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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 156]   CLASS 156,ADHESIVE BONDING AND MISCELLANEOUS CHEMICAL MANUFACTURE
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the generic class for:

1. Manufacturing processes and apparatus including a step of adhesively bonding parts together utilizing a nonmetallic cement or assembly of parts for adhesive bonding of that type.

2. The manufacture of articles of commerce in which one of the manufacturing steps includes a chemical reaction.

3. The manufacture of panels from settable inorganic compositions having adhered facing sheets (e.g., plaster board). See Subclass References To The Current Class for these processes and apparatus. The subclasses referenced therein should be examined for the precise limits of the subject matter provided for and for additional fields of search.

4. The manufacture of electrical conductors of indefinite length where not elsewhere provided for. See Subclass References To The Current Class for these processes. The subclasses referenced therein and notes thereto should be consulted for the precise limits of the subject matter there provided for.

Miscellaneous Subject Matter Also Provided For

1. This class includes several subclasses relating to the manufacture of simulations or representations, that is articles which give the appearance of being a specific object without in fact being that object. Also provided is a subclass relating to the preparation of products of nature for display in their natural form. This class also includes processes not elsewhere provided for in which is recited a step of free hand drawing or shaping to produce an ornamental form. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below, for specific cites. The subclass definitions for all the above areas should be inspected and especially the notes thereto for the lines between these specific subclasses and other classes.

2. Apparatus for performing shaping operations, per se, on dry paper or paperlike materials are provided for in this class. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below, for specific cites. The lines with various classes and analogous search fields are set out in the subclasses mentioned there.

3. Delaminating. This class provides for the separation of a bonded joint by destroying the bond and separating the parts. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below, for subclasses for methods for delaminating and corresponding apparatus.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

SPECIAL LINES WITH CLASS 29, METAL WORKING

Class 29 has several important relationships with this class (156). Both classes take designated single-step processes, and both are locations for multistep processes for manufacturing designated products or using certain combinations of steps.

Single-step processes provided for in Class 29 include shaping particulate metal by pressure alone, burnishing, filing, mechanical joining of parts, etc., even when used in the manufacture of a product designated for Class 156, in section I, above. Likewise, where only an adhesive bonding step is claimed, the process is assigned to Class 156, even though a product designated for Class 29 is manufactured.

Multistep processes for Class 29 are of two types: (1) Those for making specified articles, enumerated in that part of the Class 29 subclass 401.1. (2) Multistep manufacturing processes not provided for elsewhere.

Insofar as processes of type (1) are concerned, these are assigned to Class 29, even when an adhesive bonding step is claimed as part of the multistep process, except for processes classifiable in subclasses 825+, which follows the category (2) rule given in the next paragraph.

Processes of type (2) are provided for in this class (156) when they claim: (a) Adhesive bonding combined with shaping of nonmetals. (b) Adhesive bonding combined with broad or nominally claimed metal shaping steps. (c) Adhesive bonding including steps for assembling the parts to be bonded.

Processes of type (2) are classified in Class 29 when they claim: (a) Adhesive bonding combined with specified metal shaping steps. (b) Adhesive bonding combined with mechanical joining, either broad or specific.

A. Bonding And/Or Assembly Therefor.

1. This class provides for the adhesive securing of parts utilizing nonmetallic cementing media. The adhesive may be separately applied tacky material, or it may be a nontacky material on application that is subsequently activated. The parts joined may be inherently tacky without the addition of an adhesive or may be rendered tacky by the application of an activating material or agent.

2. This class provides for process for assembling adhesive coated or tacky parts even though the step of applying the adhesive may not be claimed. Assembly or association of articles for subsequent bonding or adhesive applying where the subsequent bonding is not claimed is generally not provided for in this class. Any step in addition to the assembly, however, which might be considered to be unique to adhesive bonding is sufficient to cause the patent to be classified in this class.

3. This class provides for apparatus for assembling and joining of parts. Generally it is required that the apparatus include means to bring the parts into assembled association and that the parts have adhesive applied to them or means be claimed to apply adhesive or render the parts adhesive. This class generally does not provide for apparatus for bringing parts together for subsequent adhesive application where such application is not claimed. Appropriate classes are listed in References to Other Classes, below. Class 29, Metal Working, especially provides for such devices.

B. Laminating Combined With Other Operations

1. This class provides for the combination of laminating with other working steps, however other classes provide for laminating for the manufacture of specific articles, or particular operations combined with laminating steps. See References to Other Classes, below, referencing this section.

C. Chemical Manufactures

1. Etching apparatus in general is provided for in Class 134, Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids, except apparatus for (a) applying etchant to a restricted portion of a product or (b) causing the etchant to be applied differently to different areas of the product Class 156 (subclasses 345.1-345.55). Attention is directed to the search notes of these subclasses for the locus of other art relating to this subject matter. Processes and apparatus for electrolytic etching are provided for in Class 204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy.

2. Class 430, Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof, Class 427, Coating Processes, and Class 264, Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes, generally provide for chemical reactions which take place during photos:graphic imaging, coating or molding steps, respectively. Where etching is employed merely to prepare a surface for some subsequent operation, e.g., coating, welding, etc., the patent to the combination is classified with the subsequent operation. Also, imaging or coating combined with subsequent chemical etching is provided for in Class 430 or 427, while molding combined with subsequent reactive gas or vapor treatment is provided for in Class 264.

3. Class 29, Metal Working, provides for its own operations when combined with a coating step or a molding step. See also "A. Bonding And/Or Assembly Therefor" above.

See References to Other Classes, below, referencing this section.

D. Single-crystal Growth

1. This subject matter is located in Class 117, Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor.

E. Products

This class does not provide for products of manufacture. Class 428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, in appropriate subclasses provides for the products resulting from the processes of this class where not elsewhere provided for. For the classification of other articles, attention is directed to the "Index to Classification".

LINE WITH CLASS 228 AND CLASS 219

See Class 228, Metal Fusion Bonding, appropriate subclasses for joining of parts by metallurgical bonding and also see Class 219, Electric Heating, for welding of metals by electric heating. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application)

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39+,and 346+ for, respectively, the apparatus and the processes for the manufacture of panels from settable inorganic compositions having adhered facing sheets (e.g., plaster board). The definitions and notes to these subclasses should be examined for the precise limits of the subject matter provided for and for additional fields of search.
47+,for processes of the manufacture of electrical conductors of indefinite length where not elsewhere provided for. The subclasses referenced therein and notes thereto should be consulted for the precise limits of the subject matter there provided for.
57,for preparation of products of nature for display in their natural form.
58,59, 61, for manufacture of simulations or representations, that is articles which give the appearance of being a specific object without in fact being that object ).
62,for processes not elsewhere provided for in which is recited a step of free hand drawing or shaping to produce an ornamental form.
585+,for apparatus for performing shaping operations, per se, on dry paper or paperlike materials. The lines with various classes and analogous search fields are set out in this subclass.
701through 719, for a delaminating process, per se.
750through 767, for apparatus for delaminating, per se.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

2Apparel,   subclasses 243+ for processes for making apparel including a cementing step combined with other apparel manufacturing steps. (See "Laminating combined with other operations" above).
7Compound Tools,   appropriate subclasses for laminating tools combined with other working devices. (See "Laminating combined with other operations" above)
12Boot and Shoe Making,   appropriate subclasses for shoe making including laminating. (see "Laminating combined with other operations" above).
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   appropriate subclasses, for laminating implements there provided for of the brush or wiper type. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclasses 105+ for tools of that class when combined with some other tool even though the Class 15 tool may be disclosed as having a laminating function. See "A. Bonding And/Or Assembly Therefor" above for the line between Class 15 and Class 156 as to tools, per se. (See "Laminating combined with other operations" above).
26Textiles: Cloth Finishing,   subclasses 3+ for cloth singeing and general textile cloth finishing. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
28Textiles: Manufacturing,   appropriate subclasses as the generic class for textile operations, and especially subclasses 167+ , 178+, 261, and 265+ for significantly claimed textile operations combined with steps of coating, dyeing or fluid treatment. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
28Textiles: Manufacturing,   subclasses 107+ for the formation of a textile product by mechanically interlocking or interengaging of threads, yarns, fibers or the like in a manner not provided for elsewhere, such as by needling.(for apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
29Metal Working,   subclasses 2 through 25.42,91 through 91.8, 592.1 through 623.5, and 825 through 899.1 for combined apparatus or processes for making specific articles set forth even though an adhesive bonding be claimed. This class (156) can provide for manufacture of these arti where a laminating step only is claimed. Subclasses 33 and 700 through 285.5 of Class 29 provide for assembly and shaping combined with other manufacturing means or steps. See subclasses 592.1 through 887 of Class 29 for the residual home for methods of making electrical devices and sub 729 through 761 for corresponding apparatus. See the Class Definition of this class (156) for those articles for which Class 156 is the resid manufacturing class.
43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   subclass 42.53 for combined processes for making artificial fishing lures or bait. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
51Abrasive Tool Making Process, Material, or Composition,   and especially subclass 297 for an abrasive tool making process which may involve a laminating step. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
51Abrasive Tool Making Process, Material, or Composition,   for a process for making an abrading tool and see especially the notes therein for the lines with other classes. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 746.1+ for a process involving erection or assembly of a building or building component involving more than merely adhering a preformed sheet form member to a surface. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
53Package Making,   appropriate subclasses for laminating operations, per se, peculiar to package making. That class provides for adhesively sealing a filled package where package handling means are claimed. Class 53 also provides for adhering encircling sealing strips ( subclass 137.2 ) which seal portions of cover, i.e., cover adjuncts. Partial cover application, such as cigar bands, for example, are provided for in Class 53, subclass 580, especially where the band is secured to itself. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
53Package Making,   appropriate subclasses for package making including a laminating step and see "A. Bonding And/Or Assembly Therefor" above for the line with Class 53. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   subclasses 3+ , 210, and 362 for covering or wrapping cores of indefinite length when including or followed by a twisting or twining operation. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 31 for a process involving a glassworking operation combined with an etching operation in any sequence. (see "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 36+ for a process of bonding glass by glassworking operation to a formed part, and see the line note in subclass 36; especially see subclasses 37+ for multi-focal lens making including fusion bonding, and see the line note in subclass 37; subclass 42 for a process of glassworking including bonding of a subassembly with subsequent assembly and bonding of formed parts only, and see the line note in subclass 42). (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application)
76Metal Tools and Implements, Making,   subclasses 101.1+ for metal tool and implement making processes which may involve a laminating step. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 450.1+ for apparatus for making a composite edible by laminating preforms. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
100Presses,   for press apparatus, per se, even where disclosed for performing a laminating function. That class (100) can take feeding of a previously associated sandwich into the press couple or removal of the sandwich from the couple. Mere heating in the press is also provided for in Class 100, subclasses 300+ as is means placing the material pressed under vacuum during pressing (subclass 90). This class (156) provides for pressing and for laminating not provided for in Class 100, i.e., (1) pressing combined with means peculiar to laminating or (2) presses modified uniquely for laminating. Under (1) above, means associating or assembling parts before pressing, for example, is in this class (156). In subclasses 580+ of this class may be found certain presses, per se, or platen structures modified for laminating. Thus, for example, under (2) above and in these subclasses may be found press platens having relieved areas whereby the pressed sandwich is bonded at spaced points, differentially heated platens to achieve the same effect. (for apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
101Printing,   appropriate subclasses provides for the transfer of sheet-like material onto a base where the transfer element is a printing member of the type provided for in that class. Die printing with gold leaf, for example, is provided for in that class (101) when a ribbon of leaf is used and a portion thereof is impressed and adhered onto the base by a printing member. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application)
101Printing,   subclass 463.1 , for processes for making printing plates and surfaces there provided for. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
114Ships,   subclass 86 for ship calking and seaming and subclass 224 for implements performing this function. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
118Coating Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for devices which only apply adhesive to parts previously associated. Any manipulation of the parts to facilitate lamination or manipulations peculiar to lamination are excluded from this class (118). Thus, for example, separating parts to insure flow of adhesive there between is provided for in Class 156. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
131Tobacco,   subclasses 290+ for tobacco treating processes. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
131Tobacco,   appropriate subclasses for cigar and cigarette making combined with laminating.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   for cleaning processes and especially subclass 2 and 3 for chemical bleaching, oxidation or reduction of a metallic, siliceous or calcareous base. That class (134) also provides for apparatus for contacting solid workpieces with an etchant fluid. Class 156 provides for etching apparatus in which the etchant has a differential effect on the work. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
144Woodworking,   subclasses 3.1+ for a machine for charring or burning wood. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
157Wheelwright Machines,   subclasses 1.1+ for rubber tire mounting or demounting apparatus. (for apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application)
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 123+ for processes for producing multilayer water-laid sheets or webs. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   appropriate subclasses for the combination of paper making and laminating. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above)
164Metal Founding,   subclasses 91+ for processes of forming composite articles by a metal casting operation. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 168+ for heated surfaces or heat exchange members, per se, which may function to apply laminating heat to a work piece. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
219Electric Heating,   appropriate subclasses for electric heating of metals for welding. That class (219) also provides for electric heaters, per se, which may be used for adhesive bonding and for heated couples not specifically modified to provide for a laminating function. (for apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
227Elongated-Member-Driving Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses, for joining by mechanical means there provided for. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   appropriate subclasses for joining of parts by metallurgical bonding. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above.)
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses for processes within the class definition, for casting or molding operations which may include a uniting operation. Class 264 provides for casting a part onto a preform to form a composite article and also provides for uniting two or more spaced preforms by introducing fluent material therebetween. For a more comprehensive line between Classes 156 and 254 see the class definitions of Class 264. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
223Apparel Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for garment making apparatus which may include laminating means in combination therewith.
227Elongated-Member-Driving Apparatus,   subclass 14 for apparatus for applying a member, e.g., nail, to a workpiece combined with means to apply cement to the workpiece for a securing purpose. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above)
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 551+ for unwinding an elongated material with attachment to a preceding material including means to unite material ends together to insure a continuous supply. The art in Class 242 typically handles rolls or spools in addition to unwinding. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
300Brush, Broom, and Mop Making,   appropriate subclasses, for processes for making the finished articles there provided for by a bonding step. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application)
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses under 72+ and 83+, for a road and pavement making process and apparatus which may include a step of bonding or a means for bonding. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 72+ for a process of making a roadway which may include the step of setting or curing road material. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses under 72+ and 83+ for a road and pavement making process and apparatus which may include a step of laminating or a means for laminating. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
412Bookbinding: Process and Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for specific book making steps or apparatuses combined with laminating. This class (156) provides for making single book elements, such as laminated book covers, even though the plural manufacturing steps may be claimed. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   appropriate subclasses as the residual class for apparatus involving chemical procedures. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   as the parent class for processes involving a chemical reaction. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   for radiation imagery including an etching step. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   for processes and compositions for qualitative or quantitative chemical testing especially subclass 4 for a chemical determination of properties of a crystal or crystalline materials. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 110+ for apparatus uniting parts within a mold cavity or for making a composite article from a preform and fluent material by casting thereof in a mold. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
427Coating Processes,   for coating, per se, with adhesive material even where the adhesive is disclosed as for the purpose of laminating. Class 427 also provides for coating previously associated parts where association is not claimed. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 300+ for processes of producing high temperature (Tc > 30 K) superconductors. (For apparatus bringing parts together for adhesive application, not claiming application).
445Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing,   appropriate subclasses for processes there provided for which may include chemical manufacturing steps. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
445Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing,   subclass 2 , 23+, 61 and 66+ as the residual class for the manufacture of electric lamp and discharge devices and see especially the class definition thereof for the locus of other patents relating to the manufacture of these devices. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   appropriate subclasses for manufactures which includes a laminating or adhesive bonding step. That Class 493 generally manufactures finished articles of commerce from paper or paperlike materials and is the generic class for the manufacture of the specific articles there provided for. Class 156 provides for subcombinations of laminating single seams in the manufacture of those articles and also provides for tube making methods involving a laminating step. See the line note under the definition of Class 493 to this class (156) for further clarification of the lines between these classes. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 300+ for processes of producing high temperature (Tc > 30 K) superconductors. (See "Laminating Combined With Other Operations" above).
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 300+ for processes of producing high temperature (Tc > 30 K) superconductors. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).
588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   appropriate subclasses for the chemical destruction or containment of hazardous or toxic waste. (See "C. Chemical Manufactures" above).

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

ADHESIVE BOND

The joining of parts (a) by means of a separate glue-like material or (b) by rendering contacting surfaces tacky by means of solvent and/or heat.

BENDING

Distortion of a workpiece by bodily moving a portion of it throughout its entire thickness relative to a second portion during which the thickness of the workpiece remains substantially the same and no significant plastic flow occurs.

BULK DEPOSITION OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL

The fluent delivery of a stream of separate loose pieces onto a receiving surface. The relative size of the pieces is not significant, rather it is the manner in which they are handled, as a mass or stream rather than each particle being individually manipulated.

INDEFINITE LENGTH WORK

A piece of material handled at points intermediate its ends whereby the length is immaterial to the manner of handling.

LAMINA

One of the component parts or layers of an adhesively bonded sandwich. Also an element which by disclosure is to be bonded to a separate element.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 1]    1METHODS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Methods for the manufacture of articles.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

345.1through 345.55, for differential etching apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 39]    39Plaster board making:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Processes which are directed to making bodies having at least three layers, at least one of whose intermediate layers is composed of an inorganic settable material of structural strength, and whose outermost layers are of a sheet-like material.
(1) Note. The primary function of the inorganic settable material is to give structural strength to the multi-layered body.
(2) Note. The inorganic settable material is normally referred to as the core and the outer layer as the facing sheet.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

346+,for plaster board making type of apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 638+ for coating compositions containing an inorganic settable material.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses for processes within the class definition for casting a settable material onto a surface and stripping therefrom when not combined with the step of adhering facing sheets to the settable material. subclass 333 therein pertains to processes utilizing heat or pressure indicating, mold or die shaping of inorganic hydraulic settable materials, not classifiable above.
427Coating Processes,   appropriate subclass, for processes of coating a substrate.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 304.4+ for a composite stock material web or sheet including a porous or cellular layer, and the appropriate subclasses under subclasses 411+ for a nonstructural "plaster-board" plural layer product.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 40]    40With bending or folding of facing sheet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Processes combined with the step of folding and/or bending at least one facing sheet.
(1) Note. See subclasses 196 and 226 of this class for definitions of the scope of the terms "bending" and "folding", respectively.
(2) Note. Included in this subclass are processes of bending a single facing sheet into a trough-like shape and applying the core material to the trough thus formed.
(3) Note. This subclass also includes processes wherein a single facing sheet completely envelopes the core material.
(4) Note. Processes wherein a facing sheet is turned about the edges of the core material and embedded therein are included in this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

196+,for processes of bending or reshaping a self-sustaining lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 41]    41With water-proofing and added material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Processes which include the step of coating a facing sheet of, the assembled body, or adding an ingredient to the core material which coating or added ingredient renders the plasterboard impervious to the passage of water.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 42]    42With embedding of reinforcing material during or subsequent to core formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Processes which include the envelopment of an additional element by the core material which element imparts additional structural strength to the completed plasterboard.
(1) Note. The additional element may be fibers, rods, tubes or any other material which adds structural strength to the core material.
(2) Note. The reenforcing elements may be added during the formulation of the core material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 43]    43Pore forming in situ:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Processes which include the step of causing the core material to become cellular in nature after association of the core material with at least one of the facing sheets.
(1) Note. The addition of activatable foaming agents, beating, or heating of gas generating materials are some examples of the means used to cause the core to become cellular.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 44]    44With preliminary treatment of facing sheet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Processes in which at least one of the facing sheets is subjected to a mechanical and/or chemical modification prior to the association of the various layers.
(1) Note. Trimming, roughening, perforating, application of adhesive, printing, and coating are some examples of the types of treatments herein included.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 45]    45With subsequen treatment of plaster board:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Processes in which the unitary body formed by the association of the facing sheets and core material is thereafter subjected to a chemical and/or mechanical modification.
(1) Note. Edge smoothing, cutting, manipulative drying techniques, coating, printing and manipulative pressure application are some examples of the type of modifications herein included.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 46]    46Perforating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Processes in which the modification is the formation of an aperture.
(1) Note. The aperture need not necessarily extend through the entire body but may stop short of penetrating the second facing sheet.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

