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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 359]   CLASS 359,OPTICAL: SYSTEMS AND ELEMENTS
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE CLASS SUBJECT MATTER

A. This is the generic class for optical elements and optical systems not elsewhere classified.

Among the optical elements included in this class are:

Lenses; Polarizers; Diffraction gratings; Prisms; Reflectors; Filters; Projection screens; Optical Modulators; Optical Demodulators.

B. Among the optical systems included in this class are:

Compound lens systems; Light reflecting signalling systems (e.g., retroreflectors); Stereoscopic systems; Binocular devices; Systems of lenticular elements; Systems involving light interference; Glare reducing systems; Light dividing and combining systems; Light control systems (e.g., light valves); Building illumination with natural light; Systems for protecting or shielding elements; Optical systems whose operation depends upon polarizing, diffracting, dispersing, reflecting, or refracting light; Kaleidoscopes

C. Further included are certain apertures, closures, and viewing devices of a specialized nature which involve no intentional reflection, refraction, or filtering of light rays.

D. This class also includes optical elements combined with another type of structure(s) to constitute an optical element combined with a nonoptical structure or a perfection or improvement in the optical element. This includes filters with supports or frames; reflectors with handles, vehicles, or controlling motors; and prisms with mountings. Also, included are lenses with supports or mountings, lenses with diverse art tools, instruments or machines, lenses with casings and lenses with viewed object supports or viewed object or field illumination. Additionally, included are stereo-viewers with view changers, illumination or supporting, mounting, enclosing or light shielding structure; lenses with spacing structure such as barrels with or without an additional support, handle or illumination; and optical elements with moisture or foreign particle control.

E. Included here also are certain accessories or attachments combined with optical elements such as blinds, shields, shades, and caps or covers for preventing the accumulation of dust, moisture, or other foreign material.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

SUPPORTS OR MOUNTS FOR OPTICAL ELEMENTS AND SYSTEMS

Included here (359) also are supports, mounts, and frames which are particularly adapted for use with optical elements. The nominal recitation of a mirror or filter in combination with such structure is generally not sufficient for classification here, if the mirror or filter is treated as a panel or lamina of general utility. Such panels with associated components, such as frames, edging, backing, etc., mechanically and permanently assembled thereto are provided for elsewhere. Supports for such panel type structures are classified elsewhere. (See References to the Current Class, below.) However, combinations of a detailed mirror with its support are classified in this class. In the case of other optical elements, such as prisms or lenses, the broad recitation of the element in combination with the support or mounting is sufficient for classification in this class. This Class (359) provides for lenses, prisms, and filters respectively with supports. (See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.)

Stereo-viewer supports and mountings are provided for in this class. (See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.)

NONVISIBLE RADIATION

Included in this class are not only those elements which operate in the visible portion of the spectrum, but also those which operate in the near visible portion of the spectrum (i.e., infrared and ultraviolet) in accordance with optical principles. Systems which function in both the visible and near visible portions of the spectrum are classified here unless a specific structure is claimed as a result of the utilization of invisible ray energy. Systems whose operation is restricted to the nonvisible portion of the spectrum are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

OPTICAL SYSTEM INCLUDING PHOTOCELL

Generally, where a photocell is claimed as a part of the optical system, the subject matter is excluded from this class. Such subject matter is typically provided for with the art for radiant energy or measuring and testing. However, where a modulating signal is recovered from a modulated light wave (as in an optical communication receiver or in an optical demodulator), classification is in Class 359. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

OPTICAL WAVEGUIDES

Optical waveguiding elements, per se, are classified in elsewhere. Also, combinations of an optical waveguide with an associated mechanical connecting device or a device coupling light into or out of the optical waveguide are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

OPTICAL MODULATION

An optical modulator, in general, is classified in this class (359). However, optical modulation occuring solely within the confines of an optical waveguide is excluded from this class. Such subject matter is provided for in Class 385.

OPTICAL AMPLIFICATION OR FREQUENCY CONVERSION

A detailed optical amplifier/frequency converter, per se, or such subject matter in combination with an additional waveguide structure is classified in this class (359). However, the nominal recitation of any type of optical amplifier/frequency converter together with an additional waveguide structure is classified elsewhere where such combination meets the class requirements.

MEASURING AND TESTING

A claimed image forming optical system plus a reticle is classified in this class. Sighting instruments for determining geometrical relationships where no significant optical system is claimed are classified elsewhere. Measuring and testing systems which determine the optical characteristics of light so as to measure materials and provides for lens or reflective image former testing are classified elsewhere. Eye examining and testing instruments are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

LASERS

Lasers and similar devices, per se, are excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes for lasers and similar devices when they function as a generator of coherent electromagnetic waves in the optical range.

OPTICAL TELEMETRY

Optical telemetry includes the combination of an optical data link between multiple locations together with a specific sensor used in a particular environment. Since the overall combination specifies an environment or specific sensor, the environment or sensor will control the classification. The following are examples of proper art areas for optical telemetry:

(1) Wellbore telemetry including any type of radiant energy; (i.e., optical, radio, etc.). (See References to Other Classes, below.)

(2) An optical data link in combination with a specific sensor, unless there is a place for the specific sensor in another class. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

COMPOSITIONS AND STOCK MATERIAL

Where there is no shape or structure peculiar to optical elements as in compositions or stock material, the subject matter is excluded from this class. See References to Other Classes, below, for classes that provide for these compositions and stock material.

OPTICAL ELEMENTS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE

For Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere, see References to Other Classes, below.

OPTICAL ELEMENTS COMBINED WITH DIVERSE TYPE ART DEVICES

An optical element combined with a diverse type art device where the element results in an improvement or perfection of the device is generally classified with the device. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below, for a reference to details of this distinction with reference to lenses, and also for references to combinations of a reflector and diverse type art device. The combination of an optical element and an electric discharge device is provided for elsewhere. See Class Definition, section D, above. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

For Classes that are more common external classifications of systems including or combined with optical elements, see References to Other Classes, below.

METHODS OF MAKING OPTICAL ELEMENTS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE

For Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere, see References to Other Classes, below.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

477,for stereo-viewer supports and mountings.
871+,for combinations of a detailed mirror with its support.
811+,831, and 892 provide for lenses, prisms, and filters respectively with supports.
809,see (1) Note for details of the following distinction with reference to lenses: an optical element combined with a diverse type art device where the element results in an improvement or perfection of the device is generally classified with the device.
838,under "SEARCH CLASS" for numerous combinations of a reflector and diverse type art device.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 227+ for sighting devices for determining geometrical relationships. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
33Geometrical Instruments,   for sighting instruments for determining geometrical relationships where no significant optical system is claimed. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Measuring and Testing")
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   provides for such panels with associated components, such as frames, edging, backing, etc., mechanically and permanently assembled thereto. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Supports or Mounts for Optical Elements and Systems" above.)
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 385+ for processes for forming optical fibers, waveguides, or preforms; subclass 31 for chemical glass etching; subclasses 37+ for glass lens making. (See Lines With Other Classes, "Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
117Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor,   for processes and non-coating apparatus for growing therein-defined single-crystal of all types of materials, including inorganic or organic. (See Lines With Other Classes "Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 99+ for optically transparent glass sandwich making. (See Lines With Other Classes, "Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclass 71 for the electroforming of a mirror or reflector and subclass 116 for producing a mirror or reflector by electrolytic coating. (See Lines With Other Classes, "Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
248Supports,   subclasses 466+ provides for supports for panel type structures. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Supports or Mounts for Optical Elements and Systems," above.)
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for optical systems for controlling or controlled by a photocell and subclasses 336.1 to 395 for methods and apparatus for the detection of invisible, radiation or the testing of material by invisible radiation for the production, transmission, control or general utilization of invisible radiant energy, including cathode rays, ultra-violet rays and the radiations and emanations of radio-active substances and the irradiation of material not limited to particular arts. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
250Radiant Energy,   for systems whose operation is restricted to the nonvisible portion of the spectrum. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Nonvisible Radiation.")
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ generally, where a photocell is claimed as a part of the optical system. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical System Including Photocell.")
252Compositions,   for compositions generally, subclasses 299.01+ providing for compositions of liquid crystals and subclasses 582+ providing for other light transmission modifying compositions. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Compositions and Stock Material.")
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 1.1+ for optical article shaping or treating. (See Lines With Other Classes, "Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 110+ for an electron lamp or discharge device having an optical device structurally combined therewith. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 815.76 for lens type indicator. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 853.1+ for wellbore telemetry including any type of radiant energy; (i.e., optical, radio, etc.). (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Telemetry," above.)
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 870.28+ for an optical data link in combination with a specific sensor. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Telemetry," above.)
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclasses 909+ for radio wave refracting means and filters. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
348Television,   subclasses 195+ , 335+, 744+, and 832+ for optical systems included in television systems. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 159.01+ for spectacle lenses. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   for spectacles and instruments for vision testing and eye examining. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 200+ for eye examining and testing instruments. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Measuring and Testing")
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   for optical systems used in motion picture apparatus. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
353Optics: Image Projectors,   for image projectors. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 396 for measurements involving moire patterns caused by plural optical grids relatively movable with respect to each other and subclass 242.1 for moire pattern examination of mesh or grid like material including knitted fabrics to determine the number of threads, lines or the spacing between the lines. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   for methods and apparatus for analyzing light, determining the optical or nonoptical properties of materials, measuring optically dimensions, determining optically spatial relations and inspecting optically for flaws and imperfections, within the scope of this class and not otherwise classifiable. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Device.")
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   provides generally for measuring and testing systems which determine the optical characteristics of light so as to measure materials and provides in subclasses 124+ for lens or reflective image former testing. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Measuring and Testing")
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 400 through 304for optical systems included in facsimile systems. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
362Illumination,   subclasses 341+ and 326+ respectively for reflecting and refracting elements to be used with an artificial source of illumination.
362Illumination,   appropriate subclasses for light sources combined with optical light modifiers, especially subclass 19 for light sources with polarizers; subclasses 166-170 and 293 for light sources with selected wavelength filters; subclass 268 for light sources combined with plural serial lens elements; subclasses 296.01-296.1 for light sources with reflectors; and subclasses 326-350 for refractors and reflectors, respectively, for use with light sources. (See this class (359), Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.)
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 64 , 106+, 120+, 215+, and 234+ for systems and circuits utilizing radiant energy. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
372Coherent Light Generators,   appropriate subclasses for oscillators of the quantum electronic type for generating coherent electromagnetic waves in the optical range by stimulated emission of radiation (e.g., lasers, irasers). (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
372Coherent Light Generators,   appropriate subclasses for lasers and similar devices, per se, when they function as a generator of coherent electromagnetic waves in the optical range. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Lasers," above.)
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 145+ for X-ray beam control devices. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
385Optical Waveguides,   appropriate subclasses for light wave transmitting devices. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
396Photography,   appropriate subclasses for still cameras. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
399Electrophotography,   subclasses 9+ for diagnostics, subclasses 38+ for controls, subclasses 130+ for image formation, subclasses 168+ for charging, subclasses 177+ for exposure, subclasses 222+ for development, subclasses 297+ for transfer, subclasses 320+ for fixing, subclasses 343+ for cleaning, and subclasses 361+ for document handling. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 59+ for a sun or radiation screening or sun tanning composition intended for topical application to a living body. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Compositions and Stock Material.")
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 162+ for coating processes, per se, wherein the product is an optical element. (See Lines With Other Classes, "Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 1.1 for miscellaneous liquid crystal articles and appropriate subclasses for a metallic or nonmetallic stock material product in the form of a single or plural layer web or sheet or a structurally defined or coated rod, strand, fiber flake or other element and a nonstructural metallic or nonmetallic composite web or sheet defined by the compositions of the layers. Note subclass 910 (a cross-reference art collection) for a product with molecular orientation. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Compositions and Stock Material.")
451Abrading,   subclasses 42+ for a lens grinding process and subclasses 323 and 325 for a machine for grinding an optical lens. (See Lines With Other Classes, "Methods of Making Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 100+ for high temperature (Tc 30 K) superconducting material. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Compositions and Stock Materia.")
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 150+ for high temperature (Tc 30 K) superconducting device, and particularly subclasses 181+ for photoconductive, light transmissive, light emissive, or light responsive device or component. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Classified Elsewhere.")
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 150+ for high temperature (Tc 30 K) superconducting device; and particularly subclasses 181+ for photoconductive, light transmissive, light emissive, or light responsive device or component. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Optical Elements Combined With Diverse Type Art Devices.")
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclass 40 , 49, 134+, and 172 for the use of radiant energy (e.g., X-ray, light, etc.) in a mechanical measurement system, flow metering, temperature measuring system, or system for measuring thickness or width, respectively, and subclass 159 for measuring of linear distance or length by reflected signal (e.g., ultrasonic, light, laser).
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclass 816 for optical correlation or convolution and subclass 831 for electro-optical analog integrators. This class will accept optical computers where the resultant mathematical operation is in the form of an electrical signal. For mathematical operations performed by optical means, classification is in Class 359.

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

BINOCULAR

Pertaining to the use of both eyes in the act of viewing.

BIREFRINGENT

Certain crystalline materials have their outer electrons bound more strongly in one direction than another resulting in the material having two refractive indices depending on the direction of the oscillation. Such materials are termed birefringent and, if an unpolarized light ray enters such a material obliquely, it will be refracted into two different linearly polarized rays having directions of polarization which are normal to one another.

DICHROIC

As used in one sense, the term dichroic refers to (1) the property of some materials to absorb to a greater degree one or the other of the two orthogonal component vectors which can be considered as constituting ordinary light. This results in producing light polarized to a degree depending upon the relative absorption of the two components. The term dichroic is also used to refer to (2) an optical element which will transmit light of one color and reflect other colors with little light being absorbed. These elements are usually composed of superimposed strata of dielectric materials.

DIFFRACTION

A phenomenon resulting from the wave nature of light, e.g., light passing through a slit of decreasing width, forms a narrower and narrower beam until the slit width approaches the wavelength of light, after which further decreasing of the slit width results in a beam having a larger and larger divergence.

DIFFRACTION PATTERN

The intensity profile of a light beam after having passed by a diffracting aperture or object.

DIFFUSE

Pertaining to the scattering or random deviation of transmitted or reflected light.

