g., overload, power surge). (See "Personnel Or Device Protective Circuits" above)
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for circuits utilized in electric conversion systems where a single electrical source is connected to a single electrical load and particularly subclasses 94 , 99, 111+, 151, and 166 for systems whereby a current or voltage of one characteristic is converted to a current or voltage of another characteristic and utilizing electron space discharge devices.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 73+ for recirculation of information in a storage read/write system, subclass 78 for plural shift register memory devices, subclasses 80+ for magnetic shift register, per se, subclasses 129+ for storage systems using a particular storage element, subclass 189.011 for read/write circuits peculiar to a storage and retrieval system, and subclasses 230.01+ for addressing circuits peculiar to a storage and retrieval system. (Also see "Charge Coupled Devices" above).
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   appropriate subclasses.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses.
370Multiplex Communications,   appropriate subclasses for multiplexing systems.
373Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces,   subclasses 70 , 102+, 135+, and 147 for electric furnaces having significant electrical circuits.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 1+ for thermal calibration.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 106+ for digital communication synchronization.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for electrical pulse counters, dividers, and shift registers and particularly subclasses 57+ for charge coupled devices used as a counter, pulse divider, or shift register. (Also see "Charge Coupled Devices" above)
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 91+ for circuits combined with X-ray devices.
379Telephonic Communications,   appropriate subclasses, for telephone systems.
380Cryptography,   appropriate subclasses for cryptographic circuitry.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 94.1+ for noise suppressing audio circuitry and subclass 111 for circuitry combined with a specific type of microphone or loudspeaker.
382Image Analysis,   appropriate subclasses.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   art collection 913 for motor control systems including space discharge devices.
396Photography,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus producing pictures on light sensitive material which may utilize electronic devices. (Also see "Charge Coupled Devices" above).
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 58+ for coating processes wherein an electrical product is produced.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 620 for semiconductor stock material.
438Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process,   for methods of making semiconductor electrical devices; see the search notes thereunder.
445Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing,   appropriate subclasses for circuits utilized in the manufacture or repair of electric lamp or electric space discharge devices.
455Telecommunications,   appropriate subclasses for telecommunication systems and subsystems.
600Surgery,   subclasses 300+ for diagnostic apparatus utilizing transistors or tubes.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   appropriate subclasses for testing and measuring which includes significant data processing.
706Data Processing: Intelligent Processing Systems and Methods,   subclasses 15+ for neural circuits and networks. (See "Neuron Circuits Or Networks" above).
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 300+ for digital filters unique to digital computing , subclass 540 for the performance of arithmetic operations by a CRT, subclass 819 for analog filters which are unique to analog computing, and subclass 849 for analog function generation which utilizes a CRT. (See "Active Filters", above.)
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   appropriate subclasses.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 1]    1SPECIFIC SIGNAL DISCRIMINATING (E.G., COMPARING, SELECTING, ETC.) WITHOUT SUBSEQUENT CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is derived from one or more input signals by comparing, selecting, or distinguishing a particular input signal parameter and which parameter is not continuously thereafter regulated.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

100+,for signal converting, shaping, or generating which may include control of the type of signal parameters found herein.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

250Radiant Energy,   subclass 250 for wave meters, subclasses 281+ for systems adapted for ionic separation or analysis and comprising phase or frequency determining devices.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 683 for electric motor position servomechanisms involving phase comparison devices.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 32 for automatic frequency control for generator systems.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 212+ for automatic phase control systems restricted to power circuits.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.39+ for frequency measuring or testing of electricity and subclasses 76.77+ for phase comparison systems for measuring or testing electricity and involving plural inputs.
329Demodulators,   appropriate subclasses for demodulators of signals which have been modulated by an intelligence signal.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 3.1 through 3.9,315, and 870.18-870.24 for electrical circuits whereby an indication or signal is transmitted to a distant point and which signal is indicative of an electrical condition which may comprise phase or frequency difference; and subclass 146.2 for digital comparator systems.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 236+ for speed-controlled systems involving phase or frequency determining devices.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 106+ for synchronization in digital communications.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 130+ for a telecommunication receiver.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   appropriate subclasses for error detection or correction of information content of a digital signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 2]    2By phase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the discriminated input signal parameter is that fractional part of a periodic waveform which has elapsed relative to a fixed origin.
(1) Note. If the time for one signal period is represented as 360 degrees along a time axis, the phase position is called the phase angle.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39+,for frequency comparison circuits.
231+,for phase correction or control.
261+,for output waveform production delay.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake System,   subclasses 91+ for speed-controlled vehicle systems.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 345+ for phase angle demodulation in which a intelligence signal is extracted.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 1+ for systems for stabilizing the frequency of an oscillator utilizing phase or frequency comparison devices, and subclasses 37+ for systems wherein two or more frequencies are combined to produce a beat frequency.
332Modulators,   subclasses 144+ for systems wherein the phase of a carrier wave is modulated by an arbitrarily varying quantity.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 214+ , for frequency or phase modulation with particular discrimination or detection.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 3]    3Comparison between plural inputs (e.g., phase angle indication, lead-lag discriminator, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is indicative of the phase positioning or phase differences among two or more input signals.
(1) Note. Detectors producing an output which is a result of demodulation of a carrier having previously been modulated by an intelligence waveform which varies arbitrarily will not be classified here. See SEARCH CLASS below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

40+,for comparison between plural input frequencies.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

329Demodulators,   subclasses 345+ for circuits producing an output which is a result of demodulation of a carrier having previously been phase modulated by an intelligence waveform.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for phase conversion circuits with phase angle sensing.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 130+ for mixers or converters utilized in a superheterodyne receiver (commonly referred to as a first detector).
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 4]    4With transducer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein a device is included that converts energy forms other than electrical into electrical energy.
(1) Note. The other energy forms may be mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, or chemical, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 5]    5With input derived from feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to one of the plural inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 6]    6With electron space discharge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter including a vacuum tube device or a gaseous medium within a gas tight envelope in which electron conduction takes place through the vacuum or gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 7]    7With reference signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein a signal of fixed phase acts as a constant for comparison to a variable input.
(1) Note. The reference signal is usually an input signal or produced from an input signal.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

42,for frequency comparison between a fixed reference frequency and a variable input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 8]    8With varying frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter wherein the reference signal varies over a range of different frequencies or the reference signal is compared to different frequency signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 9]    9With sampling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter wherein a reference signal is derived by representation of an input signal at intermittently timed intervals.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

91+,for details of sampling or holding in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 10]    10Uniform pulse waveform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter wherein the reference signal is a series of pulses evenly spaced.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

42,for a frequency comparison between a fixed reference frequency and a variable input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 11]    11With transformer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter wherein an electromagnetic induction device transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another adjacent circuit at a constant frequency.
(1) Note. A transformer changes voltage in direct proportion to the ratio of the number of turns of its primary and secondary windings.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for transformer details.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 12]    12With logic or bistable circuit:
 Subject matter under 3 wherein the phase comparison (a) includes a device performing Boolean functions such as AND, OR, or exclusive-OR or (b) utilizes a device having two stable states.
(1) Note. The combination of logic with specific phase comparison circuitry or function, not elsewhere classified is classified here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

185+,for particular stable state circuits including bistable.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for clocking or synchronizing of one or more logic stages and appropriate subclasses for general digital logic circuitry not classified elsewhere.
331Oscillators,   subclass 1 for automatic frequency control synchronization with logic elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 13]    13By shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein input signal discriminating is based upon a predetermined geometric configuration.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

134,for sawtooth or triangular wave producing systems with slope or duration control.
172+,for pulse signal shaping with duration or width control.

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348Television,   subclasses 525+ for sync separating systems which may depend upon differences in the slope or shape of the input pulses.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 296+ for static or noise elimination in radio receivers which may depend upon the slope or shape of the pulse present in the input signal applied to the receiver.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 14]    14Slope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Subject matter wherein the predetermined geometric configuration is signal rate of change.
(1) Note. The rate of change may be determined by digital means (such as counters) or analog means (such as slope detection using a charging capacitor).

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134,for sawtooth or triangular waveform generation with slope control.
170,for slope control of a pulse or clock waveform.
261+,for output waveform production delay.
335,for the miscellaneous determination of the derivative of an input signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 15]    15With direction (i.e., positive or negative):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the output signal indicates an upward or downward inclination of the input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 16]    16Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 17]    17With reference signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Subject matter wherein a signal of predetermined shape acts as a constant for comparison to a variable input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 18]    18By presence or absence pulse detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is indicative of an unexpected occurrence or lack of occurrence of a pulse in either a clocking signal or a predetermined sequence of pulses.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 19]    19Arbitration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein a particular pulse among plural pulses input during a particular time interval is selected based upon a predetermined priority arrangement.

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3+,for phase discrimination.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 20]    20Monitoring (e.g., failure detection, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein the detection of an undesired absent or present pulse produces an output signal which indicates a failure.

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292,for clock fault compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 21]    21With variable frequency source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein the absent or present pulse is detected from a varying frequency input signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 22]    22By pulse noncoincidence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is produced when two or more input pulses are not received simultaneously.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 23]    23By pulse coincidence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is produced when two or more input pulse signals occur simultaneously.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 104+ for circuits performing fundamental Boolean Algebra functions, especially the "AND" function.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 24]    24Edge sensing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein a beginning or trailing end of a pulse is determined to occur simultaneously with a corresponding beginning or trailing end of another pulse.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 25]    25With uniform spacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is produced when two or more input pulse signals having the same time interval between consecutive pulses occur simultaneously.

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31+,for detecting a pulse width or spacing in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 26]    26With pulse width detecting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein pulse width discriminating is achieved via a pulse coincidence operation.

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31+,for detecting pulse width or spacing in general.

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329Demodulators,   subclass 312 for a pulse width demodulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 27]    27With reference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein an input pulse signal is compared with a predetermined standard signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 28]    28By polarity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the input signal parameter is its positive or negative orientation with respect to a fixed origin.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 29]    29Selection of a particular polarity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Subject matter wherein only a predetermined polarity of an input signal is chosen.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 30]    30Opposite polarity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Subject matter wherein an output signal results from comparing pulses which have or are expected to have differing polarities.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 31]    31By pulse width or spacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the input signal parameter is (a) a time interval between a leading edge and a trailing edge of a single pulse or (b) a time interval between a trailing edge and a leading edge of two consecutive pulses.

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172+,for pulse signal shaping with duration or width control.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 12.16 for pulse width selective actuation and subclass 12.17 for pulse spacing selective actuation.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 32]    32With shock-excited circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter including a resonant circuit which oscillates at its natural frequency upon application of an electrical impulse.

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596,for miscellaneous circuitry containing shock excited resonant components.

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331Oscillators,   appropriate subclasses for free running generators utilizing shock excited resonant circuits.
334Tuners,   appropriate subclasses for tuned networks for use in wave energy apparatus and comprising inductance and capacitance elements in circuit arrangement to form a resonant circuit and in which structure is provided for adjusting one or both of these elements for changing the mean resonant frequency of the circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 33]    33With sampling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter including a circuit providing periodic representations of an input signal.

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9,for phase discriminating with sampling.
91+,for detailed sampling or holding circuits, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 34]    34Narrow pulse elimination or suppression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter wherein the output signal does not include portions of the input signal having a pulse width shorter than a predetermined time interval.
(1) Note. Narrow or short pulse (spurious) duration in a system may be noise, which is unwanted disturbances superimposed upon a useful signal and which tends to obscure its information content.

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172+,for rectangular or pulse waveform continuous width control.
178+,for rectangular or pulse waveform amplitude control which may include some noise reduction.
310+,for transient or signal noise reduction by limiting, clipping, or clamping.
379+,for noise overriding in gating or switching.
551+,for miscellaneous unwanted signal elimination.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 35]    35Separating by duration or gap (e.g., duty cycle, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter wherein (a) an input pulse signal is divided between long and short pulses contained therein or (b) a space is inserted between the trailing edge of a pulse and the leading edge of the next pulse or (c) a spacing between pulses is detected.

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134+,for duration control of a triangular or sawtooth wave.
172+,for rectangular wave or pulse width control.

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329Demodulators,   subclass 312 for a pulse width demodulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 36]    36Selection of a particular pulse width:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter wherein a predetermined pulse width is chosen from a series of input pulse signals.

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329Demodulators,   subclass 312 for a pulse width demodulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 37]    37Comparison by threshold or reference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is indicative of the pulse width difference between an input pulse signal and a set value or predetermined standard.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 38]    38With plural paths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter wherein an input signal passes through more than one route or channel between an input terminal and an output terminal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 39]    39By frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the discriminated signal parameter relates to the number of times a signal repeats its basic waveform within a unit of time.

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2+,for discriminating by phase.
47+,for circuits where the output is present only at a predetermined frequency of the input.
113+,for miscellaneous frequency or repetition rate control.
114+,for pulse generating which includes frequency or repetition rate control.
231+,for phase correction or control.
261+,for output waveform production delay.
552+,for unwanted signal suppression by an active filter.

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303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake System,   subclasses 91+ for speed-controlled fluid-pressure brake systems.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.19+ for a frequency spectrum analyzer and subclasses 76.39+ for measuring and testing of the frequency of cyclic current or voltage.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 315+ for frequency demodulation in which an intelligence signal is extracted.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 1+ for systems for stabilizing the frequency of an oscillator utilizing phase or frequency comparison devices and subclasses 37+ for systems wherein two or more frequencies are combined to produce a beat frequency.
332Modulators,   subclasses 117+ for systems wherein the frequency of a carrier wave is modulated by an arbitrarily varying quantity.
455Telecommunications,   subclass 214 for frequency or phase modulation with particular discrimination or detection.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 75+ for frequency measurement system.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 40]    40Comparison between plural inputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is a function of the differences among two or more input signal frequencies.
(1) Note. Systems wherein the claimed subject matter includes apparatus which responds only when a noninformation bearing input signal is in synchronism with a control signal locally generated (synchronous detectors) and which are not claimed as an integral part of a more comprehensive system will be classified herein. Detectors producing an output which is a result of demodulation of a carrier having previously been modulated by an intelligence waveform which varies arbitrarily will not be classified here. See SEARCH CLASS, below.

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3,for phase comparison between plural input signals.

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329Demodulators,   appropriate subclasses for a circuit having an output which is a result of demodulation of a carrier having previously been frequency modulated by an intelligence waveform.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 130+ , for mixers or converters utilized in a superheterodyne receiver (commonly referred to as a first detector), and subclasses 313+ for combining frequencies in a receiver to produce a beat frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 41]    41With synchronous detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein the output signal provides an indication of the maintenance of precise matching between two or more input signal frequencies.

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141+,for synchronizing control.

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331Oscillators,   subclasses 1+ for controlling frequency synchronization in oscillator circuits (e.g., phase lock loop circuits, etc.).
348Television,   subclasses 638+ and 726+ for television receivers that may include synchronous detectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 42]    42Fixed frequency reference signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein a signal of constant frequency acts as a standard for comparison to a variable input signal.

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7+,for a fixed phase signal compared to a variable input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 43]    43With logic or bistable circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein the frequency comparison of plural signals (a) includes a device performing Boolean functions such as AND, OR, or exclusive-OR or (b) utilizes a device having two stable states.
(1) Note. The combination of logic with specific frequency comparison circuitry or function, not elsewhere classified is classified here.

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185+,for particular stable state circuits including bistable.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for clocking or synchronizing of one or more logic stages and appropriate subclasses for general digital logic circuitry not classified elsewhere.
331Oscillators,   subclass 1 for automatic frequency control synchronization with logic elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 44]    44With predetermined frequency selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter wherein the output signal consists of a chosen input signal having a specific frequency characteristic.