252,for processes of forming apertures in lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 47]    47Making electrical conductors of indefinite length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Processes for making indefinite length electrical conductors or for joining, splicing or repairing the same.
(1) Note. The term "conductor" as used herein, means any wire, strand, filament bar, rod, cable, cord, tube, or like element, of indefinite length, simple or compound, bare or insulated, designed and intended to provide an electrically conductive path between its end.
(2) Note. This class is a residual class for miscellaneous patents pertaining to the above subject matter and which cannot be classified elsewhere. The bulk of the patents relating to this subject matter is to be found in the various manufacturing apparatus and process classes referred to in the following notes. The definitions of these classes should be consulted to determine the scope and limitations thereof, this class (156) taking only those patents which cannot be properly allocated to any other manufacturing class. The following notes refer to those classes in which conductor manufacturing and other immediately related processes and apparatus are known to exist, but are probably not exhaustive.
(3) Note. METAL WORKING OPERATIONS For the making, forming, or shaping of wires, rods, tubes, cables, or other metallic elements, either simple or compound, or for the covering or sheathing of wires, rods, etc., either insulated or not, by mere metal working operations; see "SEARCH CLASS" below with reference to Metal Working Operations.
(4) Note. The above classes also provide for certain subsidiary or miscellaneous operations encountered in the manufacture of electric conductors or otherwise of interest therein as set forth in (15) note.
(5) Note. For mere twisting or twining of metal strands, wires, etc., or for mere coating operations with metal, see notes (9) and (12), respectively, as well as their Search Class notes below.
(6) Note. In general, the above classes may be said to be restricted to metal working operations, or to such operations combined with certain subsidiary operations which are merely incidental to the metal working. However, exceptions are found in Class 29, Metal Working, in which subclasses 90.01, 400.1 and 700 and their indented subclasses are the generic places for the operations provided for therein regardless of the material worked on. Thus, for example, for the threading or assembling of beads, discs, or other spacer members, whether of metal or not, on wires, as in coaxial cables, see Class 29, subclass 729.
(7) Note. Plural or combined operations, each of which is a metal working operation, are also included in the above classes, Class 29, Metal Working taking all such combined operations not provided for in the other metal working classes. Accordingly, patents relating to the manufacture of electric conductors wherein each operation involves metal working, will be classified in one of the above classes, but where, in addition to the metal working, an operation not merely subsidiary thereto is claimed, as, for example, the coating or covering of a wire insulation prior or subsequent to the metal working, such patent will be classified in Class 156.
(8) Note. TEXTILE WORKING OPERATIONS For the making or forming of cords, cables, or other strands, including conductors, or for the covering or sheathing of such elements by mere textile working operations; see "SEARCH CLASS" below.
(9) Note. In general, these textile classes are restricted to textile working operations, by which is meant the working, manipulating, or interengagement of fibers, filaments, strands, etc., to produce fabric structures. The filaments, strands, etc., may be of metal where no particular metal working is involved. Thus, for example, Class 57, Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining, will take the mere twisting or twining of one or more metallic strips, tapes, wires, etc., to form wire-rope, cables, etc., or to cover a core therewith.
(10) Note. Textile working operations combined with subsidiary or auxiliary operations such as, for example, coating or impregnating of the fibers or strands, or of the core, or of the completed article, with fluid or plastic material are also included.
(11) Note. Plural or combined operations each of which is a textile working operation (e.g., twisting or twining plus braiding or knitting) are also included, Class 28, Textiles: Manufacturing, taking such residual combined operations not provided for in the other textile classes. Accordingly, patents relating to the manufacture of electric conductors wherein each operation is a textile working operation are classifiable in one of the above classes, but where, in addition to the textile working, an operation not merely subsidiary thereto is claimed, as, for example, applying a metallic sheath by drawing or rolling prior or subsequent to the textile working operation, such patent will be classified in Class 156.
(12) Note. COATING, COVERING AND SHEATHING. For coating, covering, or sheathing conductors by metal working operations or by textiles working operations, see the classes listed under these respective headings above. For other apparatus or processes for forming or applying a coating, sheathing, or other covering on a conductor, cable, or other strand; see "Search Class" below. Classes 118, 148, 204, and 427, include coating with metal, when applied by the operations provided for in these classes.
(13) Note. STRUCTURE. For the structure of electric conductors or for analogous strand structures, including pipes, hose and conduits, see the Search Class notes below.
(14) Note. MISCELLANEOUS For methods or apparatus for installing or laying conductors, drawing them through conduits, or placing them on poles; see "Search Class" below referencing this Note.
(15) Note. MISCELLANEOUS. See the Search Class notes below to miscellaneous apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors or otherwise of interest therein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

166+,for processes of associating flexible filamentary material of indefinite length not especially intended to provide an electrically conductive path between its ends. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
169+,for processes of winding filamentary material of indefinite length to form electric coils. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

19Textiles: Fiber Preparation,   especially subclass 145 for fiber liberation from natural sources by mechanical treatment and the assembly of fibers to form slivers or webs. (See Note, above, to Textile Working Operations).
28Textiles: Manufacturing,   for miscellaneous textile operations not otherwise provided for. (See Note, above, to Textile Working Operations).
29Metal Working,   subclasses 400.1+ , for processes of making miscellaneous devices; particularly subclasses 402.01+ for miscellaneous processes of repairing; subclass 461 for spreading cable strands and joining the cable to another part such as a driving block or to another cable; and subclasses 505+, particularly subclasses 518 and 519 for joining wire or cable ends together by means of a deformed surrounding sleeve. Search subclass 728 for apparatus for sheathing a running-length core, e.g., a wire, not elsewhere classified. (See note, above to Metal Working Operations.)
29Metal Working,   subclasses 90.01 and 90.5 for smoothing, compacting, polishing etc., of bare or covered conductors or other strands (analogous and related operations are set forth in the notes to subclass 90.5 of Class 29), subclasses 592.1+, for processes for forming miscellaneous electrical devices. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
30Cutlery,   subclasses 165+ for wire cutting tools and implements. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   especially subclasses 245+ , 414, 419, 444, 466, 519, and 611+ for the drying of sheets, webs or strands including conductors and cables. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   especially subclasses 3+ , 33, 261, and 362 for the manufacture of conductors by spinning or twisting or for covering or sheathing by wrapping. (See Note, above, to Textile Working Operations).
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 36+ for a process of bonding glass to a formed part by a glassworking operation; and subclasses 152+ for glassworking apparatus including fusion bonding means; see the "Search Notes" under subclass 154. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
66Textiles: Knitting,   especially subclasses 9+ , 61, 80, and 83+ for manufacturing or covering a conductor involving a knitting apparatus. (See Note, above, to Textile Working Operations)
72Metal Deforming,   appropriate subclasses, for a method or means for making a metal conductor by a mere metal working operation, e.g., subclasses 253.1+ for die-expressing an elongated metal product, or 274+ for drawing a wire through a die. Sheathing a core, e.g., a wire by extruding a metal blanket around it is classified in subclasses 253.1+, and particularly subclass 268, this being the sole exception to the general rule that assembly is excluded from Class 72. Other sheathing, even if a metal working operation is involved, is in Class 29, Metal Working. See the note above to Class 29. (See note, above to Metal Working Operations.)
73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 40.5 for processes and apparatus for testing for leaks in fluid filled cables. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
83Cutting,   appropriate subclasses, for method and apparatus for cutting a wire or strand, a cable, or an object made up of strands, or for cutting insulation from a wire. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
87Textiles: Braiding, Netting, and Lace Making,   especially subclasses 1 , 6, 23, and 29 for manufacturing or covering a conductor involving braiding, netting or lace making. (See Note, above, to Textile Working Operations).
111Planting,   subclass 5 for apparatus and methods for planting pipe or cable. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for installing or laying conductors, etc.)
118Coating Apparatus,   subclass 420 , and see the notes thereto for apparatus for coating strand form work. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   particularly subclasses 9 , 15, 38, 64, and 122 for cleaning strands including the removal of insulating coating. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
139Textiles: Weaving,   for manufacturing or covering a conductor involving a weaving operation. (See Note, above, to Textile Working Operations).
140Wireworking,   especially subclass 71 and 149 for the making of conductors involving wireworking. (See note, above to Metal Working Operations.)
140Wireworking,   subclass 92.1 for forms and frames for forming wire coils, such as armature coils, and subclass 147 for wire straightening. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
148Metal Treatment,   particularly subclasses 206+ for processes of carburizing or nitriding metal, utilizing an external source of carbon or nitrogen, or subclasses 240+ for processes of reactive coating a metal surface with an externally supplied agent that combines with the metal substrate to provide a coating thereon containing at least one element from said metal substrate. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   particularly subclasses 106 and 267+ for covering operations involving paper making or fibrous pulp molding. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
164Metal Founding,   subclass 462 for methods of forming conductors by a continuous metal casting operation and subclasses 418+ for corresponding apparatus. (See note, above to Metal Working Operations.)
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclasses and notes (2) to (14) of the class definition thereof. As between this class (156) and Class 174, the article controls classification, i.e., patents claiming both conductor structure and the method or apparatus for making it will be classified in Class 174 and cross-referenced to Class 156. For a stock material product, not elsewhere provided for, in the form of a rod, strand or fiber, having some structural feature and an impregnation or core, or coated, see subclasses 364+ of Class 428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles. (See Note above to "Structure").
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for coating by electrophoresis or cathode sputtering. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   especially subclasses 138+ for coating by electrolysis. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclass 77 for electroforming a metallic sheet, web, wire, or filament of indeterminant length. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 603+ and 50+ for making or covering conductors involving electric heating and working of metal. Note especially indented subclasses 59.1+ and 605. (See note, above to Metal Working Operations.)
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   appropriate subclasses for methods of, and apparatus for, feeding material without utilizing the leading or trailing ends to effect movement of the material. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 126+ for assembling and bonding together a metal core and sheath. (See note, above to Metal Working Operations.)
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 430+ for forming an article by winding material onto a core and subclasses 470+ for winding strand material onto a spool for storage. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 134.3+ for placing cable on poles or in conduits. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for installing or laying conductors, etc.)
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes within the class definition, for molding or shaping plastic materials. For forming indefinite length articles by extruding or molding around strand-like or filament-like preforms, see Class 264, subclasses 171.1+ . (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 132 for hand and hoist-line implements used in placing electrical cable. (See the (14) Note in this subclass (47) above for installing or laying conductors, etc.)
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for testing of conductors and insulation. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 154.1 for subterranean or submarine pipe or cable laying, retrieving, manipulating, or treating. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for installing or laying conductors, etc.)
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 113+ for covering by apparatus extruding plastic material about preform within a shaping cavity where the external configuration of the product is diverse from that of the preform. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 58+ for processes of coating, per se, wherein an electrical product is produced. (See note, above, to Coating, Covering And Sheathing.)
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   appropriate subclasses, for a stock material product, especially subclasses 364+ for a structurally defined or coated rod, strand or filament which is useful as an electrode or as a filament for electric lamps or other discharge devices, and subclasses 411.1+ and 615+ for nonmetallic and metallic composites, respectively, defined in terms of the composition of their components. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
445Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   subclasses 269+ for making a paper tube; and subclasses 405+ for making a folded paper article. (See "Miscellaneous" Note above for apparatus and processes used in the manufacture of electrical conductors, etc.)
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 48]    48With filling of void or cavity with fluent material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes which include flowing a substance to an enclosed cavity which is associated with the conductor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

145,for encapsulating of permanently fluent material in hollow or porous lamina or the filling of the space between laminae subsequent to lamination.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclasses for filling receivers.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   especially subclass 15.1 for electrical cables including means to feed or circulate a fluid therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 49]    49Spicing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes for joining end-to-end of at least two conductors and/or their coverings.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

157+,for processes of joining in an end-to-end relationship of indefinite length lamina not intended to provide a conductive path between its ends.
502+,for apparatus for joining flexible indefinite length bodies end-to-end.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclasses 592.1+ , for making of electrical devices, not elsewhere classified.
57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   subclasses 22 , 23 and 362 for splicing strands by a twisting or twining operation.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 97 , for processes and apparatus for repairing leaks in pipes and hose, including electric conduits.
140Wireworking,   subclasses 111+ , for other processes and devices for joining or uniting wire.
164Metal Founding,   subclasses 91+ for composite article forming by a metal casting operation and particularly subclasses 108+ for processes of uniting two preforms.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 21 , 22 and 84+ for the structure of conductor joints.
219Electric Heating,   especially subclasses 50+ , 78.01, 136+, 148, 603+, 633, and 765+ for bonding by use of electric heat.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   appropriate subclasses for joining metals by a metallurgical bond as well as joining a metal to a nonmetal and joining two nonmetals by use of a metallic filler to effect a metallurgical bond. Joining a metal to a metal, a metal to a nonmetal or a nonmetal to a nonmetal is to be found in this class if the bond is effected with a nonmetallic cement or by fusion of a nonmetal part.
249Static Molds,   subclasses 83+ for molds for uniting a preform with molding material.
289Knots and Knot Tying,   for mere tying of cords or strands.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 50]    50With mechanical working of conductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes which include the distortion or shaping of the conductor itself.
(1) Note. Twisting, braiding and bending are some examples of the type of conductor manipulations contemplated for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 51]    51Covering of conductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Processes which include the step of applying a material about or over the conductor of indeterminate-length.
(1) Note. Covering materials classified herein include coatings applied as by an extrusion which may function as insulation or for mechanical protection.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclasses 517+ for processes of joining a core to a sheath by a deforming operation, subclass 525 for processes of force fitting a core in a sheath, and subclasses 527.1+ for processes of casting and/or coating a layer on a core followed by subsequent treatment of the cast or coated base.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 126+ for encasing a core with a sheath and bonding the parts together.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 58+ for coating processes, per se, wherein an electrical product is produced.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 615+ for metallic composite defined in terms of the composition of its components.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 52]    52With preformed material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Processes in which the cover material is self-sustaining prior to its application to the conductor.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 53]    53Wrapping of sheet material (e.g., tape) about conductor and/o conductor assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Processes which involves winding or folding the preformed material about the conductor and/or conductor assembly to cover the conductor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

169+,for processes of winding a filament.
184,for processes of winding a web or sheet.
425+,and 443+, for apparatus for performing winding operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 54]    54By longitudinally bending sheet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Processes directed to longitudinally bending the sheet material about the conductor.
(1) Note. For a definition of longitudinal bending see the definition of subclass 200 of this class.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

200+,for processes of longitudinally bending running or continuous length work.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 55]    55Plural spaced conductors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Processes in which two or more generally parallel spaced conductors or conductor cables are wrapped or covered.
(1) Note. The conductors herein included may be separated from each other merely by a covering already on one or more of the conductors prior to their being jointly wrapped.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 56]    56Plural covering operations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Processes directed to sequentially applying at least two separate covering materials to the conductor in which at least one covering operation is by wrapping a sheet material about the conductor.
(1) Note. Included within this subclass are processes which involve the enclosing of the conductor with more than one type of cover, e.g., tape and a coating.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 57]    57Maintaining the natural appearance of plants or animal parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Processes in which a plant or animal or part thereof is bonded to a support to maintain the natural appearance thereof.
(1) Note. The combination of coating a natural plant, flower or biological specimen and then interposing the coated specimen between glass plates is classified herein.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 94.11 for reactive treatment of biological specimens.
47Plant Husbandry,   appropriate subclasses, for processes of treating living plants.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 271.1+ for processes in which a body is embedded in or surrounded by shaping material.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   appropriate subclasses for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing therein provided.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 4+ for coating processes for coating a plant member or animal specimen.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 15+ for an article, in the form of a three-dimensional imitation or treated natural product (e.g., fauna or flora).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 58]    58Contour or profile photography to reproduce three-dimensional objects:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Processes directed to reproducing three dimensional objects by taking photographs of the lineaments of said objects and (1) employing said photographs as guides or templates to mechanically reproduce the objects in three dimensions or (2) assembling said photographs to thus reproduce the objects in three dimensions.
(1) Note. The processes in this subclass generally include the surrounding of the object with cameras which take photographs of the object from the various directions and then using the resultant photographs in proper sequence to reproduce the three dimensional object.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

59,for processes of producing relief or intaglio representations of three dimensional objects which do not include the taking of a photograph of the object.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes within the class definition, for shaping plastic materials.
430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   appropriate subclasses for radiation imagery processes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 59]    59Relief or intaglio representations of three-dimensional objects (e.g., relief modeling of photographs):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Processes for making reproductions of three dimensional objects, which reproductions simulate the original object in appearance but not in function, and are shaped to approximate the contours of the objects, but not the full depth or front to back dimension.
(1) Note. The articles produced for this subclass are shaped for representation on the facing surface only. Thus the reproduction effect is apparent when the article is viewed from a single plane only.
(2) Note. Where the manufacturing operations are, per se, classified in some other class, the patent is there classified even though the article may be a representation. Thus, for example, Class 264, Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes, in appropriate subclasses provides for the shaping or molding of plastic materials to make reproductions, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

58,for processes involving the taking of photographs of three dimensional objects and the employment of said photographs to make reproductions of the objects.
196+,for processes of laminating combined with processes of permanently bending, reshaping or embossing of self-sustaining lamina.
250+,for processes of laminating combined with cutting.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   appropriate subclasses for producing dyed designs on textiles and subclasses 114+ for processes for producing ornamental effects on textile materials there provided for.
29Metal Working,   for miscellaneous processes of mechanical manufacture which may result in the production of a representation. With respect to representation making, the line with Class 29 is as follows: Class 29 takes combined processes including metal working steps where no laminating is recited in the claims. Where adhesive bonding is present the line is that set out between the two classes in section "A. Bonding And/Or Assembly Therefor," above in the class definition of Class 156.
33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 2+ for processes for laying out patterns for apparel making.
40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclass 616 for relief or intaglio signs.
43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   subclass 42.53 for processes for making artificial bait.
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 66+ for a process of forming an article from molten glass.
69Leather Manufactures,   appropriate subclasses for processes for finishing cloth to produce ornamental effects and subclasses 21+ for leather working processes there provided for.
82Turning,   subclasses 11+ and 18+ for pattern controlled turning operations.
83Cutting,   appropriate subclasses for cutting operations, per se.
101Printing,   subclass 32 for embossing processes.
125Stone Working,   appropriate subclasses for working stone there provided for.
144Woodworking,   subclasses 329+ for a method of woodworking to produce relief or intaglio representations, particularly subclass 358 for a method of embossing wood.
164Metal Founding,   appropriate subclasses for procuring reproductions by casting metal.
199Type Casting,   appropriate subclasses for type casting.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   appropriate subclasses especially subclasses 67+ and 120+ for electrolytic methods of producing relief and intaglio surfaces.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes within the class definitions, for shaping or molding plastic materials, per se, see particularly subclasses 220+ .
409Gear Cutting, Milling, or Planing,   appropriate subclasses for a pattern controlled milling, broaching, or planing operation; particularly subclasses 79+ and 289+.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 15+ for an article, in the form of a three-dimensional imitation or treated natural product (e.g., fauna or flora).
433Dentistry,   subclass 213 for a wax modeling in dentistry processes.
434Education and Demonstration,   subclasses 81+ for processes for drawing, painting or sculpturing processes in which some aid, or guide is provided for the artisan.
451Abrading,   for an abrading process for producing an ornamental effect.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 60]    60Surface bonding and/or assembly therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Processes involving bonding or joining discrete juxtaposed lamina or spaced juxtaposed areas of a single lamina by adherence or coherence at the interface of the juxtaposed areas.
(1) Note. The adherence is usually accomplished by application of an adhesive composition to one or both parts and the coherence by rendering the one or both parts tacky, usually by solvent, heat, externally applied or the residual heat retained by the part from a previous operation.
(2) Note. The term "adhesive" is that body of material which adheres to each of the parts being secured and which has no structural or functional characteristic other than to facilitate or effect joiner of the parts.
(3) Note. This and the indented subclasses include patents which claim only assembly of parts previously coated with adhesive. See sections "A. Bonding And/Or Assembly Therefor" and "B. Laminating Combined With Other Operations" of the class definition of this class for the lines with other classes.
(4) Note. Processes of adhesively uniting together at least two lamina which (1) do not define by name the adhesive employed and (2) do not define a manipulative procedure of uniting provided for below are classified herein. In this subclass may be found, for example, patents distinguished only by the composition of the particular laminae joined.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

228Metal Fusion Bonding,   appropriate subclasses for joining parts by a metallurgical bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 61]    61Simulated products of nature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to the making of artificial reproductions of naturally occurring objects.
(1) Note. The processes in this subclass are generally related to making artificial reproductions of such naturally occurring objects as animals, plants, flowers, trees, pearls, etc., wherein the reproduction itself is made by a laminating step. Merely making a picture of such object and laminating said picture to a backing is not included in this subclass.
(2) Note. Such items as inflatable toys in the shape of various animals are included in this subclass if a laminating step is involved in the making of said toy.
(3) Note. Operations which are, per se, classifiable in other classes are there provided for even though a reproduction is made of a product of nature. Thus, for example, molding a product of nature from plastic is generally provided for in Class 264, Plastics and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

59,for processes for making relief or intaglio representations of three dimensional objects and see especially the notes thereto for the locus of other operations for shaping particular objects.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 15+ for an article, in the form of a three-dimensional imitation or treated natural product (e.g., fauna or flora).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 62]    62With manual drawing or engraving:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with a step of (1) sketching, designing or diagraming by a hand operation on a material or (2) carving by hand operation figures, letters or devices on a material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