HOLOGRAPHY

The optical recording of an object wave formed by the resulting interference pattern of two (or more) mutually coherent, component light beams. Generally, a coherent beam is first split into two component beams, one of which irradiates an object, the second of which irradiates a recording medium. The diffraction or scattering of the first wave by the object forms an object wave which proceeds to and interferes with a second coherent beam (i.e., reference beam) at the medium. The resulting pattern is a two-dimensional (thin) or three-dimensional (thick) hologram of the object wave, depending on the thickness of the recording medium.

IMAGE FORMER

An optical device capable of producing an image from light rays proceeding from an object.

INTERFERENCE

The interaction of two light waves which, as a result of their relative phases, produce a cancellation or reinforcement of wave energy.

LIGHT, VISIBLE LIGHT

Visible light is radiation which stimulates the optical receptors of the eye and has a wavelength from 3850 to 7600 Angstrom units. The term light is used to refer to wavelengths in the above mentioned range and, often, also to refer to the ranges immediately adjacent, i.e., the ultra violet and infrared ranges which are nonvisible.

OPTICAL COMMUNICATION

The conveyance of information from one location to another via at least one optical transmitter and one optical receiver. These are used to transfer the information with an optical beam and this beam can be used in various communication schemes to enable the most effective or desired method of moving the information, including optical multiplexing when plural information signals or plural transmitters and receivers are utilized.

OPTICAL ELEMENT

A structure which performs a basic optical function, i.e., the structure, when exposed to or placed in the path of a light beam, will cause refraction, diffraction, attenuation, or blocking of the light or a modification in the character or properties of the light. In lenses, the complete lens is considered an optical element, while the individual masses of a plural element lens are considered as lens elements or lens components.

OPTICAL MODULATION

The change of some characteristic of an optical beam in direct relation to a varying signal applied thereto. The change may be temporal (e.g., amplitude, frequency, or phase) or directional.

OPTICAL SYSTEM

A combination of two or more similar or diverse optical elements which are optically related.

OPTICS, OPTICAL

The science of light and vision and the construction of optical instruments.

POLARIZATION

In a beam of polarized electromagnetic radiation, the polarization direction is the direction of the electric field vector (with no distinction between positive and negative as the field oscillates back and forth). The electric field vector is always in the plane which is normal to the beam propagation direction. At a given stationary point in space, the electric field vector of a beam can vary with time at random (unpolarized beam), can remain constant (plane-polarized beam), or can rotate. In the latter two cases, the beam is said to be "polarized" and can be thought of as the resultant vector of two orthogonal component vectors having equal amplitudes. If the phase difference of the two component vectors is 0 degrees, the light is plane polarized; if 90 degrees, the light is circularly polarized; and if it is between 0 and 90 degrees, the light is elliptically polarized. Elliptical and plane polarized light can be converted into each other by means of birefringent optical systems which retard one of the orthogonal component vectors relative to the other.

REFLECTION

Light striking a surface and returning back into the medium from which it came, at an angle equal but opposite to the angle of incidence.

REFRACTION

The deviation of light which results when a ray of light passes obliquely from a medium of one refractive index to a medium of another refractive index.

RETROREFLECTION

Light striking a surface and returning back into the medium in the reverse direction (i.e., a 180 degree change from its original path).

SPECTRUM

The band of colors produced by separating a beam of white light into its component frequencies.

TERMINAL IMAGE

The last image formed by a compound system.

ULTRAVIOLET/INFRARED

Electromagnetic radiation immediately above and below the optical visible frequency spectrum is termed ultraviolet and infrared, respectively. This entire range of frequencies is encompassed by the term "light."

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 1]    1HOLOGRAPHIC SYSTEM OR ELEMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein apparatus for forming a record of the phase and amplitude information of a wavefront where the information can be used to reconstruct the original wavefront; apparatus to reconstruct the original wavefront from a record containing the phase and amplitude information of this wavefront; or the record itself is recited.
(1) Note. This subclass is the generic locus for subject matter relating to holography. However, where particular use or application is claimed, classification is in the appropriate use or application class.
(2) Note. Nominally claimed subject matter external to this class in combination with holography is classified here. Significantly claimed subject matter external to this class in combination with holography is classified in the class appropriate to the external subject matter.
(3) Note. Interferometers are excluded from this subclass and are classified in Class 356, subclasses 345+.
(4) Note. Holographic memories including those having a nominal recitation of a photodetector or photocell are included in this or the indented subclasses. Static holographic storage and retrieval systems having electrical circuitry are classified in Class 365.
(5) Note. Dynamic holographic storage and retrieval systems having electrical circuitry are classified in Class 369.
(6) Note. Mere nominal recitation of developing, fixing, bleaching, or etching a photographic recording medium does not exclude the subject matter from this class. Holographic systems including significant chemical processing steps are classified in Class 430, Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof.
(7) Note. Systems for making holographic matched filters are included in this and the indented subclasses.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

558+,for correlation systems using holographic matched filters.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 603+ and 656 for acoustic holographic testing and for holographic interferometry in which an object is acted upon during the test, as for example, stressed or vibrated.
235Registers,   subclass 457 for holographic coded record sensors with particular circuitry to process electrical signals.
250Radiant Energy,   appropriate subclasses, for holographic systems that use radiation entirely outside of the optical or microwave ranges and which is not acoustic, and subclass 550 for photocell circuits and apparatus for interference pattern analysis (e.g., holography).
283Printed Matter,   appropriate subclasses for holograms in combination with credit or identification cards.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 980 for nonalarm flight indicator visible in pilot’s line-of-sight through windscreen.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 176+ for head up display combined with radar.
345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 7+ for heads-up displays with selective electrical control.
348Television,   subclasses 40+ for television systems which use holography.
355Photocopying,   subclass 2 for photographic copying of holograms by nonholographic means.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 457 for holographic interferometry in general.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclass 125 , 216, and 235 for holographic storage and retrieval of information systems including significant and particular electrical circuitry.
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 8+ for acoustic holography in general.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclass 103 for dynamic storage or retrieval using a holographic storage medium.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclass 36 for X-ray holography or interferometry.
380Cryptography,   subclass 54 for this subject matter used in a device for revealing concealed information.
382Image Analysis,   subclasses 210+ for spatial filtering (e.g., holography) in a pattern recognition system.
396Photography,   for photography in general.
430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   subclasses 1+ for holographic systems involving significant chemical processing steps, composition, or product.
600Surgery,   subclasses 101+ for endoscopes.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   appropriate subclasses for electrical computers or data processing arithmetic systems which may use holography.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 2]    2Authentication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein a hologram is used to provide proof that a document is not counterfeit or to make a document copy-proof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

283Printed Matter,   for document authentification with nominally recited holograms.
380Cryptography,   subclass 54 for modifying an optical image in order to conceal or reveal a hidden message.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 3]    3Having particular recording medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter in which details of the internal structure of a holographic recording medium is defined either physically or chemically.
(1) Note. An example of such a physical definition: "a multilayer emulsion, each layer being sensitive to a different color". A chemical definition: "thermoplastic tape".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   subclass 1 for holographic processes involving significant chemical processing steps composition or product; and appropriate subclasses for radiation chemical recording media, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 4]    4Recyclable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter in which the recording medium is of such a nature that the recorded information can be erased to permit further record-erase cycles.
(1) Note. Included here are photochromics, thermochromics, dye cells, magnetic films, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 5]    5Magnetic material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the recording medium is a material which is alterable by application of magnetic force.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 6]    6Sandwich having photoconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter in which the recording medium is integral with a layer of material which, when illuminated, undergoes a decrease in resistance.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 10 , 11, 21, 53-56, 72, 113-118, 184-189, 225-234, 257, 258, 290-294, 414, 431-466, and 910 for light responsive active semiconductor devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 7]    7Cyrstalline material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter in which the recording material is either a single crystal or in polycrystalline form.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 8]    8Having nonplanar recording medium surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter in which an illuminated portion of the recording medium surface is curved, as into a cylinder, or bent or folded during recording or readout.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 9]    9For synthetically generating a hologram:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including means for providing a hologram of a single object by other than a single exposure to the interference pattern of light from the object as a whole and a reference beam.
(1) Note. Holographic stereograms are considered recordings of different images and are excluded from this subclass.
(2) Note. Holographic memories are excluded in which an object beam is scanned so as to act as a page composer when each bit is intended to be separately detected.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23,for holographic stereograms.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 10]    10Using modulated or plural reference beams:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter in which a hologram is formed by interfering an object-modulated beam with another beam which is spatially or temporally modulated or with a plurality of other beams.
(1) Note. Phase modulation systems to compensate for object motion and systems for extending the depth of fluid are included here.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 11]    11Spatial, phase or amplitude modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter in which the reference beam is modulated by changing its phase, path length, or amplitude so as to have a nonuniform wavefront.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

22+,for spatial multiplexed holograms.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclass 49.1 for associative holographic memories.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 12]    12Copying by holographic means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter in which an image reconstructed from one hologram is used as the object in making a second hologram.
(1) Note. Systems in which a holographic analog to an ordinary optical element is used to shape or form a beam used to make a second hologram, but which does not by itself provide the object information for the second hologram are excluded. Such systems are classified based on the other claimed features in subclass 1 and its indented subclasses.

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355Photocopying,   appropriate subclasses for photographic copying, in general.
399Electrophotography,   subclass 118 for optics with particular modular or displaceable structure, subclass 137 optical intermediate storage of original image, subclasses 196+ for variable magnification during exposure, subclass 216 for slit exposure by pivoting mirror, subclass 218 for lens used in exposure, and subclass 219 for fiber optics used in exposure.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 13]    13Head up display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein a first image is optically superimposed upon a second image within a field of view.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 7+ for heads-up displays with selective electrical control.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 14]    14Holograph on curved substrate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Subject matter wherein a holograph is formed on a medium which is not flat.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 15]    15Using a hologram as an optical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein a holographic equivalent to an ordinary optical element is formed or used and wherein the holographic equivalent does not itself contain any intelligence or image information more significant than a point image.
(1) Note. The optical elements for which the hologram may be substituted include lenses, reflectors, diffusers, gratings, polarizers, beam splitters or combiners, filters, and phase plates or beam couplers.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 16]    16With aberration correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Subject matter which compensates for the inability of an optical system to provide a point to point correspondence between an object and its image.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 17]    17Scanner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Subject matter in which a hologram is used to direct a beam of light successively over the elements of a given region.
(1) Note. Systems using a holographic element to convert one scan pattern to another are included here.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 18]    18Flat rotating disk:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.  Subject matter where the scanning element is a planar surface, containing holographic segments, which is rotated about an axis normal to the surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 19]    19Lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Subject matter in which the holographic equivalent is an optical device which focuses light.
(1) Note. Holograms which are used to form a single image of an extended two- or three-dimensional object are included here.

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362+,for compound lens systems.
642+,for lenses.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 20]    20Multiple point hologram (e.g., fly-eye lens, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Subject matter wherein a hologram, which simulates one produced by the interference of two beams with one of the beams consisting of a plurality of separate subbeams, is produced which is the analog of a plurality of lenses in a plane such as lenticular or fly eye lens array.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 21]    21Having defined page composer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including the details of the internal structure of a changeable modulator, which serves as the principle object in a system for making a plurality of holograms, where the internal conditions of the modulator represent the intelligence to be recorded in the holograms.
(1) Note. Systems in which a page composer is merely nominally recited are excluded from this subclass and are classified on the basis of the other claimed features in subclass 1 and its indented subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 22]    22For producing or reconstructing images from multiple holograms (e.g., color, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising systems specifically adapted for making a plurality of holograms, simultaneously or sequentially, of different intelligence or for reading out images from a plurality of holograms.
(1) Note. Holographic stereograms are classified in subclass 23.

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9,for synthetically generating holograms.
23,for holographic stereograms.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 23]    23Holographic stereogram:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Subject matter including a series of holograms made from a series of two-dimensional pictures of a three-dimensional object, each picture representing a different parallactic view of the object, and upon readout the hologram series represents a three-dimensional view to an observer.

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9,for synthetically generating a hologram.
462+,for nonholographic stereoscopic devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 24]    24Superimposed holograms only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Subject matter in which the plurality of holograms are fully overlapped on the same recording medium only.
(1) Note. Typical subject matter of this subclass include (a) holograms made with multicolor illumination and (b) systems using spatial frequency multiplexing or pupil separation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 25]    25Discrete hologram only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Subject matter in which the plurality of holograms are arranged in a side-by-side relationship on only one integral recording medium or have an equivalent fixed side-by-side spatial relationship to each other such as in a frame having windows containing the holo-grams.
(1) Note. Space division multiplexing systems wherein holograms are discretely recorded and interlaced are included here.

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23,for holographic stereograms.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 26]    26Sequential frames on moving film:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter in which the plurality of holograms will, upon readout, produce images whose spatial location will move as a function of the movement of the holograms and in which movement of the holograms is used to provide for sequential readout of the individual images at a fixed location in space.
(1) Note. Holographic movies or books and holograms of time varying electrical signals are typical of the subject matter included here.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 27]    27Having particular laser source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including a laser as a light source wherein the physical or chemical internal structure of the laser is explicity defined.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   appropriate subclasses for lasers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 28]    28Having multiple object beam or diffuse object illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter in which a plurality of light beams are used to illuminate an object whose image is to be recorded or in which the light illuminating the object has been modulated by a diffuser or the equivalent.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 29]    29Fourier transform holography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter where the transmission factor of a hologram closely approximates a Fourier integral.
(1) Note. The Fourier Transform, F(w), of a function, f(t), is given by
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 30]    30Having optical element between object and recording medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising systems for producing holograms in which an optical element, such as a lens, grating, mask, or mirror is located in the path of the light between the object whose image is to be recorded and the holographic recording medium and systems for reconstructing an image from such holograms in which an equivalent optical element having an equivalent spatial location relative to the holo-gram must be used during readout.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 31]    31Focused image holography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter in which an image of the intelligence to be recorded is formed on, in, or very close to the recording medium when producing a hologram or in which an image is formed on, in, or very close to the hologram during readout.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 32]    32For reconstructing image:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter used for reading out the intelligence recorded in a hologram.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 33]    33Real image:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.  Subject matter for reconstructing a hologram made of an image formed by light collected at a single point as opposed to a virtual image.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 34]    34With optical waveguide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including one or more optically transparent elongated structures (e.g., rods, fibers, or waveguides) are used to transmit light rays from one point to another through modal transmission or within the confines of their outer surfaces through internal reflection.