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552+,for unwanted signal suppression by an active filter.

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329Demodulators,   appropriate subclasses for circuits which select signals from modulated wave signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 45]    45Including sampling or reference frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein (a) the predetermined signal frequency selected is derived by representation of another known signal frequency at intermittent time intervals or (b) wherein a signal of fixed frequency is utilized in the frequency selection.

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7+,for phase angle sensing circuits using a reference signal.
42,for a fixed frequency reference signal used in plural signal frequency comparison.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 46]    46Including plural frequency detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein more than one signal frequency is detected by a single circuit or system.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 47]    47Frequency detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is present or changes only at a predetermined input frequency.

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102,for the conversion of input frequency to output current or voltage.
113+,for frequency or repetition rate control.
552+,for unwanted signal elimination by an active filter.

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379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 346 for a repeater with voice frequency discriminator.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 311+ for frequency detection/filtering using an electrical digital calculating computer.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 48]    48With counting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is incremented or decremented at a predetermined interval thereby forming a variable duty cycle according to the changes in the input frequency signal.
(1) Note. A counter is a device capable of changing between a sequence of distinguishable states upon each receipt of an input signal.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   for counters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 49]    49With logic or bistable circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Subject matter wherein the frequency detection (a) includes a device performing Boolean functions such as AND, OR, or exclusive-OR or (b) utilizes a device having two stable states.
(1) Note. The combination of logic with specific frequency detection circuitry or function, not elsewhere classified, is classified here.

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185+,for particular stable state circuits including bistable.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for clocking or synchronizing of one or more logic stages and appropriate subclasses for general digital logic circuitry not classified elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 50]    50By amplitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the discriminated input signal parameter is the magnitude of an electrical energy waveform measured with respect to a fixed origin.

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178+,for rectangular or pulse waveform amplitude control.
306+,for amplitude control in general.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76+ for the measuring or testing of electricity, per se.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 347+ for amplitude demodulators.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 51]    51With sensing amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein low-level voltages (e.g., CCD charges, capacitive stored signal levels, etc.) are detected and increased in magnitude from one level to another.
(1) Note. The voltage amplitude or storage charge levels detected in this subclass include the type of levels found in storage memory cells of an array; however, the static storage and retrieval of information coupled with the functions of "write", "read-out", "erase", etc., wherein voltage amplitude is sensed, is classified elsewhere. See the Search Note below.
(2) Note. Differential comparator type sensing amplifiers including regenerative sensing arrangements (e.g., bistable flip-flops) are classified in this subclass.

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28,for discrimination by polarity.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 207 through 210.15for the static storage and retrieval of information coupled with the functions of "write", "read-out", "erase", etc., wherein voltage amplitude is sensed.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 52]    52Differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter including a device responsive to the offset between two input voltages or currents and nonresponsive to voltages or currents which are identical in the two inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 53]    53Current mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein the sensing amplifier circuit utilizes collector current matching of two transistors when connected base to base and emitter to emitter.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 54]    54Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.

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57,for a miscellaneous sense amplifier with a latching type element.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 55]    55Cross-coupled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein there are two elements or stages which are mutually interconnected (i.e., the output of one is connected to the input of the other and vice versa).
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 56]    56With reference signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein a signal of fixed voltage potential acts as a constant for comparison to a variable input.
(1) Note. The reference signal is usually an input signal or produced from an input signal.

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77+,for amplitude comparison between an input signal and a fixed reference, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 57]    57With latching type element (e.g., flip-flop, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter wherein the sense amplifier includes a device providing signal retention.

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185+,for stable state circuits including bistable.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 58]    58Maximum or minimum amplitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is caused by either a greatest absolute magnitude or a least absolute magnitude of an input signal during a time period of interest.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include comparison to a fixed reference or threshold.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 59]    59Employing input compared to output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Subject matter wherein a portion of an output signal is evaluated relative to an input signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 60]    60Employing input compared to reference derived therefrom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Subject matter wherein a signal from an external source is evaluated relative to a voltage or current obtained by processing signals from the same source.
(1) Note. For this subclass either the processing or means therefor should be claimed.

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72+,for generic amplitude comparing between an input and a reference derived therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 61]    61By diode-capacitor network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Subject matter wherein maximum or minimum amplitude discriminating is achieved by an electrical energy storage element combined with an element providing unidirectional current flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 62]    62Maximum and minimum amplitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is caused by both the greatest absolute magnitude and least absolute magnitude of an input signal during a time period of interest.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 63]    63Comparison between plural varying inputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein fluctuating input signals from two or more sources external to a system are evaluated relative to one another.

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72+,for evaluation of an input signal relative to a reference derived therefrom.
74+,for a system wherein a signal from an external source is evaluated relative to plural fixed reference levels.
77+,for the evaluation of a signal relative to a single fixed reference level.
78+,for detection of a crossover point between an input signal and a reference level.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 64]    64With logic or bistable circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein the comparison by amplitude (a) includes a device performing Boolean functions such as AND, OR, or exclusive-OR or (b) utilizes a device having two stable states.
(1) Note. The combination of logic with specific amplitude comparison circuitry or function, not elsewhere classified is classified here.

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185+,for particular stable state circuits including bistable.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for clocking or synchronizing of one or more logic stages and appropriate subclasses for general digital logic circuitry not classified elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 65]    65Differential input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein the differences between the plural varying input signals are initially amplified prior to further processing.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 66]    66Current mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the comparison between plural varying inputs utilizes collector current matching of two transistors when connected base to base and emitter to emitter.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 67]    67Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 68]    68Input provides varying reference signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the fluctuating inputs provides a changing signal to be used only as an evaluation standard.

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72,for amplitude discriminating where a reference signal is internally derived from one of the inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 69]    69With plural paths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein an input signal passes through more than one route or channel between an input terminal and an output terminal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 70]    70With single output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter wherein the plural paths have a common output.

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407+,for plural channel input, single channel output gating systems.

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370Multiplex Communications,   appropriate subclasses for similar subject matter used with multiplexing.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 71]    71Three or more inputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein the number of external signal sources is greater than two.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 72]    72Input signal compared to reference derived therefrom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein a signal from an external source is evaluated relative to a voltage or current obtained by processing signals from the same source.
(1) Note. For classification herein, either the processing or means therefor should be recited.

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68,for amplitude discriminating between plural varying inputs where at least one of the input signals is a varying reference.
74+,for an input signal compared to plural fixed references.
205+,for stable state circuits utilizing hysteresis.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuits,   subclasses 22+ for input noise margin enhancement.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 73]    73Reference derived by feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter wherein the processing includes extracting a signal from an output terminal of the circuit and applying a portion of the extracted signal to an input terminal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 74]    74Input signal compared to plural fixed references:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein input signal amplitude is evaluated relative to two or more unvarying voltage or current levels.

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63+,for amplitude comparison between plural varying inputs.
72+,for an input signal compared to a reference derived therefrom.
77+,for an input signal compared to a single fixed reference.
205+,for a stable state circuit utilizing hysteresis.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuits,   subclass 22 for input noise margin enhancement.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 75]    75Three or more:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Subject matter wherein there are more than two unvarying reference levels.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 76]    76With logic or bistable circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Subject matter wherein the comparison by amplitude between the input signal and plural fixed references (a) includes a device performing Boolean functions such as AND, OR, or exclusive-OR or (b) utilizes a device having two stable states.

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185+,for particular stable state circuits including bistable.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   for general digital logic circuitry not classified elsewhere and particularly subclasses 93+ for clocking or synchronizing of one or more logic stages.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 77]    77Input signal compared to single fixed reference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein the input signal is evaluated relative to a standard which is at a constant level of amplitude.

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74+,for an input signal compared to multiple fixed references.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 78]    78Reference level crossover detecting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is produced when an input signal actually transits the reference amplitude of a comparison standard.
(1) Note. The approach of the input signal to the reference level may be from either a positive or a negative direction.

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63+,for evaluation of plural sources of varying input signals relative to each other.
74+,for evaluation of an input signal relative to plural fixed thresholds.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 79]    79Zero crossover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein the reference level which is transited is zero volts.

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451+,for AC supply zero point switching utilizing a four or more layer device such as a thyristor.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 80]    80Reference determined by threshold of single circuit element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude of the comparison standard is established by one electrical component.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 81]    81With transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the single electrical component is a three terminal semiconductor device composed of n or p type material.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for transistor structure details.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 82]    82Plural sources of input signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein multiple input signals are to be evaluated relative to a standard.

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63+,for an amplitude evaluation system having plural varying input signals which are to be evaluated against each other.
72+,for a comparator system which evaluates an input signal against a reference derived from the same signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 83]    83Temperature compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein an increase or decrease in thermal sensitivity of a system is cancelled or reduced by the effects of a counterbalancing element in the system.
(1) Note. A counterbalancing element may be, for example, a resistor, capacitor, or inductor.

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513,for miscellaneous temperature compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 84]    84With bridge circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter including four or more devices with their input and output terminals connected in a closed loop to form a four arm network.
(1) Note. Another arm, called the diagonal arm, may be connected between an input terminal and an output terminal.

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587,for a two electrode solid-state device bridge circuit.
588,for miscellaneous bridge circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 85]    85Inverting input or output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein an input signal or an output signal is reversed in sign.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 86]    86With transformer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein an electromagnetic induction device transfers electrical energy between adjacent circuit portions at a constant frequency.
(1) Note. A transformer changes voltage in direct proportion to the ratio of the number of turns of its primary and secondary windings.

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336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for transformer details.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 87]    87Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 88]    88With source as reference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein a device which supplies signal power at a constant voltage or current level is used as a standard for comparison.

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100+,for signal generating.
540+,for stabilized bias circuits with voltage regulating.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 89]    89With differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter including a device responsive to the offset between two input voltages or currents and nonresponsive to voltages or currents which are identical in the two inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 90]    90Comparison between two characteristics of an input signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is representative of the amplitude difference between two consecutive or selected points of the input signal.

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91+,for details of a sample or hold circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 91]    91Including details of sampling or holding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein a representation of an input signal magnitude at a particular point in time is produced or an established input signal magnitude value is maintained.

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124,for signal generation by periodic switching.
365+,for gating of signals, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 92]    92With bridge circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter including four or more devices with their input and output terminals connected in a closed loop to form a four arm network.
(1) Note. Another arm, called the diagonal arm, may connect an input terminal and an output terminal.

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587,for a two electrode solid-state device bridge circuit.
588,for miscellaneous bridge circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 93]    93With reference source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter including a device which supplies signal power to a sample or hold circuit at a constant voltage or current level.

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100+,for signal converting, shaping, or generating.
530+,for miscellaneous bias voltage supply circuits and particularly subclasses 538+ for a stabilized bias voltage supply circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 94]    94Sample and hold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter wherein a representation of an input signal magnitude at a particular point in time is produced and subsequently maintained for a time in a storage element.

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341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclasses 122+ for sample and hold circuits having code generation or conversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 95]    95Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 96]    96With differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter including a device responsive to the offset between two input voltages or currents and nonresponsive to voltages or currents which are identical in the two inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 97]    97With logic or bistable circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein the comparison by amplitude (a) includes a device performing Boolean functions such as AND, OR, or exclusive-OR, or (b) utilizes a device having two stable states.
(1) Note. The combination of logic with specific amplitude comparison circuitry or function, not elsewhere classified is classified here.

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185+,for particular stable state circuits including bistable.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for clocking or synchronizing of one or more logic stages and appropriate subclasses for general digital logic circuitry not classified elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 98]    98By separating composite signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is a selected component of a multicomponent input signal.

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35,for pulse separating by width or spacing.
551+,for miscellaneous signal suppression which may include an active filter.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 105 for harmonic filters or neutralizing systems, in general.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 332+ for geophysical exploration systems utilizing radiant energy with separate detector means whereby signal components are selected or suppressed and subclasses 76.12+ for measuring systems which analyze complex electric waves.
330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses for frequency selective linear amplifiers.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 76 and 77 for oscillator systems combined with harmonic selecting means or wave filter, respectively, in the output circuit.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   appropriate subclasses for passive type wave selecting systems, particularly subclasses 167+ for wave filters, per se.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 13.2 through 13.36for selective systems which are frequency responsive.
348Television,   subclass 506 for burst separation circuitry, subclasses 525+ for separating the synchronizing components from a composite signal wave, and subclasses 638+ for color signal deriving circuitry.
704Data Processing: Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, and Audio Compression/Decompression,   subclass 200 for systems for analyzing complex speech waves (e.g., where the fundamental pitch frequency of the human voice is determined).
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 99]    99Having selection between plural continuous waveforms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Systems wherein the output signal is one of a plurality of simultaneously applied input signal waveforms selected in accordance with a predetermined characteristic, the nonselected waveforms being attenuated or otherwise suppressed in such a manner that only the desired signal waveform appears at the output.

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98,for systems which select a signal component from a composite wave.
407+,for distribution systems wherein plural channels are input and the output consists of a signal from a selected channel.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.12+ for analysis systems of a complex wave.
331Oscillators,   subclass 76 for systems comprising an oscillator combined with a harmonic selection network and subclass 77 for oscillators with a wave selecting output filter.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 167+ for wave filters comprised of passive elements.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 13.2 through 13.36for remote control or selective signaling systems which are frequency responsive.
348Television,   subclasses 525+ for separating the synchronizing components from a composite signal wave.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 100]    100SIGNAL CONVERTING, SHAPING, OR GENERATING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein (a) an inherent input signal parameter such as phase, frequency, amplitude, or current is modified, maintained at some value, or changed to an entirely different parameter, (b) an input signal having a particular waveform is modified into an output signal having a partially or completely different waveform, or (c) an output signal of specified waveform is produced.
(1) Note. An example of the second type above would be sine wave to triangular wave modification.
(2) Note. This subclass and indented subclasses do not include single energy systems for conversion wherein a single electrical source circuit is coupled to a single electrical load circuit and which involves current, phase or frequency conversion, and wherein the energy in the load is supplied solely by the source. Such systems in general are classified in Class 363, Electric Power Conversion Systems, appropriate subclasses. See References to Other Classes in Class 363 for other classes providing for conversion systems.
(3) Note. Excluded from this subclass and indented subclasses are free running signal generators which are classified, for example, in Class 331.
(4) Note. Bias circuits of the pulsing type which establish device operating points are classified below with the bias circuits.

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334+,for circuits whose output is proportional to a mathematical function of the input.
544,for bias circuits of the pulsating type.
596,for miscellaneous circuits including a free running oscillatory type circuit.