250+,277 and 278+, for processes of coating or engraving other than by a hand operation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclass 861 for processes of cutting other than completely through work thickness or through work presented.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 256+ for nonuniform coating processes, and note especially subclass 260 for utilizing a hand-held brush or absorbent applicator.
434Education and Demonstration,   subclasses 81+ for processes involving drawing, sculpturing or painting there provided for.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 62.2]    62.2With formation of lamina by bulk deposition of discrete particles to form self-supporting article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include forming a lamina by assembling individually distinct particulate material from a fluent mass and adhesively bonding the particles to each other and then uniting the lamina thus formed to itself or another lamina.
(1) Note. The distinguishing characteristic of this subclass is that the material used in forming the lamina is handled as a fluent mass as differing from those processes in which each particle is individually handled or positioned.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

279+,for processes under subclass 60 combined with the step of mass application of nonadhesive fibers or particles to the surface of a lamina not including the step of forming a self-supporting batt or body.
369+,for apparatus for forming self-sustaining webs or bodies of particulate material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 109+ for processes of forming articles from particulate material when not combined with a subsequent laminating step.
419Powder Metallurgy Processes,   subclasses 61+ for processes for making articles from particulate metal containing materials using pressure only.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 62.4]    62.4Liberation or formation of fibers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 62.2.  Processes which include the step of (1) forming the discrete fibers from molten plastic material (2) cutting of filaments to produce fibers approximating in length the staple fibers of natural origin or (3) liberating bonded fibers from a fiber containing material.
(1) Note. Glass is considered a plastic material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

370+,for apparatus for forming self sustaining bodies combined with means to form particles or means to liberate particles.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 376+ for processes of forming fiber or filaments from molten glass; subclasses 484+ for glass fiber or filament forming apparatus.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 115+ for formation of particles other than glass combined with a molding operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 62.6]    62.6By joining portions of batt to itself:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 62.2.  Processes which include the step of distorting and portion of the lamina with respect to another portion such that said portions are in contact and bonded together.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 62.8]    62.8To similarly formed batt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 62.2.  Processes in which both lamina have been formed by bonding of individually distinct particulate material only.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 63]    63By joining portions of batt to itself:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to bonding by hand operation at least two parts of different colors or shaped to each other or to another part, which bonded parts form an ornamental pattern.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

264+,and 297+, for processes of assembling plural discrete lamina to each other or to a single face of an additional lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 64]    64With measuring, testing, or inspecting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of sampling, visually, chemically or physically determining some chemical or physical property or characteristic of the lamina a part of a lamina to be joined or of the adhesive employed to bond the laminae together.
(1) Note. The sampling or determination of a property or characteristic of a lamina may be by a visual inspection or by determining the chemical or physical property by chemical test or by some mechanical testing apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

378,for laminating apparatus combined with testing, measuring and indicating means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclass 407 for processes which include a step of testing or of indicating combined with a step of mechanical manufacture.
73Measuring and Testing,   for processes of determining physical properties of a lamina to be joined or of the adhesive not combined with assembly and/or joining.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 49 and 198 for processes of measuring, testing and/or inspecting combined with a paper making operation.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 1+ for processes of chemical testing not combined with assembly and/or joining.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 65]    65Of multiple spaced elements between and transverse of parallel webs (e.g., Venetian blind ladders):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which involve positioning at least two laminae side by side and out of contact with each other and assembling each of the opposed sides which lie in the same plane of laminae to a face of an additional lamina such that the additional laminae are entirely out of facial contact.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

265,and 297+, for processes of joining plural discrete laminae to a single face of an additional lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 66]    66Adhesive application of fasteners to articles (e.g., slide fastener to garment):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which one of the lamina secured to another lamina is a securing device or a device capable of mechanically joining the assembly to another part.
(1) Note. The securing devices include, for example, buttons, hooks and eyes, slide fasteners.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

91+,for processes of assembling laminae by mechanical joining means in addition to utilization of an adhesive.

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2Apparel,   subclasses 265+ for methods of attaching buttons or other fasteners to apparel not involving use of an adhesive.
112Sewing,   subclasses 406+ for a web or sheet having a fastener sewn thereto, and subclasses 475.14+ for a method of attaching a fastener to a base by sewing.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 99+ for a stock material product resulting from the process of this subclass (66).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 67]    67Utilizing phorescent or fluorescent material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include the step of applying a phosphorescent, fluorescent and/or luminescent substance to either a lamina and/or adhesive or utilizing at least one lamina and/or adhesive containing such substance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 483.1+ for devices including fluorescent or phosphorescent material in layer form.
252Compositions,   subclasses 301.16+ - 301.6+ for compositions exhibiting fluorescent or phosphorescent effects.
427Coating Processes,   subclass 157 for processes of coating utilizing a fluorescent or phosphorescent coating material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 68]    68With fur removal from animal pelt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of removing the hairy covering or coat from the skin of animals either prior to or subsequent to removal of the skin or pelt from the carcass of the animal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

19Textiles: Fiber Preparation,   subclass 2 for the freeing of fibers by mechanical means from the skin of animals.
69Leather Manufactures,   subclasses 21+ for processes of treating hides and skins. See (2) Note of subclass 21 for the line between this class (69) and Class 156.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 69]    69Application of end closures to containers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes for bonding a cover to a receptacle.
(1) Note. The receptacle for this subclass is one having utility for containing goods or other material or for shipping purposes.
(2) Note. The processes in this subclass are not combined with a packaging step but relative to the formation of the package. For the combination, see the search notes below.

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53Package Making,   subclasses 476+ for processes of closing a receptacle subsequent to filling thereof with goods or materials or to a filled receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 70]    70Encasing movable or loosely confined element between adhering lamina (e.g., drawstrings):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which involves assembling a part within or between bonded lamina the outer laminae being bonded in a manner to provide a tolerance of fit between the enclosed part and the outer laminae sufficient to permit changing the position of the enclosed part with respect to the bonded laminae.
(1) Note. The enclosing of a drawstring within the space between bonded laminae is one example within the scope of this subclass.

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228,for processes of enclosing a spherical part between semi-spherical shells.
300+,for processes of enclosing a plurality of discrete laminae between plural laminae in which the discrete lamina is bonded to one of the plural laminae.
383,for laminating apparatus including means to encase a separate nonadhered part between adhered lamina.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 434+ for processes of retaining clearance for motion between assembled parts.
53Package Making,   subclasses 449 and 461 for processes of encasing a wrapper or wrappers about goods or materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 71]    71Of lamina to building or installed structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which a lamina is associated with a static building structure.
(1) Note. The lamina in this subclass may be wall paper and the building structure may be a wall of a building to which the wall paper is adhesively united.

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52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 390+ for a structure having an adhered tile type and subclasses 745.01+ for a process of erection or assembly of a building or building component involving more than merely adhering a preformed sheet form member to a surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 72]    72Setting or embedding tufts or discrete pile elements onto backing (e.g., rugs, brushes, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which involves bonding a cluster of flexible parts, to a sheetlike lamina by causing each cluster to penetrate within the surface of the bonding medium or lamina to maintain the cluster and sheet in assembled relationship.
(1) Note. Processes of bonding tufts to a backing to form a pile fabric are classified herein.
(2) Note. The flexible parts for this subclass may be hair, feathers, etc.

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63,for processes of manually arranging different colored or shaped discrete elements on to a backing to form a design.
297+,for processes of bonding plural discrete laminae to a single face of an additional lamina.

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28Textiles: Manufacturing,   subclasses 159+ for processes for pile tufting other than by bonding.
300Brush, Broom, and Mop Making,   subclass 21 for processes of making a brush, broom or mop which may include a laminating operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 73.1]    73.1With sonic or ultrasonic treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include the step of imparting rapid oscillation at a frequency of greater than 10 cycles per second to at least one of the laminae or adhesive either prior, during or subsequent to formation of the laminate.
(1) Note. The vibration may be effected for the purpose of spreading particulate material, elimination of air pockets in the adhesive, imparting energy to the laminae to cause softening and bonding, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 73.2]    73.2Rod, strand, or filament:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.1.  Processes wherein at least one lamina has a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude and length considerably greater than the width or thickness.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 73.3]    73.3With sonic or ultrasonic cutting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.1.  Processes wherein at least one lamina is severed by use of a vibratory force of at least 10 cycles per second.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 73.4]    73.4Sheet or web splicing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.1.  Processes wherein two laminae each having both length and width much greater than thickness are joined along an edge.
(1) Note. The edges of the laminae may overlap providing the area of overlap is small compared to the area of the laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 73.5]    73.5Friction treatment (e.g., welding):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes including a step of generating heat to effect bonding by either rapid relative motion of the contacting faces of the laminae or by the rapid relative motion of a separate part contacting the laminae.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclass 470.3 for processes of welding metal by friction.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 73.6]    73.6Vibratory treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes including a step of imparting a rapid oscillation or to and fro movement to at least one of the laminae or adhesive at a rate of less than 10 cycles per second either prior to, during or after the formation of a sandwich.
(1) Note. The vibration may be effected for any purpose including the spreading of particulate material, elimination of air pockets in the adhesive, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 74]    74With application of centrifugal force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which includes the rotation of a workpiece to cause application of centrifugal force to the bonding medium and/or a workpiece which force acts in a direction outwardly of the center of rotation.
(1) Note. The force applied to the lamina may be to effect its separation from a forming surface, to distribute the bonding medium, etc.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   particularly subclasses 8+ , 114, 270, and 311 for processes within the class definition, which employ centrifugal force in the shaping or molding of ceramic materials.
427Coating Processes,   for processes of coating utilizing centrifugal force.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 75]    75With balancing of product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes including a step of regulating the weight distribution of a product about a pivot point.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 66+ for measuring or testing, per se, to determine the unbalance of a rotating body.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 76]    76With parchmentizing or transparentizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of treating at least one lamina composed of cellulosic material with a reagent either to alter the surface characteristic of the lamina such that it simulates the skin of an animal or alter the normally opaque quality of the lamina such that it has the property of transmitting rays of light.
(1) Note. The reagent may be Zn C12, H2 SO4, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclasses 118+ for processes of transparentizing or parchmentizing cellulosic fibers not combined with a liminating procedure.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 187 , for processes combined with the step of gelatinizing paper.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 77]    77With pore forming in situ to form cellular lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes including the step of forming pores or other type of open space in situ within a lamina during or subsequent to its formation.
(1) Note. The mechanical formation of pores within a lamina, e.g., perforating, is not within the scope of this and indented subclasses.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 20 for a process of foaming of slag, and subclass 22 for a glassworking or treating process including a step of pore forming in situ.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 122 , 601+, and 672+ for processes of making coating or plastic compositions including a step forming pores in situ in the composition.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 101 for the step of pore forming combined with a paper making operation.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 304.4+ for a composition stock material web or sheet including a porous or cellular component.
501Compositions: Ceramic,   subclasses 39 and 80+ for pore-forming ceramic compositions.
521Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubber,   subclasses 50+ for pore-forming, per se, in a synthetic resin composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 78]    78Foaming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Processes in which the step of forming the pores is effected by introducing a gas under pressure to the interior of at least one lamina or by generating a gas in-situ within such lamina.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 10+ for foam colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 79]    79Subsequent to assembly of laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Processes in which the step of foaming occurs after assembling of at least two laminae to form a sandwich.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 10+ for foam colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 80]    80With refrigeration or freezing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which the work is chilled to a temperature below that of the normal working temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.
(1) Note. The removal of heat usually effects a change of phase of a constituent part of the lamina and/or adhesive, e.g., solidification of a material which is normally in the liquid state under ambient conditions.
(2) Note. Mere cooling of a previously heated workpiece to cause it to return to normal temperature is not included here, to be classified here the workpiece must be chilled to below normal temperatures.

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282,and 311, for other processes involving a cooling step.
498,for laminating apparatus provided with means to cool the work.

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62Refrigeration,   appropriate subclasses for refrigeration processes and apparatus.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 54 which includes the step of freezing liquid employed in the fiber liberation or treatment.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 81]    81With melting or gasification of permanently associated solid material in situ in airtight cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of converting a material contained within a hollow imperforate body or lamina to a liquid or gas which is permanently retained within the hollow body in the liquid or gas state.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 82]    82With flame contact of lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include the step of physically contacting the surface of a lamina with a body of burning gas or vapor, e.g., flame.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

497,for laminating apparatus combined with flame contact means for the work.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 140 for processes of singling or carbonizing of textiles.
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 120 for a process for flame treating a glass preform; and see the collection of "Search Notes" thereunder.
118Coating Apparatus,   subclass 47 for apparatus for subjecting a surface to a flame.
144Woodworking,   subclasses 329+ for flame treatment of wood.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 223+ for coating processes including contacting the base or coating with a flame.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 83]    83With swelling of material lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes including a step of treating a lamina to cause it to expand or increase in volume.
(1) Note. The swelling may be effected by, for example, absorption of a solvent by the material of the lamina thereby causing expansion thereof. Merely subjecting a lamina to an external force such as a compressive force in one direction to cause it to elongate in another direction is not subject matter for this subclass, nor is subjecting matter for this subclass, nor is subjecting the lamina to tension to cause it to elongate. Inflating a hollow article is also excluded in that the laminae material does not swell.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

147,for inflating a hollow core.
156,for fluid pressure used to prevent collapse of a hollow core.
229,for distorting a workpiece by stretching.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclasses 114 , 130.1+ and 175 for processes of treating textiles with chemicals, e.g., swelling agents.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 187 for processes of hydration or gelatinization combined with a paper making operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 84]    84With shrinking of material of lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of treating the material of which the lamina is composed to decrease the volume of the material.
(1) Note. The shrinking of the material of the lamina usually occurs by contacting the material with a liquid agent which is either (1) a constituent of the composition of the material or (2) is from an external source followed by the step of heating of the material containing the liquid.

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76,for processes of shrinking a lamina in which parchmentizing or transparentizing also occurs.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclasses 116+ for processes including a shrinking operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 85]    85Subsequent to assembly of laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Processes in which the step of shrinking of the lamina occurs after associating of at least two lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 86]    86Of lamina covering cylindrical or spherical body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Processes in which the step of shrinking a lamina occurs while the lamina is associated with a cylindrical or spherical body.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

165,170, 186, 187+, and 212+, for processes in which one of the laminae has the shape of a cylinder or sphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 87]    87Providing escapeways for gases trapped or generated between layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of providing at least one lamina with passageways or channels to discharge gases generated or entrapped at the interface to the atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 88]    88Fray-prevention by bonding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes including a step of selectively bonding strands or fibers at the edges only of a textile material to prevent unraveling or fraying of the strands or fibers.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.11]    89.11With vitrification or firing ceramic material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include the step or heating a ceramic material of which the lamina and/or coating is composed to a temperature sufficient to vitrify or fire the material.
(1) Note. The firing may be of a decorative vitreous layer subsequent to its application to another lamina in a direct transfer operation to remove the backing sheet, usually by burning

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 33.1+ for processes including the devitrification of glass or the vitrification of crystalline glass; subclasses 36+ for methods of bonding glass to glass or glass to metal involving a glass working step.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   particularly subclasses 30 , 31+, 43, 600+, and 125.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 331+ for coating processes including post-treatment of a coating and note especially subclass 376.1 for heat fusion of an inorganic coating.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.12]    89.12Forming electrical article or component thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.11.  Subject matter wherein the product formed has disclosed utility as an electrical device or component.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.13]    89.13Elemental carbon containing (e.g., graphite, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.12.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains carbon in elemental form; i.e., not in the form of a carbon compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.14]    89.14Inorganic titanate compound containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.12.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains an inorganic titanate compound; e.g., solid solutions of titanium dioxide with other metallic oxides, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.15]    89.15Nitride compound containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.12.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains a binary compound of nitrogen; e.g., BN, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.16]    89.16Elemental metal or alloy containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.12.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains free metal or a union of two or more metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.17]    89.17Silver containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.16.  Subject matter wherein the metal or alloy contains silver (Ag).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.18]    89.18Copper containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.16.  Subject matter wherein the metal or alloy contains copper (Cu).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.19]    89.19Tungsten containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.16.  Subject matter wherein the metal or alloy contains tungsten (W).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.21]    89.21Molybdenum containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.16.  Subject matter wherein the metal or alloy contains molybdenum (Mo).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.22]    89.22Honeycomb-like:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.11.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains a layer or component including either discrete elements (e.g. tubular constituents) or components which form or cooperate to form cavities the longitudinal axes of which are at an angle to the plane of the web or sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.23]    89.23With wax or wax-like processing aid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.11.  Subject matter wherein a waxy material of natural or synthetic nature; e.g., ester type wax, hydrocarbon wax, etc. is utilized in processing or formulating the product.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.24]    89.24Coloring agent containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.11.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains a component having tinctorial properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.25]    89.25Elemental carbon containing (e.g., graphite, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.11.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains carbon in elemental form; i.e., not in the form of a carbon compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.26]    89.26Carbon fibers or filaments:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.25.  Subject matter wherein the carbon has a shape such that the length is considerably greater than its width; e.g., whiskers, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.27]    89.27Nitride compound containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.11.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains a binary compound of nitrogen; e.g., BN, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 89.28]    89.28Elemental metal or alloy containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.11.  Subject matter wherein the product formed contains free metal or a union of two or more metals.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 90]    90Utilizing layer to prevent migration or bleeding between laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which includes the step of providing at least one lamina with a material to prevent exudation or flowing of an ingredient from one lamina into contact with another lamina.
(1) Note. The material utilized as the barrier may be a coating, another lamina or an ingredient of one of the lamina.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

289,for processes of utilizing a parting or release material to prevent adhesion of several laminae.
323,for processes of interposing subsequently removed flexible element between lamina and pressure surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 91]    91With separate permanent mechanical joining means (riveted, sewed, stapled, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of mechanically securing of the parts to be joined with a mechanical fastener which constitutes a permanent part of the final product.

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227Elongated-Member-Driving Apparatus,   subclass 14 for apparatus for applying an adhesive coating to workpieces to be assembled as well as a member, e.g., nail.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 135+ for the process of surface bonding at least two parts metallurgically, combined with supplemental mechanical fastening.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 223 for a plural layer web or sheet with an interlaminar fasteners.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 92]    92With penetrating of fastener:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Processes in which the step of mechanical securing of the parts is by causing elongated or thin elements to penetrate through the parts to maintain them in assembled relationship.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclasses 432+ .
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 93]    93Sewing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Processes in which the penetrating of the parts to be assembled is by threads or other flexible strands.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclass 433 for processes of assembling parts by passing a narrow attenuated member through a series of parts and subclass 241 for corresponding apparatus for stringing parts.
112Sewing,   subclasses 475.01+ for processes of assembling parts by stitching operations not combined with the step of laminating.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 102+ for a plural layer stock material product involving a combination of sewing and coating or bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 94]    94Reclaiming, renewing or repairing articles for reuse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which are (1) combined with the step of recovering material utilized in a previous laminating procedure and/or (2) directed to restoring or rebuilding a damaged or defective article or material by a laminating procedure.
(1) Note. The recovered material may be a constituent used in a laminating procedure, e.g., lamina or constituent of an adhesive or a reject from a previous laminating operation.
(2) Note. The repaired or reclaimed article may have the same or different utility than that processed by the article prior to its reclamation or repair.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclasses 402.01+ for processes of repairing by operations provided for in this class (29).
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 28 for a glassworking or treating process which includes the step of reclaiming, renewing, repairing or crack run interruption of glass.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 36.1+ for repairing or restoring articles for use and subclass 30 for furnace lining formation or repair.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 140+ for processes of restoring or repairing by a coating operation.
429Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process,   subclass 49 for battery with repair feature.
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   appropriate subclasses, particularly Class 523, subclass 166 for a composition containing a synthetic resin or natural rubbers having utility as a puncture sealant for a pneumatic tire or for use in emergency repair of vehicular tires or to processes of preparing said composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 95]    95Toroidal shapes (e.g., tire or tube):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Processes in which the article reclaimed, repaired or renewed is of toroidal shape.
(1) Note. See subclass 110.1 of this class (156) for a definition of the scope of the expression "toroidal shape".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

81Tools,   subclasses 15.2+ , 15.3 and 15.4 for portable tools used in repairing resilient vehicle tires.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 96]    96Adhesively secured tire retreads
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Processes which are directed to the step of cementing an entirely new tread of camelback upon the worn or damaged surface of a pneumatic tire.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

157Wheelwright Machines,   subclass 13 for processes for treating the outer surface of a tire casing by cutting, lacerating and/or rasping to prepare the surface for retreading.
451Abrading,   for an abrading process performed on a tire casing or for an apparatus for performing an abrading process on a tire casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 97]    97Puncture repairing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Processes directed to repairing a tire or tube which has been rendered useless by accidental formation of an opening in the tire or tube.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

115,for the step of applying puncture sealing material to the casing of a pneumatic tire.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 98]    98With removal of defective area to be repaired:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Processes combined with the step of removing a marred or imperfect portion of a material prior to repairing.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 99]    99Optically transparent glass sandwich making (e.g., window or filter):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which are directed to joining in face to face adhesive contact at least two laminae having a glass composition by adhesive interlayer in which the lamina and interlayer have the property of transmitting rays of light so that bodies can be seen therethrough.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses is residual to treatments, per se, of laminated glass sandwiches not provided for in this or other classes, e.g., edge sealing, per se, as provided for in subclass 107 of this class (156).
(2) Note. The sandwich is optically transparent through the adhered areas as distinguished from air spaced lamina adhered at the edges only of subclass 109 below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

701through 719, for processes of delaminating, per se, not combined with a laminating procedure.
924,and 925, for processes of delaminating display screens, per se, not combined with laminating.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 36+ for a process of, and subclasses 152+ for apparatus for bonding glass to a preformed part by a glassworking operation; see the "Search Notes" thereunder.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 38 for a light transmissive mass (which could comprise plural layers) having a frame or opaque border therearound (e.g., stained glass) and subclasses 426+ for a plural layer stock material product including a layer of glass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 100]    100Variegated colored lamina or interlayer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes in which the glass lamina and/or interlayer have their surfaces provided with (1) at least two different colors, (2) a single color in a restricted area or (3) a single color varying in intensity or gradation.
(1) Note. Utilization of at least two differently colored glass laminae is within the scope of this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 134 for processes of treating paper to provide it with a variegated color combined with a paper making procedure.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 258+ for coating processes including forming superposed diverse nonuniform coatings on a base and note especially subclasses 266 to 269 for utilizing a glass base.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 101]    101With cutting or breaking or partial removal of interlayer and/or lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes combined with the step of (1) cutting the glass lamina and/or interlayer; (2) applying stress and/or strain to a glass lamina and/or interlayer to cause its separation thereof into parts; or (3) separating a portion of the interlayer from between the glass lamina.
(1) Note. The expression "cutting" in the definition of this subclass has the same meaning as defined in the class definition of Class 83.