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385Optical Waveguides,   appropriate subclasses for optical waveguides, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 35]    35Hardware for producing a hologram:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including physical components (e.g., fittings, tools, or metal equipment of a system, etc.) used in creating a holographic image.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 107]    107OPTICAL COMPUTING WITHOUT DIFFRACTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein basic and more involved mathematical processes of comparing, adding, substracting, multiplying, dividing, integrating, etc., are performed by optical elements on an optical beam prior to any conversion to another form of energy.
(1) Note. The optical beam itself performs the computing.
(2) Note. The computing of this and the indented subclass optically works on a single input optical beam to produce a desired output optical beam, but this optical computing is not intended to encompass convolution (crosscorrela-tion) or correlation functions performed by a diffration grating.
(3) Note. Electrical computing for optical purposes without any computation using an optical beam is classified elsewhere.

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560,for convolution or cross-correlation using a diffraction grating.
561,for correlation using a diffraction grating.

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235Registers,   subclasses 200+ for fluid logic.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   appropriate subclasses.
701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   appropriate subclasses.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   appropriate subclasses.
703Data Processing: Structural Design, Modeling, Simulation, and Emulation,   appropriate subclasses.
704Data Processing: Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, and Audio Compression/Decompression,   appropriate subclasses.
705Data Processing: Financial, Business Practice, Management, or Cost/Price Determination,   appropriate subclasses.
706Data Processing: Artificial Intelligence,   appropriate subclasses.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   appropriate subclasses.
709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multiple Computer or Process Coordinating,   appropriate subclasses.
710Electrical Computers and Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output,   appropriate subclasses.
711Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Memory,   appropriate subclasses.
712Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Processing Architectures and Instruction Processing (e.g., Processors),   appropriate subclasses.
713Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Support,   appropriate subclasses.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   appropriate subclasses.
716Computer-Aided Design and Analysis of Circuits and Semiconductor Masks,   appropriate subclasses.
717Data Processing: Software Development, Installation, and Management,   appropriate subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 108]    108Logic gate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Subject matter wherein the optical beam performs the operation known to be performed by an AND, OR, NOR, NOT, etc., gate and the optical beam output is the resultant of the relationship of all the input optical beams as designed prior to the application of the optical beams.

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235Registers,   subclasses 200+ for fluid gates.
326Electronic Digital Logic Circuitry,   for electrical digital logic circuits.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclass 89 for data processing control system with specific algorithm.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 196.1]    196.1DEFLECTION USING A MOVING ELEMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter related to offsetting or altering the direction of at least a portion of a light incident onto a light reflecting or transmitting element (i.e., optical element) such as lens, mirror, prism, etc., by translating, rotating, oscillating, or otherwise repositioning the element with respect to the light path.
(1) Note. A prism may be employed for refracting or reflecting light. Prism reflections are considered to be internal reflections; that is, the light is inside the prism body before and immediately after reflection. Light beam deflection by a movable prism is included in this subclass.
(2) Note. Lenses or curved surface mirrors movable for focusing are classified elsewhere in this class.

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227,through 236, for light control by an opaque element or medium movable in or through light path.
298,through 320, for light wave directional modulation.
577,through 590, for light control by light interference.
642,through 830, for lenses, per se.
831,through 837, for prisms, per se.
838,through 884, for mirrors, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 503.1 through 504+for an invisible radiation source with a radiation modifying member, in general, and subclasses 505.1-519.1, for radiation controlling elements per se, exclusive of infrared, visible and ultraviolet types.
348Television,   subclasses 195 through 205for mechanical-optical scanning by moving a lens or refractor.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 197.1]    197.1Using a periodically moving element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.1.  Subject matter wherein the moving of the light reflecting or transmitting element occurs at regular intervals.
(1) Note. The motion of the light reflective or transmitting element or medium as a result of vehicle vibration, vehicle wheel motion, wind action, etc., is considered to be of an irregular nature and not periodic within the meaning of this definition.

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227,through 236, for light control by an opaque element or medium movable in or through a light path.

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348Television,   subclasses 195 through 205for mechanical-optical scanning.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 84 for high speed cameras which use rotating optical elements and subclasses 105-120 for motion picture optical rectifiers using rotating or scanning optical elements.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 474 through 498for a facsimile scanning signal generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 198.1]    198.1With particular mount or driver for element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.1.  Subject matter includes details of structure to support or move the element periodically.

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221.2,for deflection of light wherein the deflection element or medium further comprises detail structure for supporting or moving the non-periodically moving element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 199.1]    199.1Oscillating driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.1.  Subject matter includes means to move the element back and forth repetitively.

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213.1,for light deflection wherein the reflective moving element is an oscillating reflective element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 199.2]    199.2Electrostatically driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.1.  Subject matter wherein the oscillating driver is powered via an electrical device having an energy source pertaining to an electric charge or field alone, without interaction with magnetic influence.

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200.6,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is moved by a non-oscillating electrostatic driver.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 309 and 310 for an electrical generator or motor structure wherein the electrical charge or potential is of static electricity.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 199.3]    199.3Electromagnetically driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.1.  Subject matter wherein the oscillating driver is powered via an electromotive force in a conductor when there is a change in magnetic flux through the conductor.

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200.7,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is moved by a non-oscillating electromagnetic driver.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 90.5 for an electrical generator or motor further comprising bearings having an induction field.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 199.4]    199.4Electromechanically driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.1.  Subject matter wherein the oscillating driver is powered via an electrical to mechanical conversion device.

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200.8,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is driven by a non-oscillating electromechanical driver.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.1]    200.1Bearing or shaft for rotary driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.1.  Subject matter wherein the oscillating driver is powered via an electrical to mechanical conversion device.

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221.3,for bearings or a shaft for a non-periodic rotary driver.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 90.5 for an electrical generator or motor further comprising bearings having an induction field.
384Bearings,   subclasses 91 through 623for bearings, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.2]    200.2Specific shaft material or structure (e.g. ceramic ring):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Subject matter wherein the shaft has a defined shape or configuration or having a particular compositional make up.

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221.4,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprises a specific shaft material or structure for a non-periodic rotary driver.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.3]    200.3Grooved shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.2.  Subject matter wherein the defined structure includes a narrow furrow.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.4]    200.4Fluid pressure bearing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Subject matter including structural details of fluid under pressure provided between the bearing and the rotating shaft to reduce the friction between them during the rotation.
(1) Note. Fluid bearings are also called hydrostatic or gas bearings, and are bearings which support load on a thin layer of liquid or gas.

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384Bearings,   subclasses 100 through 124for fluid bearings, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.5]    200.5Dynamic fluid bearing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.4.  Subject matter wherein the pressure in the fluid bearing is adjustable.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.6]    200.6Electrostatic driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.1.  Subject matter wherein the driver is powered via an electrical device having an energy source pertaining to an electric charge or field alone, without interaction with magnetic influence.

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199.2,for light deflection wherein the element is moved by an electrostatic oscillating driver.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.7]    200.7Electromagnetic driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.1.  Subject matter wherein the driver is powered via an electromotive force in a conductor when there is a change in magnetic flux through the conductor.

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199.3,for light deflection wherein a periodically moving element further comprises an electromagnetic oscillating driver.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 200.8]    200.8Electromechanical driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.1.  Subject matter wherein the driver is powered via an electrical to mechanical conversion device.

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199.4,for light deflection wherein a periodically moving element further comprises an electromechanical oscillating driver.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 201.1]    201.1With multiple scanning elements (e.g. plural lenses, lens and prism, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.1.  Subject matter wherein the deflection of the incident light achieved by periodically changing the position of more than one optical element in the light beam path.

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201.2,for light deflection using a moving mirror array.
211.3,for light deflection using plural non-periodically moving prisms.
216.1,for light deflection using a mutiple faceted mirrors.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 201.2]    201.2Reflective element (e.g. a mirror, a reflector, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.1.  Subject matter wherein at least one scanning element has a surface which returns the incident light back to its original medium without changing its wavelength.

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838,through 884, for mirrors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 202.1]    202.1X-Y scanners:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.1.  Subject matter wherein the multiple scanning elements cause a deflection of light in two mutually perpendicular directions.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 203.1]    203.1Having a common axis of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.1.  Subject matter wherein the plural moving scanning elements revolve about one physical or imaginary line.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 204.1]    204.1Utilizing multiple light beams:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.1.  Subject matter wherein two or more light beams are used as input for the moving element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 204.2]    204.2Including modulated light beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the light beams has its amplitude, frequency or phase modified in proportion to an applied time varying signal.

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217.2,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is a multifaceted rotating element that deflects modulated light.
224.2,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is a reflective element moved by a deformable support that deflects modulated light.
237,through 236, for modulation, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 204.3]    204.3Including polarized light beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the light beams is modified such that all electric field vectors are within the same plane (plane polarized) or having vectors within two orthogonal planes (elliptically polarized).

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483.01,through 494.01, for polarization without modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 204.4]    204.4Having multiple light beams with visible wavelengths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Subject matter including two or more light beams that have wavelengths in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 204.5]    204.5With diffraction grating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Subject matter wherein the multiple light beams are bent or deflected via a barrier or a series of narrow slits.

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207.7,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is a post scanning element comprising a diffraction grating.
211.6,for light deflection wherein the deflection element further comprises non-periodically rotional diffracting grating.
217.4,for light deflection wherein the deflection element further comprises a non-periodically multifacted rotating reflective element having a diffraction grating.
558,through 576, for diffraction, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 205.1]    205.1Post scanning optical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.1.  Subject matter wherein an optical element is provided after the deflecting element to gather light.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 206.1]    206.1High distortion lens (e.g., f-Theta lens):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter wherein the post scanning optical element includes a lens producing an image such that the image height is proportional to the scan angle (Theta).

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662,for an f-Theta lens, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.1]    207.1Anamorphic elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter including an optical element that produces unequal image magnifications in two orthogonal planes.

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668,for anamorphic lenses, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.2]    207.2Having an aspheric surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.1.  Subject matter wherein the anamorphic optical element has a non-spherical surface.

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708,through 718, for lenses having aspherical surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.3]    207.3Multiple aspheric surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.2.  Subject matter wherein the anamorphic optical element has more than one non-spherical surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.4]    207.4Multiple symmetrical aspheric surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.3.  Subject matter wherein two or more aspheric surfaces have symmetry about an optical axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.5]    207.5Multiple nonsymmetrical aspheric surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.3.  Subject matter wherein two or more aspheric surfaces are asymmetrical about the optical axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.6]    207.6Cylindrical or toric lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter wherein the post scanning optical element consists of a lens with at least one surface that is formed like a portion of a cylinder i.e., cylindrical lens, or a lens having a main power in one meridian and a minimum power in a perpendicular meridian, i.e., toric lens.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.7]    207.7With diffraction portion or element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter wherein the post scanning optical element includes an edge, narrow slit or groove for bending or deflecting light incident thereon.

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204.5,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprises a diffraction grating acting upon multi-beam polarized light.
211.6,for light deflection wherein the deflection element further comprises non-periodically rotational diffracting grating.
217.4,for light deflection wherein the deflection element further comprises a non-periodically multifacted rotating reflective element having a diffraction grating.
558,through 576, for diffraction, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.8]    207.8With reflecting prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter wherein the post scanning optical element is a wedge-shaped transparent body consisting of plane surfaces set at specified angles, some of these surfaces transmit light and some reflect light, which causes the incident light to traverse in succession.

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831,through 837, for prisms, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.9]    207.9Polarized beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter wherein the light incident on the post scanning optical element is modified such that all electric field vectors are within the same plane (plane polarized) or having vectors within two orthogonal planes (elliptically polarized).

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204.3,for light deflection wherein the deflected light beams are plural multiple polarized beams.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 207.11]    207.11Thermal compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter wherein the post scanning optical element includes means to counteract operational effects due to changes in temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 208.1]    208.1Concave reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.1.  Subject matter wherein the post scanning optical element has an inwardly curved reflective surface.

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867,through 869, for a concave cylindrical mirror providing a line focus.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 208.2]    208.2Aspheric reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.1.  Subject matter wherein the concave reflective optical element has a non-spherical surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 209.1]    209.1Transmissive type moving element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.1.  Subject matter wherein the periodically moving element is made of a transparent material that allows light to pass through.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 210.1]    210.1Moving lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.1.  Subject matter wherein the transmissive element is a transparent optical component with surfaces so curved such that transmitted light is converged, diverged, or collimated.

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211.1,for deflection of a light beam using a periodically moving prism.
642,through 830, for lenses, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 210.2]    210.2Rotational lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 210.1.  Subject matter wherein the moving lens moves about an axis.

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226.1,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a non-periodic rotating reflective element.
226.2,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a non-periodic rotating element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 211.1]    211.1Moving prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.1.  Subject matter wherein the transmissive element is a transparent optical element having at least two (2) flat surfaces angled relative to each other to refract the light.

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210.1,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a moving lens.
592,through 595, for refracting elements employed in natural light directing systems.
606,for prismoidal antiglare mirrors.
618,for plural path optical systems which divide or combine light paths.
831,through 837, for a prism, per se.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 51 for optical test devices having prisms used in infrared or UV range alone and subclasses 300 – 334 for prism-type spectroscopic instruments.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 211.2]    211.2Rotating prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.1.  Subject matter wherein the prism moves about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 211.3]    211.3Multiple prisms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.2.  Subject matter wherein there are two or more rotating prisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 211.4]    211.4With angled axis of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.1.  Subject matter wherein the prism is oriented at an incline with respect to movement about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 211.5]    211.5Rotating element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.1.  Subject matter wherein the transmissive element moves about an axis.

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210.2,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a rotational lens.
211.2,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a rotational prism.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 211.6]    211.6With diffraction grating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.5.  Subject matter wherein the rotating element includes an edge, narrow slit or groove for bending or deflecting light incident thereon.

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204.5,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprises a diffraction grating acting upon multi-beam polarized light.
207.7,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is a post scanning element comprising a diffraction grating.
217.4,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprises a nonperiodically multifacated rotating reflective element having a diffraction grating.
558,through 576, for diffraction, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 212.1]    212.1Reflective type moving element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.1.  Subject matter wherein the periodically moving element has a surface that returns the incident light back to its original medium without changing its wavelength.

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207.8,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprises post scanning reflecting prisms.
838,through 884, for reflective optical elements, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 212.2]    212.2Rotating reflective element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.1.  Subject matter wherein the element moves about an axis.

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210.2,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a rotating lens.
211.2,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a rotational prism.
211.5,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a rotating transmissive element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 213.1]    213.1Oscillating reflective element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflective element moves back and forth repetitively.