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128Surgery,   subclass 2.06 for electrocardiographs involving timing and subclasses 303.13+ for instruments for application of electricity to the human body involving timing.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   subclass 46 for regulation systems involving timing.
237Heating Systems,   subclasses 2+ for systems for automatic control of a heating system.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 401+ for nonlinear reactor systems (e.g., saturable) and subclasses 106+ for a class appropriate wave shape determinative or pulse producing system. See also appropriate subclasses for plural source or load voltage magnitude and phase control.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 364+ for cathode ray deflecting circuits involving timing and subclasses 209+ for systems involving a periodic switch in the supply circuit of a gaseous discharge tube.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 445 for systems of automatically starting and/or stopping a motor with timing, subclasses 606+ for electric motor position servomechanisms with phase or frequency control, and subclass 683 for particular phase detectors used in such a servomechanism.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   subclasses 166+ for charging or discharging a capacitor, per se.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 17+ , especially indented subclass 18 for systems involving time delay means in the control of a generator or driving.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 212+ for power supply phase control comprising an electron tube and wherein, in general, the tube does not act as an active element.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 83+ for phase indicators, subclasses 78+, particularly subclass 82 for measuring or testing the frequency of cyclic current or voltage by phase comparison, and subclasses 160+ for systems for measuring time or speed.
330Amplifiers,   subclass 107 for amplifiers with phase shifting means in a feedback path.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 37+ for systems including an oscillator or oscillators generating at least two different frequencies with a signal combining device (e.g., mixer, modulator, etc.) having a signal input circuit and a signal output circuit where the oscillator or oscillators are connected to the signal input circuit of the combining device and the device output comprises the sum or difference frequency of the outputs of the oscillator or oscillators.
332Modulators,   appropriate subclasses for systems including beating a source of carrier frequency with a signal wave which varies arbitrarily in a continuous manner in accordance with some intelligence.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 18 , 23, and 138+ for delay networks comprising passive elements and subclasses 138+. See (1) Note, above.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 870.24 for telemetering systems receiving information by pulse trains with length or spacing varied with respect to time.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclasses 50+ for systems converting an input consisting of a coded arrangement representing a particular group of values to an output consisting of another coded arrangement.
348Television,   subclasses 469+ for systems generating or formatting a television signal.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 195+ for time delay networks which control a relay load switching operation.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for single energy conversion systems wherein a single electrical source circuit is coupled to a single electrical load circuit. See (2) Note, above.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 313+ for mixer or converters in radio receiver circuits. See (3) Note, above.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 101]    101Converting input current or voltage to output frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a repetition rate of an output signal is directly related to the magnitude of an input signal current or voltage.

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113+,for miscellaneous frequency or repetition rate conversion or control.

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332Modulators,   subclasses 117+ for a frequency modulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 102]    102Converting input frequency to output current or voltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the magnitude of output signal current or voltage is directly related to the repetition rate of the input signal.
(1) Note. Included here are devices wherein an input signal of varying frequency is changed into a direct current output voltage which is a function of the input frequency.
(2) Note. Since period is inversely related to frequency, input period conversion to output current or voltage is also included here.

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39+,for frequency discrimination and particularly subclasses 47+ for frequency detection.

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329Demodulators,   subclasses 315+ for a frequency demodulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 103]    103Converting input voltage to output current or vice versa:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein electrical potential is changed to an equivalent electrical charge flow or vice versa.

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363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclass 73 for power conversion systems between a constant current and a constant voltage or vice versa wherein a single source is connected to a single load.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 104]    104Converting, per se, of an AC input to corresponding DC at an unloaded output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an alternating current input signal wave is converted to an unloaded output wave consisting of a unidirectional representation of the half cycles of an input wave.
(1) Note. The conversion systems in this subclass do not include claimed subject matter such as would define demodulators, detectors, or rectifier systems classified elsewhere with specific art devices.

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28+,for polarity selection or discrimination.
39+,for selection or discrimination by repetition rate (i.e., frequency).
335+,for a differentiating network.
336+,for an integrating network.
348,for the determination of the RMS function of an input signal.

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178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclasses for pulse producing (e.g., by rectification of AC signals, etc.) in combination with telegraph systems. In Class 178, the pulses are usually representative of a telegraph code. subclasses 118+ relate to telegraph receivers which may include signal rectifiers.
246Railway Switches and Signals,   appropriate subclasses for railway signaling systems which may include signal rectifying or other conversion systems as subcombinations thereof.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 6 for systems having series connected converters of different voltages, subclass 45 for plural supply circuits with intervening converter, subclass 58 for load current dividing circuits utilizing plural converters, subclass 82 for plural converter systems, subclasses 401+ for nonlinear reactor systems, and subclass 107 for wave form or wave shape determining systems with wave rectification.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclass for charging or discharging a capacitor or battery where a rectifier is employed, particularly Digest 31.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 89 for phase comparison meters and subclass 119 for meters in general with rectifying.
329Demodulators,   for demodulating systems using rectification designed to change a signal modulated wave so as to produce in the output circuit a pulsating direct current representative of the signal.
330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses for amplifiers, especially subclass 10 for modulator-demodulator type amplifiers.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   appropriate subclasses for signaling systems including radar and directive radio systems which may include demodulating type conversion systems as subcombinations thereof.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 13+ for rectification and derectification involving a single source coupled to a single load in a power conversion system. See the class definition and search notes as to lines with other classes and further fields of search for rectifying systems.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   appropriate subclasses and particularly subclasses 37+ for pulse communication systems using alternating or pulsating currents.
379Telephonic Communications,   appropriate subclasses for pulse producing systems with signal rectifying or other converting for use in telephone call transmitter systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 105]    105Synthesizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an output waveform is derived which at any instant is proportional to the combined values of the corresponding instantaneous values of a plurality of input signal waveforms.

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3+,for circuits where the output is a function of the phase difference between plural input signal wave forms.
40+,for circuits where the output is a function of the frequency difference between plural input signal wave forms.
129,for miscellaneous sine wave generation.
355+,for circuits where the output signal is a function of a plurality of input signals.
361,for mathematical summing of two or more input signals.

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84Music,   subclasses 600+ for generation of electrical musical tones utilizing synthesizing techniques.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 77 for systems for analyzing complex electric waves and subclass 140 for measuring and testing circuits which combine plural inputs.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 37+ for oscillatory circuits whose output comprises a beat frequency and subclasses 46+ for plural oscillator systems.
332Modulators,   appropriate subclasses for plural wave modulating circuits.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclass 20 for passive wave shaping networks.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 313+ for plural wave combining heterodyning systems utilized in radio receivers wherein the output is a beat frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 106]    106Having stored waveform data (e.g., in ROM, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Subject matter wherein information about a desired output waveform is placed into a memory device.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for read-only memory (ROM) circuits in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 107]    107Having digital device (e.g., logic gate, flip-flop, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Subject matter wherein a device which operates on binary signals is included.

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185+,for miscellaneous flip-flop circuits.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for logic gates, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 108]    108Current driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an input signal is modified into a similar output signal having an enhanced current supplying ability.
(1) Note. Current driving of the type associated with electronic digital logic circuitry is classified in Class 326.

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139,for sawtooth signal waveform production without output current drive enhancement and having an inductive load.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 401+ and particularly subclass 412 for similar subject matter where a nonlinear reactive element (e.g., magnetic core) is claimed as forming part of the operative combination of the invention.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 82+ for logic current driving.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for magnetic storage of signals on magnetic cores.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 109]    109Having semiconductive load:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Subject matter wherein the output drive current is provided to a broadly recited semiconductive device.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for detailed semiconductor structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 110]    110Having inductive load (e.g., coil, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Subject matter wherein the output drive current is provided to a broadly recited element which has the property of opposing current flow therethrough due to a resultant magnetic field.

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139,for a circuit providing a sawtooth or triangular waveform, as generated, to an inductive load.
190+,for a stable state circuit utilizing a transformer or saturable core device.

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336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for generic inductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 111]    111Having capacitive load:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Subject matter wherein the output drive current is provided to a broadly recited element which has the property of opposing voltage change due to stored charge.

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361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 500+ for electrolytic capacitors.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 112]    112Push-pull:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein an output circuit comprises two parallel identical portions each receiving signals which are the same except for a relative 180 degree phase offset.

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330Amplifiers,   subclasses 250+ and particularly subclasses 262+ for semiconductor push-pull amplifiers, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 113]    113Frequency or repetition rate conversion or control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a frequency characteristic of an input signal is modified to produce an output wave of different frequency characteristic which has a definite relationship to that of the input wave or where a frequency characteristic is held essentially constant.

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39+,for frequency discrimination without subsequent control.
141+,for miscellaneous synchronization circuits.
231+,for circuits providing a phase shift less than the period of an input signal.

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84Music,   subclasses 600+ for apparatus for generating or modifying electric currents or potentials to produce varying electric currents or potentials in combination with or intended for use with structure for converting the varying electric currents or potentials into musical tones.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 250 for wave meters which may employ frequency changing.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 424+ for parametric amplifier frequency converters, per se.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 79+ for electric wave frequency measuring systems of the heterodyne type.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 323+ or 346 for frequency or phase demodulators with oscillators.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 37+ for beat frequency oscillator systems and subclass 76 for systems including an oscillator combined with a harmonic producing or selecting network in the output. To be classified in Class 331 the oscillator must be the signal source and must be capable of self sustained oscillation.
332Modulators,   subclasses 117+ or 144+ for systems wherein a first source is modified in frequency or phase by mixing with an arbitrarily varying control source.
340Communications: Electrical,   particularly subclasses 870.01+ for telemetering systems and especially subclasses 870.18+ providing for frequency or phase modulation systems.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   appropriate subclasses for systems involving object detection by reflected pulses which may utilize phase or frequency modulation.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 157+ for frequency conversion systems wherein a single electrical source is coupled to a single electrical load in a power conversion system.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   appropriate subclasses for pulse communication systems which utilize phase or frequency modulation.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   for pulse counters or counting systems.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 313+ for radio receivers including frequency changing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 114]    114Of output rectangular waveform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter including maintaining constant or varying the repetition rate of a continuous series of pulses having negligible transition times and available at a specific circuit location for subsequent utilization.

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39+,for frequency sensitive systems and see also the search notes thereunder.

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84Music,   subclasses 600+ for apparatus for generating or modifying electric currents or potentials to produce varying electric currents or potentials in combination with or intended for use in converting the varying electric currents or potentials into musical tones.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 250 for wave meters which may employ frequency changing.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 424 for parametric amplifier frequency converters.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 79 for electric wave frequency measuring systems of the heterodyne type.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 323+ for a frequency demodulator with a local oscillator and subclass 346 for a phase demodulator with a local oscillator.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 37+ for beat frequency oscillator systems and subclass 76 for systems including an oscillator combined with a harmonic producing or selecting network in the output. (To be classified in Class 331 the oscillator must be the signal source and must be capable of self sustained oscillation).
332Modulators,   appropriate subclasses for systems wherein a first source of one frequency is modified in frequency or phase by mixing with an arbitrarily varying control source of another frequency or frequencies.
340Communications: Electrical,   appropriate subclasses for systems whereby information is conveyed from one point to another by pulses arranged in a particular sequence or whose height or duration are varied to represent the particular information to be conveyed, particularly subclasses 870.01+ for telemetering systems, and subclasses 870.18+ for such systems providing frequency or phase modulation.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   appropriate subclasses for pulse communication systems which utilize phase or frequency modulation.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   for pulse counters or counting systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 115]    115Frequency division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Subject matter wherein the repetition rate of the output pulses is less than the frequency of the input signal.

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117+,for frequency division, in general.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for analogous circuits which may utilize shift registers or other class appropriate devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 116]    116Frequency multiplication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  wherein the repetition rate of the output pulses is greater than the frequency of the input signal.
(1) Note. Miscellaneous frequency mixing which produces sum or difference frequencies of two input frequencies is classified in subclass 113. Rectangular or pulse waveform frequency mixing is classified in subclass 114.

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119+,for frequency multiplication in general.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for analogous circuits which may utilize shift registers or other class appropriate devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 117]    117Frequency division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter wherein an input signal having a first frequency is transformed into an output signal having a second lower frequency where the output frequency is a submultiple of the input frequency.
(1) Note. Included as submultiples are fractions such as two-thirds.

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114,for frequency conversion of a pulse train.
119+,for miscellaneous frequency multiplication.
185+,for particular multivibrator type which may or may not be used as a frequency divider.

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84Music,   subclasses 600+ for apparatus for generating or modifying electric currents or potentials to produce varying electric currents or potentials in combination with or intended for use with structure for converting the varying electric currents or potentials into musical tones.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 157+ for frequency conversion systems of a single electrical source coupled to a single electrical load where there is no intermediate conversion to DC.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 118]    118Having discrete active device (e.g., transistor, triode, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter including an individual semiconductive or electron space discharge device.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 119]    119Frequency multiplication (e.g., harmonic generation, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter wherein an input signal having a first frequency is transformed into an output signal having a second higher frequency, where the output frequency is a multiple of the input frequency.
(1) Note. A harmonic output frequency is an integral multiple of an input frequency.
(2) Note. Miscellaneous frequency mixing which produces sum or difference frequencies of two input frequencies is classified in subclass 113. Rectangular or pulse waveform frequency mixing is classified in subclass 114.

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113,for miscellaneous frequency mixing.
114,for pulse frequency mixing.
116,for frequency multiplication of an output rectangular or pulse waveform.
117,for miscellaneous frequency division.

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84Music,   subclasses 600+ for apparatus for generating or modifying electric currents or potentials to produce varying electric currents or potentials in combination with or intended for use with structure for converting the varying electric currents or potentials into musical tones.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 105 for a class appropriate harmonic filter or neutralizer.
331Oscillators,   subclass 76 for oscillators combined with electron space discharge tube harmonic generating or selecting.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 157+ for frequency conversion systems of a single electrical source coupled to a single electrical load where there is no intermediate conversion to DC.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 120]    120With plural outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter wherein multiple harmonic output waves are simultaneously derived from a single input wave.
(1) Note. The plurality of output waves are generally derived from separate output terminals by filter or other load.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 121]    121Selective:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter wherein one or more of the multiple output harmonic waves may be chosen for utilization.

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407+,for a switching circuit having plural inputs and a single output.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 122]    122Doubling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter wherein the frequency of the output wave is exactly twice the frequency of the input wave independent of the input frequency.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are systems in which the claimed subject matter is restricted to frequency doublers even though the system singularly or in combination with similar systems may be used as a frequency multiplier other than a doubler.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 123]    123With particular tube or distributed parameter element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter wherein a harmonic producing device comprises a particular electron space discharge device or an element whose respective impedance cannot be considered to be concentrated at a point.

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593,for miscellaneous circuits with distributed parameter elements.

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331Oscillators,   subclass 76 for oscillators combined with electron space discharge tube harmonic generating or selecting.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 124]    124By periodic switching (e.g., chopper, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an input signal (typically low magnitude DC) is regularly interrupted to form a pulsating output waveform.

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291+,for miscellaneous clock or pulse generating.
365+,for electronic input/output switching, in general.
548,for miscellaneous circuits providing a specific source of supply or bias using an oscillator or interrupter.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 132+ for relay repetitive make and break systems.
330Amplifiers,   subclass 10 for interrupters used in modulator-demodulator type amplifiers.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 106+ and subclass 177 for circuit interrupter type converters for power systems.
370Multiplex Communications,   appropriate subclasses for multiplex systems which utilize switching techniques.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 125]    125Generating parabolic or hyperbolic output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a waveform is generated having the shape produced by (a) a locus of points each of which has an equal distance to a fixed line and a fixed point or (b) a locus of points wherein the difference in distances from each point to two fixed points is a constant.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclass 853 for a hyperbolic function generator using an analog computer.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 126]    126Generating staircase output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including the generation of a signal whose amplitude increases or decreases between three or more discrete steps at regular intervals.

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105,for wave synthesizing systems.
131+,for sawtooth or triangular wave output.
291+,for an output discretely stepping between two levels.
355+,for systems wherein the output is a resultant function of plural inputs.

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315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 364+ for step wave deflection systems used with cathode-ray tubes.
370Multiplex Communications,   subclass 530 for a multiplexing system using a time-division step wave signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 127]    127With differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter including a gain producing device responsive to the offset between two input voltages or currents and nonresponsive to voltages or currents which are identical in the two inputs.

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563,for a nonlinear amplifier circuit utilizing a differential amplifier.

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330Amplifiers,   subclasses 252+ for a semiconductor differential amplifier in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 128]    128With rectifying element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter including an element converting an alternating current wave into a corresponding direct current wave.

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104,for a converter of an AC input to corresponding DC at an unloaded output.