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247+,for processes of stripping an adhered lamina. The lamina for the purposes of subclasses 247+ may be a coating or a preform.
250+,for processes of cutting without regard to the composition of the lamina.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 56 for a process of bonding glass to a formed part by a glassworking operation combined with a step of cutting, perforating or breaking.
83Cutting,   subclasses 13+ and 861 for processes of cutting not provided for elsewhere; see the search notes.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 102]    102With deformation or shaping of interlayer and/or lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes combined with the step of mechanically changing the shape, dimension or surface characteristic of the glass lamina and/or interlayer.
(1) Note. Stretching, embossing and roughening of the surface of the glass lamina and/or interlayer are operations within the scope of this subclass.

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160+,184+, 196+, and 229, for other deforming processes and the search notes appended thereto.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 54+ for a process of bonding glass to a formed part by a glassworking operation including a step of reshaping a glass preform prior to assembly or subsequent to bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 103]    103With application of plural sequential pressures:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes including the step of applying separate and distinct forces of different magnitude at separate times to a glass sandwich.

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312,for processes of applying sequential different pressures without regard to the composition of the lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 104]    104With air evacuation between laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes including the step of removing air from between the contacting faces of the glass laminae.
(1) Note. The air is removed usually by vacuum treatment and for the purpose of perfecting the bond between the glass lamina and interlayer.

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286,for similar processes without regard to composition of the lamina.
382,for laminating apparatus including means for enclosing work in an evacuated chamber.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 34 for a process of glassworking which includes the step of sealing off of a gas evacuating opening, and subclass 270 for glassworking apparatus including means for glass envelope tipping off with or without exhausting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 105]    105Directly applied fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes including the step of applying an external force to the exterior faces of a glass sandwich by applying a fluid thereto under pressure.
(1) Note. The fluid may be liquid or gaseous, which, if the latter, must be greater than atmospheric.

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285,for processes of applying fluid under pressure during a laminating operation.
382,for laminating apparatus including means to apply fluid pressure to the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 106]    106With preformed intermediate adhesive layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes in which the adhesive interlayer used to bond the glass lamina is a self-supporting film prior to association with the lamina.

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306+,for processes of autogenous bonding and/or utilizing preformed bonding agent.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 107]    107Sandwich edge sealing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 99.  Processes which are directed to filling a groove around the edges and between a pair of glass laminae with a calking or sealing material.
(1) Note. Calking or sealing operations, per se, are classified herein even though not combined with step of assembly.

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48,for processes of sealing electrical conductors.

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114Ships,   subclass 86 for methods of filling or closing seams between planks.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclass 123 for composite product making by means supporting plural preforms in spaced relation in a molding cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 108]    108Mounting transparent lamina over window opening (e.g., slide-mounting):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which a lamina having the property of transmitting rays of light is secured over an aperture in a separate lamina.

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252,for processes of laminating including the step of forming an opening in a lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 109]    109Multipane glazing unit making (e.g., air-spaced panes):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which are directed to bonding at least two transparent members while maintained in spaced relationship to each other.
(1) Note. The product produced by the processes herein is usually a window which has an evacuated space between the transparent members.

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292,for processes of bonding of laminae having opposed facing areas out of contact.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 58 for a process of bonding glass to a formed part by a glassworking operation in which the parts have opposed facing areas out of contact.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclass 121 for the process of bonding nonmetals (e.g., glass panes) with molten metal cement.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 34 for a product in the form of plural, air-spaced layers of transparent or translucent materials sealed at their edges.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 110.1]    110.1Making flexible or resilient toroidal shape; e.g., tire, inner tube, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Process for the manufacture of resilient or flexible ring-like body which body is uniquely adapted to be resilient without distortion from its general toroidal shape.
(1) Note. The majority of the art in this subclass relates to processes for making vehicle tires and innertubes, but the subclasses are not so limited. The manufacture of other similar structures by adhesive bonding, e.g., an "O-ring" gasket, may be found here if toroidal in shape and resilient.
(2) Note. As a corollary to the above, a process for adhering rubber or rubber-like materials, where achieving a toroidal shape plays no part in the process, is excluded from this and indented subclasses.

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64,for a tire-making process which involves testing, measuring or inspecting.
95+,for a process for repairing an object which has a toroidal shape.
136,for tire bead-ring making by a process of this class.
307.1,for a method of adhering together rubber materials through vulcanization, where the method is not restricted to materials having a toroidal shape.
394+,for tire building apparatus.

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26Textiles: Cloth Finishing,   appropriate subclasses especially subclasses 54 and 63 for methods of stretching endless bands for use in tires when not claimed in combination with an assembly step.
28Textiles: Manufacturing,   subclasses 165+ for treatment, e.g., shrinking, of a thread-interlaced article of fabric.
29Metal Working,   subclass 22 for a tire upsetting, cutting, punching, etc., process or apparatus; subclass 159.1 for a tire manufacturing process which does not include a step of adhesive bonding, molding, vulcanizing, etc. and subclass 426.1 for a disassembly process.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 863+ for a method of preparing a sample of a tire component for a test.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclasses, for filling tires with a liquid which does not undergo a chemical reaction or a change in physical state.
152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   appropriate subclasses for resilient tires and see especially the notes in the class definition of that class (152) for the locus of other art relating to tire structures and production.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   subclasses 709+ for a rubber composition.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article shaping or Treating: Processes,   for making tires by molding when no adhesive bonding of self-sustaining laminae is involved. See particularly subclasses 501+ , for tire making by direct pressure application, subclass 45.1 composite article making employing a porous component and subclasses 267+ for composite article making against the inner surface of a hollow body. Subclasses 315 and 326 therein are pertinent to employing toroidal mold bags and producing toroidal bodies, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 111]    111Moving work progressively to separate assembly stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes in which the toroidal shape travels to discrete work stations and different operations are performed at each station.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 429+ for other assembly processes in which the work is moved progressively to separate assembly stations.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 112]    112Solid tire type (i.e., nonpneumatic):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes in which the resiliency of the toroidal shape is produced either by the resiliency of the material used, or the material used has entrapped gas therein, which gas is at atmospheric pressure or less when the shape is not under load.

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404,and see the notes thereto for apparatus for making solid tires.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 113]    113Having cushioning void or cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Processes in which the resilient material has apertures or enclosed cavities therein to increase the cushioning effect of the toroid.
(1) Note. The articles manufactured by these processes have no means for retaining fluids under compression. A disclosure that the article is a pneumatic pressure container is sufficient to keep it from this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 114]    114Incorporation of solid nonrubber material at exposed tread surface of tire (e.g., anti-skid):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Processes including the incorporation of a solid material other than rubber at least a portion of the material lying on the external surface of the toroidal shape.
(1) Note. In this subclass may be found, for example, the incorporation of anti-skid materials such as textile fibers, metal springs or particles, abrasive granular material, etc., to the tread surface of the tire.

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96,for adhesively securing retreads in the repairing processes.

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152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 167+ and 208+ for resilient tires provided with antiskid elements embedded therein.
157Wheelwright Machines,   subclass 13 for processes for treating the outer surface of a tire by cutting or rasping to produce a nonskid surface.
451Abrading,   for a process for treating the outer surface of a tire by an abrading operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 115]    115Applying flowable puncture sealing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes including the step of affixing a material capable of filling or closing apertures occurring during use of the torodial article.

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97,for processes for repairing tire punctures by a laminating operation.

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81Tools,   subclasses 15.5+ for portable puncture repair tools.
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   subclass 5 for processes for filling tires or tubes with nongaseous fluent material such as puncture sealants.
152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 502+ for tires provided with puncture sealing structures.
252Compositions,   subclass 72 for compositions with leak-stopping agents.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 116]    116Applying differently colored material at sidewall (e.g., white wall):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes including a step of applying a material differing in color from the main toroid body to a portion only of the toroid, which portion is located on the exterior side walls thereof.

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90,for the utilization of a barrier layer to prevent migration or bleeding of materials between layers.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 117]    117Building tires directly from strands or cords:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes in which the toroid is formed by directly applying to the building form the material of the carcass while in the form of cords, strands or tapes.
(1) Note. Conventionally the cord structure of tire bodies are applied to the drum in the form of webs. In the instant patents the cords have not been assembled or woven into webs before application, rather they are applied while still in the form of strands.

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397,for apparatus for building tires from strands or narrow tapes.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 118]    118Tubular (airtight) torus (e.g., auto tube-making):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes for making toroidal shapes which are structurally airtight and are uniquely adapted to hold fluids under pressure.
(1) Note. The articles produced by this process must be, per se, airtight, as for example, a tube for a tire. So called "tubeless" tires which require the wheel to be airtight are not considered to be subject matter for this subclass.

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152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 510+ for pneumatic tube structures.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 315 and 326 pertaining to employing toroidal mold bags and producing toroidal bodies, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 119]    119Multichamber safety tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Processes in which the airtight tube has more than one airtight compartment whereby loss of pressure in a single compartment would not affect pressure in the other compartments.

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152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 331.1+ for multiple chamber tube constructions.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 120]    120Valve-applying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Processes including a step of applying the fitting whereby the pressure fluid is introduced into the airtight tube.

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152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 429+ for valved tires or tubes.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 121]    121Applying reinforcing material to external tube surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Processes including a step of applying a layer of material to the outer peripheral surface of the formed tube, which material increases the stress resistance of the tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 122]    122Joining tube ends to form torus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Processes which include a step of securing the tube ends to each other to form a closed torus.

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49,for processes for splicing indefinite length conductors.
157,for processes for splicing indefinite length laminae end-to-end.
217,for processes for bending a one piece blank and joining the edges to form an article.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 123]    123Of plural layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes in which the toroidal shape is built up of at least two layers or strata of material, which layers are adhesively secured together.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 124]    124At least one layer including metal cords:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes in which at least one of the layers or a component of one of the layers includes metal in the form of strands or filaments.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 125]    125With injection molding of outer lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes including a step of forming the outer layer of the toroid by introducing the material of the layer into a closed mold while under pressure in a fluent state.

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242+,for other laminating processes including a step of lamina formation by molding or casting.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   328.1- 328.19 particularly subclasses for injection type of molding processes. subclasses 241+ therein pertain to composite, finite article making and subclasses 315 and 326 pertaining to employing toroidal mold bags and producing toroidal products, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 126]    126Axially assembling preformed flexible endless bands:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes including a step of telescoping performed ring-like layers of material onto a shaping form.

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293,for laminating processes including the step of inserting a lamina in a hole, aperture or recess and adhering it to the walls thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 127]    127With tread-preforming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Processes in which the outer band constitutes the tread portion of a tire and have the tread configuration before assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 128.1]    128.1Applying tread material to fully-formed carcass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes including a step of applying the tire tread layer of material onto the outer peripheral surface of the formed toroidal tire body.

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92,for the application of adhesively-bonded tread material to a used tire.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 128.6]    128.6With specified treatment of tread material before application to carcass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.1.  Process in which the material of which the tread is made is treated, as by coating, etc., before application of the tread material to the tire carcass.

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127,for telescoping a preformed tread band onto a tire carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 129]    129Shaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.1.  Processes in which the tread surface configuration has been shaped before application of the tread material to the tire carcass.

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127,for telescoping a preformed tread band onto a tire carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 130]    130By winding or including application of inextensible lamina under tread bond:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.1.  Processes in which the tread material is applied by bending progressively around the formed carcass or in which a lamina having no stretch characteristics is applied to the carcass under the tread material.

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184+,for laminating processes generally for winding a lamina about a core.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 130.3]    130.3With specified procedure for interlocking of laminae or removal of air from therebetween; e.g., "stitching", etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.1.  Process wherein a specific procedure is claimed for achieving an irregular interface between laminae or for removing voids from between laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 130.5]    130.5With specified procedure for cooling or heating; e.g., for vulcanization, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.1.  Process including a step of heating or cooling the workpiece in which the conditions for such treatment are specifically claimed.
(1) Note. The conditions must include more than mere nominal "vulcanization".
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 130.7]    130.7With specified procedure for bead, carcass or sidewall formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.1.  Process including a step of bead, carcass of sidewall formation in which one of more specific details of such procedure is claimed.
(1) Note. The application of the tread in these patents usually is nominal; where tread application is more than nominal, the patent should be cross-referenced to subclass 128.1.
(2) Note. Patents are not cross-referenced to this subclass on the basis of nominal recitation of tread application, but rather cross-referenced to those subclasses below which are directed more specifically to the details of manufacture recited in the patent.

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131+,for bead-applying processes.
133+,for carcass and sidewall building processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 131]    131Bead-applying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes including a step of applying wire reinforcing rings defining the inner peripheral edges of the tire.

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136,for processes for making tire bead rings, per se.
403,for apparatus for positioning tire bead rings on the peripheral surface of the tire carcass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 132]    132Folding fabric about bead
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Processes including a step of wrapping the substance of the tire carcass about the wire bead ring to secure it in position.

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400+,for apparatus for folding the tire carcass fabric material about the bead reinforcements.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 133]    133Applying fabric to from (e.g., carcass building):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Processes including a step of bending the material of the tire body around and into the configuration of the forming surface on which it is shaped.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 134]    134Fabric splice end treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Processes including the formation of the butt end joint or splice or some manner of direct treatment peculiar to the spliced or butt end area.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 135]    135Bead portion of carcass treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.1.  Processes limited to or uniquely adapted to the treatment of that portion of the tire sidewall at or adjacent the ring reinforced inner periphery.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 136]    136Tire bead ring making:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes for making ring-like articles, which articles are particularly adapted for use as reinforcement for the inner edges of pneumatic tire casings.

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131,for tire building processes including a step of applying the bead ring.
157+,for splicing indefinite length lamina end to end.
217+,for bending a one piece blank and joining the edges to form an article.
422,for apparatus for winding wire lengths to form the tire bead reinforcement structures.
460,for apparatus for folding flexible fabrics about tire bead structures to cover same.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 137]    137Flexible endless drive belt making:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to making of flexible endless power transmission belts.
(1) Note. Processes of making endless conveyor belts are excluded from this and indented subclasses unless the patent discloses that the belt also has utility as a power transmission belt. Appropriate manipulative subclasses below should be searched for the manufacture of other endless belts.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 525.1+ , for processes of mechanically uniting ends of a continuous element to produce an endless member which may be utilized as a drive belt.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   appropriate subclasses, for a plural layer stock material product not elsewhere provided for.
474Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems or Components,   particularly subclasses 237+ for structure of a friction drive belt.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 138]    138Forming grooves on inner surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Processes which include the step of providing the surface of the endless belt, which contacts the means to be driven, with channels, recesses or corrugations.

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257,and 268, for laminating processes combined with the step of cutting a groove in a lamina or laminated article.
510+,for laminating apparatus combined with cutting means.

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83Cutting,   subclass 13 for processes of cutting a groove in a material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 139]    139"V" or trapezoid section belt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Processes which are directed to producing drive belts of V or trapezoid cross-section.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 140]    140With plastic shaping or molding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Processes combined with the step of shaping an uncured or unvulcanized material to a V or trapezoid configuration by causing the material to flow to the configuration of a forming surface.

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196+,for processes of reshaping of a self-sustaining lamina.
242+,for processes of forming a lamina by molding or casting from a molten material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 141]    141Wrapping of belt prior to shaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Processes combined with the step of covering of at least one lamina prior to altering the shape of the assembly to a V or trapezoid configuration.

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212+,for processes of bending a sheet to conform to the shape of a configured lamina while in contact therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 142]    142With cutting to "V" or trapezoid section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Processes combined with the step of removing material by cutting of an assembly of laminae to a V or trapeziod shape.
(1) Note. The patents in this subclass mostly involve transverse cutting of an endless body along the width thereof to form a plurality of V-belts.

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193,for processes of cutting a wound body.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 143]    143Helical wire or plural ring reinforced flexible tube making
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to making of flexible hollow conduits or hose and reinforcing the conduit or hose with either by a helical wire or by plural rings.
(1) Note. The helical wire may be applied as a preformed coil (144) or may be wound with or around the tube during winding thereof.

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169+,for processes of winding a filamentary material to form a helical coil.
184,for processes of winding of a sheet or web to form a hollow tube.
433+,for laminating apparatus including means to form a helical wire.
443+,for means to wind a sheet or web to form a hollow tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 144]    144Assembling preformed helical coil or rings with separate tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Processes in which the helical coil or plural rings utilized as the reinforcing means is in the form of a coil or rings prior to assembly with the material forming the tube or conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 145]    145With encapsulating of permanently fluent material in hollow or porous lamina or filling of space between adhered laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of enclosing a filling of the space in the interior of a hollow or porous lamina or the space between spaced adhered lamina with a gas, vapor or liquid which remains permanently associated with the lamina.
(1) Note. Patents in this subclass include inflating a hollow lamina subsequent to its assembly with another lamina.

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81,for processes of gasification or a liquid in situ within a hollow body.
156,for processes of utilizing fluid pressure to prevent collapse of hollow structure during assembly and/or joining.
285,for processes of using fluid pressure in general.

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222Dispensing,   subclass 1 for process of gas or vapor dispensing.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 146]    146Prior to bonding of laminae (e.g., golf balls):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Processes in which the filling step takes place prior to bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 147]    147With inflation of airtight cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Processes in which the filling operation is of an impervious hollow core.
(1) Note. The filling may be, for example, inflation with air of a football bladder.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 148]    148With weaving, knitting, braiding, twisting or needling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of weaving, knitting, braiding and/or needling.
(1) Note. For the scope of the textile working operations provided for in this subclass, see the appropriate textile working classes, e.g., weaving, see Class 139, Textiles: Weaving, and for knitting, see Class 66, Textiles: Knitting.

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91,for processes of adhesively uniting at least two laminae combined with the step of additionally securing them together by a sewing operation.
393,for laminating apparatus combined with braiding or weaving means.

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28Textiles: Manufacturing,   subclasses 107+ for processes of and apparatus for producing fabrics either by punching fibers through a base fabric or through a batt of fibers.
57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   subclass 362 for processes for twisting filamentary and/or fibrous material into yarns, threads, cords, etc.
66Textiles: Knitting,   appropriate subclasses, for processes and apparatus for knitting textiles.
87Textiles: Braiding, Netting, and Lace Making,   subclasses 8+ for processes of braiding of strands together.
139Textiles: Weaving,   appropriate subclasses, for processes of weaving strands to produce textiles.
140Wireworking,   subclass 149 for processes of twisting wire.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 149]    149About tubular lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Processes in which the textile working operation occurs about a conduit or tube having an open passageway therethrough.

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87Textiles: Braiding, Netting, and Lace Making,   subclass 9 for processes of braiding to produce a tubular fabric.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 150]    150With electro-deposition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of forming or depositing a coating material upon a base by electrolytic action, electrophoresis or electroosmosis, and/or cathode sputtering.

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536,for laminating apparatus including means to apply a coating other than the laminating adhesive.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 471+ for electrophoretic or electro-osmotic coating or forming of an object and subclasses 192.12+ for glow discharge sputter deposition (e.g., cathode sputtering, etc.).
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 80+ for processes of coating by electrolytic action.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 151]    151On adherent surface of lamina prior to assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Processes directed to electrodepositing a coating on the face of a first lamina which contacts the face of second lamina prior to its contact with the second lamina.