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520,through 526, for rotating, oscillating and vibrating signal reflectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 214.1]    214.1Single plane mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflective element has a unitary flat reflective surface.

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838,through 884, for mirrors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 215.1]    215.1With imaging lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.1.  Subject matter further comprising an optical element for the purpose of focusing the reflected light.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 216.1]    216.1Multifaceted rotating element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflective element has two or more reflecting surfaces and moves about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 217.1]    217.1With facet plane substantially parallel to rotating axis plane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflecting surfaces of the reflective element are in the same plane as the axis of rotation.

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219.2,for a multifaceted reflective element wherein the facets are tilted at an angle with respect to the axis of rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 217.2]    217.2With beam modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein the light’s amplitude, frequency or phase has been modified in proportion to an applied time varying signal.

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204.2,for scanners using multiple modulated light beams.
224.2,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is a reflective element moved by a deformable support that deflects modulated light.
237,through 324, for modulation, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 217.3]    217.3Having vibration absorbing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter including means to attenuate or eliminate unwanted trembling motion of the moving element.

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207.11,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element having thermal compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 217.4]    217.4With diffractive element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein the multifaceted rotating element includes an edge, narrow slit or groove for bending or deflecting the incident light.

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204.5,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprises a diffraction grating acting upon multi-beam polarized light.
207.7,for light deflection wherein the deflection element is a post scanning element comprising a diffraction grating.
211.6,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprises a non-periodically rotational diffraction grating.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 218.1]    218.1Having six, seven, or eight facets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein the number of reflecting surfaces is greater than five and less than nine.

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219.1,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a multifaceted rotating element having five or fewer reflecting surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 219.1]    219.1Having five or fewer facets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein the number of reflecting surfaces is less than six.

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218.1,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is a multifaceted rotating element having more than five, but less than nine, reflecting surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 219.2]    219.2Inclined reflective elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflective elements are disposed at an angle relative to the rotational axis.

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217.1,for a multifaceted reflective element wherein the facets are parallel to the axis of rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 220.1]    220.1Rotation axis traversely oriented relative to reflective element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.1.  Subject matter wherein the element is tilted with respect to the rotational axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 221.1]    221.1Having planar rotating reflector with co-planar axis of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflective surface of the moving element is non-curved and the axis of rotation lies in its plane.

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214.1,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element is an oscillating planar mirror.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 221.2]    221.2With particular mount or drive for element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.1.  Subject matter includes details of structure to support or move the element to deflect the light beam.

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198.1,for light deflection comprising detailed structure for supporting or moving a periodically moving element or medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 221.3]    221.3Bearing or shaft for rotary driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.2.  Subject matter includes structural details of the load support or the axle member to which torque is applied to cause rotation of the driver.

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200.1,for light deflection wherein the deflecting element further comprising bearings or shaft for a periodic rotary driver.

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384Bearings,   subclasses 91 through 623for bearings, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 221.4]    221.4Specific shaft material or structure (e.g. ceramic ring):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.3.  Subject matter wherein the shaft has a defined shape or configuration or having a particular compositional make- up.

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200.2,for specific shaft material or structure for a periodic rotary driver.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 222.1]    222.1By frustrated total internal reflection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.1.  Subject matter wherein light is deflected via light leakage at a total reflecting interface of a first reflective surface when a second reflective surface is placed in proximity of the first.
(1) Note. When light is incident on a reflective surface and undergoes total internal reflection, by bringing a second element or medium into proximity with the first surface, total internal reflection becomes frustrated and the light beam is no longer total internal reflection, but instead, is passed into the second element or medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 223.1]    223.1By moving a reflective element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.1.  Subject matter wherein the direction of at least a portion of an incident light beam is offset or changed by repositioning an optical element which returns incident light without changing its wavelength.

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207.8,for light beam deflection having a reflective prism after the moving element (i.e. post scanning).
291,through 295, for light control by deforming or flexing a reflector.
838,through 884, for a reflector or mirror, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 230 for reflection-type light valves used in photocell systems.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 97 for galvanometers of the light beam type.
348Television,   subclasses 203 through 205for mechanical-optical scanning by a moving reflector.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 224.1]    224.1Reflective element moved by deformable support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter wherein structure holding the element is extended, flexed or contracted to modify the position of the reflecting element.

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199.3,for light beam deflection wherein the reflecting element itself is extended, flexed or contracted.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 224.2]    224.2Modulated light beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.1.  Subject matter wherein the light’s amplitude, frequency or phase is modified in proportion to an applied time varying signal.

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204.2,for scanners using multiple modulated light beams.
217.2,for modulated light reflected by a multifaceted rotating element.
291,through 295, for optical modulation by altering the shape or contour of the light control surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 225.1]    225.1Pivotally or moving in circular arc:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflective element rotates about an axis which passes through the element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 226.1]    226.1Rotating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter wherein the reflective element rotates about an axis which does not pass through the element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 226.2]    226.2Pivotal or rotational element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.1.  Subject matter wherein the element revolves or pivots about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 226.3]    226.3Fluid filled medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.1.  Subject matter wherein the element comprises a liquid or gas.

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228,for light control by a movable opaque element or medium including a gas or liquid.
665,for a fluid lens, per se.
886,for a fluid filter, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 227]    227LIGHT CONTROL BY OPAQUE ELEMENT OR MEDIUM MOVABLE IN OR THROUGH LIGHT PATH:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising the control of the amount of light transmitted through an area defined by an optical beam via an element or material, which is either completely opaque or opaque only in certain portions whereas the other portions are transparent, by (1) selectively intercepting the light path by the element or (2) changing the orientation of the element within the light path.
(1) Note. Where the element is not substantially opaque, but is used to reduce the light intensity, the subject matter is not classified here but in subclass 889.
(2) Note. Class 359 provides for optical diaphragms and shutters, per se, in subclasses 227+ for lenses combined with shutters generally in subclasses 738+, and for lenses combined with diaphragms generally in subclasses 739+. However, a camera shutter and diaphragm, per se, are classifiable in Class 396, Photography, subclasses 452+ and subclasses 505+ respectively, the indicated use in cameras or camera background being sufficient for classification in Class 396 as opposed to Class 359. Class 396 also provides for lenses broadly or specifically combined with camera shutter or diaphragm details, it being emphasized that such combinations involving noncamera shutters or diaphragms or plural disclosures of utility are classified in subclasses 738+ and 739+ of Class 359 as indicated above. The combination of a lens broadly or specifically claimed and a camera shutter or diaphragm broadly claimed are classifiable in subclasses 738+ and 739+ of this class (359).

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196.1through 226.3, for light deflection by a moving element.
738+,for light controlling means combined with a lens.

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396Photography,   particularly subclasses 452+ and 505+ for shutters and diaphragms used in cameras and see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 228]    228Fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter including a liquid or gas.
(1) Note. The fluid itself or an element in the fluid may constitute the light controlling element.

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296,for realignment or repositioning of particles (possibly opaque) suspended in a fluid in response to an applied field.
665+,for a fluid lens.
886,for a fluid filter.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 229]    229With glare or flicker elimination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter comprising structure for equalizing light intensity reaching the eye or for reducing glare or flicker.

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601+,for generic glare reduction.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 230]    230Electro-mechanical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein electrical energy is used to control the movement of the light controlling element.
(1) Note. This includes solenoid and tuning fork structures and electrostatic type effects.

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228,for electro-mechanically controlled light control systems using a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 231]    231String or ribbon type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein electric current is applied across a resilient, electrically conducting opaque element which as a result of its location in the field of an electromagnet vibrates, thus interrupting a light path or a portion thereof in accordance with variations in the current or in the strength of the field of the electromagnet.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 232]    232Slit type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein the light controlling structure comprises a pair of jaws having opposed parallel edges which can be moved toward or away from each other and which can be fixed in a variety of intermediate positions between fully open and fully closed.
(1) Note. Typically the location of the center of the slit remains fixed.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 233]    233With relative motion of two apertured elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter where the light control results from the relative movement of two opaque elements, each containing openings which allow light to pass.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 234]    234With rotating or pivoting element (e.g., scanning discs):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter comprising means wherein the light control results from revolving, completely or partially, an opaque element or an element containing opaque and transparent portions.
(1) Note. Included here are generic optical shutters or diaphragms, per se, which have rotating vanes or blades.

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229,for similar subject matter used in reducing glare.
233,for two relative moving apertured elements which may rotate.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 201.1+ for scanning elements of this type used in photo-cell controlled optical systems and subclass 232 for the combination of a light chopper and photocell.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 235]    235Continuously rotating apertured element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Subject matter wherein the light controlling element revolves nonstop during the operation of the device.
(1) Note. Apertures as used here encompass slots removed around the periphery of an otherwise opaque element.

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233,for relative motion of two apertured elements where one may be continuously rotating.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 236]    236Element rotates about axis perpendicular to light path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Subject matter wherein the light controlling element is revolved about an axis substantially at right angles to the direction of the light rays.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 237]    237OPTICAL MODULATOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein an optical element varies a characteristic of a traversing optical light beam in direct proportion to an applied time-varying signal which may be in any energy form.
(1) Note. Characteristics of a traversing light beam that may be varied include its direction or characteristics such as amplitude, frequency, phase, or polarization.

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109+,for optical communication systems or devices which may include an optical modulator.
325,for an optical demodulator, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photocell circuit and subclasses 503.1+ for an invisible radiation source with a radiation modifying member, generally.
332Modulators,   appropriate subclasses for modulators of an electrical wave.
348Television,   subclasses 195+ for mechanical-optical scanning.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 84 for high speed cameras which use rotating optical elements and subclasses 105+ for motion picture optical rectifiers using roatating or scanning optical elements.
372Coherent Light Generators,   appropriate subclasses for lasers including internal light control apparatus.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 1+ and 4+ for light wave modulation within an optical waveguide.
396Photography,   particularly subclasses 452+ and 505+ for shutters and diaphragms used in cameras and see (2) Note in subclass 227 above.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 238]    238Light wave temporal modulation (e.g., frequency, amplitude, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein a device varies a property of light which is a function of time only as it traverses the device where such variation is in accordance with the applied varying signal which can be of any energy form.
(1) Note. Such properties of the traversing light include amplitude, frequency, or phase.
(2) Note. Optical modulation occuring exclusively within a waveguide is classified in Class 385.

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298+,for directional modulation.

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385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 1+ for light temporal modulation inside of a waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 239]    239Modulator output feedback to modulator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.  Subject matter wherein the light beam output from the modulator is fed back into the modulator input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 240]    240Changing bulk optical parameter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.  Subject matter comprising structure for controlling a light parameter by changing a bulk optical parameter of an optically transmitting medium.
(1) Note. "Bulk optical parameter" refers to those inherent internal characteristics of an optical element which can be defined by mathematical expressions describing their effect on light radiation (e.g., index of refraction, transmissivity, etc.) and which can be changed without producing a significant change in the shape, size, or contours of the optical element itself.
(2) Note. Included here are devices in which an optical parameter of the light control element is changed as a result of an applied electrical or magnetic field, an applied acoustic wave, a change in chemical structure, or by any other mechanism which primarily alters the bulk optical parameters rather than the physical shape, size, or contours of an optical medium.

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577+,for light control by light interference.
738+,for light controlling structure combined with a lens.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 48+ and 84+ for selective electrical control of displays having light-controlling display elements.
372Coherent Light Generators,   appropriate subclasses for lasers including light control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 241]    241By actinic radiation (e.g., photochromic):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein an optical parameter of the light control element is changed by or in response to either the light to be controlled or a separate external source of optical radiation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 242]    242Display device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein the temporal modulation is in an information conveying element.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 1.1 through 3.4for visual display systems with selective electrical control.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 243]    243Bistable device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein an optical device has two distinct, stable output states which toggle between one another by a single application of actinic radiation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 244]    244Opto-optical device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein the temporal modulation is achieved by an externally applied modulating light wave.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 245]    245Electro-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein the optical properties (e.g., index of refraction) of an optical element are changed in response to an applied electrical signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 246]    246Modulation of polarized light via modulating input signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein a property of a polarized optical beam, such as amplitude, phase, polarization, frequency, or color are varied in a controlled manner by the applied electrical signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 247]    247Using reflective or cavity structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the modulation is effected by structure which redirects the entire beam or a part of the beam at an angle equal to that of incidence, or wherein the medium through which the beam passes is confined in a cavity.

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302,for reflecting structures used in beam deflection.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 248]    248Semiconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Subject matter wherein barrier layer (i.e., semiconducting) material is used in the modulating structure, generally, as a variable reflector.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 249]    249Compensation technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein unwanted effects due to the action of the medium or the field on the beam such as those due to temperature, birefringences, or color are eliminated.

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250,for plural mediums in the beam path where the plural mediums are not for the purpose of compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 250]    250Using plural mediums:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein more than one medium or structure, each of which modulates the beam, are provided.
(1) Note. The mediums or structures in the beam path, layered mediums transverse to the beam path or parallel paths, each containing a medium where the output beam is the result of the combined action of the medium or structure. Not all of the mediums need to be field responsive.
(2) Note. Initial polarizers and final analyzers are not considered part of the plural mediums where the only affect is to select a polarization. Plural areas formed by a matrix of electrodes whose sole function is to act on a portion of the beam are not considered plural mediums. Nonbirefringent lenses are also not considered a medium in the sense of the definition.

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249,for plural mediums where the purpose of the mediums is compensation.
301+,for plural mediums used to deflect the beam or a portion of the beam.
489.01,through 489.15, for polarization achieved by plural birefringent elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 251]    251With particular direction of the field in relation to the medium, beam direction or polarization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein details of the medium are given, especially crystal cut or orientation, and the direction of the applied field is specified in relation to the medium or in relation to the incident beam direction or polarization.

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252,for a particular medium where no field directional particulars, in relation to the medium, are specified.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 252]    252With particular medium or state of the medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the details of the medium structure, state of the medium, shape of the medium, or treatment of the medium are recited.
(1) Note. For classification herein, there should be more than just the recitation of the name or abbreviation of the name of the material.

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251,where details of the medium are combined with a particular field direction.
485.01,through 489.15, for a particular medium used for reflectively or refractively polarizing light.