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363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 13+ for current conversion (including rectification) in a power system which connects a single electrical source to a single electrical load.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 129]    129Generating sinusoidal output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an input signal wave is modified to or triggers an alternating current sinusoidal wave at the output.
(1) Note. Included here are signals having a cosinusoidal waveform.

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32,for a shock excited tuned circuit utilized in pulse width or spacing selection.
104,for miscellaneous converters of an AC signal input to DC voltage output.
105+,for synthesizing of an output waveform.
113+,for systems providing frequency conversion.
306+,for systems wherein the amplitude of an output wave is controlled within specific limits.
596,for miscellaneous circuits including an oscillatory or shock excited portion.

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84Music,   subclasses 600+ for various systems for modifying electric currents or potentials in combination with converting the varying electric currents or potentials into sound waves for the production of musical tones.
128Surgery,   subclasses 419+ for systems wherein the usual 60 Hz commercial alternating current is converted to high frequency AC or pulsating current for application to the human body.
178Telegraphy,   subclasses 66.1+ for systems relating to frequency shift keying of an alternating current signal under the influence of a control pulse.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 160 for structural details of a rotary mechanical AC frequency converter and subclass 161 for phase shifter type rotary AC dynamoelectric machines.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 378+ and 391+ for systems which deflect a cathode ray by a rotating electric field having conversion of pulse wave energy to alternating wave energy, subclasses 200+ for systems comprising a discharge device or rectifier in the supply circuit of a gaseous tube or tubes where the output may be an alternating circuit wave, subclasses 209+ for systems comprising a periodic switch in the supply circuit of a gaseous tube or tubes where the switch may be pulse controlled with the output an AC wave and subclasses 246+ for systems comprising a pulsating supply for gaseous tubes.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 400.1 through 400.42for synchronous motor commutation control systems.
331Oscillators,   particularly subclasses 37+ for systems comprising the combination of oscillator with production of a beat frequency, subclass 45 for an oscillator with polyphase output, and subclasses 172+ for an oscillator combined with pulse actuated control or synchronization.
332Modulators,   subclasses 117+ or 144+ for devices for modulating the phase or frequency of a carrier wave by an arbitrarily varying control wave.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 20 for systems comprising wave shape changing utilizing passive elements.
340Communications: Electrical,   appropriate subclasses for signaling or indicating devices responsive to pulse wave input and in which the output may or may not be an alternating current.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   appropriate subclasses for receivers for pulse wave transmitted carrier wave energy.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 13+ for systems involving derectification, subclasses 148+ for systems including phase conversion, and subclass 157 for systems including frequency conversion wherein a single source is connected to a single load.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 1 through 58for pulse responsive systems, subclasses 62+ for systems for transmitting information including frequency shift keying, and subclasses 75+ for pulse responsive receivers.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 313+ for systems whereby an input modulated carrier wave is modified by a wave derived from a local oscillator or other source in such a manner as to obtain an output wave the frequency of which is the sum or difference of the input wave and the modifying wave (i.e., a beat frequency).
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 130]    130Generating trapezoidal output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  wherein the output waveform comprises an initial sloped rise from a normal voltage level followed by a steady level which is followed by a sloped return to the normal voltage level and where the sloped portions are mirror images.

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131+,for miscellaneous circuits producing a sawtooth or triangular output.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 131]    131Generating sawtooth or triangular output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a waveform is generated having a positive slope followed immediately by a negative slope.
(1) Note. The positive slope is generally gradual (e.g., by slowly charging a capacitor, etc.), and the negative slope is generally much more rapid (e.g., by quickly discharging a capacitor).
(2) Note. The slopes of a sawtooth waveform produced may only approximate a straight line.

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126+,for staircase output generation which may approximate a ramp or sawtooth signal.
335+,for differentiating networks.
336+,for integrating networks.

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315Electric Lamp and Discharge Device: Systems,   subclasses 364+ for cathode-ray tube beam deflecting systems.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 20+ , 111+, 129+, and 143+ for free running sawtooth wave generators.
348Television,   particularly subclasses 536+ for television systems which may include sawtooth generating circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 132]    132With current source or current mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter including a circuit portion which supplies a particular level of electrical current therethrough or a circuit portion having collector current matching in a pair of transistors having their bases and emitters tied together.

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133,for linearization in a sawtooth or triangular wave generator.
540+,for current source regulating in a stabilized bias circuit.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   for generic current regulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 133]    133With distortion control (e.g., linearization, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter which compensates for or introduces output waveform irregularities.
(1) Note. Distortion is sometimes introduced to the sawtooth or triangular signal to balance out some anticipated subsequent circuit distortion.

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132,for systems wherein the linearization includes a constant current device.
165+,for regenerating or restoring a rectangular waveform.
317,for an amplitude controlled distortion compensation circuit.
379+,for signal transmission integrity in a circuit providing gating of an unmodified input signal to an output.
551+,for miscellaneous unwanted signal suppression.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 134]    134With slope or duration control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter wherein the inclination or the period of the generated output is regulated.

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13+,for systems for selecting pulses as a function of slope or shape.
130,for a circuit generating a trapezoidal output.
170+,for slope control of a leading or trailing edge of a rectangular waveform.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 135]    135Having digital element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter including a device performing a logical function.
(1) Note. An example of a digital element is an AND gate.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for digital logic elements, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 136]    136Having particular delay or sync:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter including the control of a desired time relationship relative to the output signal.

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141+,for synchronizing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 137]    137Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to the input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 138]    138Having temperature compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter wherein undesired circuit variations due to a thermal condition are minimized.

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513,for miscellaneous temperature compensation circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 139]    139Having inductive load:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter wherein the output is supplied to a device producing a magnetic field which tends to inhibit any change in current passing therethrough.

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110,for a circuit which enhances current driving capability to an inductive device.

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336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for generic inductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 140]    140With amplitude control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter including the maintenance or modification of output signal magnitude.

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306+,for miscellaneous amplitude control circuits.

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330Amplifiers,   for amplifier circuits in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 141]    141Synchronizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a signal is produced which will (a) maintain a predetermined phase or frequency relationship between two sources of waves, one source being an excitation or standard source (sync source) and the other source being changed to achieve the predetermined relationship; (b) provide an initiate or stop operation to a device at a predetermined time; or (c) time (i.e., synchronize) the operation of some electrical circuit or system.

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185+,for circuits having one or more stable states.
231+,for a phase shift which is less than the period of an input signal.
261+,for a time delay in producing an output waveform.
392+,for a delay controlled switch.

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219Electric Heating,   subclasses 108+ for resistance welding circuits which may contain timing means.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclass 360 for timing circuits where the discharge device is the ultimate load.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 62 , 141+, 364+, 445, 700+, 725+, and 727+ for motor control circuits containing time delay.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 160+ for time or speed measuring or determining.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for logic stage or gate synchronizing or timing.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 20+ for synchronized automatic frequency stabilized TV type oscillators, subclass 55 for synchronized plural oscillators, subclass 87 for synchronized magnetron oscillators, subclass 145 for synchronized free running multivibrators, subclass 149 for synchronized free running blocking oscillators, and subclass 153 for synchronized free running relaxation oscillators in general.
348Television,   subclasses 500+ for television synchronizing.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 409 through 424for facsimile synchronization.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 106+ for data communication synchronization.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 142]    142Reset (e.g., initializing, starting, stopping, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein a device provides either an initiate or stop operation at a predetermined interval from a predetermined starting time.

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198,for similar circuits which establish a particular stable state exclusive of synchronization.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 94 for prevention of a metastable state in digital logic.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 143]    143Responsive to power supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Subject matter wherein a circuit reacts to the supply of power thereto or the removal of power therefrom.
(1) Note. The change in supplied power may be of any duration.

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50+,for amplitude discriminating, comparing, or selecting without subsequent parameter control.
198,for initializing, resetting, or protecting a state of a stable state circuit.
545+,for miscellaneous signal protection or bias preservation.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 144]    144Using multiple clocks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein plural square wave signals having precisely regulated amplitude and frequency are utilized to achieve synchronization.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 145]    145Having different frequencies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter wherein the plural clocks have diverse repetition rates.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 146]    146With feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the circuit output is returned to an input.
(1) Note. Positive feedback occurs when a portion of an output signal is fed back in phase with the input to increase amplification and possibly cause oscillation.
(2) Note. Negative feedback occurs when a portion of an output signal is fed back 180 degrees out of phase relative to the input. This decreases amplification, stabilizes circuit performance, and minimizes noise and distortion.

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155,for feedback synchronization in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 147]    147Phase lock loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Subject matter wherein a circuit compares the phase of the output signal with a reference signal and converts any difference into a correction voltage that changes the phase of the output so it matches that of the reference or input signal.

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155+,for phase lock loop type feedback synchronizing, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 148]    148With charge pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.  Subject matter wherein a device which pumps elemental positive or negative electrical energy is included.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 149]    149With variable delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.  Subject matter wherein means providing a changeable offset in time is included.

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231+,for phase shift or control.
261+,for specific delay in producing an output waveform.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 150]    150With digital element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.  Subject matter including a device performing Boolean algebra operations.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for an electronic digital element, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 151]    151With counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter which includes a device which can total the number of pulses applied thereto.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for pulse counters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 152]    152With choice between multiple delayed clocks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter wherein a single delayed clock is obtained from plural candidates.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 153]    153With delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter including means providing a distinct signal time offset.

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231+,for phase shift or control.
261+,for specific delay in producing an output waveform.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 154]    154With feedforward:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein a portion of an input signal is advanced essentially unchanged to an output stage of the synchronizing circuit.

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144+,for feedforward type synchronization using multiple clocks.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 155]    155With feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the circuit output is returned to an input.

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146+,for feedback synchronization utilizing multiple clocks.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 156]    156Phase lock loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein a circuit compares the phase of the output signal with a reference signal and converts any difference into a correction voltage that changes the phase of the output so it matches that of the reference or input signal.

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147+,for phase lock loop type feedback synchronizing using multiple clocks.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 157]    157With charge pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 156.  Subject matter wherein a device which pumps elemental positive or negative electrical energy is included.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 158]    158With variable delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 156.  Subject matter wherein means providing a changeable offset in time is included.

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231+,for phase shift or control.
261+,for specific delay in producing an output waveform.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 159]    159With digital element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 156.  Subject matter including a device performing Boolean algebra operations.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for an electronic digital element, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 160]    160With counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter which includes a device which can total the number of pulses applied thereto.

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151,for a counter in a synchronizing circuit using multiple clocks.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for pulse counters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 161]    161With delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter including means providing a distinct signal time offset.

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231+,for phase shift or control.
261+,for specific delay in producing an output waveform.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 162]    162Having reference source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein a clock is used as a standard.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 163]    163By phase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein the reference source controls the clock output of the synchronizing circuit by a fractional part of the period of an input signal periodic function or wave.
(1) Note. The period of a periodic function or wave is defined as 360 electrical degrees.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 164]    164Generating rectangular (e.g., clock, etc.) or pulse waveform having random characteristic (e.g., random width, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including a probabilistic factor in the generation of a pulsating waveform which is repetitive or intermittent and where an individual pulse has negligible transition times.

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331Oscillators,   subclass 78 for a free running random wave or noise generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 165]    165Regenerating or restoring rectangular (e.g., clock, etc.) or pulse waveform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a pulse waveform which has undergone attenuation or deformation is modified into an output pulse wave form whose characteristics correspond to an original pulse waveform prior to such attenuation or deformation.
(1) Note. Usually a feedback or regenerative system is utilized to reshape the distorted pulse wave form.

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178Telegraphy,   subclasses 70+ for regenerative repeaters used in telegraphy systems.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 29 for logic signal sensitivity or transmission integrity pulse shaping.
330Amplifiers,   subclasses 75+ , 290, and 291+ for feedback amplifiers.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 7+ for signal repeaters that may regenerate the repeated signal and which are used in radio systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 166]    166Having digital device (e.g., logic gate, flip-flop, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Subject matter wherein a device which operates on binary signals is included.

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185+,for miscellaneous flip-flop circuits.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for logic gates, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 167]    167Having network providing particular mathematical function (e.g., integrator, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Subject matter including circuitry which in response to a particular input value produces a corresponding output value per a standard mathematical relationship.

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334+,for a circuit providing a mathematical relationship between an input and an output.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 168]    168Having inductive device (e.g., transformer, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Subject matter including an element which has the property of opposing current flow therethrough due to a resultant magnetic field.

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336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for generic inductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 169]    169Having negative resistance device (e.g., tunnel diode, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Subject matter which includes a device having the property that, over a portion of its characteristic I-V plot, increasing applied device voltage results in a decrease in device current.

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568+,for miscellaneous negative resistance circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 170]    170Slope control of leading or trailing edge of rectangular (e.g., clock, etc.) or pulse waveform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the rise time or fall time of a pulse is maintained constant or regulated in some manner.

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134,for slope or duration control of a sawtooth or triangular waveform.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 171]    171Output pulses having opposite polarities:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an input pulse wave form consisting of a series of pulses of a single polarity is converted to an output wave form consisting of a plurality of pulses of alternate polarities.
(1) Note. Such pulses are often referred to as bipolar.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 172]    172Rectangular (e.g., clock, etc.) or pulse waveform width control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including maintaining constant or varying the length of individual pulses in a pulsating waveform which is repetitive or intermittent and wherein an individual pulse has negligible transition times.

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31+,for pulse width discriminating without subsequent control.
398,for delay controlled switching with predetermined activation time.

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332Modulators,   subclasses 109+ for modulation of pulse width by an intelligence signal.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 22 for communication systems using pulse width modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 173]    173Pulse narrowing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 172.  Subject matter wherein the output pulse width or duration is decreased relative to that at the input.
(1) Note. This is also known as pulse shortening.

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31+,for pulse width discriminating.
174,for pulse lengthening or stretching.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 174]    174Pulse broadening:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 172.  Subject matter wherein the output pulse width or duration is increased relative to that of the input.
(1) Note. This is also known as pulse stretching.

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31+,for pulse width discriminating.
173,for pulse shortening or narrowing.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 175]    175Duty cycle control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 172.  Subject matter wherein the ratio of pulse width to pulse separation in a periodic wave is regulated.

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31+,for pulse width or spacing discriminating without subsequent control thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 176]    176Having digital device (e.g., logic gate, flip-flop, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 172.  Subject matter wherein a device which operates on binary signals is included.

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185+,for miscellaneous flip-flop circuits.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for logic gates, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 177]    177Having inductive device (e.g., transformer, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 172.  Subject matter including an element which has the property of opposing current flow therethrough due to a resultant magnetic field.
(1) Note. The inductive element may be distributed or lumped.

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336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for generic inductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 178]    178Rectangular (e.g., clock, etc.) or pulse waveform amplitude control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the magnitude of an output pulse wave is regulated.

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306+,for systems which regulate the height or amplitude of an input wave, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 179]    179Gain:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 178.  Subject matter wherein the ratio of output to input amplitude levels is regulated.

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306+,for miscellaneous amplitude control circuits.

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330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses for generic amplifying circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 180]    180Limiting, clipping, or clamping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 178.  Subject matter wherein the pulse has particular amplitude level constraints.

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309+,for limiting, clipping, or clamping circuits, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 181]    181Electromagnetic pulse forming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a pulse of energy is produced which has simultaneously varying electric and magnetic fields which are at right angles to each other.
(1) Note. This includes, for example, the production of pulsed RF or microwaves.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 182]    182Delay line or capacitor storage element charged or discharged through or by a relaxation oscillator type circuit to form pulse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including a distributed parameter wave conveying network or analogous structure or capacitive retention device with a respective charge or discharge path through an oscillator which slowly charges and rapidly discharges an inductor or capacitor through a resistor to form a pulse.
(1) Note. This subclass will not ordinarily contain subject matter wherein the capacitor constitutes an element of a free running relaxation oscillator circuit (such as provided for in Class 331, Oscillators).