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314+,for processes of applying a coating to an adherent face of one lamina by a coating operation not involving electrodeposition.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 152]    152With temporary disassembling and subsequent bond
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which includes the step of separating one lamina from another lamina or from an assembly of laminae, and thereafter bonding the separated lamina to the same lamina from which it was previously separated.
(1) Note. The laminae need not be initially bonded. For example, in this subclass may be found patents in which associated laminae are separated, adhesive is applied and the laminae and reunited and bonded.

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247+,for processes of stripping an adhered lamina combined with a laminating step.
701through 719, for delaminating processes, per se.
712,for delaminating processes, per se, using heat combined with electromagnetic radiation.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 426.1 for processes which include the step of disassociating one or more parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 153]    153With abrading or grinding of lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of removing of an integral portion of a material by a grinding action.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 89.5 and 90.01+ for processes of wearing-in or burnishing metal.
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 61 for process of glassworking and/or treating combined with the step of grinding; see the "Search Notes" thereunder.
451Abrading,   subclasses 28+ for an abrading process which is not combined with a laminating operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 154]    154Subsequent to assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Processes in which the abrading or grinding step takes place after combining the laminae.
(1) Note. Abrading or grinding of a lamina while associated but not adhesively bonded thereto is classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 155]    155With destruction of solid transity material; e.g., dissolving, melting, etc.
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the steps of provisionally associating a part with a 204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, subclasses 471+ for electrophoretic or electro-osmotic coating or forming of an object and subclasses 192.12+ for glow discharge sputter deposition (e.g., cathode sputtering, etc.) separate solid part or material, performing a laminating operation, and subsequently destroying the separate solid part or material.
(1) Note. The destruction may be accomplished by dissolving, melting or breaking the part into smaller constituents which can be easily removed, e.g., breaking a core into small grains.

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153+,for processes of destroying a transitory material by abrading or grinding.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 114.6 for processes of swelling textiles which includes the step of destruction of a portion of the textile.
29Metal Working,   subclasses 423+ for processes which include destroying separate material which has been temporarily associated to another part.
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 23 for a process of glassworking combined with a step of destroying or delaminating a transitorily attached or associated layer.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 156]    156With fluid pressure to prevent collapse of hollow structure during assembly and/or joining:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of filling the space of a hollow lamina or of the space between spaced lamina with a temporary gaseous or liquid material which exerts an opposing force during assembly and/or joining to prevent a change in the configuration or shape of one of the lamina or of the assembled laminae.

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72Metal Deforming,   subclass 54 for cores filled with fillers, such as sand, liquid, etc., which are put into the tubes to support the walls during the bending operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 157]    157Joining indefinite length laminae end-to-end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to the step of associating the ends only of two laminae of indeterminate length to increase the overall length thereof.
(1) Note. The splice may be either a butt or overlap joint.

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304.1+,for processes of bonding laminae end-to-end without overlap.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 158]    158Of wire, rod, tube or flament:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Processes which are directed to splicing of laminae having a cross-section the dimensions of which are generally the same.

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49,for methods of splicing electrical conductors of indefinite length.

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57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   subclass 362 for processes of splicing strands by a twisting or twining operation.
140Wireworking,   subclasses 111+ for processes of joining or uniting wires not involving an adhesive uniting operation.
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 475.1+ for means to unite a reserve thread to the last end of a thread on a winding bobbin in a winding machine.
289Knots and Knot Tying,   subclass 1.5 for processes of intertwining portions of cords, ropes or strips without unlaying the strands for the purpose of fastening them together.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 159]    159With cutting of joining ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Processes combined with the step of cutting the ends of the laminae to be joined.
(1) Note. The cutting in this subclass is usually to have the abutting ends of the laminae mirror images of each other or to prepare the ends for bonding.
(2) Note. The scope of the term "cutting" is determined by the definition of Class 83.

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250+,particularly subclass 258 for processes of cutting to shape the joining edge surfaces only of at least one lamina prior to assembly in which at least one lamina is not of indefinite length.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 160]    160Bonding in stressed condition of at least one prestressed element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which includes the step of applying an external force within the elastic limit of the material to at least one lamina prior to bonding to cause a change of form or dimension of the lamina and maintaining the lamina under such application of force during the bonding operation.
(1) Note. Merely holding a lamina taut during laminating operation is not considered an application of stress for this subclass.
(2) Note. Stretching of a fabric not to place the individual strands or filaments under stress but to cause the individual weft and waft strands or filaments to come closer to one another is not considered an application of stress for this subclass.
(3) Note. The external force may be one of tension or compression of the lamina. One form of tension is stretching.

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84,for processes of shrinking of the material of a lamina.
229,for processes of stretching wherein the lamina is not under a stress or strain during the bonding operation.
494+,for laminating apparatus including means to apply tension or to stretch the work.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 446+ for processes of assembling parts to each other in which one of the parts is under stress during assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 161]    161Of stressed filaments:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Processes which are directed to application of the external force to slender thread-like laminae.

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166+,for processes of bonding flexible filamentary material while in indefinite length or running length.
296,for processes of bonding definite length elongated filaments.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for processes involving prestressing of filamentary material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 162]    162During winding of lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Processes in which the application of external force to the lamina occurs during winding thereof.
(1) Note. See subclass 184 of this class for a definition of the term "winding".

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184+,for processes of bonding laminae combined with the step of winding a sheet or web.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 163]    163Bonding of sheets or webs only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Processes in which the lamina to which the external force is applied is in the form of sheet or web and the stressed sheet or web is bonded to another sheet or web.
(1) Note. A sheet or web is for the purposes of this class very thin in relation to its length and breadth; as a sheet of glass or paper.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 164]    164Running length web:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Processes in which the web subjected to an external force is moving during such application.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 165]    165Stressing spherical or tubular body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Processes in which the lamina subjected to an external stress is a spherical or hollow tubular body.

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170,186, 187+, and 212+, for bonding processes in which one of the laminae is of spherical or tubular shape.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 450+ for processes of uniting mating parts in which one of the parts is prestressed.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 166]    166Bonding of flexible filamentary material while in indefinite length or running length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to the step of (1) assembling at least one flexible thread-like lamina with a similarly or differently shaped lamina while the thread-like lamina is of indeterminate length during the assembly operation or (2) causing a single thread-like lamina to be bonded to itself.
(1) Note. Flexible rods of indefinite length are considered filamentary material for the purposes of this and indented subclasses.

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161,for processes of bonding filaments in stressed condition.
296,for processes of bonding filaments of finite length and are not considered staple fibers.
433+,for apparatus for laminating an indefinite or indefinite length flexible strand, rod, tube or filament.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 167]    167With formation of filaments:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Processes combined with the step of continuously generating the continuous filaments or threads.
(1) Note. The filaments herein may be formed by an extruding operation, for example.

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28,for processes of forming filaments from a molten plastic material combined with a cutting step to form staple fibers.
500,for laminating apparatus combined with casting, molding or extruding means.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 165+ for processes within the class definition, for forming continuous or indefinite length articles from plastic materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 168]    168With removal of filamentary material subsequent to lamination thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Processes combined with the step of removing an adhesively secured filamentary material from another material.

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153+,for processes of removing an adhesively secured lamina by the step of abrading or grinding.
155,for processes of removing an adhesively secured lamina from another lamina by destruction thereof.
247+,for processes of stripping nonfilamemtary material previously adhesively adhered to another lamina.
701through 719, for processes of delaminating, per se.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 426.1+ for processes of disassembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 169]    169With winding of flamentary material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Processes combined with the step of bending the filamentary material in a substantially circular path with overlap more than enough to merely join the ends.

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143,for processes of making helical wire reinforced flexible tubes which includes the step of winding a filament to form the helical wire.
161,for processes of winding a filament in which the filament is under stress during the winding operation.
184+,for processes of winding a sheet or web.

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242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 430+ and 470+ for a strand article or storage package winding machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 170]    170About spherical lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Processes which involves the step of winding of a filament about a globular or spherical body or lamina.

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242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 435+ and 436 for winding elongated material about a spherical core without specified adhesive bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 171]    171With winding of separate sheet or web:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Processes including a step of winding a sheet or web about the wound filament or about the core on which the filament is wound.

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162,for processes of prestressing a sheet or web during winding thereof.
184+,for processes of winding a web or sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 172]    172Winding about and uniting to core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Processes directed to winding the filament about a core not fabricated by a winding operation and bonding the filament to the core.
(1) Note. The core may be for the purposes of this subclass of any configuration, for example, a sheet or tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 173]    173Winding about subsequently removed core or mandrel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Processes directed to winding the filament about a core or mandrel to support the filament during the winding operation without adhesively bonding the filament to the core or mandrel.

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172,for processes of winding a filament about a core to which the filament is ultimately adhesively secured.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 174]    174With cutting of filamentary material to form web or sheet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Processes combined with the step of cutting of the wound assembly parallel to the longitudinal axis of the core or mandrel and opening the cut body.
(1) Note. The patents in this subclass usually relate to the fabrication of weftless fabrics.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 175]    175Of filamentary material only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Processes directed to the making of a product constituted solely of filamentary material.

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174,for similar processes of bonding filamentary material only combined with a cutting step.
180+,for processes of assembly of filaments only not combined with a winding operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 176]    176To web of indefinite length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Processes which are directed to bonding of at least one filamentary material to a web of indeterminate length.

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436,for laminating apparatus for bonding at least one strand or filament to an indefinite or running length web.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 177]    177With axis of filamentary material nonparallel to axis of web:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Processes directed to bonding at least one filamentary material to a web while at least a portion of the filamentary material is disposed crosswise of the length of the web to which it is secured.

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439,for apparatus for laminating a strand crosswise of a web.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 178]    178Plural filaments:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Processes directed to the step of bonding at least two filaments to a web of indefinite length.

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297+,for processes of bonding plural filaments of finite length to a sheet or web.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 179]    179Between plural webs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Processes directed to interposing at least two filaments between at least two webs of indeterminate length and in which the filaments are in contact with the plural webs.
(1) Note. The patents in this subclass usually relate to making reinforced paper.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 180]    180Of filamentary material only to form article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Processes in which only filaments of indefinite or running length are united to form an article.
(1) Note. The products formed by the processes of this subclass may be strands, rods or cords.

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441,for laminating apparatus including means to gather strands or filaments only into an indefinite length rod, strand or web.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 181]    181Article is sheet or web:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Processes in which the article made is a sheet or web.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 182]    182Of at least two bonded subassemblies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which two or more intermediate laminates are assembled into a final laminate, usually of four or more layers.
(1) Note. The claims may include the step or steps of making an intermediate laminate by adhesive bonding, coating, etc..
(2) Note. The step of assembling a sandwich to a nonlaminated product or single element is not considered assembly of subassemblies for this subclass.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 469 for processes of joining subassemblies there provided for.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 183]    183With creping, wrinkling, crinkling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of imparting to at least one lamina a crinkle or wrinkle effect, known as crepe, by the step of crowding a web or sheet back on itself to induce it to wrinkle.
(1) Note. The step of corrugating is not considered wrinkling within the scope of this subclass.

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196+,for combined corrugating and laminating.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 117 for chemical processes of crinkling cellulosic fibers.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 111+ and 280+ for processes and apparatus for creping or crinkling paper.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses and especially subclass 282 for processes of wrinkling or creping, per se, of paper or plastic materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 184]    184With winding of web or sheet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of moving one part of a single web or sheet in a substantially circular path with respect to another part such that at least one and one half convolutions of the web or sheet is formed and the one part is superimposed on the other part.
(1) Note. The wound part must overlap more than enough to merely form a good joint.

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162,for processes of winding a lamina combined with prestressing of the lamina.
171,for processes of winding a sheet or web combined with the step of winding a filament.
443+,for laminating apparatus including winding means.

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242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   for a process or apparatus for winding elongated material onto a core.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 185]    185Uniting to separate core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Processes in which the step of winding is about a separate nonwound core to which it is adhesively united.

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212+,for processes of bending a sheet to assume shape of configured lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 186]    186Spherical core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Processes in which the core is of spherical configuration.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 187]    187Tubular core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Processes in which the core is a hollow tubular element.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 188]    188Sequential winding of separate webs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Processes in which at least two separate webs are wound about a nonwound core one after the other.
(1) Note. Patents which define simultaneously feeding separate webs and which are assembled at the point of contact with the core are considered within the scope of this subclass.
(2) Note. Winding of an assembly of webs is not considered a winding of at least two separated webs for the purposes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 189]    189About irregular or configured mandrel surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Processes in which the winding of the web or sheet is about a core to support the web or sheet during the winding operation without bonding the web or sheet to the core and a transverse cross-section of the core at any section along the length thereof is either (a) noncircular in cross-section or (b) circular in cross-section and at least two circular sections thereof are of different diameter.
(1) Note. Cores which are circular in cross-section and of the same diameter throughout are excluded from this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 190]    190Sequential winding of separate webs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Processes directed to winding at least two separate webs or sheets about a removable core one after the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 191]    191With additional assembly (other than winding):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Processes having a step of associating parts by manipulations other than the winding operation.
(1) Note. The step of laminating two sheets and then winding the laminated sheets to form a wound product is included within the scope of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 192]    192Prior to windling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Processes in which the additional assembly step occurs before the step of assembly by winding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 193]    193With cutting of wound body (excludes nominal cutoff):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Processes combined with the step of cutting of the article produced by a winding operation.
(1) Note. Cutting of the wound body along a transverse cross-section perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the wound body to produce a plurality of identical articles, e.g., cut off, is excluded from this subclass unless a dimension or shape of the article is defined in the claim.

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250+,for processes of laminating combined with a cutting operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 194]    194With reshaping of wound body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Processes combined with the step of changing the shape of the article produced by the winding operation to a shape of different configuration.

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196+,for laminating processes combined with a shaping operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 195]    195Longitudinally progressive helical winding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Processes which are directed to winding a sheet or web about a removable core or mandrel in such manner that the longitudinal edges of the sheet or web overlap or abut each other at the juncture of the successive convolutions to form a spiral tube-like article.

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425+,for laminating apparatus including spiral winding means.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 196]    196With permanent bending or reshaping or surface deformation of self sustaining lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with a step of (1) distorting a workpiece by bending to alter its shape, (2) changing the gross over-all shape of a self-sustaining workpiece by a deforming operation or (3) altering the surface configuration only of a workpiece by raising bosses or protuberances thereon or causing surface portions to be depressed below the plane of the work surface.
(1) Note. The reshaping to a different configuration of a self-supporting workpiece may be by stretch-forming or by a drawing operation.
(2) Note. Stretching is not considered a reshaping operation for the purposes of this subclass, nor is cutting considered to be a deforming operation. See appropriate subclasses below for this art.
(3) Note. For a definition of "bending" as used in the above definition see the term as defined in the glossary of the class definition.

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229,for laminating combined with stretching.
242+,for laminating combined with the step of forming a lamina by a molding or casting operation.
250+,for laminating combined with cutting.
443+,for laminating apparatus combined with reshaping means.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 54+ for a process of bonding glass to a preformed part by a glassworking operation combined with the step of reshaping of the glass part prior to assembly or subsequent to bonding.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 141.1+ for a process of metallic bonding combined with mechanical shaping.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclass, for reshaping or deforming, per se, of paper or plastic materials.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 98+ for a plural layer stock material product with structure, and especially indented subclasses 121+ for such a product with a fold at the edge, subclasses 156+ for such a product embodying a component of varying thickness, and subclasses 174+ for such a product embodying a component of nonplanar uniform thickness (e.g., corrugated, pleated).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 197]    197By separating laminae between spaced secured areas (e.g., honeycomb expanding):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes which are directed to the steps of bonding at spaced secured areas only and separating, expanding or opening at least one portion of a lamina at the nonbonded area from its contact with another portion of the same or different lamina.
(1) Note. Most of the patents in this subclass relate to making of honeycomb structures.
(2) Note. Patents which claim the step of opening or separating of the nonadherent areas of adhesively united laminae are included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 198]    198By inward collapsing of portion of hollow body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which the step of reshaping is by causing at least a portion of a hollow body to move inwardly from the periphery of the body and into contact with another portion.
(1) Note. In this subclass may be found, for example, sealing the ends of a tube by a pinching operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 199]    199Running or continuous length work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which the lamina subjected to the step of bending, reshaping or embossing is a flexible web of indeterminate length and wherein the bending, reshaping or embossing occurs during intermittent or continuous movement of the web.

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459+,for laminating apparatus combined with means to bend or fold an indefinite or running length flexible web.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 200]    200Longitudinal bending:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Processes directed to the step of bending a web along or parallel to its longitudinal axis.

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461+,for laminating apparatus combined with longitudinal bending means.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 201]    201Prior to or during assembly with additional lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Processes in which the bending step occurs either before or while the web is being assembled with the part to which it is to be adhered.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 202]    202Overedge bending or overedge folding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Processes in which the web is turned over the edge of a separate workpiece with which it is assembled and distorted into facial contact therewith.

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216,for processes of overedge bending of a sheet about another sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 203]    203And edge-joining of one piece blank to form tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Processes in which the longitudinal edges of web are bent into contact with each other to overlap or abut to form a hollow tubular body.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 204]    204Folding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Processes which involves bending one portion of a web and superimposing the bent portion of the lamina on the other portion of the same lamina, the two portions being in face to face contact to the bendline.
(1) Note. Pleating that is repeated back and forth folding is within the scope of this subclass.
(2) Note. In folding a sharp line of bend is made and the portions are brought into facial contact as distinguished from corrugating in which the product undulates and the adjacent faces are spaced after bending.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 205]    205Transverse corrugating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Processes in which the bending involves forming a web with alternate ridges and grooves with a component transverse to the longitudinal axis of the web.

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204,for transverse folding.
470,for laminating apparatus including corrugating means.
590+,for corrugating apparatus, per se.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 286 for processes of corrugating, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 206]    206Subsequent to assembly of laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Processes in which the step of corrugating takes place after the step of assembling at least two laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 207]    207With deformation or cutting of corrugated lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Processes combined with the step of changing the shape of one of the corrugations of a corrugated lamina and/or cutting of a corrugated lamina.
(1) Note. The restriction of the term "cutting" is the same as stated in (1) Note of subclass 193 of this class.

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250,for laminating processes combined with a step of cutting.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 208]    208Treating material of corrugated lamina or dry adhesive thereon to render tacky:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Processes in which the corrugated lamina is of incipient adhesiveness or has a dry adhesive thereon and the lamina is physically or chemically treated other than by the application of an adhesive material to cause the surface of the lamina or dry adhesive coating thereon to become tacky or sticky.

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305,for processes of applying a solvent or chemical activating agent to an assembly of laminae.
306.3,for processes of autogenous bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 209]    209Surface deformation only (e.g., embossing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Processes in which the reshaping operation involves only the surface of the lamina and only partially through the thickness and wherein the overall shape of the lamina throughout its breadth and width is unaltered.
(1) Note. Embossing of a lamina is an example of a surface deformation operation within the scope of this subclass.
(2) Note. See the part (3) of the definition of subclass 196 of this class for the scope of the term "surface deformation".

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219,for processes of surface deformation of a nonrunning length lamina.
553,for laminating apparatus including a discontinuous or patterned press.

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101Printing,   subclass 32 for processes of embossing or penetrating, per se.
144Woodworking,   subclass 358 for a process of embossing wood.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 210]    210To form undulated to corrugated sheet and securing to base with parts of shaped area out of contact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which the reshaping operation involves distorting a workpiece to form alternating ridges and grooves in wave like shape and bonding the workpiece to a generally planar lamina whereby the ridges only are in contact with the lamina.

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292,for processes of laminating, per se, of laminae having opposed facing areas out of contact.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 211]    211With slitting or removal of material at reshaping area prior to reshaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes combined with the step of slitting and/or removal of a portion of the material at the reshaping or bending areas only of a lamina.
(1) Note. The purpose of the slitting and/or removal of material is to prevent formation of undulations, gathers or bulges at the bending or reshaping area.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 212]    212By bending, drawing or stretch forming sheet to assume shape of configured lamina while in contact therewith:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which a lamina is forced to assume the configuration of a shaped lamina as it is brought into association therewith; the shaped lamina serving as the form against which the other lamina is distorted.

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229,for stretching of a lamina, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 213]    213Encasing or enveloping the configured lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Processes involving completely enclosing the configured lamina by the lamina or laminae being reshaped.
(1) Note. This subclass includes enclosing the configured lamina by utilization of more than one additional lamina, e.g., enclosing a sphere by two semi-spherical laminae formed in situ on the sphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 214]    214With preshaping of lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Processes combined with the step of shaping a body to form configured lamina before association with the adhered lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 215]    215Flexible sheet of cylinder lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Processes in which the configured lamina is cylindrical.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 216]    216Overedge bending of lamina about edges of sheetlike base:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which a portion of a lamina extending beyond the edge of a sandwich is folded over the edge and back against the opposite face of the sandwich.

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202,for processes for bending a running length lamina over the edge of a different part.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 217]    217Bending of one piece blank and joining edges to form article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which the reshaping is of a part of a single lamina to juxtapose marginal portions thereof in either butt or lapped positions and the juxtaposed portions are secured one to the other.
(1) Note. The one piece blank may be composite, i.e., formed of a plurality of laminae or of parts integrated as a unit.