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23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   for preparation or treatment of nonmetallic elements involving only physical treatments.
252Compositions,   for compositions, per se.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   for melt shaping or treatment of nonmetallic materials.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for nonmetallic elements and for processes for producing nonmetallic elements involving a chemical reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 253]    253Liquid medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Subject matter wherein the medium is in a nongaseous fluid state.

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36+,for similar structures using liquid crystals for the medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 254]    254With particular electrode structure or arrangement, or medium mounting structure or arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the physical structure, geometry or arrangement of the electrodes is detailed or there is detailed mounting structure for the medium (e.g., to prevent physical distortion).
(1) Note. Included here are structures which perform auxiliary functions such as protection or index matching.

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251,for the arrangement of the electrodes as related to the medium for a particular direction of the field in combination with details of the medium.
253,for those structures used with a liquid medium where the structure is peculiar to the medium.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 365+ for electrode arrangements with respect to a piezoelectric element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 255]    255With particular field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the field which modulates the medium is of a specific magnitude, phase, or frequency or is of a specific type (e.g., pulse).

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251,for a field direction or polarization specified in relation to the medium (e.g., crystal cut).
484.01,through 484.1, for polarization by an applied magnetic field.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 256]    256With birefringent element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter including an element having the property of dividing a ray or beam of energy into two polarized rays or beams (known as the ordinary and extraordinary rays), the directions of polarization being at right angles to each other.
(1) Note. A birefringent material which has been treated with a dichroic dye to absorb the ordinary or extraordinary ray is no longer considered to be birefrin-gent within the meaning of this definition. A birefringent element in the form of a Nicol prism, where the unwanted ray is deflected, is classified here.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 257]    257Pockel’s cell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the variation of a polarized light characteristic is achieved by an element which advances or retards the phase of an induced ordinary wave relative to the extraordinary wave when the electrical signal is applied.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 258]    258Kerr cell:
 Subject matter under 246 wherein the variation of a polarized light characteristic is achieved by an element including a material (usually liquid) whose refractive index change is proportional to the square of the field of the applied electrical signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 259]    259Plural modulation cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the temporal light modulator utilizes multiple elemental units each of which is electro-optically controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 260]    260Etalon structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the modulating structure consists of two parallel dielectric mirrors separated by an active electro-optic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 261]    261Multiple reflections within cell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the electro-optic temporal modulator includes plural internal redirections of the light passing therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 262]    262Excitation by electron beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein a collimated ray of electrons applied to the modulator is used to vary a temporal characteristic of the light passing therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 263]    263By reflection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the electro-optic temporal modulator includes a single internal redirection of the light passing therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 264]    264Pulse Modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein a parameter of a train of optical pulses is varied in accordance with the amplitude of the applied signal.
(1) Note. Pulse modulation may involve changes in pulse amplitude (pam), pulse position (ppm), or pulse duration (pdm).
(2) Note. Pulse modulation includes pulse-code modulation wherein the light beam is transmitted as a digital binary code.
(3) Note. This subclass will include a combination of pulse modulation with amplitude, frequency, or phase modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 265]    265Electrochromic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the electrical signal applied to the optical control element produces a color change in the element resulting in a change in the absorption characteristics of the element at a given wavelength of light.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 49 and 105 for selective electrical control of displays having electrochromic display elements.
349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for liquid crystal light modulators.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 266]    266Particular nonplanar electrode arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 265.  Subject matter wherein solid electrically conductive elements within the electrochromic device are not located on a single flat surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 267]    267Reflection-type (e.g., display device):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 265.  Subject matter wherein the modulator utilizes a surface upon which light strikes and which is coated with a material that simultaneously changes color with the applied electrical signal and reflects a significant portion of incident light.

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275,for transmission-type (e.g., windows).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 268]    268Complementary device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter wherein an oxidizing material operates in conjunction with a reducing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 269]    269Particular counter electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter wherein details are recited of an electrode (the counter-electrode) which actually takes part in the electrochromic reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 270]    270Particular electrolyte layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter which recites details of an electrically conductive liquid layer which transports ions between the electrochromic material and the counter electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 271]    271Particular planar electrode pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter including an electrically conductive solid element having a configuration which is uniformly flat.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 272]    272Liquid cell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter wherein the device comprises a cell containing a substance which is in a state intermediate that of a solid and a gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 273]    273Particular electrochromic layer structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter which specifies details of the form of the electrochromic substance.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 274]    274Diverse layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter including a specified miscellaneous layer within the reflection-type electrochromic device.
(1) Note. This might include, for example, an insulating layer.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 275]    275Transmission-type (e.g., windows):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 265.  Subject matter wherein the modulator utilizes a surface upon which light strikes which is coated with a material that simultaneously changes color with the applied electrical signal and transmits a significant portion of incident light.

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267,for reflection-type (e.g., display device).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 276]    276Amplitude modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude of a constant frequency optical wave varies in synchronization with the amplitude of the applied signal (i.e., modulating signal).

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284,for magneto-optic amplitude modulation.
286,for acousto-optic amplitude modulation.
289,for thermal-optic amplitude modulation.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 48+ and 84+ for selective electrical control of displays having light-controlling display elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 277]    277Within display element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude modulator is in an information conveying element.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 1.1 through 3.4for visual display systems with selective electrical control.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 278]    278Frequency modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the frequency of a constant amplitude optical wave (i.e., carrier wave) varies in synchronization with the amplitude of the applied signal (i.e., modulating signal).

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287,for acousto-optic frequency modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 279]    279Phase modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter wherein the normal zero phase of a constant amplitude optical wave (i.e., carrier wave) is shifted by an angle proportional to the amplitude of the applied signal (i.e., modulating signal).
(1) Note. A sinusoidal signal of zero phase will have a zero amplitude at the intersection of the x-y axis.

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278,for electro-optic frequency modulation.
287,for acousto-optic frequency modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 280]    280Magneto-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein a bulk optical parameter of an optical element is controlled by a magnetic signal applied to the element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 281]    281Modulation of polarized light via modulating input signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter wherein a property of a polarized optical beam, such as amplitude, phase, polarization, frequency, or color are varied in a controlled manner by the applied varying magnetic signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 282]    282Using layered structure or plural mediums:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter wherein the structure through which the beam passes or is acted upon consists of more than one contiguous film or layer which forms a composite structure which modulates the beam or wherein there are plural mediums or structures in the beam path, each of which modulates the beam.
(1) Note. The composite structure can be dielectric or reflective films or layers for the purposes such as compensation, increased Kerr rotation or index (e.g., impedance) matching.

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250,for plural mediums where at least one medium is electric field responsive.
254,and 489.2, for layered structures where the purpose of the layers is for such things as protection or index matching.
485.03,for layered structure or plural mediums formed for polarization without modulation.
487.01,through 487.06, for layered structures formed with at least one layer of dichroic material where additional layers may be provided for purposes such as protection or particular bonding and for layered structures formed for interference effects.
489.15,through 489.19, for plural mediums including a birefringent medium which is not field responsive.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 283]    283With particular direction of the field in relation to the medium, beam direction or polarization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter wherein details of the medium are given, especially crystal cut or orientation, and the direction of the applied field is specified in relation to the medium or in relation to the incident beam direction or polarization.

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281,for magnetic modulating structures using a particular medium, state of the medium, particular electrode structure or arrangement, medium mounting structure or arrangement or with a particular field.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 284]    284Amplitude modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude of a constant frequency optical wave varies in synchronization with the amplitude of the applied signal (i.e., modulating signal).

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276,for electro-optic amplitude modulation.
286,for acousto-optic amplitude modulation.
289,for thermal-optic amplitude modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 285]    285Acousto-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein an ultrasonic wave generated at the surface or within the confines of the light control element sets up conditions in the element which produce a change in the optical parameters (e.g., refractive index) directly controlling the light.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 286]    286Amplitude modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude of a constant frequency optical wave varies in synchronization with the amplitude of the applied signal (i.e., modulating signal).

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276+,for electro-optic amplitude modulation.
284,for magneto-optic amplitude modulation.
289,for thermal-optic amplitude modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 287]    287Frequency modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein the frequency of a constant amplitude optical wave (i.e., carrier wave) varies in synchronization with the amplitude of the applied signal (i.e., modulating signal).

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278,for electro-optic frequency modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 288]    288Thermo-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein optical properties (e.g., index of refraction) of an optical element are changed by or in response to applied heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 289]    289Amplitude modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Subject matter wherein the amplitude of a constant frequency optical wave varies in synchronization with the amplitude of the applied signal (i.e., modulating signal).

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276+,for electro-optic amplitude modulation.
284,for magneto-optic amplitude modulation.
286,for acousto-optic amplitude modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 290]    290By changing physical characteristics (e.g., shape, size or contours) of an optical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.  Subject matter wherein the light property is controlled by a substantial alteration in the optical characteristics of a light control surface or interface or by changing the physical shape, position, or orientation of a light control surface or interface in response to the modulating signal.
(1) Note. Any change in or to the light control surface or interface occur wholly within the region of the light path in which control is effected. The control surface or interface is neither totally nor partially inserted into nor removed from the light path.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 291]    291Shape or contour of light control surface altered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Subject matter wherein the light property is controlled by means of a light control surface which is temporarily altered or modified in some way so as to produce distortions in the surface contours which differ significantly from the normal or unmodified surface contours.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 292]    292Light control surface forms image on projected light beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter wherein the contours of a light control surface are modified in accordance with a control signal so as to impart image or picture information to the contour of the control surface which is then transferred to a light beam projected on or through the control surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 293]    293Electron beam causes surface alteration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Subject matter wherein the light control surface is changed by a ray of electrons.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 294]    294Using photoconductive layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter which utilizes a layer whose electrical conductivity varies as a function of light incident thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 295]    295Having multiple electrodes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Subject matter which includes a plurality of solid electrically conducting elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 296]    296Changing position or orientation of suspended particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Subject matter wherein the light control surface consists of a group of elongated light absorbing or reflecting particles suspended in a fluid media, which collectively change their orientation within the light path in response to an applied signal.

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228,for fluid light control elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 297]    297Light control surface formed or destroyed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Subject matter wherein a light property is controlled by creating or destroying a light absorbing or reflecting surface or interface in response to a modulating signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 298]    298Light wave directional modulation (e.g., deflection or scanning is representative of the modulating signal):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein the relative spatial orientation of a light wave exiting a device is changed in accordance with a varying signal of any energy form (i.e., modulating signal) applied to the device.
(1) Note. Optical directional modulation occuring exclusively inside of a waveguide is classified in Class 385.

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238+,for light wave temporal modulation outside of a waveguide.

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385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 4+ for optical directional modulation within an optical waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 299]    299Opto-optical device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter wherein the directional modulation is achieved by an externally applied modulating light wave.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 300]    300Phase conjugate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter including the return of a light beam through the media at precisely the same angles, distances, and intensities as prior to a reflection.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 301]    301Acting on polarized light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter wherein the direction of a polarized light beam is varied in accordance with a varying input signal.

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489.08,through 489.13, for birefringent element beam deflection or splitting for polarization without modulation or external input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 302]    302Using reflecting or cavity structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein the deflection is effected by structures which redirect the entire beam or a part of the beam at an angle equal to that of incidence or where the medium through which the beam passes is confined in a cavity.

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247,for reflecting structures used in beam temporal modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 303]    303Using more than one polarization (e.g., digital):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein at least two distinct beams, corresponding to two different polarizations, are obtained.
(1) Note. The systems use a polarization modulation element to switch the polarization of the incoming beam followed by a birefringent polarization discriminator whereby two distinct beams are obtained corresponding to the ordinary and extraordinary rays.

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302,for reflecting structures where different polarizations are used.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 304]    304Using single polarization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein the beam is given an initial polarization and then deflected or where only one polarization is allowed to be deflected by blocking or removing any other polarization component.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 305]    305Acousto-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter wherein directional modulation is achieved by applying a modulating sound wave to a device through which a light beam is traversing.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 306]    306Correlation or convolution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein the correlation or convolution integral of two optical waves is formed by an acousto-optical directional modulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 307]    307Utilizing optical feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein an acousto-optic modulator has a portion of the optical output therefrom returned to the input therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 308]    308Filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein one frequency band present in an incident light beam is suppressed by an acousto-optic deflection technique.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 309]    309Acting on polychromatic light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein directional modulation of a light wave which is a composite of many frequencies is achieved.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 310]    310Plural cell array:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein directional modulation is achieved by multiple acousto-optic devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 311]    311Plural transducers on single cell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein the directional modulator consists of a single element having multiple input devices each capable of imposing a separate sound wave on the modulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 312]    312Single transducer generating composite plural frequency acoustic wave:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein a composite sound wave of diverse frequencies is generated and applied to the acousto-optic modulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 313]    313Particular cell shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein detailed structure of the overall configuration of the directional modulator is recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 314]    314Particular cell orientation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein a specific location of the modulator relative to an incident light beam is recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 315]    315Electro-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter wherein directional modulation is achieved by applying a varying electrical signal to an element through which a light beam is traversing.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 316]    316Plural modulation cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein the directional light modulator utilizes multiple elemental units each of which is electro-optically controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 317]    317Multiple reflections within cell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein the electro-optic directional modulator includes plural internal redirections of the light passing therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 318]    318By reflection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein the electro-optic directional modulator includes a single internal redirection of the light passing therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 319]    319Focusing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein light beam focusing is achieved by the application of the electrical signal to a device through which the beam transits.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 320]    320Switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein a discrete change in the path of a light beam is achieved by the application of the electrical signal to a device through which the beam transits
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 321]    321Having particular chemical composition or structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein chemical details of an optical modulator are recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 322]    322Electro-optic crystal material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.  Subject matter wherein the material of the modulator is particularly responsive to an applied electrical signal.

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245,electro-optic light wave temporal modulation for changing bulk optical parameter.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 323]    323PLZT material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Subject matter wherein the material is a transparent lead-lanthanum zir- conate titanate ceramic with optical qualities that can be controlled by applying voltages to thin plates of the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 324]    324Magneto-optic crystal material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.  Subject matter wherein the material of the modulator is particularly responsive to an applied magnetic signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 325]    325OPTICAL DEMODULATOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein an original modulating wave is recovered from a previously modulated light wave.
(1) Note. These devices may include a photodetector as long as a modulating wave is isolated.