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183+,for other systems utilizing storage or delay elements.

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331Oscillators,   subclasses 143+ for relaxation oscillators, per se.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   appropriate subclasses for transmission lines, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 183]    183Delay line or capacitor storage element charges or discharges through a tube to form pulse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including a distributed parameter wave conveying network or analogous structure or capacitive retention device adapted to be charged or discharged through the electron path of an electron space discharge device to form a pulse.

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333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   appropriate subclasses for transmission lines, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 184]    184Rectangular (e.g., clock, etc.) or pulse waveform generating by conversion from input AC (e.g., sine, etc.) wave:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an input signal from which the rectangular or pulse output is derived comprises a signal having both positive and negative portions.
(1) Note. Typically, the AC signal is a sinusoidal wave.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 185]    185Particular stable state circuit (e.g., tristable, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter comprising a circuit which will remain in a distinct current conductive steady-state condition unless toggled therefrom by a trigger input.
(1) Note. The condition to which the circuit may be toggled may itself be stable or it may be unstable.
(2) Note. Detailed flip-flops, per se, generally are contained herein; however, multifunctional or programmable logic having a flip-flop is classified in Class 326, subclasses 37+, and redundant logic having a flip-flop is classified in Class 326, subclass 12.

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365+,for gating of an unmodified input signal to an output.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 12 for redundant logic and flip-flop, subclasses 40 and 46 for programmable logic and flip-flop, and subclasses 59+ for logic circuits having three or more active states.
331Oscillators,   appropriate subclasses for free running oscillators (e.g., astable circuits).
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 186]    186Superconductive (e.g., cryogenic, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein the circuit incorporates elements which exhibit a marked decrease in electrical resistance (to essentially zero ohms) at a temperature less than or equal to 30 K.

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366+,for superconductive gating or switching.
527+,for miscellaneous cryogenic device circuits.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 1+ for superconductive electronic digital logic circuits.
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   for high temperature (i.e., greater than 30 K) superconductive apparatus, materials, or processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 187]    187External effect device (e.g., light, heat, magnetic, or mechanical force sensitive devices, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein an ambient force or field provides a toggling stimulus to the stable state circuit.

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369+,for an external effect controlled superconductive gating circuit.
509+,for miscellaneous external effect device circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 188]    188Minority carrier storage effect:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter which utilizes or varies the concentration of electrons in p-type material or holes in n-type material which accumulate at a pn semiconductor junction.

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579,for miscellaneous circuits utilizing minority carrier storage in a three or more electrode solid-state device.
585,for miscellaneous circuits utilizing a minority carrier storage diode.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 189]    189Storage diode (e.g., step recovery, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 188.  Subject matter including a two-terminal unidirectionally conductive semiconductor device having minority carriers which accumulate at the pn junction when the diode is forward biased and which are suddenly swept away as back biasing increases to a certain point.

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585,for miscellaneous circuits using minority carrier storage diodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 190]    190With transformer or saturable core device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter including a device whose ratio of input voltage to output voltage is directly proportional to the ratio of primary windings to secondary windings therein or a magnetic core reactor having reactance modified by varying the core saturation through a superimposed unidirectional flux.

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300,for clock or pulse waveform generators utilizing a saturable inductance.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 401+ for nonlinear reactor systems (e.g., saturable) in electrical transmission or interconnection systems.
336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for generic inductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 191]    191Blocking oscillator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Subject matter wherein the circuit includes transformer coupled feedback in which output current flows for only one half cycle before the oscillation is halted due to blocking of the input and the oscillation is resumed after the input becomes unblocked.

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331Oscillators,   subclass 112 for free running solid-state blocking oscillators.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 192]    192Negative resistance transistor (e.g., unijunction, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter including a transistor whose characteristic on a current-voltage plot has a portion with a downward slope.

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568,for miscellaneous negative resistance circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 193]    193Four or more layer device (e.g., trigistor, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Subject matter wherein the transistor contains more than three adjacent regions having differing conductivities.

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582,for miscellaneous four or more layer device circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 194]    194Zener or capacitive diode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter including a diode having a threshold voltage above which the applied voltage must rise before the diode junction breaks down allowing the current flow across the junction to suddenly rise or including a voltage responsive two terminal semiconductor device whose capacitance varies as a result of changes in the space charge at a pn junction.

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302,for clock or pulse waveform generating utilizing storage diodes.
584,for miscellaneous zener diode circuits.
586,for miscellaneous capacitive diode circuits.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 603+ for avalanche diodes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 195]    195Negative resistance diode having "N"-shape characteristic on I-V plot (e.g., tunnel diode, backward diode, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter including a diode whose characteristic on a current versus voltage plot (i.e., with the current plotted on the Y axis and the voltage on the X axis) has an "N"-shape.

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570,for miscellaneous circuits using such diodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 196]    196Negative resistance diode having "S"-shape characteristic on I-V plot (e.g., four or more layer semiconductor device, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter including a diode whose characteristic on a current versus voltage plot (i.e., with the current plotted on the Y axis and the voltage on the X axis) has an "S"-shape.

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571,for miscellaneous circuits using such diodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 197]    197Convertible circuit (e.g., bistable to monostable, D-type to T-type, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein (a) a stable state circuit with an initial number of stable states may be readily modified to one having a different number of stable states or (b) a stable state circuit with a fixed number of stable states can be readily modified between differing input configurations.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 198]    198Initializing, resetting, or protecting a steady state condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter including the establishment of a starting condition in a stable state circuit, the restoration of a stable circuit to a previous stable-state condition, or the prevention of deterioration of an already established stable-state condition.

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91+,for amplitude detection circuits including details of sampling or holding (e.g., capacitive storage element).
142+,for a synchronizing type reset circuit.
315+,for maintaining a predetermined input/output level ratio by limiting, clipping, or clamping.
545,for protection of nonlinear solid-state signal or circuit conditions against power or bias supply loss or perturbations, per se, and see search notes thereunder.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 94 for logic metastable state prevention.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 199]    199Circuit having only two stable states (i.e., bistable):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter including a circuit with exactly two distinct current-conductive steady-state conditions.

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227+,for monostable (single stable state) circuits, per se.
291+,for miscellaneous clock or pulse waveform generating.
365+,for switching of an unmodified input to an output.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 200]    200Dynamic bistable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein a particular stable state is maintained by charge storing elements which must be regularly recharged.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 201]    201Complementary clock inputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter which includes two inputs for clocks which are inverses of each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 202]    202Master-slave bistable latch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the bistable device includes a controlling circuit section, otherwise known as the "master" stage and a subsequent controlled section, known as the "slave" stage.

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216,for cross-coupled JK input bistable circuits in general,
217,for cross-coupled RS input bistable circuits in general.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclasses 115+ for counters and dividers including master-slave circuits as transfer means.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 203]    203Including field-effect transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Subject matter which includes a unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electrical field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode (gate).
(1) Note. In a unipolar transistor, the source to drain current involves only one type of charge carrier (i.e., holes in a p-type channel and electrons in an n-type channel).
(2) Note. Two types of FET structures are prevalent: (a) an all-junction device, known as a junction FET or JFET characterized by having heavily doped impurity regions of one type (e.g., p-type material), known as gate regions, on both sides of a second type semiconductor bar (e.g., n+ type material) to form a pn junction, and (b) a device such as a MOSFET/IGFET, consisting of a lightly doped substrate (e.g., p-type material) into which two highly doped regions (e.g., n+ type material) are diffused for forming source/drain regions with the area therebetween becoming the channel for current carriers (i.e., holes or electrons) and with a layer of insulating material (e.g., SiO2) grown over the channel surface for separating the channel from a control (i.e., gate) electrode.

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581,for field-effect device circuits, per se.

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257Active Solid State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 213+ for field-effect devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 204]    204Including multi-emitter or multi-collector bipolar transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Subject matter which includes a semiconductive device which has current flowing through both n and p-type material and which has two or more emitter regions or two or more collector regions.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 205]    205Using hysteresis (e.g., Schmitt trigger, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the input voltage required to cause a change from a first stable state to a second stable state is distinctly different from that required to cause a subsequent change from the second stable state to the first stable state as a result of feedback.
(1) Note. Electronic digital logic circuits which may utilize hysteresis for noise margin enhancement are classified with the logic circuits in Class 326.

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72+,for analogous circuitry recited as an amplitude comparator wherein an input is compared to a reference derived therefrom.
74+,for an input signal compared to plural fixed references.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuits,   subclass 22 for input noise margin enhancement logic circuits which may utilize similar circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 206]    206Including field-effect transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Subject matter which includes a unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electrical field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode (gate).
(1) Note. In a unipolar transistor, the source to drain current involves only one type of charge carrier (i.e., holes in a p-type channel and electrons in an n-type channel).
(2) Note. Two types of FET structures are prevalent: (a) an all-junction device, known as a junction FET or JFET characterized by having heavily doped impurity regions of one type (e.g., p-type material), known as gate regions, on both sides of a second type semiconductor bar (e.g., n+ type material) to form a pn junction, and (b) a device such as a MOSFET/IGFET, consisting of a lightly doped substrate (e.g., p-type material) into which two highly doped regions (e.g., n+ type material) are diffused for forming source/drain regions with the area therebetween becoming the channel for current carriers (i.e., holes or electrons) and with a layer of insulating material (e.g., SiO2) grown over the channel surface for separating the channel from a control (i.e., gate) electrode.

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581,for field-effect device circuits, per se.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 213+ for field-effect devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 207]    207Including diverse solid-state devices (e.g., FET/ bipolar, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein plural distinct types of semiconducting elements are utilized.
(1) Note. Types of semiconducting elements include bipolar, FET, SCR, etc.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for diverse solid-state device structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 208]    208Including field-effect transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter which includes a unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electrical field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode (gate).
(1) Note. In a unipolar transistor, the source to drain current involves only one type of charge carrier (i.e., holes in a p-type channel and electrons in an n-type channel).
(2) Note. Two types of FET structures are prevalent: (a) an all-junction device, known as a junction FET or JFET characterized by having heavily doped impurity regions of one type (e.g., p-type material), known as gate regions, on both sides of a second type semiconductor bar (e.g., n+ type material) to form a pn junction, and (b) a device such as a MOSFET/IGFET, consisting of a lightly doped substrate (e.g., p-type material) into which two highly doped regions (e.g., n+ type material) are diffused for forming source/drain regions with the area therebetween becoming the channel for current carriers (i.e., holes or electrons) and with a layer of insulating material (e.g., SiO2) grown over the channel surface for separating the channel from a control (i.e., gate) electrode.

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51+,for a sensing amplifier which may utilize an FET bistable circuit.
581,for miscellaneous field-effect device circuits.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 213+ for field-effect devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 209]    209Including enhancement and depletion devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Subject matter including (a) an FET device which permits current conduction by attracting majority carriers to a channel by an appropriate applied voltage and (b) an FET device which inhibits current conduction by repelling majority carriers away from a channel by an appropriate applied voltage.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 210]    210CMOS:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Subject matter wherein the FET is of the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor type.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 211]    211With clock input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 210.  Subject matter which provides an input for a separate triggering source.

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291+,for miscellaneous circuits which generate a clock or pulse waveform.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for clocking of logic stages or gates.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 212]    212With clock input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Subject matter which provides an input for a separate triggering source.

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291+,for miscellaneous circuits which generate a clock or pulse waveform.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 93+ for clocking of logic stages or gates.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 213]    213Plural independent clock inputs (i.e., non-complementary):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein inputs accepting multiple distinct triggering sources are present.
(1) Note. Clocks which are merely the inverse of each other are not considered independent.

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291+,for miscellaneous circuits which generate a clock or pulse waveform.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 214]    214Complementary transistors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the circuit includes a transistor of the pnp type and a transistor of the npn type.

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576,for miscellaneous circuits using complementary transistors.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 215]    215Having at least two cross-coupling paths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including two active devices, each capable of assuming a distinct current-conductive stable state, the output of each device being coupled to the input of the other.

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228,for a monostable circuit having cross-coupled paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 216]    216JK type input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein the multivibrator has a clock input and two additional inputs (the "J" and "K" inputs) which jointly determine the output state of the multivibrator at the application of a clock pulse using the following guidelines: (a) if both "J" and "K" are "HIGH", the multivibrator will change state; (b) if "J" and "K" are both "LOW", the multivibrator will maintain its current state; (c) if "J" = "HIGH" and "K" = "LOW", the multivibrator will go to the "HIGH" state; and (d) if "J" = "LOW" and "K" = "HIGH", the multivibrator will go to the "LOW" state.
(1) Note. The "HIGH" state can be considered analogous to a logic "1" and the "LOW" state can be considered analogous to a logic "0."
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 217]    217RS or RST type input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein the multivibrator has two inputs (the "R" and "S") in the RS case and also a third (the "T" input) in the RST case and which inputs determine the output state of the multivibrator according to the following guidelines: (a) if the "S" is "HIGH" then the multivibrator will go to the "HIGH" state; (b) if the "R" is "HIGH", then the multivibrator will go to the "LOW" state; and (c) if there is a "T" input present and it is "HIGH", the multivibrator will change state from its previous value.
(1) Note. A "HIGH" on both the "R" and the "S" inputs simultaneously is not permitted.
(2) Note. The "HIGH" state can be considered analogous to a logic "1" and the "LOW" state can be considered analogous to a logic "0."
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 218]    218D type input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein the multivibrator has a clock input and an additional input (the "D" input) wherein the output state of the multivibrator represents the state of the "D" input just prior to the most recent clock pulse.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 219]    219Particular device at input, output, or in cross-coupling path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter including a specific active element at the multivibrator signal insertion point, the signal extraction point, or in the connection path between these two points.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 220]    220With diode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter including a conventional two-terminal unidirectionally conductive active element in the input circuit, the output circuit, or a cross coupling path of the multivibrator.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for diverse types of diodes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 221]    221Parallel RC network in cross-coupling path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein a shunt-connected resistor and capacitor pair is inserted in one of the mutually interconnected paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 222]    222Resistor in cross-coupling path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein a device which directly relates voltage to current is inserted in one of the mutually interconnecting paths.

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338Electrical Resistors,   appropriate subclasses for details of electrical resistors.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 223]    223Plural transistors of same conductivity type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including multiple solid-state devices which are all of the npn or all of the pnp variety.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 224]    224With single semiconductor device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein only one solid-state device is utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 225]    225With logic element (e.g., NOR gate, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein a device performing a Boolean algebraic function is included.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for logic gates, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 226]    226With single electron tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein a solitary active device is included which possesses two or more spaced electrodes and in which current flow therebetween comprises elemental negatively charged particles.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for electron tube structure, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 227]    227Monostable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein the circuit has a single stable state which can be momentarily changed to an unstable state by the application of a triggering signal, but which will revert to the stable state after a predetermined time.

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172+,for a monostable used in pulse waveform width control.
199+,for two stable state circuits (i.e., bistable).
291+,for miscellaneous clock or pulse waveform generating.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 228]    228Having cross-coupled paths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter including two circuit stages in which the output of each stage is fed back to the input of the other.

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215+,for a bistable circuit having at least two cross-coupled paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 229]    229Having differential circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter including circuitry responsive to the offset between two voltages or currents.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 230]    230With external feedback (i.e., output to input):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input terminal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 231]    231Phase shift by less than period of input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a fraction of the period of an input periodic wave signal (with one period represented as 360 degrees along the time axis) is maintained or shifted.