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228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 144+ for the process of metallurgically bonding the margins of a one-piece blank.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 218]    218Hollow cylinder article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Processes in which the article produced by the reshaping operation is a hollow cylinder.

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215,for processes of wrapping a sheet about a cylindrical core to form a cylindrical cover thereon which is adhesively bonded to the core.

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72Metal Deforming,   subclasses 48+ for a method or machine within the scope of the class which includes a step of or means for press-seaming the edges of a single metal blank to form a tube.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 118 for processes of making tubes combined with paper making.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 219]    219Surface deformation only of sandwich or lamina (e.g., embossed panels):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which the surface configuration only of a workpiece is altered by raising bosses or protuberances thereon or causing surface portions to be depressed below the plane of the workpiece surface.

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209,for processes of deforming a web-surface and the search notes therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 220]    220Subsequent to lamination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Processes in which the step of deforming the surface only occurs after the parts have been brought into assembled relationship.
(1) Note. Embossing of an assembly of laminae in which the adhesive may not be completely cured are included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 221]    221Subsequent to assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes in which the bending or reshaping occurs after the parts have been brought into assembled relationship.
(1) Note. The assembled laminae need not be adhesively bonded for the purposes of this and indented subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 222]    222Of parallel stacked sheets only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Processes in which the assembly is composed only of superimposed parallel sheets in face to face contact.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 223]    223Bending of one lamina only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Processes directed to the bending of only one lamina of the assembly of laminae.
(1) Note. Processes in which one lamina of an assembly is not subjected to a bending operation and a sandwich associated therewith is subjected to a bending operation is included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 224]    224To form dished or receptacle-like product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Processes in which the product produced by the bending or reshaping operation on a plurality of stacked sheets has a concavity or hollow portion.
(1) Note. Processes of making semi-cylindrical products are included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 226]    226Folding only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Processes in which the assembly of laminae is subjected to the step of bending at least one portion of the assembly relative to the remaining portion of the assembly such that the first portion is superimposed upon and in facial contact with the other portion in which this type of bending constitutes the sole bending operation.

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202,for processes of longitudinally folding a running length web.

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270Sheet-Material Associating,   appropriate subclasses for folding, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 227]    227By folding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Processes including a step of folding a lamina.
(1) Note. See subclass 226 of this class for a definition of the term "folding" and the search notes appended thereto.

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226,for processes of bending an assembly of laminae and search (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 228]    228Or preshaped laminae between closed similarly shaped press platens or clamps:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to bonding of configured lamina involving the application of recessed press platens in which the shape of the recesses conform to the shape of the configured laminae.
(1) Note. In this subclass, the shaped platens impart no shape to the sandwich, merely applying the laminating pressure. The platens are configured for the purpose of evenly pressing the sandwich.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 229]    229With stretching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of applying sufficient tension to a lamina to increase its effective length or breadth or both.
(1) Note. See subclass 160 of this class, (2) Note, for a restriction on the scope of the term "stretching".

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160,for processes of stretching a lamina and uniting the lamina to another lamina while maintained in stretch condition and see (1) Note above.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 132 for processes of stretching artificial fibers combined with swelling or plasticizing.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes within the class definition for shaping or molding which may include a stretching step, particularly subclasses 197 , 198, 210.1, 235.6, 288.4, and 291+.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 171+ for coating combined with a stretching or tensioning step.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 230]    230Direct contact transfer of adhered lamina from carrier to base
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which a lamina bonded to a carrier is, assembled with a base, caused to adhere to the base and then subsequently the adhesive bond between the lamina and carrier is destroyed to free the lamina and base from the carrier.
(1) Note. The step of utilizing an apparatus which includes an adhesive coated surface for the purpose of removing an element from a stack of elements and transferring the element to an adhesive coated base (e.g., picker) is not considered direct transfer for this subclass.

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8+,for processes of transferring a resist combined with etching.
89.11+,for processes of vitrification or firing of ceramic material which may have been applied to a base by a transfer mechanism.
249,for processes wherein an adhered lamina is stripped from a base and subsequently adhered to a different surface.
540+,for apparatus used to perform a direct transfer operation.
719,for a delaminating from a release surface process, per se.
933,for processes of delaminating a label from a release surface.

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8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclass 467 for processes of transferring dyes and discharges and for dye containing transfers.
101Printing,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 34 , 401.1, 463 for processes utilizing transfers for preparation of printing surfaces; subclass 464 for film to film imbibition; and subclasses 468+ for copying processes (e.g., hectographic).
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 146+ for processes of making a transfer or copy sheet by a coating operation.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 40.1+ for a composite stock material product having a layer of adhesive and a covering therefor which must be removed or stripped to expose the adhesive and enable it to be adhered to a surface; subclass 352 for a composite stock material having an adhesive outermost surface and also having a release or anti-stick coating (usually on the surface opposite the adhesive surface).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 231]    231With formation of lamina of continuous length by molding or casting on endless carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes directed to the steps of forming a lamina by casting or molding on an endless belt or calender roll carrier, contacting the lamina while on the carrier with a preformed base and thereafter removing the lamina from the carrier.

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238,for direct transfer processes employing a running length flexible web carrier.
242+,for laminating processes combined with molding or casting a lamina.
500+,for laminating apparatus including means for casting or molding a lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 232]    232Carrier is configured mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes wherein the carrier, on which the lamina is applied or formed, has a configured surface so that the applied or formed lamina will be shaped or molded into a desired configuration or pattern.

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245,for lamina formation by casting or molding in a configured mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 233]    233Metal foil lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes wherein the transferred lamina is of thin metallic sheet or foil.
(1) Note. The metallic sheet or foil may be of unitary composition or may be metal particles sprayed or deposited on a base and treated, if necessary, with a suitable binder to form a cohesive layer, prior to transfer thereof.
(2) Note. Metal layers applied to the carrier by a coating process (e.g., electrodeposition) shall be considered to be "foils".

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150+,for laminating processes including the production of transfer laminae by electrodeposition.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 234]    234Of portion only of lamina from carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes wherein only a portion of the lamina on the carrier is transferred to the base, the remainder staying adhered to the carrier.
(1) Note. This subclass includes both the processes wherein the transferred portion is a top section of the lamina with a continuous thickness remaining on the carrier, or where continuous or discontinuous strips or parts of the lamina through the total thickness thereof are transferred.

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254,for splitting of sheet lamina in plane intermediate of its faces.
261,for processes of punching sections through a lamina and simultaneously applying laminating pressure to the cutout sections with the same punching device.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 235]    235Plural transferring operations and/or with additional laminating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes which include more than one direct contact transfer operation and/or a laminating step other than direct contact transfer.
(1) Note. The additional lamination herein may be to the transferred lamina or laminae, or the base plus transferred lamina may be bonded to still another surface.

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239+,for simultaneous transfer of plural superimposed laminae by a single direct transfer operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 236]    236Solvent other than water to release lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes wherein the transfer is aided by solvent action to facilitate release of the lamina from the carrier, said solvent being a fluid other than water, per se.
(1) Note. An aqueous composition containing a nonwater component is within the scope of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 237]    237Coating of transferred lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes wherein the transferred lamina receives a coating subsequent to transfer thereof from carrier to base.

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280,for coating of a nonadherent surface of a lamina subsequent to lamination thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 238]    238Running or continuous flexible web carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes in which the carrier employed is a running or continuous length flexible web.

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231,for processes wherein the lamina is cast or molded on an endless belt or calender roll.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 239]    239Plural superimposed laminae transferred:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes wherein a plurality of superimposed laminae on the carrier are simultaneously transferred.
(1) Note. Transfer of a plurality of coatings of the same composition is considered the same as transfer of a single coating; however, if the ingredients of each coating are identical but differ in proportion, the coatings are considered different coatings for the purposes of this subclass.

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235,for processes involving plural sequential transferring operations and/or with additional lamination.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 240]    240Transfer of printing or design:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 239.  Processes wherein the transferred laminae are in the form of printing or a design.
(1) Note. See the search notes to this class, subclass 230 for processes involving transfer of resist patterns, ceramic designs, dyes and discharges, and/or printing.

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277,for printing processes combined with a laminating step.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 241]    241To base coated with adhesive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Processes wherein the lamina is transferred from the carrier to a base which has been previously coated with an adhesive agent.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 242]    242With lamina formation by molding or casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of forming a lamina by a molding or casting operation.
(1) Note. The step of simultaneously molding and uniting combined with a laminating step is included herein.

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231,for molding or casting of a lamina on a carrier prior to direct transfer thereof.
500+,for apparatus including means for casting a lamina.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 45+ for a process of bonding of glass to a formed part by a glassworking operation combined with a step of forming a glass part from molten glass.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes for molding or shaping plastic materials within the class definition, particularly those subclasses pertaining to composite article formation, e.g., as by extruding a plastic material around a preform, see subclasses 45.1+ , 112+, 171.1+, 241+ and 642+. Class 264 further provides for uniting spaced parts by flowing a fluent material therebetween, even though for a processthe function of said material is disclosed to be merely to bond, just so long as the parts to be united are placed in final spaced relationship before said material is introduced, see particularly subclasses 261+. For a more comprehensive line between Class 156 and Class 264 see the class definition of Class 264.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 243]    243Forming plural continuous web laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Processes directed to casting or molding plural continuous webs which webs are either bonded to each other or to different laminae or surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.11]    244.11By extrusion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Processes in which the lamina formation is by extrusion or die expressing.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.12]    244.12Encapsulating or enclosing a lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes wherein the lamina is completely covered or enclosed by another lamina, or wherein an elongated or indefinite length article excluding the extreme ends is enclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.13]    244.13Hollow article or lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes wherein a lamina or the article produced is hollow.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.14]    244.14Differential fluid pressure used:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.13.  Processes wherein a positive or negative pressure is applied through the medium of a liquid or gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.15]    244.15Specific nonuniform lamina or article; e.g., netting or rib and groove, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.13.  Processes wherein an article other than a continuous uniform thickness tube or the like is produced, or wherein a lamina is nonuniform.
(1) Note. Netting and articles with rib and groove elements are included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.16]    244.16With printing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Process with a printing step.
(1) Note. The printing in this subclass includes the printing of an adhesive.

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101Printing,   appropriate subclasses for printing processes, per se.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 134 for processes of making paper combined with a printing step.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.17]    244.17Electrical, magnetic, or wave energy used:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes which include the step of (1) passing an electric current directly through the article or a lamina, (2) subjecting the article or a lamina to an electric or magnetic field, or (3) directly applying radiant energy to the article or a laminae.
(1) Note. This subclass includes use of energy as a pretreatment or post-treatment as well as during bonding of one or more laminae.
(2) Note. The wave energy applied to the work may be light, emanations of radioactive material, infrared rays, ion bombardment, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.18]    244.18With cutting, severing, or perforating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes combined with a step or (1) penetrating the article or a lamina to achieve at least partial separation of a portion of the material of the workpiece, or (2) moving one part of the article or a lamina relative to the other to cause separation of the parts.
(1) Note. The cutting, severing, or perforating may be prior to, during, or after the bonding step and of any lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.19]    244.19After bonding; e.g., as finishing step, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.18.  Processes wherein the cutting, severing, or perforating step is performed after bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.21]    244.21Differential fluid pressure used:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes including the application of positive or negative pressure to the work through the medium of a liquid or gas.
(1) Note. Use of steam pressure solely as a source of heat is not included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.22]    244.22Bonding spaced preforms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes where laminae in spaced relationship (plural laminae or bonding a lamina to itself) are bonded by means of another element which is self-sustaining, e.g., a bead of adhesive, etc.
(1) Note. Included herein are methods using a pair of spaced rollers through which two laminae are fed with an intermediate preform therebetween to effect bonding.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 261+ for introducing fluent bonding material between spaced preforms.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.23]    244.23Pretreatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes including a treatment to prepare or adapt a lamina for the bonding step wherein mere heating is not sufficient.
(1) Note. Mere broad recitation of heating of a lamina to render adhesive is not sufficient; however, detailed heating steps for such, e.g., reciting conditions, degree of heating or treating segments only, etc., is included.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.24]    244.24Post-treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes which includes a step of after treatment of the bonded article.
(1) Note. Final curing of an assembled lamina to perfect or complete bonding is considered a part of the bonding step and not an after treatment for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.25]    244.25Article or at least one lamina of nonuniform thickness or discontinuous:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes wherein the method includes bonding of a nonuniform or discontinuous lamina, or where a nonuniform article is produced, e.g., curved edges.
(1) Note. This subclass is intended to include a lamina or an article having a discontinuous layer, i.e., apertured or a layer formed of separate pieces of material, e.g., a ribbed article.
(2) Note. This subclass includes uniform lamina but wherein the bonding is nonuniform, i.e., discontinuous or spot bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.26]    244.26Bonding in specified environment (other than temperature):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes including employment of conditions other than ambient in the bonding step, e.g., pressure, etc., use of particular medium, e.g., steam or reactive vapor during the bonding, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 244.27]    244.27Pressure assisted bonding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.11.  Processes including positive recital of use of mechanical pressure to assist in the bonding step, e.g., use of platens or a pair of pressure rolls, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 245]    245In configured mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Processes in which the lamina formation is performed in a configured mold to impart a desired shape or particular conformation to the lamina.

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225,for reshaping of at least one lamina in a closed configured mold by plastic flow subsequent to assembly of said lamina with at least one other lamina or to one other surface.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 47+ for a process of bonding glass by glassworking operation including a step of forming the glass in a mold cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 246]    246On temporary planar support (e.g., film casting):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Processes directed to casting a film on a temporary flat, plane surface and thereafter stripping the film from the surface.

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230+,for processes wherein a lamina is formed by casting on carrier for direct transfer of said lamina to a different base or surface.
249,for stripping of an adhered lamina from one surface and applying it to a different surface.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 165 , 212, 298, and 299+.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 154+ for applying a removable protective coating to a substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 247]    247With stripping of adhered lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes wherein a laminating procedure is combined with the step of removing at least one previously adhered lamina by a stripping or delaminating operation.

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254,for processes for splitting a sheet lamina in a plane intermediate of its faces.
701through 719, for a delaminating process, per se.
719,for processes of delaminating from a release surface.
750through 767, for delaminating apparatus, per se.

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427Coating Processes,   subclasses 154+ for processes of applying a removable protective coating.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 40.1+ for a composite stock material product having a layer of adhesive and a covering therefor which must be removed or stripped to expose the adhesive and enable it to be adhered to a surface; subclass 352 for a composite stock material having an adhesive outermost surface and also having a release or anti-stick coating (usually on the surface opposite the adhesive surface).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 248]    248With cutting of one lamina only while adhered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Processes combined with the step of cutting only one of the laminae while still adhered and prior to stripping thereof.

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268,for partial cutting, incising or grooving of a laminated sandwich.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 249]    249And assembly with different lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Processes including the step of uniting the stripped lamina to a different element or surface other than the lamina from which the lamina has been stripped.

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152,for processes in which the stripped lamina is reunited to the same lamina from which it was previously separated.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 250]    250With cutting, punching, tearing or severing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with a step of (1) penetrating the workpiece to achieve at least partial separation of a portion of the material of the workpiece without substantial reshaping flow of the material or (2) moving one part of a workpiece relative to the other to cause failure by tension at the point of separation.
(1) Note. A disclosure that the work material flows due to melting will not preclude placement of the patent here where the flow merely accomplishes reshaping only necessary for penetration. For example, cut-seaming a thermoplastic material with a hot knife is here even though the material may form a bead at the seam.
(2) Note. The cutting need not be entirely through the thickness of the work, but may be only partially through the thickness e.g., grooving and scoring.
(3) Note. Cutting of a lamina along a transverse cross-section perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the lamina to produce a plurality of identical articles e.g., cut-off, is excluded from this and indented subclass unless a dimension or shape of the lamina is specified.

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98,for reclaiming, renewing or repairing of articles for reuse with removal of defective area to be repaired.
101,for processes of making optically transparent glass sandwiches with cutting of interlayer or lamina.
142,for processes of forming an endless drive belt and cutting the belt to V or trapezoid shape.
159,for processes of splicing indefinite length lamina end-to-end with cutting of joining ends.
193,for processes of winding a web or sheet with cutting or wound body.
211,for processes of laminating with permanent bending or reshaping which include slitting or removal of material at reshaping area prior to reshaping.
510+,for apparatus for surface bonding and/or assembly combined with means for cutting, punching, piercing or severing.

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83Cutting,   appropriate subclasses for processes of and apparatus for cutting and see especially the notes to the class definition of that class for the locus of other art relating to cutting and combinations of cutting with other operations.
225Severing by Tearing or Breaking,   appropriate subclasses for processes of severing by tearing or breaking.
234Selective Cutting (e.g., Punching),   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for selective punching.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 251]    251And simultaneously bonding (e.g., cut-seaming):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes in which the laminae are bonded to each other during the cutting operation.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass, for example, are processes which involve the utilization of a heated cutting implement which, during the cutting operation, makes thermoplastic laminae tacky, thereby causing the portions of the lamina on each side of the cutting tool to become adhesively united.

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88,for fray prevention processes which may involve trimming and/or sealing of laminate edges.
515,for cutting apparatus which simultaneously unites the laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 252]    252Perforatng lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes in which the cutting operation forms a closed perimeter opening extending completely through a lamina.

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513+,for laminating apparatus having means for making a hole or aperture in a lamina.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 22 for tire punching.
83Cutting,   subclass 30 for processes of puncturing.
234Selective Cutting (e.g., Punching),   appropriate subclasses for selective cutting or punching, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 253]    253Subsequent to assembly of laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Processes in which the laminae are assembled prior to the perforating operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 254]    254Splitting sheet lamina in plane intermediate faces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes in which a sheet-like lamina is separated along a plane paralleling and between the two faces of the lamina and thus results in at least two laminae.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 40.1+ for a composite stock material product having a layer of adhesive and a covering therefor which must be removed or stripped to expose the adhesive and enable it to be adhered to a surface; subclass 352 for a composite stock material having an adhesive outermost surface and also having a release or anti-stick coating (usually on the surface opposite the adhesive surface).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 255]    255Spiral peeling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes in which a workpiece and cutter are rotated relative to one another and during rotation the workpiece is cut to produce therefrom a planar lamina, the line of cutting starting at the periphery of working and inwardly of the body toward the axis of revolution.

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144Woodworking,   subclass 207 for peeling of bark from osiers (to be used in making wicker furniture) and subclasses 208.1+ for peeling of bark, generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 256]    256Prior to assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes in which the cutting, punching, tearing or severing is performed prior to the association of the laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 257]    257Partial cutting (e.g., grooving or incising):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Processes in which a lamina is cut (1) only partially through a workpiece thickness or (2) partially along the width whereby the workpiece is not separated into plural discrete workpieces.
(1) Note. Processes directed to scoring of a lamina to be joined with another lamina is within the scope of this subclass.
(2) Note. The partial cutting can be through an edge surface as well as through a facing surface of a sheet-like lamina.

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268,for processes where the laminae are associated and then there is a partial cutting.

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83Cutting,   subclass 861 for processes and apparatus for cutting other than completely through the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 258]    258Cutting to shape joining edge surfaces only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Processes in which the cutting occurs only on edge surfaces to be bonded one to the other.

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159,for splicing methods in which the joining edges of indefinite length laminae have been cut or beveled.
535,for means for laminating combined with means of shaping, scarifying or cleaning joining surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 259]    259Continuous longitudinal slitting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Processes directed to uninterruptedly slitting a web-like lamina in a line parallel to its longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 260]    260Bonding face to face of laminae cut from single sheet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Processes in which the slitting operation produces a plurality of laminae which are thereafter superposed so that a broad surface of one lamina is bonded to a broad surface of the other.

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264+,for processes of cutting plural laminae from single stock and assembling to each other not involving a continuous longitudinal cutting step.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 261]    261Punching and bonding pressure application by punch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Processes directed to cutting of a discrete product out of the confines of a workpiece through its thickness so that the cut does not intersect any edge of the workpiece and using the cutting implement to exert pressure upon the product in order to bring the product into association with another lamina.

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83Cutting,   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for punching.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 262]    262Closure cap liner applying type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Processes in which the product cut out is applied to the internal surface of a closure cap.
(1) Note. Processes of applying a liner to bottle caps by punching the liner from a workpiece and applying the liner by means of the punch are included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 263]    263Separate cutting of separate sheets or webs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Processes directed to independently cutting at least two sheets or webs while not in contact with each other.

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511,for surface bonding apparatus combined with plural severing means for separate workpieces.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 264]    264Of plural laminae from single stock and assembling to each other or to additional lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Processes in which stock material is cut into more than one lamina and the resultant laminae are (1) laminated to each other; or (2) more than one of the laminae are bonded to a separate and independent lamina.

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260,for processes including a step of continuous longitudinal slitting followed by face to face laminating of the parts cut from the single sheet.
512,for apparatus under the class definition combined with severing followed by association of parts from the same source.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 265]    265Applying plural cut laminae to single face of additional lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Processes in which the plural laminae are each applied to a single face of an additional lamina.