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189+,for optical communication receivers which include an optical demodulator.
237+,for an optical modulator, per se.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photocell circuits and systems which convert light wave energy into electricity.
329Demodulators,   for electrical demodulators in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 326]    326OPTICAL FREQUENCY CONVERTER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a nonlinear device alters the frequency of an applied traversing optical electromagnetic wave.
(1) Note. The frequencies here are quasi-optical (i.e., infrared through ultraviolet).
(2) Note. Such optical frequency devices include second harmonic generators and other types of frequency conversion devices such as downshifters, oscillators, mixers, etc.
(3) Note. A detailed optical frequency converter, per se, or such subject matter in combination with additional waveguide structure is classified in this class (359). However, the nominal recitation of any type of optical frequency converter together with additional waveguide structure is classified in Class 385, where such combination meets the class requirements.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 424 for a nonoptical parametric frequency converter.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 113+ for miscellaneous frequency control.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 327]    327Raman type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Subject matter wherein the nonlinear optical device involves radiation-active materials in which many lines of frequency-shifted radiation can be obtained in response to incident radiation.
(1) Note. Raman radiation is a radiation produced in response to incident radiation by a change in the rotational or vibrational energy of scattering molecules. The resultant optical radiation is often referred to as Stokes or antiStokes radiation dependent upon its frequency relative to that of the incident light.

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334,for a Raman optical amplifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 328]    328Harmonic generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Subject matter wherein a nonlinear optical device generates a wave having a frequency which is an integral multiple of a fundamental input wave frequency.
(1) Note. A wave with twice the frequency of the fundamental is called the second harmonic.

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240,for light wave temporal modulation via a nonlinear device.
255,for electro-optic polarization modulation by a nonlinear device.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 424 for a nonoptical parametric frequency converter.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 113+ for miscellaneous frequency control such as electrical wave harmonic generation.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 122 for optical fiber waveguide with cladding having significant nonlinear property.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 329]    329Third harmonic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 328.  Subject matter wherein the generated optical wave has a frequency that is three times that of the fundamental input optical wave.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 330]    330Parametric oscillator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Subject matter wherein the frequency conversion of electromagnetic radiation, in the near and the visible spectrum, is based on the nonlinear dependence of polarizability on wave amplitude.
(1) Note. A parametric oscillation is an oscillation in which substantial power is applied at a frequency called the pump frequency. Signal and idler waves, the sum of whose frequencies equals the pump frequency, are generated in an interaction resulting from some nonlinear effect in the optical crystal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 331]    331Optical laser acoustic delay line type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Subject matter wherein the output from a laser is mode-locked and passed through an acoustic cell in which a radio frequency acoustic wave has been generated; the laser beam is diffracted, and one of the frequency shifted diffracted modes is heterodyned at a detector with an unshifted mode to produce a time delayed radio frequency output signal lower in frequency than the input signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 332]    332Dielectric optical waveguide type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Subject matter wherein the depletion layer of a semiconductor whose dielectric material exhibits nonlinear susceptibility is used as an optical waveguide to achieve frequency translation.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 177 for an electrical thermometer having a ferroelectric sensor.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 129+ for a planar optical waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 333]    333OPTICAL AMPLIFIER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the amplifying device produces an output light beam which is only changed to increase the magnitude of a light beam applied as input.
(1) Note. This amplification can be produced by applying electrical energy to the device to first cause excitation to a higher energy level via certain molecular, atomic, or nuclear particles of a substance and later causing the high energy state to be relaxed to a lower state to produce the emission of the particles.
(2) Note. This amplifcation is the optical or quasi-optical wavelength range, which is generally in the range from ultra-violet (100 Angstroms) to far infrared (10 million Angstroms) of the optical spectrum. See (1) Note of subclass 350 for specific IR and UV wavelength units.
(3) Note. This subclass necessitates light input into a medium prior to amplification. Production of a light beam output without an input light beam is classified in Class 372.
(4) Note. This subclass includes details of an optical amplifier wherein amplification is produced within the optical fiber by the interaction of externally applied energy and a unique property of the fiber (e.g., lazing material). The mere nominal recitation of an optical amplifier in combination with an optical waveguide structure is classified in Class 385.
(5) Note. Infrared to Ultraviolet light emitting junction is classified in Class 357, subclass 17, unless a cavity is set forth for Class 372 or amplification is set forth for this subclass.

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109+,for optical communication.
237+,for optical modulators external to an optical fiber.
326+,for optical frequency translators.
341.1,for details of an optical amplifier wherein amplification is produced within the fiber optics, wherein the optical fiber has some unique property (i.e., lasting material), to produce the amplification when external energy is applied.

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219Electric Heating,   subclasses 121.6+ for metal heating by arc using a laser.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photocells, circuits and apparatus, and subclasses 552+ for solid state light emitting source which is detected by a photocell.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 80 through 85for incoherent light emitting devices combined with, or also constituting a light responsive device.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 371 for a cathode-ray tube with optics and subclass 372 for a cathode-ray tube with light conducting fiber or rod.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclass 53 for the combination with an infrared device, and subclass 54 for the combination with a laser.
348Television,   subclass 217 and 300 for camera with image intensifier or amplifier, subclass 707 for television amplifier circuit and subclass 777 for cathode-ray tube image source with intensifier.
351Optics: Eye Examinating, Vision Testing, and Correcting,   subclass 213 including light filter or absorber, subclass 214 including diaphragm or slit, and subclass 215 including light polarizing.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 300+ for dispersed light spectroscopy.
362Illumination,   subclass 32 for light fibers, rods or pipes, subclass 259 for laser type light source (or support therefor) and modifier, and subclasses 317+ for light modifier.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclass 108 for liquid crystal memory and subclasses 120+ for information masking using polarization, Bragg cells, diffraction, holograms electron beams, etc.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 110.01 through 110.04where the information is stored or retrieved from the medium by polarized radiant energy; subclass 116 where the infor is stored or retrieved from the medium by light intensity adjustment or maintenance; and subclass 117 where the information is stored or retrieved from the medium by a movable shutter or light gate.
372Coherent Light Generators,   for lasers and optical oscillators wherein a light output beam is generated without the application of a light input beam.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclass 103 for photon beam (e.g., laser) irradiation nuclear fusion, subclass 104 for optics nuclear fusion, and subclass 105 for particle beam irradiation (excluding photons) nuclear fusion.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 102 for bistable electro - optical devices.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 1+ for temporal optical modulation produced within the fiber, and subclasses 4+ for directional modulation produced within the fiber. Class 385 contains patents claiming optical modulation within the fiber but optical amplification (333+) or frequency translation (326+) within the fiber are specifially excluded from Class 385, unless the amplifier or frequency translator are only nominally set forth.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 163.1+ for processes of coating an optical polarizer, windshield, fiber, waveguide, rod, projection screen, or retroreflector.
430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   subclass 363 for laser or radiation color imaging exposure other than visible light and subclass 945 for laser beam cross-reference art collection.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 334]    334Raman or Brillouin process:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein the scattered light beam output from a medium, resulting from either the Raman or Brillouin effects, is amplified relative to the input to the medium.
(1) Note. The Raman effect claimed specifically for the optical amplification properties is classified in this subclass, whereas the Raman effect claimed for the frequency translation by itself or together with optical amplification is classified in subclass 327.
(2) Note. Stimulated Raman effect is the amplification exhibiting the characteristic of stimulated emission of the small portion of light that is scattered in random directions when a monochromatic light beam of high intensity is transmitted through matter. The characteristic of the small portion of light is related to the frequencies of the matter.
(3) Note. The Raman effect results in the re-radiation of light from a bombarded molecule, having a longer wavelength than the original bombaring beam of coherent light. Part of the energy of the coherent beam is distributed throughout the molecule whereas the remaining energy is re-radiated. This effect may be described as being feeble, instantaneous, independent of absorption, independent of the wavelength of the exciting radiation; and it results in the re-emission of light generally having a wavelength longer than the existing one. Although there is a difference in wavelengths or frequency between the wavelengths of each re-emitted spectral line, or Raman line, and the wavelength of the incident or exciting radiation; the intensity of Raman increases as the fourth power of the incident frequency except in the neighborhood of an absorption band, where the scattering intensity increases still more markedly.
(4) Note. Brillouin scattering is the nonlinear optical phenomenon of the spontaneous scattering of light in a medium by its interaction with sound waves passing through the medium

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327,for Raman type frequency translators.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 3 for Raman lasers without a light input beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 335]    335Free electron:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein a beam of "free" and unbound electrons of an atom or molecule are passed through an undulator (i.e., "wiggler"), which creates a magnetic field of alternating polarity, to cause the electrons to move along a helical path (i.e., "wiggle") for the release of a high power light radiation (i.e., amplification of the light input beam).
(1) Note. The use of a free-electron laser for light amplificatoin belongs in this subclass.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 2 for free electron lasers and subclass 74 for electron beam pumping without a light input beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 336]    336Bistable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein a two level output is produced (i.e., an amplified output or no output at all) dependent upon the specific characteristic (e.g., amplitude or frequency) of the input light beam that the amplifier is designed to amplify.
(1) Note. The specific type of amplifier (i.e., material type, cavity structure, resonant cavity length, leachable material, etc.) determines which input signal characteristic will produce an amplified output. All other inputs will result in a zero output.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 102 using bistable electro-optical devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337]    337Correction of deleterious effects:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein an amplifier is corrected to overcome actions that prohibit its proper operation.
(1) Note. In order to overcome laser overheating, extraneous gasses that prohibit population inversion, laser medium losing energy that would deplete energy, an excess of power density, etc., the correction is applied to the optical amplifier itself.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 33 for particular operating compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.1]    337.1Spectral gain flattening or equalization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein the correction includes attenuating the signal by nonsaturable absorption of at least part of the amplification uniform over a range of the electromagnetic spectrum.
(1) Note: Also referred to as gain tilt correction and gain flattening.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.11]    337.11Feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.1.  Subject matter including a path that returns some output back to the input of a circuit, wherein systems using this path, optical or electrical, to effect increased spectral uniformity, reduce or increase gain, etc.
(1) Note. Controlling the frequency in a direction for canceling an exciting voltage would be an example of a feedback circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.12]    337.12Using number of signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.11.  Subject matter wherein at least two paths of a spectral frequency band is used in the feedback system to control amplifier gain.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.13]    337.13Adjusting input signal power:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.11.  Subject matter wherein the feedback circuit, for the optical energies associated with amplified stimulated emission light, compares a first and second wavelength, then regulates the attenuation so that the optical energies are substantially equal.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.2]    337.2Filtering (e.g., noise):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein the frequency band of the amplifier is restricted to the frequency band of the pulses being transmitted.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.21]    337.21Grating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.2.  Subject matter wherein the filter has a spatial intensity pattern or photorefractive lattice.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.22]    337.22Interferometer or interference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.2.  Subject matter wherein the filters contain a directional coupler characterized by a particular thickness and number of layers having high and low refractive indices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.3]    337.3Additional dopant or host composition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein the amplifier impurity or chemical element (or compound) improves characteristics in other wavelengths.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.4]    337.4Complementary, adjusting stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein successive elements or components within the amplifier system correct for adverse effects caused by earlier elements or components.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 337.5]    337.5Dispersion compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein the amplifier corrects for spectral splitting.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 338]    338Using phase conjugation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein the light beam returns through the medium at precisely the same angles, distances, and intensities it was directed prior to the reflection.
(1) Note. The medium causes the light to return to its origin after reflection in precisely the same identical path it took to reach the reflector.
(2) Note. See the January 1986 Scientific American article on this subject matter.
(3) Note. This is often used to clear up poor images.

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300,for phase conjugate light wave directional modulation (e.g., deflection or scanning).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 339]    339Using saturable or spatial filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein the correction is accomplished by allowing light transmission through the filter of an input light beam only after a particular amount of energy is either applied (saturable filter) or a specific portion of the light beam is passed (spatial filter).
(1) Note. A saturable filber is opaque to a light beam input until one of the atoms of its material is excited to a second energy level as a result of striking photons. Upon reaching this second energy level, the filter becomes "saturated" and thus transparent to the input beam due to the equalization between the original and second energy levels causing no net absorption of additional photons as they strike the filter.
(2) Note. A spatial filter generally consists of either (a) an emulsion mask having a clean annular region in an otherwise opaque region or (b) a pinhole, placed at a focal plane in a laser expander; to remove unwanted radiation generally referred to as amplified spontaneous emission.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 11 for absorption filter Q-Switch and subclass 14 for mechanical spatial filter Q-Switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 340]    340Mode locked:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein the energy content of each state (i.e., mode) of an oscillating system (e.g., laser) is internally modulated in a particular field pattern and is one of the possible resonant frequencies of the system to selectively give rise to energy bursts of high peak power and short duration which can be in the picosecond domain.
(1) Note. This laser, referred to as a mode-locked laser could also be in a continuous wave mode or a pulsed mode.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 18 for mode locking particular beam control without a light input beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.1]    341.1Optical fiber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein amplification is produced within a glass or plastic filament by the interaction of externally applied energy and a unique property of the filament (e.g., lasing material).
(1) Note. The details of an optical amplifier within an optical waveguide or combination with additional external waveguide structure are classified in this subclass.
(2) Note. Optical waveguides or fibers having the amplification performed within the waveguide of the fiber are classified in this subclass.
(3) Note. This class excludes patents claiming nominal recitation of an amplifier or a frequency translator combined with optical modulation within the fiber.

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332,for optical waveguides which produce frequency translation.

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385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 1 through 3for temporal modulation performed within the optical waveguides and subclasses 4-10 for directional modulation performed within the optical waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.2]    341.2Bi-directional:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.1.  Subject matter in which the amplifier allows two-way signal transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.3]    341.3Pumping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.1.  Subject matter including an energy elevating device.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.31]    341.31Operating frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.31.  Subject matter including the managing of a useful range of the pump cycles per unit time.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.32]    341.32Radiation routing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.3.  Subject matter including directing the path of photons.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.33]    341.33With multiple systems:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.3.  Subject matter including at least two energy elevating devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.4]    341.4Feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.1.  Subject matter including a path that returns some output back to the input of a circuit, wherein systems using this path, optical or electrical, to effect increased spectral uniformity, reduce or increase gain, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.41]    341.41Automatic Gain Control (AGC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.4.  Subject matter wherein the feedback provides an adjustment based on a quantitative statement (e.g., wavelength) of the amplification.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.42]    341.42Automatic Level Control (ALC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.4.  Subject matter wherein the feedback provides an adjustment based on a relative intensity or brightness strength.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.43]    341.43Surge protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.4.  Subject matter wherein a sudden rise in power or signal strength is prevented.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.44]    341.44Fault detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.4.  Subject matter wherein a discrepancy is sensed.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 341.5]    341.5Composition (e.g., Tm, Tb, Eu, Ho, Dy, Nd):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.1.  Subject matter and includes the physical or chemical makeup of the amplifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 342]    342Particular active medium (e.g., crystal, plasma, fluid, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein a specified type of active medium, which uniquely causes the amplification of the light input, is used to change the number of atoms or atomic system in a set of energy levels as a result of the absorption of light incident on the material of the medium.
(1) Note. The examples of crystal, plasma, and fluid define the physical state of the active medium.