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2+,for phase angle sensing without subsequent control.
141+,for time or phase control of one signal to cause synchronization with another signal.
261+,for specific delay in producing output waveforms.
392+,for delay controlled switching.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 212+ for electric power phase shift or control circuits.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 1+ for automatic frequency stabilization using phase of frequency sensing means and for phase lock loop circuits in oscillator circuits and systems.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for phase conversion circuits with control or error correction.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 232]    232Dependent on frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Subject matter wherein the phase shift is varied dependent upon the number or recurrences of a periodic input signal in a unit of time.

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39+,for frequency selecting, comparing, or discriminating without subsequent control.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 233]    233Correction to specific phase shift:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Subject matter wherein correction is made to an input signal phase shift to ensure that the output signal has a predetermined phase shift.

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165+,for pulse or rectangular wave regeneration or restoration.
237+,for variable or adjustable phase shifting, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 234]    234Dependent on variable controlled phase shifts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the desired output phase shift is obtained by applying changeable phase shifts to the input signal.

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235,for correction to specific phase shift by applying plural fixed phase shifts to the input signal.
237+,for variable or adjustable phase shifting in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 235]    235Dependent on multiple fixed phase shifts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the desired output phase shift is obtained by applying a plurality of unchanging phase shifts to the input signal.

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234,for variable phase shifts applied to an input signal to produce correction to a specific phase shift.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 236]    236By phase comparator or detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the phase shift change is effected by the output of a circuit that obtains both the magnitude and sign of the phase angle between two input voltages or currents.

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2+,for phase discriminating or detecting without subsequent control.
244,for a phase comparator or detector in a variable or adjustable feedback circuit to control phase shift.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 237]    237Variable or adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Subject matter wherein the phase control is (a) continuously changed or (b) modifiable (either automatically or in response to an operator) to various fixed delays.

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270,for output waveform production delay via variable or adjustable multiple outputs to effect a plurality of delay intervals.
276,for output waveform production delay where a single output has variable or selectable delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 238]    238Quadrature related (i.e., 90 degrees):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein the variable or adjustable phase shift control involves the state or condition of two related periodic functions or two related points separated by a quarter of a cycle or 90 electrical degrees.

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254,for quadrature related phase shift control which is not variable or adjustable.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 76.78 for quadrature sensing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 239]    239Non-overlapping multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein a variable or adjustable phase shift circuit produces plural output clock type waves wherein no two such waves are permitted to be "on" simultaneously.

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22,for pulse noncoincidence discriminating without subsequent control.
23+,for pulse coincidence discriminating without subsequent control.
259,for non-overlapping multiple outputs in phase shift circuitry in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 240]    240Maintaining invariant amplitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein a variable or adjustable phase control device produces an output signal having an unchanging amplitude relative to the input signal.

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231,for unchanging phase shifts with invariant amplitude.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 241]    241With counter or shift register:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including (a) a circuit which totals input pulses to produce an output signal each time it receives a predetermined number of input pulses or (b) a circuit which transfers its digital contents along plural storage elements in a chain on the application of an input pulse.

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241+,for variable or adjustable phase shifting using a counter or shift register.
265,for a counter in an active element or structure wherein output waveform production delay is effected by the rising or falling edge of an input.
273,for a counter in an active element or structure of a multiple output, plural delay interval environment.
279,for a counter in an active element or structure of a single output environment having a variable or selectable delay.
286,for a counter with an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for counters or shift registers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 242]    242Having multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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245,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with feedback and multiple outputs.
247,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a differential amplifier and multiple outputs.
249,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an adder and multiple outputs.
251,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element and multiple outputs.
253,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element and multiple outputs.
257,for multiple outputs wherein there is a 180 degree phase difference between the input and output.
258,for a phase control circuit having multiple outputs, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 243]    243With feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.
(1) Note. Positive feedback occurs when a portion of an output signal is fed back in phase with the input to increase amplification and possibly cause oscillation.
(2) Note. Negative feedback occurs when a portion of an output signal is fed back 180 degrees out of phase relative to the input. This decreases amplification, stabilizes circuit performance, and minimizes noise and distortion.

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154,for feedforward synchronization.
155+,for feedback synchronization.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 244]    244With phase comparator or detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter including a circuit whose output represents both the magnitude and sign of the phase angle between two input voltages or currents.

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2,for phase comparing without subsequent control.
236,for a phase comparator or detector used in correcting a specific phase shift.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 245]    245Having multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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242,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a counter or shift register and multiple outputs.
247,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a differential amplifier and multiple outputs.
249,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an adder and multiple outputs.
251,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element and multiple outputs.
253,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element and multiple outputs.
257,for multiple outputs where there is a 180 degree phase difference between the input and output.
258,for a phase control circuit having multiple outputs, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 246]    246With differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein a circuit amplifies only the differences between two input signal voltages or currents and suppresses voltages or currents appearing simultaneously on both inputs.

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266,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay via the rising or falling edge of a pulse signal.
274,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
280,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of a single output with variable or selectable delay.
287,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 247]    247Having multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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242,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a counter or shift register and multiple outputs.
245,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with feedback and multiple outputs.
249,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an adder and multiple outputs.
251,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element and multiple outputs.
253,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element and multiple outputs.
257,for multiple outputs where there is a 180 degree phase difference between the input and output.
258,for a phase control circuit having multiple outputs, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 248]    248With adder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein a variable or adjustable device includes a circuit which produces the sum of two or more quantities impressed on it.

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361,for algebraic summing circuits.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclass subclasses 670+ for a digital computer providing addition or subtraction.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 249]    249Having multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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242,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a counter or shift register and multiple outputs.
245,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with feedback and multiple outputs.
247,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a differential amplifier and multiple outputs.
251,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element and multiple outputs.
253,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element and multiple outputs.
257,for multiple outputs where there is a 180 degree phase difference between the input and output.
258,for a phase control circuit having multiple outputs, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 250]    250With active time delay element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein the time required for a signal to travel between two points in a circuit is controlled by an element which requires an external power supply other than the main input signal for its operation.

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252,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 251]    251Having multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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242,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a counter or shift register and multiple outputs.
245,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with feedback and multiple outputs.
247,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a differential amplifier and multiple outputs.
249,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an adder and multiple outputs.
253,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element and multiple outputs.
257,for multiple outputs where there is a 180 degree phase difference between the input and output.
258,for a phase control circuit having multiple outputs, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 252]    252With passive time delay element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein the time required for a signal to travel between two points in a circuit is controlled by an element powered only by an input signal, without any bias voltage.
(1) Note. A passive element (such as a capacitor, resistor, or inductor), does not add any amplification or gain (i.e., it presents some loss to the system).

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250,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 253]    253Having multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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242,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a counter or shift register and multiple outputs.
245,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with feedback and multiple outputs.
247,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a differential amplifier and multiple outputs.
249,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an adder and multiple outputs.
251,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element and multiple outputs.
257,for multiple outputs where there is a 180 degree phase difference between the input and output.
258,for a phase control circuit having multiple outputs, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 254]    254Quadrature related (i.e., 90 degrees):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Subject matter wherein the phase shift control includes the state or condition of two related periodic functions or two related points separated by a quarter of a cycle or 90 electrical degrees.

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238,for quadrature related phase shift control which is variable or adjustable.
255,for a phase shift control circuit where the output is in quadrature with respect to the input.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 76.78 for quadrature sensing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 255]    25590 degrees between input and output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter wherein the phase relationship between an output signal and an input signal is separated by a quarter of a cycle or 90 electrical degrees.

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238,for quadrature related variable or adjustable phase shift control.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 76.78 for quadrature sensing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 256]    256Phase inversion (i.e., 180 degrees between input and output):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Subject matter wherein the phase relationship between the input and output signal is separated by a half of a cycle or 180 electrical degrees.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 104+ for logical inverters.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 257]    257Multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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242,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a counter or shift register and multiple outputs.
245,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with feedback and multiple outputs.
247,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a differential amplifier and multiple outputs.
249,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an adder and multiple outputs.
251,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element and multiple outputs.
253,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element and multiple outputs.
258,for a phase control circuit having multiple outputs, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 258]    258Multiple outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Subject matter wherein more than one output is produced.

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242,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a counter or shift register and multiple outputs.
245,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with feedback and multiple outputs.
247,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a differential amplifier and multiple outputs.
249,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an adder and multiple outputs.
251,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with an active time delay element and multiple outputs.
253,for a variable or adjustable phase shift with a passive time delay element and multiple outputs.
257,for multiple outputs where there is a 180 degree phase difference between the input and output.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 259]    259Non-overlapping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter wherein a phase shift circuit produces plural output clock type waves where no two such waves are permitted to be "on" simultaneously.

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22,for pulse noncoincidence discriminating without subsequent control.
23+,for pulse coincidence discriminating without subsequent control.
239,for non-overlapping multiple outputs in a variable or adjustable phase shift control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 260]    260Producing AC power control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Subject matter wherein an output alternating current signal is controlled either by a phase shift or by suppressing output dependent upon some phase.
(1) Note. A flow of electricity which reaches a maximum in one direction, decreases to zero, then reverses itself and reaches a maximum in the opposite direction and this cycle is continuously repeated is alternating current.

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306+,for amplitude control.
365+,for switching or gating of an AC signal.
530+,for miscellaneous circuits with specific source of supply or bias voltage.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for power supply regulation of a single source coupled to a single load.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 261]    261Having specific delay in producing output waveform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is obtained at a predetermined time interval subsequent to the application of an input or control or initiating signal to a system.
(1) Note. Delay controlled switching is classified below with gating circuits.

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141+,for time or phase control of one signal to cause synchronization with another signal.
231+,for a signal phase shift which is less than the input signal period.
336+,for the integration of an input signal.
392+,for a delay controlled switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 262]    262Including significant compensation (e.g., temperature compensated delay, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein undesired changes in circuit operation due to, for example, temperature changes, component structural differences, or power supply fluctuations are offset.
(1) Note. Regulating systems for controlling a load as well as compensating circuits for protecting systems and semiconductor structures against failure are found in Class 323.

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509+,for miscellaneous external effect circuits.
538,for miscellaneous supply or bias circuits with significant compensation or stabilization.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 220+ , 234+, 299+, 304+, and 318+ for load controlled or regulated systems.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 14 for logic circuits which maintain a fail-safe condition against circuit breakdown and subclasses 21+ for signal sensitivity or transmission integrity in logic circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 263]    263Delay interval set by rising or falling edge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein the delay time is determined by either (a) the interval between the occurrence of leading or trailing edges of a pulse signal or (b) the amount of time for the leading or trailing edge of a pulse waveform to rise or fall to a particular value.

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2+,for phase characteristic selecting and particularly subclasses 3+ for phase angle sensing (e.g., lead/lag discriminators).
172+,for controlling the duration of pulse signals (e.g., pulse stretching) in pulse generators.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 62 for motor speed control with time delay; subclasses 141+ for generator-fed motor systems controlled by time delay; subclasses 283+ for time delay for motor-reversing; and subclasses 445+ for time delay control, per se, (e.g., automatic starting/stopping).
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   cross-reference art collection 921 for running-speed control systems including a time delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 264]    264Having specific active circuit element or structure (e.g., FET, complementary transistors, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter including a particular circuit element or structure requiring an external power supply other than the main input signal for its operation and which produces some dynamic function change (e.g., amplification) of the applied input electrical signal basic characteristic.
(1) Note. Examples of active circuit elements are transistors, tunnel diodes, or SCR"s.

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268,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
272,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
278,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
283,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
285,for an active circuit element or structure for output waveform production delay.
290,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 265]    265With counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter wherein a circuit is included which totals input pulses to produce an output signal each time it receives a predetermined number of input pulses.

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241,for a variable or adjustable phase shift using a counter or shift register.
273,for a counter in an active element or structure of a multiple output, plural delay environment.
279,for a counter in an active element or structure of a single output environment having a variable or selectable delay.
286,for a counter with an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for counters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 266]    266Differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter wherein a circuit amplifies only the differences between two input signal voltages or currents and suppresses voltages or currents appearing simultaneously on both inputs.

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246+,for variable or adjustable phase shift control using a differential amplifier.
274,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
280,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of a single output with variable or selectable delay.
287,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 267]    267Electron tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter including a gas filled or partially or fully evacuated (vacuum) device which regulates current flow between spaced electrodes.

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275,for circuits using an electron tube within an active circuit element or structure having multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
282,for time interval control using an electron tube within an active circuit element or structure having a single output with variable or selectable delay.
289,for circuits using an electron tube in a specific active circuit element or structure providing output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 268]    268Having passive circuit element or structure (e.g., RLC circuit, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter wherein a circuit element or structure is powered only by an input signal without any bias voltage and produces a desired modification of the input signal without adding any amplification or gain (i.e., it presents some loss to a system).
(1) Note. Examples of passive devices are capacitors, resistors, and inductors.

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264,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
272,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
278,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
283,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
285,for an active circuit element or structure for output waveform production delay.
290,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 269]    269Multiple outputs with plurality of delay intervals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter including plural outputs each having its own amount of delay.

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401,for time-delay circuits for controlling a switching or powering operation having plural switching elements.
403,for gating of plural parallel controlled signal paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 270]    270Variable or adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Subject matter wherein the multiple delay intervals are either (a) continuously changing or (b) changeable, automatically or in response to an operator.

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237,for variable or adjustable phase shift control.
276,for output waveform production delay where a single output has variable or adjustable delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 271]    271Including delay line or charge transfer device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Subject matter wherein at least one time interval is derived from the time of propagation of a signal through a transmission line type means (e.g., shift register, cascade-connected nonlinear amplifier stages, charge transfer element, etc.).

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277,for a delay line type structure within a single output circuit having variable or selectable delay intervals.
284,for a delay line structure or charge transfer device which is utilized in output waveform production delay.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 61 for logic circuits using an insulated gate charge transfer device.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 272]    272Having specific active circuit element or structure (e.g., FET, complementary transistors, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Subject matter including a particular circuit element or structure requiring an external power supply other than the main input signal for its operation and which produces some dynamic function change (e.g., amplification) of the applied input electrical signal basic characteristic.
(1) Note. Examples of active circuit elements are transistors, tunnel diodes, SCRs, or ICs.

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264,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
268,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
278,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
283,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
285,for an active circuit element or structure for output waveform production delay.
290,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 273]    273With counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein a circuit is included which totals input pulses to produce an output signal each time it receives a predetermined number of input pulses.

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241,for a variable or adjustable phase shift using a counter or shift register.
265,for a counter in an active element or structure wherein output waveform production delay is effected by the rising or falling edge of an input.
279,for a counter in an active element or structure of a single output environment having a variable or selectable delay.
286,for a counter with an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for counters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 274]    274Differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter including a circuit which amplifies only the differences between two input signal voltages or currents and suppresses voltages or currents appearing simultaneously on both inputs.

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246+,for variable or adjustable phase shift control using a differential amplifier.
266,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay via the rising or falling edge of a pulse signal.
280,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of a single output with variable or selectable delay.
287,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 275]    275Electron tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter including a gas filled or partially or fully evacuated (vacuum) device which regulates current flow between spaced electrodes.

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267,for the use of an electron tube within an active circuit element or structure to control the output waveform production delay via the rising or falling edge of an input pulse.
282,for output waveform production delay using an electron tube within an active circuit element or structure having a single output with variable or selectable delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 276]    276Single output with variable or selectable delay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter including one output where the delay time is adjustable or may be chosen from multiple possibilities.