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297+,for processes of laminating plural discrete laminae to a single face of an additional lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 266]    266Joining of cut laminae end-to-end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Processes in which the extremity of one of the plural laminae is associated with the extremity of another of the plural laminae cut from the stock material.

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49,for processes of splicing indefinite length conductors.
157+,for processes of splicing indefinite length lamina end-to-end.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 267]    267Flash, trim or excess removal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes in which the step of cutting or severing is performed subsequent to lamination and is for the removal of superfluous portions of the sandwich or removal of that superfluous portion of the sandwich which extends beyond the sandwich joint.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 268]    268Partial cutting bonded sandwich (e.g., grooving or incising):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes combined with the step of (1) partially cutting, incising or grooving through a portion of the thickness of one lamina of a sandwich or (2) cutting through the entire thickness of only one of the laminae of a sandwich, the cutting occurring within the adhered area of the sandwich.
(1) Note. Processes directed to scoring, grooving or incising of the laminated material are found in this subclass.

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257,for the partial cutting of laminae prior to association.
270,for processes of cutting one web only in which the cutting is subsequent to lamination and the cutting occurs other than within the confines of both laminae.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 861+ for processes and means of cutting other than completely through the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 269]    269Of continuous or running length bonded web:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Processes in which the severing operation is performed on a workpiece of indefinite length or continuously moving during the cutting operation.
(1) Note. See the class definition, Glossary for the definition of "Indefinite Length Work".
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 270]    270One web only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Processes in which only a single web is cut.

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268,for processes of cutting one lamina only in which the cutting occurs within the surface area of both laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 271]    271Continuous longitudinal slitting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Processes in which the laminated material is uninterruptedly cut in a line parallel to its major axis.

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259,for processes of longitudinally cutting a lamina prior to its lamination to another lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 272.2]    272.2With direct application of electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy to work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include the step of (a) passing an electric current directly through the work, (b) subjecting the work to a changing electric field, or (c) directly applying magnetic or radiant energy to the work.
(1) Note. Work is the object or material which results from, or is intended to be subjected to, an adhesive bonding.
(2) Note. The electrical energy or wave energy must act directly on the work and not, for example, by connection or conduction of heat from an element not constituting part of the work.
(3) Note. The wave energy applied to the work may be light, ultraviolet rays, infrared rays, X-rays, cathode rays and emanations of radioactive material by particle emission, electron bombardment, electromagnetic fields, and like sources.

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379.6,for adhesive-bonding apparatus having means applying electrical, electrostatic, or wave energy to work.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for processes of metal working or shaping comprising a plurality of operations which include an adhesive-bonding step along with a metal-shaping step. Note especially subclass 900 for a process or apparatus for assembling articles or materials by means of an enduring electrostatic charging of the work; and subclasses 592.1+ for methods of making electrical devices which may include an electrostatic charging of laminate.
118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 715+ for coating apparatus with means to apply electrical energy to work and/or coating material and means to contact the work with coating material in a gaseous or vaporous state; and subclasses 620+ for coating apparatus in general provided with means to apply electrical energy to work and/or coating material.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 50 and 192 for processes of utilizing electrical energy in a paper-making operation.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 155+ , 157.15, and 164 for electrical or wave energy treatment of surfaces to effect a chemical change in the surface.
219Electric Heating,   appropriate subclasses for electric heating, per se.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 324+ , for methods and apparatus for the corona irradiation of material; subclasses 453.11+ for methods and apparatus including supports for irradiating objects; and subclasses 492.1+ for methods and apparatus for the irradiation of objects generally.
427Coating Processes,   search subclasses 457+ for coating processes utilizing the direct application of electrical, magnetic, wave, or particulate energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 272.4]    272.4Involving magnetically susceptible lamina or incorporating into the work a particulate susceptor material having magnetic properties:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein at least one of the laminae to be bonded contains, or is coated with, a particulate susceptible material having magnetic properties, or wherein at least one of the lamina to be bonded is capable of being heated by a magnetic field.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 272.6]    272.6Exposure of work to corona or glow discharge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein means are provided for impacting the work (either before or after assembly) with ions resulting from the incomplete electrical discharge from an electrode.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those processes of using corona or glow discharge to form a permanent bond in the work without the further use of other electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy and those processes of using corona or glow discharge to form an incomplete bond in the work before the further application of electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy.

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273.1,for processes of forming a bond by an electrostatic charge.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 324+ for methods and apparatus for the corona irradiation of material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 272.8]    272.8Exposure of work to laser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein said energy is applied in the form of natural oscillations of atoms or molecules between energy levels for generating coherent electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, or infrared regions of the spectrum.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 273.1]    273.1Developing electrostatic charge:
 Processes under 272.2 wherein at least one lamina is electrostatically charged in order to enhance the formation of a permanent bond in the work.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 900 for processes or means for assembling by charging of work.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 600+ for inductive heating, subclasses 678+ for microwave heating, and subclasses 764+ for capacitive dielectric heating.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 225+ for a process of imparting an electrical charge to a material or object.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 273.3]    273.3Before final assembly; e.g., to cure lamina, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy is applied to lamina prior to assembly of final work product.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 273.5]    273.5Before and after final assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.3.  Processes wherein electrical, magnetic or radiant energy is applied in two different steps, one of which is prior to and the other after final assembly of work product.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 273.7]    273.7Applying pressure before electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein pressure is applied to work (either prior to or before final assembly of the work product) before the work is treated with electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those processes wherein pressure is applied to the work to assemble the final product, provided such pressure is precedent to the application of electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 273.9]    273.9Work constitutes conductor or electrical circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein at least a portion of the work after final assembly is a conductor which is to be used as a component of an electric circuit to which an electric current is to be directly applied.
(1) Note. This subclass includes subjecting metal work to an electric field which causes a current to be developed within the work, thereby resulting in heating of the metal work.

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47+,for processes of making running or indefinite length electrical conductors.
272.2,and 275.1 - 275.7, and other appropriate subclasses for a process of adhesive bonding which includes subjecting metal work to a radiant or magnetic field.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 592+ for processes of manufacturing devices from metal which produce or use electrical energy.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 653+ and 775+ for an article or material support conveyor used in a process wherein the work or electric field or both move relative to each other in an electric field.
252Compositions,   subclasses 500+ for conductive and emission compositions and electrical devices defined solely in terms of their composition with no claimed significant composition with no claimed significant device structure. These devices include electrodes, filaments, or shields for electric lamps and electric space discharge devices, welding electrodes, contacts, switches, brushes, and resistances.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 274.2]    274.2Conductor is a coil:
 Processes under 273.9 wherein a coil conductor is incorporated into the work.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for electric resistance wires coiled around lamina before the application of said energy, said wire constituting part of the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 274.4]    274.4Exposure of work to electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein an electrode is used to impart energy to the work product after final assembly.
(1) Note. An electrode is a device by which an electric current passes into or out of a cell, apparatus, or body, and includes a simple wire.

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252Compositions,   subclasses 500+ for electrodes defined solely in terms of their composition with no claimed significant device structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 274.6]    274.6Continuously moving work in relation to electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.4.  Subject matter in which the work moves relative to the electric field produced by the electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 274.8]    274.8With application of adhesive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.4.  Subject matter wherein an adhesive is applied to at least one lamina before the work is exposed to the electric field produced by the electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 275.1]    275.1Only part of contacting lamina surfaces bonded; e.g., seaming, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein bonding of contacting lamina surfaces occurs only at selected contacting areas.

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292,for processes for bonding two contacting laminae which have opposed portions out of contact or spaced from each other and which does not use electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy.
308.4,for bonding two contacting laminae without the use of an extraneous adhesive material at selected contacting areas without the use of electrical, magnetic, or radiant energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 275.3]    275.3With application of adhesive:
 Processes under 275.1 wherein an adhesive is applied to at least one lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 275.5]    275.5To polymerize or cure material in work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Processes wherein said energy is used in a bonding to induce a chemical reaction in which molecules are united to produce material of higher molecular weight than the starting material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 275.7]    275.7With application of adhesive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.2.  Process wherein an adhesive is applied to a lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 276]    276With mass application of nonadhesive fibers or particles between laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which the particulate material is applied to that surface of a lamina which will be bonded to a different lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 277]    277With printing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of applying a coating to a lamina, which coating is in the nature of a design or character and is applied by a member carrying the configured coating.
(1) Note. The printing in this subclass includes the printing of an adhesive.

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101Printing,   appropriate subclasses, for printing processes, per se.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 134 for processes of making paper combined with a printing step.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 278]    278With coating of nonadherent face of lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with the step of applying a coating material or compound to a surface of at least one lamina spaced from or other than that which is bonded.
(1) Note. Impregnation of a part with a coating material whose sole function is to bond parts together is excluded from this and indented subclasses even though the impregnating step may incidentally apply a coating to the nonadherent face of the part.

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427Coating Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes of coating in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 279]    279Coating with fibers or particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Processes in which a fluent material comprised of discrete particles is applied to a lamina which particles are not, per se, adhesive for the purpose of bonding laminae.
(1) Note. The step of applying particulate material while suspended in a liquid is not within the scope of this subclass.

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26+,for processes of associating discrete fibers or particulate material only to form a self-supporting lamina.
283,for processes of applying particles which are utilized as a bonding medium in assembly of plural laminae.

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51Abrasive Tool Making Process, Material, or Composition,   subclass 297 for a method of making abrasive particles in which a laminating step is employed.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 180+ for coating processes wherein solid particles or fibers are applied.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 280]    280Subsequent to bonding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Processes directed to the step of coating of the nonadherent face of a lamina subsequent to its bonding to another lamina.

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305,for laminating processes whereby the adhesive, per se, is applied after assembly of the laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 281]    281Combined; e.g., with cleaning, etc.
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes combined with a step which is, per se, (1) not provided for in this class and (2) performs a function other than that usually utilized during the fabrication of the laminated product to perfect the bonding between the laminae.
(1) Note. The combination of assembly and/or joining by bonding with a step of sewing other than through the bonded joint is provided for in this subclass. Also included herein is application of pressure to reduce the overall thickness of the sandwich, the pressure being greater than that necessary to perfect the bond between the laminae. For sewing through a bonded joint see subclass 93 above.
(2) Note. Operations necessary to the formation of the sandwich are heating, applying adhesive and applying pressure to an assembly of laminae to perfect the bond. These steps are not considered to fall within the scope of "combined" and are provided for below.
(3) Note. See section "B. Laminating Combined With Other Operations" of the class definition of this class for the lines with other classes and the locus of patents relating to laminating combined with other operations.

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93,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 282]    282Simultaneous heating and cooling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which the lamina is subjected to the application of heat to one portion of the surface area thereof while simultaneously cooling another portion of the surface area.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 283]    283Adhesive applied as dry particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which the bonding agent is applied to the adhering face of at least one of the laminae in a dry particulate state.
(1) Note. Included in this and indented subclasses are bonding materials which are in the form of granules, pellets, beads, flakes, platelets or powdered state and are not dispersed in a liquid medium.

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279,for the mass application of nonadhesive particles to laminae.

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427Coating Processes,   subclasses 180+ for coating processes wherein solid particles or fibers are applied.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 284]    284Treating particle with liquid to render tacky:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Processes in which a liquid is applied to the particles to render said particles tacky, said liquid being applied subsequent to the application of the particulate material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 285]    285Direct application of vacuum of fluid pressure during bonding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which (1) pressure less than atmospheric is applied to the work during the association of the laminae or (2) where a force is exerted by a fluent medium directly onto the work during association of the laminae.
(1) Note. The reduced pressure or the fluid pressure may be applied to bring the lamina into contact or to effect more intimate contact of the laminae.

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104,for the evacuation of air during the making of optically transparent glass sandwiches.
381+,for evacuated or fluid pressure chamber enclosing the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 286]    286To remove gas from between assembled laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Processes in which air is removed from between the assembled laminae by vacuum or fluid pressure.

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100Presses,   subclass 90 for presses with means to remove air from material while being pressed.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 287]    287To the lining of hollow body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Processes in which fluid pressure or vacuum is applied to an element covering the inner surface of a cavity that is at least partially enclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 288]    288Simultaneous pressure application to at least two separate sandwiches:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which a force is exerted simultaneously upon a plurality of independent assemblies or separate sandwiches which are not bonded one to the other.
(1) Note. The separate sandwiches may be in a stacked relationship, in a noncontacting arrangement or in other type of relationship during the simultaneous application of pressure to the several sandwiches.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 289]    289Utilizing parting or release material to prevent adhension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which a bond inhibiting material is used to prevent adhesion between laminae in areas that might otherwise bond in the absence of the material.
(1) Note. The parting or release material may be in the form of a film or powder.

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90,for processes using a barrier layer to prevent migration or bleeding between laminae.
323,for processes utilizing a subsequently removed flexible element interposed between the work and the pressure surface.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 40.1+ , for a composite stock material product having a layer of adhesive and a covering therefor which must be removed or stripped to expose the adhesive and enable it to be adhered to a surface; subclass 352 for a composite stock material having an adhesive outermost surface and also having a release or anti-stick coating (usually on the surface opposite the adhesive surface).
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 290]    290Bonding of facing continuously contacting laminae at spaced points only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which superposed laminae touching each other at all points are adhered to each other at a plurality of spaced noncontiguous areas.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   for a composite stock material product in which components are secured together by a discontinuous or differential coating, impregnation or bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 291]    291By nonuniform adhesive application:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Processes in which the laminae are secured at spaced areas by an applied adhesive, the adhesive being applied at the spaced secured areas only.

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427Coating Processes,   subclasses 256+ for processes of forming nonuniform coatings.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 292]    292Of laminae having opposed facing areas out of contact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to bonding at least two contacting laminae which have opposed portions out of contact or spaced from each other.
(1) Note. This subclass includes processes directed to adhering two hemispheres together to form a sphere and applying a flat lamina to the apexes of an already embossed lamina.

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197,for processes of permanently bending or reshaping self-sustaining laminae by separating laminae between spaced secured areas.
210,for processes of forming an undulated sheet and securing said sheet to a base with parts of the shaped areas out of contact.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 58 for a process of bonding a glass part to a preformed part by a glassworking operation, where the parts have opposed facing areas out of contact.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 293]    293Inserting of lamina in hole, aperture or recess of other lamina and adherence to side walls thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which an element is put into an opening or recess in a lamina and is bonded to an internal surface of the opening.

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98,for repairing processes involving a step of replacing a defective area of a part by inserting a new piece in the aperture left by the removal of the defective area.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 294]    294Core within tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Processes directed to telescoping a tube or rod-like member within a tubular body.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 295]    295Adhesive applying to restricted area and spreading thereof by assembly pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to applying an adhesive to a restricted area of a lamina and subsequent to assembly applying an external force to the assembly to cause the adhesive to cover a greater area of the lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 296]    296Strands, rods, tubes or sticklike bodies to each other only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes for bonding individual laminae of finite length and being of great length relative to cross-section and of relatively regular cross-section.

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166+,for processes for bonding flexible filamentary material while in indefinite or running length.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   appropriate subclasses for a processes of manufacturing a fibrous web by a process which includes water laying. The web may be held together by adhesive forces stemming from an extraneously applied material or from a component or property inherent in the fiber.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 109+ for a process of manufacturing an article, e.g., a web, from staple-length nonmetal fibers by a process which excludes a water-laying step.
419Powder Metallurgy Processes,   appropriate subclasses for methods of making articles from particulate metal-containing materials using pressure, with or without heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 297]    297Of discrete laminae to single face of additional lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which at least two separate and distinct elements are individually and separately directly united to the same surface of another lamina.

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560+,for apparatus for uniting plural discrete elements to a single base.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 298]    298Embedding of laminae within face of additional laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Processes in which at least two of the plural discrete laminae or a portion thereof are forced into the surface to which they are bonded.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 432+ for a method including a step of piercing one part by another, e.g., stapling or nailing.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 614 for metallic stock material comprising one component embedded in another component.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 299]    299All laminae planar and face to face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Processes in which all laminae including the discrete laminae are parallel to each other and each surface thereof has an even plane surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 300]    300With covering of discrete laminae with additional lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.  Processes directed to superposing at least one additional lamina over the discrete laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 301]    301Opposed laminae are running length webs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Processes in which the discrete laminae are applied to a continuously moving web of indefinite length and thereafter superposing on the discrete laminae another continuously moving web of indefinite length.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 302]    302Lamina is running length web:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.  Processes in which the plural discrete laminae are applied to a continuously moving web of indefinite length.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 303]    303Feeding of discrete laminae from separate sources:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Processes in which the discrete laminae are supplied to the indefinite length web from a plurality of different sources.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 303.1]    303.1Inserting lamina into preformed plastic body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include inserting a solid element into the surface of a preformed plastic body with no reshaping of the plastic body other than that which is caused by displacement of material due to the insertion of the solid element.
(1) Note. Patents in which localized plastic reshaping occurs due to displacement of material in the area where the part is inserted are included here unless the plastic reshaping is caused by a member other than the part being inserted. For patents in which the plastic body is simultaneously shaped by a mold element see the search notes to Class 264 below.
(2) Note. The preform or the plastic part may or may not be heated.

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91+,for mechanical joining combined with laminating.
293,for patents in which the preform is inserted into the recess of the plastic part.
298,for patents in which multiple preforms are inserted into the plastic part.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 271.1+ for inserting a preform part into a plastic body and simultaneously reshaping the body with a mold element.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 304.1]    304.1Butt edge joining of laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to uniting laminae edge to edge without overlapping of the edges.
(1) Note. The butt joint may be reinforced by applying thereto a tape or additional strengthening element.

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49,for processes of joining indefinite length conductors end to end.
157,for processes of joining indefinite length laminae end to end.
502+,for apparatus for joining indefinite length laminae end to end.
544+,for apparatus for joining indefinite length laminae edge to edge.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 304.2]    304.2Joining of nonplanar elements; e.g., configured hollow objects, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.1.  Processes directed to uniting laminae edge to edge wherein the lamina are nonplanar.
(1) Note. Included herein are processes of joining corrugated lamina and processes of assembly of containers or other finite length hollow elements.

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296,for processes of joining tubes or filaments of indefinite length.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 304.3]    304.3With joiner member or reinforcement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.1.  Processes directed to joining laminae edge to edge wherein an additional member is applied to add mechanical strength to the joint.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 304.4]    304.4Carpet or fabric joined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.3.  Processes directed to the process of joining carpeting or fabric edge to edge and which utilize a reinforcement of the joint area.
(1) Note. Typically the reinforcement is a tape.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 304.5]    304.5With preliminary edge treatment or joining of edges of irregular shape; e.g., tongue and groove, beveled, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.1.  Processes in which prior to joining the edges are physically or chemically treated to perfect the joining operation or in which the edges are nonplanar or are not perpendicular to the face of other the lamina.

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258,for processes of edge treatment by cutting.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 304.6]    304.6By heat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.1.  Processes directed to the edge to edge joining of lamina including the use of increased temperature to effect joining.

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219Electric Heating,   subclasses 101+ for the butt joining of metal by means of pressure while heating by an electric current.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 304.7]    304.7Of carpet or fabric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.1.  Processes in which the lamina joined is carpeting or fabric.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 305]    305By applying after assembly an adhesive, solvent or chemical activiating agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which bonding is effected after assembly of the laminae by subsequent application thereto of the adhesive, per se, or a solvent or other chemical activating agent to render tacky or adhesive the uncoated or coated contacting facing surfaces.

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278+,for processes for coating the nonadhering face of a lamina.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   appropriate subclasses for a process of manufacturing a fibrous web which includes water laying and the addition of an extraneous binder or activator to the web while still wet.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 109+ for a process of manufacturing an article, e.g., a web, from staple-length fibers by a process which excludes a water-laying step, especially subclass 128 for the addition of a liquid binder subsequent to fiber assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 306.3]    306.3By pressure or drying only, without tack; e.g., for easy delamination, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Subject matter wherein a bond, often temporary, between two laminae is accomplished by pressing the laminae together without an adhesive and without developing tack in either lamina, or by merely assembling the laminae and drying the laminate in assembled condition.
(1) Note. Usually the bonding is performed at ambient temperatures.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 428+ for an assembly and/or joining process involving mechanical interlocking of parts or of a mechanical fastener.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 306.6]    306.6Using single, preformed, diverse bonding lamina between other laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Subject matter wherein a laminate having at least three plies is assembled, an inner lamina being a self-sustaining sheet composed of a single lamina which is tackified in the process to bond the outer laminae together, the inner lamina having a composition different from either of the outer laminae.