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343,for a glass (amorphous) medium.
344,for a semiconductor medium.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclasses 39+ for a particular active medium which is not used for amplification of a light beam input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 343]    343Glass (amorphous):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 342.  Subject matter wherein the solid active medium does not have a definite crystalline structure.

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342,for crystal, plasma, fluid, etc., active medium.
344,for a semiconductor medium.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 40 for an amorphous (e.g., glass) active medium which is not used to amplify a light beam input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 344]    344Semiconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 342.  Subject matter wherein the active medium is a solid or liquid having a resistivity midway between that of an insulator and a metal.

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342,for crystal, plasma, fluid, etc., active medium.
343,for a glass (amorphous) medium.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclasses 43.01+ for a semiconductor active medium which is not used for amplification of a light beam input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 345]    345Particular pumping type (e.g., electrical, optical, nuclear, magnetic, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein a specified type of pumping is used to change the number of atoms or atomic system in a set of energy levels as a result of the absorption of light incident on the material.
(1) Note. This pumping causes the atoms of a medium to be raised from certain lower to certain higher energy levels, and it may cause a population inversion between certain intermediate levels in order to ultimately produce photons when the energy level moves from higher to lower.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclasses 69+ for particular pumping type which is not used for amplification of a light beam input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 346]    346Particular resonator cavity (e.g., scanning, confocal or folded mirrors, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein the optical beam goes back and forth within an optical cavity without any standing waves, similar to an oscillating cavity, but resulting in the amplification of the light input beam.
(1) Note. This can be a mode-selecting high gain optical structure in which the laser action takes place by the build-up of electromagnetic field intensity upon multiple reflections.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclasses 92+ for laser particular resonant cavities which are not used for amplification of a light beam input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 347]    347Multiple pass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein the laser material does not have to be continually pumped since the laser stays in a lasing state for multiple traverses of light throughout the lasing medium to produce amplified light beams that last longer than the period for the pumping itself.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 350 for ring lasers with interfering different frequency beams.
372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 94 for ring configuration folded resonant cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 348]    348Regenerative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Subject matter wherein the lasing medium is pumped more than once to amplify a single input pulse.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclasses 69+ for particular pumping.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 349]    349Beam combination or separation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein a light beam is either combined with another light beam or many light beams are created from a single light beam in order to produce the desired amplification.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 350]    350HAVING SIGNIFICANT INFRARED OR ULTRAVIOLET PROPERTY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including structure which is specifically adapted, as by structure or composition, to function as an optical element in the infrared (IR) or ultraviolet (UV) portion of the spectrum, or wherein an optical element is constructed or composed to extend its operation into the infrared or ultraviolet from the visible portion of the spectrum.
(1) Note. IR (0.7 micrometers to 1000 micrometers wavelength) according to Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia, 7th Edition Meters: 7 X 10-7 m to .001 m Centimeters: 7 X 10-5 cm to .1 cm Millimeters: 7 X 10-4 mm to 1 mm Micrometers: .7 micrometers to 1000 micrometers Nanometers: 700 nm to 106 nm Angstroms: 7000 A to 107 A UV (100 Angstroms to 4000 Angstroms wavelength) according to Van Nostrand’s Encyclopedia, 7th Edition Meters: 10-8 m to 4 X 10-7 m Centimeters: 10-6 cm to 4 X 10-5 cm Millimeters: 10-5 mm to 4 X 10-4 mm Micrometers: .01 micrometers to .4 micrometers Nanometers: 10 nm to 400 nm Angstroms: 100 A to 4000 A Metric Conversion Units: Centimeters = 10-2 meters Millimeters = 10-3 meters Micrometers = 10-6 meters Nanometers = 10-9 meters Angstroms = 10-10 meters
(2) Note. Holographic systems and modulators of Class 359 and fibers or waveguides of Class 385 that operate in the IR or UV portion of the spectrum are excluded from this and the indented subclasses.
(3) Note. This subclass and those indented thereunder are limited to elements which operate as optical elements in the infrared and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum but a detector to convert IR/UV energy to visible light is classified in Class 250.
(4) Note. "Heat Filters" are considered infrared filters.

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358,for IR or UV fluid filter or fluid mirror.
634,for wavelength selective beam splitting or combining surface (e.g., dichroic mirror).
859,for concave and convex mirrors in series for successive reflections in mirrors.
885+,for absorption filters.

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89Ordnance,   subclass 41.06 for light reception traning mechanism.
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 279+ for temperature or pressure automatic control (Thermal-IR).
219Electric Heating,   subclass 203 for combined vehicle or vehicle component windshield or window heating device.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 216 for optical or pre-optical photocell system, subclass 226 for color filter or spectroscope optical or pre-photocell system, subclasses 330+ for infrared-to-visible imaging, subclass 333 image tube type imaging wherein the output screen is used to visualize an intensified image or the IR image is converted to electrical signals to control the display device, subclass 336.1 for IR energy responsive electric signalling, subclasses 338.1+ for infrared responsive invisible radiant energy responsive electric signalling, subclass 351 for periodic scanning of an IR beam, subclass 365 for UV light source, subclass 372 for UV light responsive means, subclass 493.1 for radiant energy generation and sources, subclass 504 for ultraviolet or infrared source radiation modifying member, and subclasses 505.1+ for radiation controlling elements exclusive of infrared, visible and ultraviolet optical elements.
252Compositions,   subclass 587 for infrared light transmission modifying compositions, and subclasses 588+ for ultraviolet transmission modifying compositions.
283Printed Matter,   subclass 88 for IR filter with electromagnetic radiation having revealable concealed information, fraud preventer or detector, use preventer or detector, or identifier, subclass 89 for UV filter with electromagnetic radiation having revealable concealed information, fraud preventer or detector, use preventer or detector, or identifier, and subclass 90 for polarized IR filter with electromagnetic radiation having revealable concealed information, fraud preventer or detector, use preventer or detector, or identifier.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 112 for polarizer or special ray transmission with optical device or special ray transmission envelope.
348Television,   subclasses 164+ for IR television.
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 44+ for antiglare or shading spectacles and eyeglasses, and subclasses 159.6 for through 159.65 light filtering opthalmic lens or blanks.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 202 for projection light sources with cooling means.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 55 for an image projector having a heat filter.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 51 for IR and UV.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 124 for thermally emitted radiation with scanning or temperature distribution display.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 59+ for a sun or radiation screening or suntanning composition intended for topical application to a living body.
427Coating Processes,   subclass 160 for a coating with X-ray, Ultrasonic, or Infrared properties, subclasses 162+ for coating processes, per se, wherein the product is an optical element.
607Surgery: Light, Thermal, and Electrical Application,   subclass 1 for light, thermal, and electrically applied surgery.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 351]    351Having folded optical path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter including an element which modifies the path of incident light so as to cause the light to repeatedly traverse the same or overlapping volumes of space.
(1) Note. The system generally includes plural reflectors to sequentially reverse the direction of the optical axis.

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489.08,through 489.13, for birefringent element beam deflection or splitting for polarization without modulation or external input.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 352]    352Having polarizing element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter having an element which restricts the direction of vibration of radiant energy.
(1) Note. The restriction may have a time variation.
(2) Note. The polarized radiant energy may be visible light accompanying the infrared or ultraviolet radiation.

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359,for an IR/UV multilayer filter or multilayer reflector.
360,for an IR/UV multilayer filter or multilayer reflector having a metal layer.
372+,for plural optical axis microscope.
419+,for plural optical axis telescope.
483,for a visible light polarizer absent any infrared or ultraviolet characteristic.
486,for light polarization without modulation or external energy by grid or dipoles.
487,for polarization without modulation by reflection or refraction.
490+,for polarization without modulation by dichroic medium, which transmits light of one color and reflects light of the complementary color with little light absorbed.
494+,for polarization without modulation by a birefringent element, which divides a ray or beam of energy into two polarized rays or beams separated by 90 degrees (known as ordinary and extraordinary).

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283Printed Matter,   subclass 88 for IR filter with electromagnetic radiation having revealable concealed information, fraud preventer or detector, use preventer or detector, or identifier.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 112 for polarizer or special ray transmission (e.g., filter) with an electric discharge device.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 353]    353Including alternative optical path or optical element (e.g., day-night, hi-low magnification):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter which has an element allowing a variable radiation path or which alternatively places an optical element into or out of a fixed optical path, thereby producing plural distinct radiation processing configurations.
(1) Note. One or more configurations may be limited to visible light.

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421,for telescope compound lens selectable magnification.
672+,for lens with selective magnification by exchanging or adding lens components.
708,for aspherical lens.
744,for afocal Galilean telescope lens.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 354]    354Including continuously variable magnification or focal length (zoom lens, adjustable lens):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter wherein the focal point or image magnification of an imaging device or element is continuously or intermittantly changed as desired.
(1) Note. This includes various selected positions of different optical elements to fit the user selected application.
(2) Note. This incudes IR/UV variable elements adjacent to or part of the zoom lens.
(3) Note. This also includes FLIR (Forward Looking Infrared systems).

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421,for telescope selectable magnification in a compound lens for the visible portion of the spectrum.
422,for telescope variable magnification in a compound lens for the visible portion of the spectrum.
676+,for zoom lens in the visible portion of the spectrum.
744,for an afocal lens (e.g., Galilean Telescope).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 355]    355Lens, lens system or component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter including a refractive imaging element or a serially arranged group thereof having a significant property in the infrared or ultraviolet area of the electromagnetic spectrum.
(1) Note. Compound lens systems are a plurality of lenses or lens groups arranged in series coaxially along an optical axis, such lenses or lens groups being so spaced along the axis that the second focal plane of the entrant lens of the series lies at or near the first focal plane of the next succeeding lens or lens group of the series whereby the light entrant lens is capable of producing from light rays passing therethrough from an object external to the plurality of lenses an image of that object, which image is viewed or relayed by the said succeeding lens or lens group.
(2) Note. Lens systems designate either a single transparent mass of refractive material having opposed refracting surfaces or a plurality of such masses arranged in series along an optical axis with their opposed refracting surfaces disposed transversely of such axis, the said opposed surfaces being so shaped and spaced that the mass or plurality of masses are capable of producing from light rays passing therethrough from an object external to the mass or masses a single image of that object, which image is also external to the mass or masses of material.
(3) Note. The term "component" as applied to a lens designates either a single transparent mass of refractive material having two opposed refracting surfaces or a grouped plurality of such masses arranged in series along the optical axis of the lens with their adjacent refracting surfaces either in full over-all contact or in spaced parallel relation with the spacing being of such small magnitude that it does not enter into the lens computations, the two refracting surfaces of the single mass and the two axially extreme refracting surfaces of the plurality of masses having at least a portion thereof axially air spaced from all other adjacent refracting surfaces that may be present in the lens. The axial dimension of the air spacing between either the opposed surfaces of the single mass or the axially extreme surfaces of the grouped plurality of masses and the other adjacent refracting surfaces that may be present in the lens must be of sufficient magnitude to enter into the lens computations in order to limit the axial extent of the lens component.

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356,for an infrared lens.
357,for an infrared lens having four or more components.
642+,for lenses in the visible portion of the spectrum.
722+,for lenses which are selective in the visible spectrum by transmitting or blocking certain wavelengths.

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427Coating Processes,   subclass 160 for a coating having X-ray, ultraviolet, or infrared properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 356]    356Infrared lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 355.  Subject matter having significant properties in the infrared area of the electromagnetic spectrum.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 357]    357Having four or more components:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 356.  Subject matter which includes four or more components which have significant properties in the infrared area of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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754+,for multiple component lenses, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 358]    358Fluid filter or fluid mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter including filters or mirrors having a liquid or gas which is specially adapted as by composition to transmit or absorb infrared or ultraviolet radiation.

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665+,for fluid lenses.
832,for fluid filled prisms.
845,for fluid cooled mirrors.
886,for fluid absorption filters which operate in the visible portion of the spectrum.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 226 for color filter or spectroscope optical or pre-photocell system.
252Compositions,   subclasses 582+ for light transmission modifying compositions and subclass 588 for those compositions used for ultraviolet light transmission modifying.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 359]    359Multilayer filter or multilayer reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter having a substrate and one or more superimposed coatings or laminae and which as a whole is designed to have significant absorbent or redirective properties in the infrared or ultraviolet portion of the spectrum.
(1) Note. Interference filters wherein the multiple reflected beams of various different frequencies will automatically interfere with one another upon reflection are classified in this subclass if significant IR/UV is specified.
(2) Note. Multi-layer absorption would not be interference since waves are not produced which interfere with one another.
(3) Note. Multi-layer absorbing elements are classified in this subclass if significant IR/UV is specified.
(4) Note. Semiconductor elements are classified in this subclass since they are not considered metals for subclass 360.

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580,for light interference produced by coating or lamina.
581,for transmissive coating on interference lens.
589,for selective wavelength interference.
590,for selective wavelength interference with another filter.
839,for mirrors with a transmissive property.
884,for mirrors with a selective absorption or transparent overcoating.
885+,for absorptive filters.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 192.26+ for optical or photoactive specified deposition material glow discharge sputter deposited coating.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 360]    360Having metal layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 359.  Subject matter wherein at least one coating or lamina or the substrate is composed of a metal.
(1) Note. Semiconductor elements are not considered as metal and are included under subclass 359.
(2) Note. Only an elemental metal layer is classified in this subclass. Metal alloys or compositions in a multilayer structure are classified in subclass 359.