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237,for variable or adjustable phase shift control.
270,for multiple outputs which have a plurality of variable or adjustable delay intervals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 277]    277Including delay line or charge transfer device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein the delay interval is derived from the time of propagation of a signal through a transmission line type means (e.g., shift register, cascade-connected nonlinear amplifier stages, charge transfer element, etc.).

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271,for a delay line type structure within an output waveform production delay circuit having multiple outputs and a plurality of delay intervals.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 61 for logic circuits using an insulated gate charge transfer device.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 278]    278Having specific active circuit element or structure (e.g., complementary transistors, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter including a particular circuit element or structure requiring an external power supply other than the main input signal for its operation and which produces some dynamic function change (e.g., amplification) of the applied input electrical signal basic characteristic.
(1) Note. Examples of active circuit elements are transistors, tunnel diodes, SCRs, or ICs.

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264,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
268,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
272,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
283,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
285,for an active circuit element or structure for output waveform production delay.
290,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 279]    279With counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter wherein a circuit is included which totals input pulses to produce an output signal each time it receives a predetermined number of input pulses.

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241,for a variable or adjustable phase shift using a counter or shift register.
265,for a counter in an active element or structure wherein output waveform production delay is effected by the rising or falling edge of an input.
273,for a counter in an active element or structure of a multiple output, plural delay interval environment.
286,for a counter with an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for counters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 280]    280Differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter including a circuit which amplifies only the differences between two input signal voltages or currents and suppresses voltages or currents appearing simultaneously on both inputs.

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246+,for variable or adjustable phase shift control using differential amplifier.
266,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay via the rising or falling edge of a pulse signal.
274,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
287,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay.

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330Amplifiers,   for electrical amplifiers, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 281]    281Field-effect transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter including a unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electrical field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode (gate).
(1) Note. In a unipolar transistor, the source to drain current involves only one type of charge carrier (i.e., holes in a p-type material channel and electrons in an n-type material channel.
(2) Note. Two types of FET structures are prevalent: (a) an all-junction device, known as a junction FET or JFET characterized by having heavily doped impurity regions of one type (e.g., p-type material), known as gate regions, on both sides of a second type semiconductor bar (e.g., n+ type material) to form a pn junction, and (b) a device such as a MOSFET/IGFET, consisting of a lightly doped substrate (e.g., p-type material) into which two highly doped regions (e.g., n+ type material) are diffused for forming source/drain regions with the area therebetween becoming the channel for current carriers (i.e., holes or electrons) and with a layer of insulating material (e.g., SiO2) grown over the channel surface for separating the channel from a control (i.e., gate) electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 282]    282Electron tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter including a gas filled, or partially or fully evacuated (vacuum) device which regulates current flow between spaced electrodes.

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267,for the use of an electron tube within an active circuit element or structure to control the output waveform production delay via the rising or falling edge of the input pulse.
275,for output waveform production delay using an electron tube within an active circuit element or structure having multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 283]    283Having specific passive circuit element or structure (e.g., RLC circuit, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein a circuit element or structure is powered only by an input signal, without any bias voltage and produces a desired modification on the input signal without adding any amplification or gain (i.e., it presents some loss to a system).
(1) Note. Examples of passive devices are capacitors, resistors, and inductors.

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264,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
268,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
272,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
278,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
285,for an active circuit element or structure for output waveform production delay.
290,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 284]    284Including delay line or charge transfer device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein the time interval is derived from the time of propagation of a signal through a transmission line type means (e.g., shift register, cascade-connected nonlinear amplifier stages, charge transfer element, etc.).
(1) Note. Passive delay lines are included in this subclass.

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182,and 183, for pulse generators utilizing passive delay lines.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 61 for logic circuits using an insulated gate charge transfer device and subclasses 93+ for logic function circuits including one or more stages clocked synchronously for transmitting signals.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 138+ for passive delay networks, per se.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclass 76 for recirculating storage systems including delay lines.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclasses 64+ for shift registers, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 285]    285Having specific active circuit element or structure (e.g., complementary transistors, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter including a particular circuit element or structure requiring an external power supply other than the main input signal for its operation and which produces some dynamic function change (e.g., amplification) of the applied input electrical signal basic characteristic.
(1) Note. Examples of active circuit elements are transistors, tunnel diodes, or SCR"s.

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264,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
272,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
268,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
278,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
283,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
290,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 286]    286With counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein a circuit is included which totals input pulses to produce an output signal each time it receives a predetermined number of input pulses.

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241,for a variable or adjustable phase shift using a counter or shift register.
265,for a counter in an active element or structure wherein output waveform production delay is effected by the rising or falling edge of an input signal.
273,for a counter in an active element or structure of a multiple output, plural delay environment.
279,for a counter in an active element or structure of a single output environment having a variable or selectable delay.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for counters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 287]    287Differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter including a circuit which amplifies only the differences between two input voltages or currents and suppresses voltages or currents appearing simultaneously on both inputs.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

246+,for variable or adjustable phase shift control using a differential amplifier.
266,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay via the rising or falling edge of a pulse signal.
274,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
280,for a differential amplifier in an active circuit element or structure to effect output waveform production delay of a single output with variable or selectable delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 288]    288Field-effect transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter including a unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electrical field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode (gate).
(1) Note. In a unipolar transistor, the source to drain current involves only one type of charge carrier (i.e., holes in a p-type material channel and electrons in an n-type material channel.
(2) Note. Two types of FET structures are prevalent: (a) an all-junction device, known as a junction FET or JFET characterized by having heavily doped impurity regions of one type (e.g., p-type material), known as gate regions, on both sides of a second type semiconductor bar (e.g., n+ type material) to form a pn junction, and (b) a device such as a MOSFET/IGFET, consisting of a lightly doped substrate (e.g., p-type material) into which two highly doped regions (e.g., n+ type material) are diffused for forming source/drain regions with the area therebetween becoming the channel for current carriers (i.e., holes or electrons) and with a layer of insulating material (e.g., SiO2) grown over the channel surface for separating the channel from a control (i.e., gate) electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 289]    289Electron tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter including a gas filled or partially or fully evacuated (vacuum) device which regulates current flow between spaced electrodes.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 138+ for passive delay networks.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 290]    290Having specific passive circuit element or structure (e.g., RLC circuit, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein a circuit element or structure is powered only by an input signal, without any bias voltage, and produces a desired modification on the input signal without adding any amplification or gain (i.e., it presents some loss to a system).
(1) Note. Examples of passive devices are capacitors, resistors, and inductors.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

264,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
268,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay wherein the delay interval is set by the rising or falling of an input pulse.
272,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with multiple outputs with a plurality of delay intervals.
278,for an active circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
283,for a passive circuit element or structure in output waveform production delay with a single output with a variable or selectable delay.
285,for an active circuit element or structure for output waveform production delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 291]    291Clock or pulse waveform generating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein an output waveshape is produced which exhibits two distinct amplitude levels and where the transition therebetween is rapid.
(1) Note. The systems contained in this subclass and the indented subclasses are very similar to those found in Class 331, Oscillators; the distinction being that the systems in Class 331 are self sustaining or free running while those in this class are not capable of self-sustained continuous operation.
(2) Note. Bias circuits of the pulsing type which establish device operating points are classified with the bias circuits.

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104,for systems which convert AC to corresponding DC at an unloaded output.
185+,for stable state circuits (e.g., mono­ stable or bistable) which may provide a pulse.
309+,for systems wherein the output represents the input waveform with the peaks thereof clipped or limited between certain levels.
336+,for integrating networks.
544,for circuits with power conservation or pulse type source of supply or bias.
554,for a switched capacitor filter having an input which accepts a clock signal.

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128Surgery,   subclasses 419+ for systems wherein an alternating current is converted to pulses of energy for application to the human body.
178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclasses for pulse producing systems wherein the pulses are representative of a telegraph code, particularly subclasses 17+ for such systems where a perforated tape or other automatic device controls the production of the pulses, subclasses 2+ for systems where a keyboard is used to produce the pulses.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 106+ for class appropriate waveform or wave shape determinative or pulse producing systems and subclasses 401+ for nonlinear reactor systems.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 137+ for polyphase AC supply and subclasses 246+ for gaseous tube systems with pulsating or AC supply.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 119 for measuring systems involving rectification.
331Oscillators,   appropriate subclasses, for self-sustained generators, particularly subclasses 20+ for TV oscillators with automatic frequency stabilization, subclass 61 for oscillators with plural outputs of diverse waveforms, subclass 75 for oscillators combined with wave shaping networks in the output circuit, subclass 87 for magnetron type oscillators with pulse forming means in the control circuit thereof, subclasses 143+ for pulse forming networks of the relaxation oscillators type, subclasses 165+ for shock excited resonant circuit with pulse type keying, and subclasses 172+ for synchronizing, triggering, or pulsing circuits for oscillators.
332Modulators,   subclasses 106+ for pulse modulators where the nature of the pulses is varied in an arbitrary manner.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 20 for wave shaping systems utilizing a passive element.
340Communications: Electrical,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 12.1 through 13.38for pulse responsive selective systems; subclasses 287-309 for electric signaling system with transmission of a train of pulse signals; and subclasses 870.19-870.24 for pulse modulation telemetering systems.
341Code Data Generation or Conversion,   subclasses 20+ and 173+ for a pulse code transmitter, and subclasses 50+ for digital to digital code converters.
342Communications, Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   appropriate subclasses for pulse reflected wave systems, particularly subclasses 118+ and 147+ for radar type systems involving pulse generating for determining distance or direction.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 182+ for single and plural relays which are frequency responsive, subclass 185 for phase responsive relays, and subclass 186 for pulse responsive relays.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 13+ for current conversion (i.e., rectification or derectification) systems.
370Multiplex Communications,   subclasses 205 , 212, and 213 for transmitting different messages involving pulse modulation.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 37 for miscellaneous telegraph systems using pulsating currents and subclasses 59+ for transmitters with pulse production.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclass 104 for X-ray electrical systms utilizing rectifying means with AC or pulsating supply.
379Telephonic Communication,   appropriate subclasses for telephone pulse producing systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 292]    292Clock fault compensation or redundant clocks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter wherein clock accuracy is ensured by correcting for anticipated or actual clock errors.
(1) Note. This may be achieved by providing multiple clocks which can, if necessary, be substituted for a defective clock.

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526,for miscellaneous redundant circuits.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 10+ for redundant logic circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 293]    293With plural paths in network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter including multiple channels between a signal input terminal and one or more output terminals.

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38,69+, 293, 407+, and 415+, for other systems with plural paths or channels therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 294]    294With common output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter wherein the output of each of the plural paths or channels is fed to a common final output point.

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370Multiplex Communications,   appropriate subclasses for similar subject matter used with multiplexing.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 295]    295Plural outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter wherein multiple separate output waveforms are produced and appear at respective output terminals.
(1) Note. The separate outputs may be of similar or diverse wave shape or sign.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 296]    296Plural clock outputs with multiple inputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Subject matter wherein multiple clock waveforms are derived at circuit outputs from plural clock inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 297]    297Clock bus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Subject matter wherein the clock is applied to a distribution network which distributes a plural series of precisely timed, repetitive voltage pulses to plural devices.

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293+,for clock generators having plural paths.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 86 for bus current driving in a logic circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 298]    298Single clock output with multiple inputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter wherein plural inputs are utilized to produce the single clock output.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 299]    299Single clock output with single clock or data input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter wherein one series of precisely timed, repetitive voltage pulses of fixed frequency and amplitude or a signal containing information is the sole input for creating a single clock output.

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295+,for plural output clock generating.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 300]    300With saturable inductance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter including a magnetic core reactor having reactance modified by varying the core saturation through a superimposed unidirectional flux.

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181,for pulse generating systems comprising electromagnetic pulse forming.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 401+ for nonlinear reactor, (e.g., inductor) systems, in general.
330Amplifiers,   subclass 8 for magnetic amplifiers involving saturable core devices.
336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for structural details of induction devices and particularly subclasses 155+ for saturable type inductors.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 301]    301With electron beam type tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter including at least one electron space discharge device whose performance depends upon the formation and control of one or more rays of elemental negatively charged particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 302]    302With storage diode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter which incorporates a two-terminal semiconductive device having minority carriers which accumulate at a pn junction when the diode is forward biased and which are suddenly swept away after back biasing increases to a certain point.

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194,for stable state circuits utilizing capacitive diodes.
586,for capacitive diode circuits, in general.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 595+ for voltage variable capacitance diodes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 303]    303With rectifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter including a device transforming an AC signal to a corresponding DC signal by a device permitting only unidirectional current flow.

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28+,for systems for determining or selecting desired pulses from a group of pulses by polarity and in which a rectifier may be utilized.
104,for systems for converting from an AC input to a corresponding DC voltage at an unloaded output and see the search notes thereunder.
336,for integrating networks in which a rectifier may be utilized.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 107 for pulse producing systems of the passive type and utilizing rectification or derectification.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 200+ for discharge devices or rectifiers in the supply circuit for gaseous tubes and subclass 272 for pulsating or AC supply systems for gaseous tubes and including a rectifier in the control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 304]    304With inductive device (e.g., transformer, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter which includes an element which has the property of opposing current flow therethrough due to a resultant magnetic field.

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336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for generic inductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 305]    305With gas tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter which incorporates an electron discharge device where a small amount of gas is ionized to permit current flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 306]    306Amplitude control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude of an input signal waveform is modified, maintained, or regulated to produce the desired output signal.

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50+,for voltage signal amplitude comparison (e.g., amplitude responsive pulse selecting systems).
90,for systems wherein the output is a function of the amplitude difference of two points on a wave.
178,for amplitude control systems of a pulse or rectangular wave output.
335,for differentiating networks.
336+,for integrating networks.
356+,for the recited algebraic product of two input signals which may be analogous to gain control circuits.
551+,for unwanted signal suppression and particularly subclasses 552+ for such signal suppression provided by an active filter.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 234+ for a power supply which is output level responsive.
330Amplifiers,   subclasses 96 , 123, 127+, and 278+ for automatic signal level control or for amplitude limiting of amplifier power supplies.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 182+ for amplitude control of oscillator output.
332Modulators,   subclasses 149+ for amplitude modulation systems.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 14 for amplitude compression and expansion systems (i.e., companders) and subclasses 15, 16, 17.1+, and 81+ for passive element attenuator systems for controlling signal amplitude.
348Television,   subclasses 571+ for amplitude control used in television receivers.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 234+ for automatic volume control systems used in radio receivers.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 307]    307Baseline or DC offset correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the drift of a reference direct current component of a signal is compensated.

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165+,for rectangular or pulse waveform regeneration.
178+,for rectangular or pulse waveform amplitude control.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 308]    308Variable attenuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein an input signal amplitude is diminished by an adjustable but typically unchanging factor.

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330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses for amplifying circuits, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 309]    309By limiting, clipping, or clamping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein (a) the output signal amplitude is constrained by a maximum allowed level, a minimum allowed level or both or (b) the upper or lower amplitude extreme of the output signal is maintained at a particular level.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 234+ for a power supply which is output level responsive.
330Amplifiers,   subclasses 96 , 123, 127+, and 278+ for automatic signal level and gain control or amplitude limiting of amplifier power supplies.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 182+ for amplitude control of oscillator output.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 14 for amplitude compression and expansion systems (i.e., companders); and subclasses 15, 16, 17.1+, and 81+ for passive element attenuator systems which control signal amplitude.
348Television,   subclasses 571+ for amplitude control such as limiting or clamping in a television receiver.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 34 , 60, and 99+ for noise reduction in pulse code modulation, transmitters, and receivers and subclass 98 for automatic gain control in receivers.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 218+ , 278+, 296+, and 501+ for noise or interference elimination in analog communication and subclasses 234+ for attenuators and automatic gain control circuits in receiver or analog modulated frequency converters.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 310]    310Transient or signal noise reduction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein the limiting, clipping, or clamping lessens or eliminates an intermittent spuriously generated component from a signal.
(1) Note. Recited noise override of the type associated with gating or switching is classified with the gating or switching area below.