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305,for a process in which a bonding sheet is applied to the outside of laminae to be bonded.
313,for a laminating process which uses an intermediate laminae, e.g., a coated substrate, as a bonding sheet between uncoated laminae.
325+,for a process which uses a particular adhesive for bonding two or more laminae to obtain a particular three- or-more layered product, wherein the adhesive is introduced to the process as other than a self-sustaining sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 306.9]    306.9Including curing of nonfully polymerized material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.6.  Subject matter wherein the bonding process includes a chemical reaction in which molecules are united to produce material of higher molecular weight than the starting material.
(1) Note. The reaction may be the polymerization of a monomer, chain-extension or cross-linking of an intermediate polymer, etc.
(2) Note. When the word "curing" is used it is assumed that cross-linking takes place.
(3) Note. The cross-linking phenomenon may involve reaction with functional groups forming a part of the "outside" laminae to be bonded.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 307.1]    307.1By curing of nonfully polymerized self-sustaining lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the self-sustaining laminae to be bonded has not been completely polymerized, that is, it contains reactable functional groups, and the bonding process includes a chemical reaction in which such groups are reacted to form molecules of higher weight than the starting material. The reaction takes place within the lamina to be bonded or involves the uniting of the aforementioned functional groups with functional groups of another lamina to be bonded or of another substance which is between the laminae.
(1) Note. Exemplary of functional groups in a lamina are the olefinic double bonds of natural rubber, the free hydroxyl groups remaining in a cellulose-partial acetate ester, hydrous oxide groups on the surface of a metal, etc.
(2) Note. The reaction may be one in which a monomeric material is polymerized or in which an intermediate polymer is cross-linked, chain-extended, etc.
(3) Note. When the word "curing" is used, it is assumed that cross-linking takes place.
(4) Note. A cross-linking reaction generally produces a so-called "thermoset" bond which is no longer susceptible to softening by heat.
(5) Note. This subclass is limited to those processes in which at least some polymerization takes place at the time of bonding; final curing (e.g., of a coating, etc.) before assembly is not covered by this subclass.
(6) Note. Curing of an adhesive only, between the laminae to be bonded, after assembly of the sandwich, without the involvement of functional groups in a lamina to be bonded, is not covered by this subclass. See subclasses 325+.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 307.3]    307.3With coating or impregnating a face to be adhered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.1.  Subject matter wherein at least one lamina to be bonded is treated with a material which penetrates the lamina at least in part or which forms a coating on a face to be adhered.
(1) Note. The coating need not be applied as a liquid or particulate solid but may be a gaseous treating agent which reacts with the substance of the lamina to form a so-called "reaction coating".

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182,for a process of binding in which an intermediate laminate, (e.g., a coated substrate, etc.), is bonded to another laminate by completing polymerization, e.g., vulcanization, between the intermediate laminates.
278+,for a process in which a nonadherent face of a lamina is coated.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 307.4]    307.4Indefinite plurality of similar impregnated thin sheets; e.g., "decorative laminate" type, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.3.  Subject matter wherein an unspecified number, greater than two, of sheets are bonded together by curing, each sheet being of similar material to the others and having at least one negligible dimension, each sheet having been impregnated with a fluid material before or after assembly of the stack.
(1) Note. The products usually are "decorative laminates" such as are used for counter tops, dishes, etc., sold under trade names such as Formica, Melmac, etc.

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330.9+,for other bonding processes using melamine-derived resins.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 307.5]    307.5Coating solidified; e.g., by drying, etc., before assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.3.  Subject matter in which the material in or on the lamina develops the properties of a solid before being assembled with another lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 307.7]    307.7Including uncurable lamina; e.g., metal, paper, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.1.  Subject matter wherein one of the laminae to be bonded has no functional groups available for chemical reaction internally or with a lamina bonded to it in the process.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 308.2]    308.2By tackifying substance of self-sustaining lamina to be bonded; e.g., autogenous bonding, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Subject matter wherein bonding is achieved without use of an extraneous adhesive material by making a portion of a lamina which is to be bonded, per se, tacky.
(1) Note. Tackiness is usually achieved by heat or by a swelling or solvent action.
(2) Note. Subject matter for this subclass includes autogenous bonding of a fibrous web to another lamina.

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166+,especially, subclass 181, for autogenous bonding of filaments of indefinite length or in the form of running lengths, to each other, to form a web.
182,for a bonding process in which one laminate (e.g., a coated substrate, etc.) is bonded to another laminate by tackifying a single lamina of one or both of the intermediate laminates.
324.4,for a process in which a single lamina, e.g., a coating, etc., of an intermediate laminate, e.g., a coated substrate, etc., is tackified for bonding to another lamina.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   appropriate subclasses for a process of manufacturing a fibrous web by a process which include water laying. The web may be held together by adhesive forces stemming from an extraneously applied material or from a component or property inherent in the fiber.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 109+ for a process of manufacturing an article, e.g., a web, for staple-length fibers by a process which excludes a water-laying step, but which may include autogenous bonding. See subclasses 123+.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 308.4]    308.4Only part of contacting laminae surfaces bonded; e.g., seam, seal, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.2.  Subject matter wherein precautions are taken to prevent bonding of contacting laminae surfaces at other than selected contacting areas, usually by restricting heat and/or pressure and/or solvent applications to the selected areas.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 308.6]    308.6With treating agent application to a surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.2.  Subject matter wherein a gaseous or liquid agent is applied to a surface to be bonded to improve the bonding properties of the surface.
(1) Note. Usually the added agent is a solvent which tackifies the surface to be bonded.
(2) Note. The process need not include a step of removing the treating agent.

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155,for a bonding process which includes a step of removing a transitory solid material.
281,for a bonding procedure which includes a step which, per se, is provided for in another patent class, e.g., cleaning, etc.
305,for a bonding process which includes adding a treating agent to a laminate after assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 308.8]    308.8Plural agents applied sequentially or to different laminae or using water as sole agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.6.  Subject matter wherein water is the sole agent used to cause tackiness or in which more than one of the laminae to be bonded are treated with different agents or in which a single lamina is treated with an agent and then treated with another agent.
(1) Note. The water may be applied as vapor or steam and its purposes may be to heat a lamina.

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306.3,for a process of adhering laminae where water may be used, but in which the water causes no tackiness.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 309.3]    309.3Diverse laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.6.  Subject matter in which one lamina to be bonded has a composition different from another lamina to be bonded.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 309.6]    309.6Involving defined plastic flow or melting of entire lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.2.  Subject matter wherein the bonding process includes a specified flowing or movement of tackified interfacial lamina material or the melting of an entire lamina.

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196+,for a bonding process which includes permanent bending or reshaping or surface deformation of a self-sustaining lamina.
306.6+,for a bonding process wherein a self-sustaining bonding sheet, different from and placed between other laminae, is completely melted to bond the other laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 309.9]    309.9With heating or lamina prior to assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.2.  Subject matter wherein a lamina is heated to tackifying temperature before it is assembled with the lamina to which it is to be bonded.

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322,for adhesive bonding processes in general wherein a lamina is heated before the application of adhesive.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 310]    310Of laminae having a different coating on at least two mating surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes wherein each facing surface of the laminae to be joined is coated with a material which differs in composition from the other.
(1) Note. Of the different coatings employed in this subclass, one may be a primer for one lamina face and the adhesive applied to the other, or, two different reactants may be employed, one on each opposing face, which, after contact of the laminae, form the adhesive by reaction thereof, in situ.

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314+,for processes of applying a plurality of different coatings to the same facing surface of one of the laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 311]    311Sequential heating and cooling during pressure applying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which include the step of heating and cooling in any sequence during the interval in which the laminating pressure is being maintained.

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80,for laminating processes which include a refrigeration or freezing step.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 312]    312Sequential different pressure applying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which the laminating pressure applied varies stepwise in intensity or is applied intermittently or sequentially during the laminating step.
(1) Note. The step of subjecting a lamina to continuously increasing pressure is not considered sequential different pressure applying for this subclass.

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103,for plural sequential pressures applied in optically transparent glass sandwich making.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 313]    313Interposing intermediate between non-coated laminae:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes directed to interposing an intermediate laminate of at least two layers, e.g., a coated lamina, etc. between noncoated outer laminae.

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106,for processes wherein a preformed adhesive layer is employed in making glass sandwiches.
306.6,for a bonding process which uses a single, preformed, diverse self-sustaining bonding lamina (which may be an impregnated material) between other laminae.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 104 and 123 for processes involving waterlaid paper webs.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 314]    314Sequentially applying different liquids or liquefiable materials to adhering face of lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes wherein the adhering face of at least one lamina is treated one after the other with at least two different liquids or liquefiable materials.
(1) Note. See Class 520, Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers, subclasses 1+ for a statement of material proper for Class 520.
(2) Note. The use of water or other agent for the mere purpose of a preliminary washing or cleaning is not sufficient to place a patent in this subclass.

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310,for processes in which each of the facing surfaces of the laminae is coated, the two coatings being of dissimilar material.

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427Coating Processes,   subclasses 402+ for processes of applying superposed diverse coatings, or coating a coated base.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 315]    315At least two liquids rubber and/or resin-containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Processes wherein at least two of the sequential liquids are natural or synthetic rubber and/or natural or synthetic resin containing only liquefiable material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 316]    316First applied liquid acid-containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Processes wherein the first treatment of the adhering surface is with an acidic or acid containing liquid or liquefiable acidic material.

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2+,for etching processes in which an acidic material may be used as an etchant, particularly subclass 3 for etching combined with a laminating step.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 317]    317Protein-containing liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Processes in which at least one liquid or liquefiable material is a protein containing liquid.
(1) Note. Proteins are a group of nitrogenous organic compounds of high molecular weight which yield amino acids on hydrolysis, e.g., casein, animal glue, albumin, etc.

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328,and 336, for adhesives which contain proteinaceous materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 318]    318Carbohydrate-containing liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Processes in which at least one liquid is a carbohydrate containing liquid or carbohydrate containing liquefiable material.
(1) Note. Carbohydrates are organic compounds such as are synthesized by plants of the general formula Cx(H2O)y, e.g., starches, sugars, etc.

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328,and 336, for adhesives which contain carbohydrate materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 319]    319One liquid containing inorganic material only
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Processes in which at least one liquid or liquefiable material is composed of inorganic constituents only.
(1) Note. See note to subclass 314 above relative to the use of water as a washing agent only.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 320]    320Heating of dry
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which a dry nontacky coating of adhesive on at least one facing surface of the laminae to be united is heated prior to assembly contact thereof.

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306+,for autogenous bonding wherein one or both adhering surfaces may be heated prior to assembly.
313,for processes wherein a coated adhesive carrier is interposed between two outer laminae.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 321]    321Heating adhesive by contacting with heated lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes wherein one lamina is heated prior to assembly and the heat from the lamina is utilized to heat the dry adhesive on the opposed lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 322]    322Heating lamina prior to assembly or adhesive applying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes wherein the lamina is heated after coating with adhesive but prior to assembly, or wherein the lamina or base is heated prior to application of the adhesive.

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306,for autogenous bonding which may involve heating of one or more laminae prior to assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 323]    323Interposing subsequently removed flexible element between lamina and a pressure applying surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which a removable flexible and/or resilient element is placed between the laminae to be bonded and pressure means employed.
(1) Note. This subclass takes, for example, those laminating steps in which the laminae are enclosed in a cellophane bag which protects the pressure means from extruded resin, or where pressure is transmitted through a resilient layer for desired effects.

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90,for barrier layers which are employed to prevent migration or bleeding between laminae.
288,for processes of making plural sandwiches simultaneously wherein a nonadhesive separatory layer or element is employed between sandwiches.
289,for processes in which a parting or release material is employed to prevent adhesion.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 324]    324Running or continuous webs of indefinite length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes which provide for lamination of running webs or sheets or those of indefinite length in a continuous operation.
(1) Note. See section III of the class definition of this class for the definition of indefinite length work.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 104 and 123+ for processes wherein waterlaid paper webs are employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 324.4]    324.4By tackifying a single lamina of intermediate laminate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Subject matter wherein an intermediate laminate, e.g., a coated substrate, is bonded to a single lamina by tackifying a single lamina of the intermediate laminate.

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182,for a process of bonding two intermediate laminates.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 325]    325Particular adhesive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Processes in which the adhesive employed is specifically named or identified by composition thereof or chemical structure.
(1) Note. Patents in this and indented subclasses provide for use of specifically identified adhesives in a laminating operation involving no manipulative step provided for above. Individual compounds and compositions, per se, which may be disclosed to possess adhesive utility are classified on the basis of chemical structure or ingredients therein in Class 106, Compositions: Coating or Plastic, Class 260, Chemistry of Carbon Compounds and Class 423, Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds. Patents from these and other composition classes may be cross-referenced into these subclasses where a laminating process is claimed or where a specific example in the specification is limited to laminating. The mere reference in the specification to the effect that a composition is a good adhesive is not sufficient to place a cross-reference in these subclasses.

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283+,for adhesives which are applied in particulate form.
309,for preformed intermediate layers or laminae which may be disclosed to have utility as a bonding agent between other dissimilar laminae.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 77 for an adhesive trapping composition.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   appropriate subclasses for a stock material product in the form of composite web or sheet, including a particular adhesive, and especially subclasses 355+ where the adhesive is the outermost layer and subclasses 411.1+ which provide for nonstructural plural layer products categorized by the composition of the respective layers, the adhesive employed between layers being considered as one of the layers.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 326]    326Organic containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Adhesives which contain or consist of organic compounds.
(1) Note. Attention is directed to the definition of Class 260, Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, for the scope of the term "organic compounds" and of the various types of organic compounds provided for in the subclasses indented thereunder as well as for the scope of such terms as rubber, for which see specifically Class 520, Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers and the search notes thereto.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   appropriate subclass for coating and plastic compositions which do not contain synthetic resins and which may be disclosed to possess adhesive utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 327]    327Synthetic resin containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Adhesives which are resinous materials produced synthetically.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 1+ for an explanation of the type of polymer which is proper for Class 520.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 328]    328With carbohydrate and/or protein or derivatives thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Resins which also contain as an added ingredient carbohydrate and/or protein ingredients or derivatives thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 329]    329Silicon resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Resins which contain silicon.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 330]    330Epoxy resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Resins which contain epoxy or oxirane groups or are reaction products of compounds having epoxy or oxirane groups, that is containing the triatomic ring

Image 1 for class 156 subclass 330

  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 330.9]    330.9Nitrogenous resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Subject matter wherein the resin adhesive contains nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.1]    331.1With polymerization completion, i.e., curing, after assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.9.  Subject matter wherein the adhesive is applied in a nonfully polymerized state and after assembly the sandwich is exposed to a condition, e.g., heat, air, water, etc., sufficient to increase the molecular weight of at least some resin component by reaction of functional groups contained therein.

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307.1+,and 309.6, for processes in which an incompletely polymerized self-sustaining lamina is bonded by curing.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.2]    331.2N only in unlinked side-chain or side-ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.1.  Subject matter wherein the finished (e.g., cured, etc.) resin adhesive has a polymer backbone free of nitrogen, the nitrogen being found only in side-chains (e.g., polyacrylonitrile, etc.) or in side-rings (e.g., polyvinylpyridine, etc.) which are not cross-linked to other polymer backbone material.

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331.6,for bonding processes using similar adhesive but without curing after assembly.
327,333 and 334, for bonding processes using other vinyl-type resins.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.3]    331.3Derived from aldehyde or ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.1.  Subject matter wherein the curing or the preparation of the prefinal-polymer involves the reaction of an moiety.

Image 1 for class 156 subclass 331.3

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307.4,for the use of aldehyde-type resins, such as urea-aldehyde resins or melamine-aldehyde resins in "decorative laminate" manufacture involving the impregnation of thin sheets followed by assembling a stack of sheets and curing.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.4]    331.4Iso- or thio-cyanate moiety reacted in curing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.1.  Subject matter wherein a -N=C=O or -N=C=S moiety in the resin precursor is destroyed in the curing.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.5]    331.5N in a ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.1.  Subject matter wherein the resin precursor contains a cyclic moiety and the cyclic moiety contains nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.6]    331.6N only in unlinked side-chain or side-ring; e.g., polyvinyl, pyridine, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.9.  Subject matter wherein the resin adhesive has a polymer backbone free of nitrogen, the nitrogen being found only in side-chains (e.g., polyacrylonitrile, etc.) or in side-rings (e.g., polyvinyl pyridine, etc.) which are not cross-linked to other polymer backbone material.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.7]    331.7Derived from iso- or thio-cyanate; e.g., polyurethane, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.9.  Subject matter wherein the resin has been prepared from a starting material or intermediate containing the -N-C=O or -N=C=S moiety.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.8]    331.8Derived from acyclic compound containing N:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.9.  Subject matter wherein the resin has been prepared from a starting material or intermediate free from cyclic moieties and containing nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 331.9]    331.9And aldehyde ketone, or carbocyclic moiety-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.8.  Subject matter wherein the resin has been prepared from the acyclic nitrogenous compound and from a starting material or intermediate that contains a carbocyclic ring, a ketone group, or an aldehyde group.

Image 1 for class 156 subclass 331.9

  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 332]    332Polycarboxylic acid ester resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Resins which contain polycarboxylic ester groups.
(1) Note. This subclass includes such resins as the alkyds, i.e., those formed from the reaction of polybasic acids, such as terephthalic acid, and glycols, and those formed by polymerization of unsaturated mono-esters such as methyl acrylate and vinyl acetate.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 333]    333Halogenated hydrocarbon resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Resins which contain at least some halogenated hydrocarbon.
(1) Note. Synthetic rubber-like materials which are halogenated hydrocarbons are included herein, e.g., neoprene or other polymers of chloroprene, polyvinyl chloride.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 334]    334Hydrocarbon resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Resins which are hydrocarbon resin containing.
(1) Note. Included herein are materials such as butadiene-styrene polymers and polyethylene.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 335]    335Phenolic-aldehyde resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Resins which contain phenol-aldehyde reaction products.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 336]    336Protein and/or carbohydrate containing and/or derivatives thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Adhesives which contain protein and/or carbohydrate and derivatives thereof.
(1) Note. Animal glue and starch pastes are examples of proteins and carbohydrate adhesives, respectively, within the scope of this subclass.

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328,for adhesive compositions which include both synthetic resins and a carbohydrate and/or protein.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 337]    337Bituminous containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Adhesives which contain bituminous products.
(1) Note. The term bituminous includes such materials as asphalt and other tarry residues from petroleum or coal origin.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 273+ for bituminous containing compositions which may be disclosed to have utility as adhesives.
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   Class 523, subclasses 450 and 518, and Class 524, subclasses 59+ and 705 for nonreactant bituminous material admixed with a synthetic resin or natural rubbers and which composition may be disclosed to have utility as an adhesive.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 338]    338Natural rubber containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Adhesives which contain natural rubber.
(1) Note. Various synthetic resins are rubbery materials and these compositions are classified hereinabove (subclasses 327+) or in such classes as Class 520, Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers, subclass 1 and indented classes thereunder, on the basis of ingredients or reactants contained therein.

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260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   subclasses 709+ for natural rubber and compositions thereof, which may be disclosed to have adhesive utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.1]    345.1DIFFERENTIAL FLUID ETCHING APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus under the class definition for contacting a workpiece with a reactive fluid to chemically erode different portions of the workpiece at different rates.
(1) Note. The term "workpiece" herein used to indicate the material being chemically eroded, or etched. The art often uses terms such as "base" and "substrate" to mean substantially the same as "workpiece" .

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118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 715 through 733for similar devices used to coat a base.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses for etching apparatus in general.
204Chemistry, Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 298.31 through 298.39for electrolytic etching apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.11]    345.11For liquid etchant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.1.  Apparatus including means for etching a workpiece with a liquid etchant.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.12]    345.12With mechanical polishing (i.e., CMP-chemical mechanical polishing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.11.  Apparatus including means for carrying out combined chemical etching and mechanical abrading to polish a workpiece.

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451Abrading,   appropriate subclasses for similar mechanical polishing devices without liquid etchants.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.13]    345.13With measuring, sensing, detection or process control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.12.  Apparatus including means to measure, sense, or detect a process condition, or to automatically control the operation of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.14]    345.14With wafer retaining ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.12.  Apparatus including a ring-shaped member for securing a disk-shaped workpiece against movement while the workpiece is etched.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.15]    345.15With measuring, sensing, detection or process control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.11.  Apparatus including means to measure, sense, or detect a process condition, or to automatically control the operation of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.16]    345.16With endpoint detection means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.15.  Apparatus including means to detect when a desired end of the etching has been reached.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.17]    345.17Liquid etchant spray means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.15.  Apparatus including means to spray a liquid etchant upon the workpiece.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.18]    345.18With means to supply, remove, or recycle liquid etchant outside of etching tank or chamber (e.g., supply tanks or pipe network):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.11.  Apparatus including means located outside an etching tank or chamber to supply etchant to the tank or chamber, to remove used etchant from the tank or chamber, or to recycle used etchant.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.19]    345.19With mechanical mask or shield or shutter for shielding workpiece:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.11.  Apparatus including a mask, shield, or shutter for preventing the liquid etchant from contacting a particular portion of the workpiece.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.2]    345.2Running length workpiece (e.g. etching indeterminate length strip):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.11.  Apparatus including means to etch a longitudinally continuous workpiece of indeterminate length, e.g., a strip.
  
[List of Patents for class 156 subclass 345.21]    345.21Liquid etchant spray type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.11.