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379+,for gating circuits having improvement of signal transmission integrity or spurious noise override.
551+,for miscellaneous unwanted signal suppression.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 21+ for signal sensitivity enhancement or signal transmission integrity in digital logic.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 110 and 111 for transient protection in systems or devices.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 34 , 51, 57, 58, 60, and 99+ for noise reduction in pulse code modulated systems, systems using pulsating current, pulse transmitters, AC or pulse systems or receivers.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 13 , 83, 93, and 94.1+ for noise or feedback suppression in audio systems.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 63.1 through 65, 114.1-114.3, 218-225, 278.1-279.1, 283-288, 296-312, and subclasses 501-506 for noise or interference elimination in analog communication systems (e.g., transmitter and receiver at separate stations or transceivers, etc.).
704Data Processing: Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, and Audio Compression/Decompression,   subclass 233 for detection of speech in noise.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclasses 761 through 763+, 781 and 788 for correcting digital data errors caused by random or burst noise signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 311]    311By filtering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein the limiting, clipping or clamping of a signal transient is provided by a circuit which offers little opposition to some frequencies or DC while blocking or attenuating other frequencies.

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329,for tuned circuit limiters.
552+,for miscellaneous active filters which suppress an unwanted signal.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 105 for harmonic filters and neutralizers other than nonlinear active device types.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 17.1+ through 20 for filters (usually passive) for controlling amplitude, impedance matching, and wave shaping; subclasses 24+ for passive wave filters; and subclasses 213+ for active devices determining passive filter characteristics.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 103 for filtering in receivers.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 296+ and 339 for noise or interference elimination and for filter coupling or decoupling of stages in receiver or analog modulated signal frequency converter systems.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 300+ for digital filters and subclass 819 for filtering by an analog computer.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 312]    312By feedback limiting-clamping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein transient or signal noise reduction is performed in a return path between an output terminal and an input terminal.

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316,for feedback circuits to maintain a constant input-output ratio relationship.
323,for feedback limiting-clamping circuits, in general.
332,for amplitude output level control with feedback.

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330Amplifiers,   subclasses 75+ , 156, 258, 260, 265, 270, 271, 282, 290, and 291+ for amplifiers with linear feedback.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 313]    313Using 3 or more terminal type nonlinear devices only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein the circuit includes one or more elements having an output which is not in direct proportion to its input and having more than two electrodes as the only type of active element.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 314]    314Using diode type nonlinear devices only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein the circuit includes one or more two-terminal unidirectionally conductive devices as the only type of active element.

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312,for feedback controlled limiting-clamping.
318+,for diode limiting, clipping, or clamping in the input or output circuits.
323,for Schottky barrier feedback limiting-clamping circuits.
325,for limiting, clipping, or clamping in general which utilizes only diode devices.
583,for miscellaneous solid-state diode circuits.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 130+ and 133+ for diode logic circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 315]    315Providing constant input/output amplitude level ratio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter including maintenance of the ratio of the input to output signal magnitudes to a fixed value.

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331+,for amplitude control circuits which maintain a constant level output.

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330Amplifiers,   subclasses 278+ for linear amplifier automatic signal level and gain control and subclasses 96 and 123 for amplitude limiting of amplifier power supplies in linear systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 316]    316By feedback control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein a circuit is controlled by a signal returned along a path between an output terminal and an input terminal.

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312,for feedback limiting-clamping circuit for reducing unwanted noise signals.
323,for feedback limiting-clamping circuits, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 317]    317Distortion compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein an undesired waveform modification is corrected or reduced by imposing amplitude constraints on the waveform.

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133,for distortion control in a sawtooth or triangular waveform.
165+,for regenerating or restoring a rectangular waveform.
551+,for miscellaneous unwanted signal suppression.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 318]    318In input or output circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein the limiting, clipping, or clamping device is a component of either a signal insertion or extraction point of a circuit.

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309+,for limiting, clipping, or clamping to control output wave shape characteristics, generally.
310+,for limiting, clipping, or clamping to remove unwanted noise signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 319]    319For interstage coupling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 318.  Subject matter wherein the limiting, clipping, or clamping permits the joining of two or more circuit sections together.

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333,for miscellaneous interstage coupling.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclass 62 for interface circuits for logic functions, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 320]    320Using diode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter including one or more two-terminal unidirectionally conductive devices.

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314,for diodes used in shunt-type limiting, clipping, or clamping for reducing unwanted noise signals.
325+,for limiting, clipping, or clamping circuits, per se, which utilize only diodes.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for diverse types of diodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 321]    321Clamping of output to voltage level:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 318.  Subject matter wherein the maximum or minimum value of an output signal is held to a particular voltage level.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 322]    322Of output current:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 318.  Subject matter including apparatus which regulates the value of the current in the output.

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540+,for current regulating in a miscellaneous circuit having a specific source of power supply or bias voltage.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 323]    323Feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein a limiting, clipping, or clamping structure is in a return path between an output terminal and an input terminal.

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312,for feedback limiting, clipping, or clamping in reducing unwanted noise signals.
316,for feedback circuits to maintain a constant input-output ratio relationship.
332,for constant output amplitude control with feedback.

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330Amplifiers,   subclasses 75+ , 156, and 282+ for linear feedback amplifiers.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 324]    324By using diverse-type nonlinear devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein plural, unlike-in-kind, nonlinear devices are utilized.

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310+,for diverse-type limiting, clipping, or clamping to reduce unwanted noise signals.
318+,for diverse-type limiting, clipping, or clamping in either the input or output circuit.

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330Amplifiers,   subclass 299 for combined diverse-type linear gain semiconductor devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 325]    325Using only diode active elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein the limiting, clipping, or clamping utilizes a two-terminal unidirectionally conductive device as the sole active circuit device.

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314,for diode shunt-type limiting, clipping, or clamping to reduce unwanted noise signals.
318+,for diode limiting, clipping, or clamping in the input or output circuits.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistor, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for diverse types of diodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 326]    326Avalanche or negative resistance device (e.g., zener diode, tunnel diode, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the diode elements exhibits a sharp increase of current flow with increasing reverse bias applied thereto or has an IV characteristic with a portion where an increase in applied voltage results in a decrease of current therethrough.

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310+,for negative resistance device limiting, clipping, or clamping which reduce transient noise signals.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistor, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for solid-state devices, per se, and particularly subclasses 603+ for avalanche diodes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 327]    327Using only transistor active elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein the limiting, clipping, or clamping utilizes a three or more terminal solid-state device as the sole active circuit device type.

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310+,for limiting, clipping, or clamping to reduce unwanted noise signals.
315+,for circuits providing constant input-output ratio level.
574+,for special three or more electrode solid-state devices and circuits, per se.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for solid-state devices, per se.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for transistor logic circuit arrangements.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 328]    328Field-effect type device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Subject matter which includes a unipolar transistor in which current carriers are injected at a source terminal and pass to a drain terminal through a channel of semiconductor material whose conductivity depends largely on an electrical field applied to the semiconductor from a control electrode (gate).
(1) Note. In a unipolar transistor, the source to drain current involves only one type of charge carrier (i.e., holes in a p-type channel and electrons in an n-type channel).
(2) Note. Two types of FET structures are prevalent: (a) an all-junction device, known as a junction FET or JFET characterized by having heavily doped impurity regions of one type (e.g., p-type material), known as gate regions, on both sides of a second type semiconductor bar (e.g., n+ type material) to form a pn junction, and (b) a device such as a MOSFET/IGFET, consisting of a lightly doped substrate (e.g., p-type material) into which two highly doped regions (e.g., n+ type material) are diffused for forming source/drain regions with the area therebetween becoming the channel for current carriers (i.e., holes or electrons) and with a layer of insulating material (e.g., SiO2) grown over the channel surface for separating the channel from a control (i.e., gate) electrode.

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51+,for a sensing amplifier which may utilize an FET bistable circuit.
310+,for controlled shunt-type limiting, clipping, or clamping with one or more field-effect transistor devices to reduce unwanted noise signals.
581,for field-effect device circuits, per se.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 213+ for field-effect devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 329]    329With tuned circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter including an inductive/capacitive network having a particular resonant frequency.

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532,for power or bias supply systems with a wave filter.

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334Tuners,   appropriate subclasses for radio wave tuning circuitry and devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 330]    330With rectifier or nonlinear impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter including a device converting alternating current to direct current or an impedance where the voltage to current ratio is not directly related.

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104,and 531, for systems with detector or rectifier.

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363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 13+ for electrical power conversion rectifiers or inverters.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 331]    331Maintaining constant level output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude of an output waveform is kept at a fixed level independently of the amplitude of the input waveform.

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315+,for a circuit providing constant input/output amplitude level ratio.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 332]    332With feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Subject matter wherein a correction voltage is returned from an output circuit to a control electrode in the input.

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131,for systems utilizing cathode feedback.
185,and 590+, for tube systems with feedback.

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330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 75+ , 156, 258, 260, 265, 270, 271, 282, 290, and 291+ for amplifiers with linear feedback.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 333]    333Interstage coupling (e.g., level shift, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein interconnection of two diverse circuits having different ranges of acceptable signal values is made possible.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   subclasses 62+ for logic interface circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 334]    334SPECIFIC INPUT TO OUTPUT FUNCTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein an output is proportional to a nonlinear mathematical expression of an input signal.
(1) Note. Characteristically the input signal is continuous and slowly varying with the output signal usually bearing a mathematical relationship to it.
(2) Note. Boolean algebra functions and linear amplifiers are excluded from this subclass.
(3) Note. The input signals in this subclass do not contain information (data) of any kind. For data processing, see Search Class below.

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1+,for discriminating systems.
560,for nonlinear amplifying circuits.

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326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   appropriate subclasses for Boolean algebra functions.
330Amplifiers,   subclasses 250+ for semiconductor linear amplifiers, per se.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclasses 138+ for nonlinear analog to digital conversion.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 200+ for digital computation and subclasses 801+ for analog computation.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 335]    335By differentiating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is proportional to the instantaneous rate of change of the input signal.

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1+,for signal discriminating (e.g., comparing or selecting) without subsequent control and particularly subclasses 14+ for signal slope comparing or selecting.
336+,for signal integrating.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclass 443 for a digital computer adapted to perform a differentiation on an input and subclass 822 for an analog computer adapted to perform a differentiation on an input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 336]    336By integrating:
 Subject matter under 334 wherein the output signal is proportional to a time integral function of the input signal.

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14+,for systems wherein the rate of change of an input signal is detected.
100+,for wave conversion or shaping systems which may include differentiating or integrating means.
131+,for systems producing a sawtooth output utilizing integration or differentiation.
335,for input signal differentiation.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 141 , 456+, 609+, 621+, and 702 for a motor control network involving differentiation or integration.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 212 through 219for miscellaneous phase control networks which involve differentiating or integrating networks.
331Oscillators,   subclass 17 for systems with means for the automatic frequency control of an oscillator and involving integrating networks.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 19 for a passive network performing differentiation or integration and being of general utility.
388Electricity: Motor Control Systems,   cross-reference art collections 900+ for motor control systems including integration circuits.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 823+ for an analog computer adapted to perform an integration function.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 337]    337Having switched capacitance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter wherein the time integral function is determined by a particular capacitor arrangement which is variable dependent upon a connect/disconnect path.

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365+,for gating of an input signal between input and output.
554,for an adjustable filter utilizing a switched capacitive arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 338]    338With thermionic tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter including an electron tube which ejects electrons by elevating the temperature of the tube cathode.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 339]    339With summing or counting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter wherein (a) a signal is produced that represents a weighted sum of the input signal or (b) a device is incremented or decremented at discrete intervals upon receipt of the input signal.

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361,for miscellaneous summing circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 340]    340Single vacuum tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter including only one device with sealed envelope which controls the flow of electrons between spaced electrodes through a fully or partially evacuated space.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 341]    341With compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter wherein an integration circuit is maintained in its normal operating state or offsets any undesirable changes in its circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 342]    342With transducer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter including a device that converts energy forms (other than electrical) into an electrical energy signal.
(1) Note. The other energy forms may be mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, chemical, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 343]    343With rectifier circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter including a device that converts alternating current to direct current.
(1) Note. A rectifier circuit may be used prior to integrating the input signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 344]    344Including RC circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter including a particular arrangement of capacitance and resistance.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 345]    345Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.
(1) Note. The feedback may be used to adjust the time constant of the time integral function.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 346]    346Exponential:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is proportional to an input signal that is raised to a particular algebraic power.

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350+,for logarithmic functions.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 347]    347Square root:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 346.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is proportional to the input signal raised to the power of one half.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 348]    348RMS:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is proportional to the square root of the average of the squares of the input signal taken throughout one period.
(1) Note. For example, in a sine wave, this value is 0.707 times the peak value of the input waveform.

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104,for conversion of an AC signal to a corresponding DC signal at an unloaded output.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 349]    349Square function:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 346.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is proportional to the input signal raised to the power of two or a multiple of two.

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356+,for the determination of the product of two inputs, in general.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclass 606 and 808 for the evaluation of powers by a digital or analog electrical calculating computer, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 350]    350Logarithmic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.  Subject matter wherein the output signal is proportional to an inverse exponential function of the input signal.
(1) Note. Function generators for producing internal logarithmic functions in analog computers are found elsewhere.

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346,for producing exponential functions.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 805 for selective visual display systems having specified waveform generators coupled to a display.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 512 and 517 for digital computer manipulation of operands having a logarithmic format and subclass 851 for analog computer generated logarithmic function signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 351]    351With cascade network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter including an arrangement of two or more similar circuits or stages in which an output of one circuit provides an input to the next circuit.
(1) Note. Function generators for producing internal logarithmic functions in analog computers are found elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 352]    352With summing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is produced that represents the algebraic sum of applied input signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 353]    353With vacuum tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter including a device with sealed envelope which controls the flow of electrons between spaced electrodes through a fully or partially evacuated space.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 354]    354Absolute value:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.  Subject matter wherein an output signal is proportional to the negative of an input signal, if the input signal is negative, and is proportional to an input signal, if the input signal is positive.
(1) Note. Usually, the output to input magnitude ratio is unity.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 355]    355Combining of plural signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.  Subject matter wherein the output is a resultant function of mathematically operating on two or more input signals.

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3+,for systems wherein the output is a function of phase difference of plural input waves.
40+,for systems wherein the output is a function of frequency difference of plural input waves.
105+,for conversion systems for synthesizing a complex wave from a plurality of waves.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 140+ for electricity measuring and testing systems which contain plural inputs (e.g., summation, ratio).
348Television,   subclasses 659+ for television matrixing systems.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 670+ for apparatus which performs a complete addition.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 356]    356Product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 355.  Subject matter wherein the output signal represents an analog multiplication of plural input signals.

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113+,for frequency control including frequency multiplication.
178+,for pulse waveform amplitude (e.g., gain) control.
306+,for miscellaneous waveform amplitude (e.g., gain) control.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 620+ for digital computer multipliers and subclasses 835+ for analog computer multipliers.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 357]    357Quadrant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 356.  Subject matter wherein the output signal represents an analog multiplication performed on input signals having positive or negative polarities.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 358]    358Having feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 356.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the output signal is returned to an input.
  
[List of Patents for class 327 subclass 359]    359Differential amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 356.  Subject matter wherein a circuit amplifies only the differences between the two input signals and suppresses the input signals when they have identical signals.