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722+,for lenses with selective wavelength transmitting or blocking.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 226 for color filter or spectroscope optical or pre-photocell system.
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclass 44 for sunglasses with antiglare or shading.
607Surgery: Light, Thermal, and Electrical Application,   subclass 95 for solar cabinets.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 361]    361Having ultraviolet absorbing or shielding property:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter wherein light in the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is blocked or otherwise filtered.

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359+,for a multilayer ultraviolet filter.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 362]    362COMPOUND LENS SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a plurality of image formers arranged for forming a series of real images along the optical axis, at least one of the real images being formed between two of the image formers.
(1) Note. The terminal image former may be an "eyepiece" designed to form a real image only in combination with the human eye.

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642+,for lenses suitable for use in compound lens systems of this subclass type.

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42Firearms,   subclass 119 for compound lens systems.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 245+ for optical test instruments containing compound lens systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 363]    363With image recorder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter including a device to record an image of the object being directly viewed, the compound lens system being primarily designed for direct viewing.

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372+,for a microscope with plural optical axes, one axis of which may be directed to an image recorder.
403+,for a periscope with plural optical axes, one axis of which may be directed to an image recorder.
419+,for a telescope with plural optical axes, one axis of which may be directed to an image recorder.

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396Photography,   subclass 432 for significant camera structure combined with a diverse compound lens system.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 364]    364With curved reflective imaging element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter including a curved reflector which contributes to the formation of at least one of the real images.

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727+,for lenses that employ both refraction and reflection in forming an image (catadioptric lenses).

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362Illumination,   subclasses 296.01 through 296.1for reflectors in illumination systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 365]    365Two or more in a series:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Subject matter including a plurality of curved reflectors contributing to the formation of one or more of the real images.

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858+,for image forming reflectors having plural curved surfaces in series.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 366]    366Concave, convex combination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 365.  Subject matter wherein the plurality of curved reflectors include at least one concave and at least one convex reflector.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 367]    367Right angle inspector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter including a compound lens system with an objective deflector to provide viewing at a right angle to the main optical axis.

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434+,for a relay system which may be used in a compound lens system of the structure classified in this subclass (367).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 368]    368Microscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter wherein the objective of the compound lens system is designed to focus highly divergent light from an object very close to the objective.
(1) Note. Also illuminators, stages, slide carriers, and transparent slides designed specifically for use with that type of compound lens system are classified in subclasses indented under this subclass (368).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 369]    369With viewed screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter including structure for displaying a real image on a viewed screen.
(1) Note. The screen may be at an intermediate or terminal image plane and may, for example, comprise a ground glass screen, a front projection screen, a fiber optic output face, etc.

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400,for a telescope with a viewed screen.
443+,for a viewing screen.
505,for an extended spacing structure for optical elements including a screen.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 370.08+ for invisible radiant energy responsive signalling, including imaging.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 364+ for cathode-ray tubes and subclasses 523+ for image intensifier tubes, etc.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 1+ for cathode-ray tube circuits, including image intensifiers.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 18, 47, 67, 72+, 74+, and 79+ for an image projection and viewing screen in combination.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 370]    370Interference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter wherein light from the object is combined with light of different phase or diffraction characteristics either from the object or bypassing the object.

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1+,for interference microscopes having holographic features or for making holograms.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 371]    371Using polarized light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Subject matter wherein light with a particular polarization characteristic is present.

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386,for illuminators for microscopes other than interference microscopes using polarized light.
483.01,through 494.01, for optics, systems, and elements for polarization of light or using polarized light.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 372]    372With plural optical axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter wherein light from an object may follow any of a plurality of substantially different optical axes through the microscope.
(1) Note. The different optical axes may be partly colinear and may be used either simultaneously or alternately.

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363,for a compound lens system with an image recorder.
403+,for a periscope with plural optical axes.
419+,for a telescope with plural optical axes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 373]    373Side-by-side fields:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 372.  Subject matter wherein at least two of the separate paths provide different images which are adjacent in a common field of view.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 374]    374Plural oculars:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 372.  Subject matter wherein at least two of the separate paths terminate in separate eyepieces.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 375]    375Binocular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Subject matter wherein at least two of the plural oculars are separated at approximately the interocular distance to provide simultaneous viewing by both eyes of one observer.

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404,for a binocular periscope.
407,for a binocular telescope.
480+,for a binocular viewing device in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 376]    376Stereoscopic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 375.  Subject matter wherein at least two of the binocular eyepieces provide stereoscopic viewing.

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462+,for steroscopic viewing systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 377]    377With single or parallel objectives:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 376.  Subject matter including one objective for two stereoscopic views or two objectives with parallel optical axes for two stereoscopic views.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 378]    378For viewing stereo pairs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Subject matter wherein separate objective channels view different object fields, each field being filled by a separate parallax object view for viewing.
(1) Note. The devices of this subclass provide for two separate fields. The stereoscopic property is related to the objects being viewed taken from two slightly different directions of a three-dimensional object. The views usually comprise a pair of transparencies, each transparency being a separate object view.

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466+,for stereo-viewing devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 379]    379Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter including means for varying the axial separation of the optical elements, for example, for focusing or varying magnification.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 399, Telescope, and titled "Separation of optical elements axially adjustable" or including the word "focusing" may include subject matter related to subject matter in this subclass (379).

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506,for an adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 380]    380Variable magnification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Subject matter wherein varying the axial separation varies the size of an in focus terminal image while the object distance remains constant.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 407, Binocular, and titled "Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable" may include subject matter related to variable magnification.

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422,for a telescope with variable magnification.
432,for variable magnification in nonmagnifying compound lens systems.
506,for adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
676+,for a lens having its equivalent focal length variable continuously between limits.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 381]    381Imaging elements movable in and out of optical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter wherein an imaging element is selectively positionable in or out of the optical axis to change the image distance or image size.

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421,for a telescope with selective magnification.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 382]    382Entire microscope adjustable along optical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter wherein the microscope translates along the optical axis to vary the distance to an object plane.

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392,for devices wherein the stage or slide carrier translates along the optical axis.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 25+ for a mechanism converting rotary motion to or from reciprocating or oscillatory motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 383]    383Focus adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 382.  Subject matter wherein the adjustment along the optical axis effects the focus of the compound optical system.

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410,for binocular telesopes with adjustable focus.
425+,for telescopes with focusing.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 384]    384With rotatable adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter including means for swinging the microscope about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 385]    385Illuminator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter including (a) structure for illuminating an object being viewed in combination with a microscope or (b) object illuminating structure designed specifically for use with a microscope.

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798+,for lenses with viewed object or viewed field illumination.

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362Illumination,   subclasses 257+ and 317+ for an illuminator with a modifier or a light modifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 386]    386Using polarized light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Subject matter wherein the illuminating structure provides polarized light.

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371,for an interference microscope using polarized light.
483.01,through 494.01, for systems and elements for the polarization of light without modulation.

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362Illumination,   subclass 19 for an illuminator with a polarizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 387]    387With annular lighting structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Subject matter including means for providing an annulus of light surrounding a dark central portion for illuminating the object.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 388]    388With optical switching means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Subject matter including means for changing optical elements in the illuminating beam path to change the type of illumination.
(1) Note. The optical elements may be movable in and out of the illuminating beam path or the illuminating beam may be deflected to pass through different optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 389]    389With illuminating and viewing paths coaxial at the image field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Subject matter wherein the illuminating light is transmitted through a space occupied by the image field.
(1) Note. A partially transmitting beam splitter is commonly used in devices in this subclass (389).

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799,for a lens with a coaxial illuminating beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 390]    390With illuminator support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Subject matter including (a) means for maintaining the illuminator in a fixed position or (b) means for limiting the movement of the illuminator.

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362Illumination,   subclasses 382+ for an illuminator with a support.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 391]    391Stage or slide carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter including (a) structure for supporting an object to be viewed or tools to be placed in the field of view in combination with a microscope or (b) structure for supporting an object or tools designed specifically for use with a microscope.

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801,and 804+, for lenses with a viewed object support.

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248Supports,   for supports generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 392]    392Adjustable along optical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.  Subject matter wherein the stage or slide carrier translates along the optical axis to vary its distance from the microscope.

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382+,for devices wherein the microscope translates along the optical axis.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 25+ for a mechanism converting rotary motion to or from reciprocating or oscillatory motion.
108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 144.11+ for a vertically adjustable platform.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 393]    393With plural transverse movements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.  Subject matter wherein the stage or slide carrier is movable in a plurality of directions perpendicular to the optical axis of the microscope.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 471 for X-Y control devices.
108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 137+ for a horizontally adjustable platform.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 394]    394With turntable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.  Subject matter wherein the stage or slide carrier is rotatable about the optical axis or an axis parallel to the optical axis of the microscope.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 395]    395With temperature control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.  Subject matter including means to vary or keep constant the temperature at the location of the stage or slide carrier.

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396,for devices including a transparent slide which may include temperature control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 396]    396Transparent slide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Subject matter including (a) a transparent mass, usually a glass plate, for supporting an object to be viewed in combination with a microscope or (b) a transparent mass, usually a glass plate, designed specifically for supporting an object to be viewed by a microscope.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 244+ for sample or specimen holders.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 397]    397Reference lines or grids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 396.  Subject matter including indicia on the transparent slide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 398]    398Specimen cavity or chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 396.  Subject matter including a container for holding, isolating, or limiting the flow of an object.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 246 for fluid sample containers.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 399]    399Telescope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter wherein the compound lens system is designed for viewing distant objects.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 400]    400With viewed screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter including a semi-transparent or opaque structure for displaying one of the series of real images.
(1) Note. The screen may be at an interminate or terminal image plane and may, for example, comprise a ground glass screen, a front projection screen, a fiber optic output face, etc.

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369,for a microscope with a viewed screen.
443+,for a viewing screen.
505,for an extended spacing structure for optical elements including a screen.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 213 for circuits having image intensifier or nonvisible to visible imaging vacuum tubes.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 524 for a telescope (or any optical system) combined with an image intensifier.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 18 , 47, 67, 72+, 74+, and 79+ for an image projector and viewing screen in combination.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 401]    401With image anti-rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the telescope maintains an erect terminal image as at least part of the telescope is turned to rotate an intermediate image.

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554+,for an image stabilization system including image anti-rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 402]    402Periscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the entrance optical axis and the exit optical axis of the telescope are parallel and offset and perpendicular to the main axis of the telescope.

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401,for a periscope with image anti-rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 403]    403With plural optical axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 402.  Subject matter wherein light from an object may follow any of a plurality of substantially different optical axes through the periscope.
(1) Note. The different optical axes may be partly colinear and may be used either simultaneously or alternately.

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372+,for a microscope with plural optical axes.
419+,for a telescope with plural optical axes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 404]    404Binocular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein at least two of the substantially different axes provide separate views to separate eyepieces for binocular viewing.

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375+,for a binocular microscope.
407+,for a binocular telescope.
480+,for a binocular viewing device in general that does not use a compound lens system.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 405]    405With mechanical adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 402.  Subject matter wherein all or a portion of the periscope relative to another structure is moved.

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429+,for a telescope with line of sight adjustment.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 406]    406Extensible structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Subject matter wherein the extension or elevation of the periscope is changed, usually by the use of telescoping structures.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 407]    407Binocular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein at least two exit optical axes are spaced at approximately the interocular distance to provide simultaneous viewing by both eyes of one observer.
(1) Note. This is the type of device used by fans at a ball game to see distant players.

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375+,for a binocular microscope.
404,for a binocular periscope.
480+,for a binocular viewing device in general that does not use a compound lens system.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 408]    408Foldable or collapsible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Subject matter wherein the binocular telescope is hinged or provided with telescoping or bellows sections to provide a more compact unit when not in use or prior to assembly.

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474,for a collapsible stereoscope.
817,for a lens with a foldable or collapsible support.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 409]    409Body supported or with handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Subject matter wherein the binocular telescopes are combined with (a) an elongated structure for providing a handhold or (b) a structure for engaging a portion of the body or apparel for support.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 410]    410With focusing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Subject matter wherein the supported binocular telescope includes means for bringing an object at varying distances into focus.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 412 with adjustable interocular distance and titled "Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable" may include subject matter related to focusing.

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379+,for a microscope with the spacing of optical elements axially adjustable.
425+,for a telescope with focusing or relatively sliding barrels.
506,for an adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 411]    411With adjustable interocular distance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Subject matter wherein the supported binocular telescopes are connected by means which vary and maintain lateral spacing of the two binocular optical axes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 412]    412With adjustable interocular distance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Subject matter wherein the binocular telescopes are connected by means which vary and maintain lateral spacing of the two binocular optical axes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 413]    413Oculars swing about central axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Subject matter wherein the lateral spacing is changed by swinging the binocular telescopes about a common axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 414]    414Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 413.  Subject matter wherein the axial separation of optical elements, usually lenses, prisms, or mirrors, may be varied, usually for focusing or varying magnification.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 362, Compound lens system, and titled "Separation of elements axially adjustable", "Variable magnification" or including the word "focusing" may include subject matter related to subject matter in this subclass.

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506,for an adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 415]    415Oculars rotate about separate axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Subject matter wherein the lateral spacing is varied by rotating the binocular telescopes about different axes displaced from their optical axes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 416]    416Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 415.  Subject matter wherein the axial separation of optical elements, usually lenses, prisms, or mirrors, may be varied, usually for focusing or varying magnification.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 362, Compound lens system, and titled "Separation of optical elements axially adjustable", "Variable magnification" or including the word "focusing" may include subject matter related to subject matter in this subclass.

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506,for an adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 417]    417Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Subject matter wherein the axial separation of optical elements, usually lenses, prisms, or mirrors, may be varied, usually for focusing or varying magnification.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 362, Compound lens system, and titled "Separation of optical elements axially adjustable", "Variable magnification", or including the word "focusing" may include subject matter related to subject matter in this subclass.

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506,for an adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 418]    418Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Subject matter wherein the axial separation of optical elements, usually lenses, prisms, or mirrors, may be varied, usually for focusing or varying magnification.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 362, Compound lens system, and titled "Separation of optical elements axially adjustable", "Variable magnification" or including the word "focusing" may include subject matter related to subject matter in this subclass.

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506,for an adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 419]    419With plural optical axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein light from an object may follow any of a plurality of substantially different paths through the telescope.
(1) Note. The different optical axes may be partly colinear and may be used either simultaneously or alternately.

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372,for a microscope with plural optical axes.
403,for a periscope with plural optical axes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 420]    420Plural magnification in same viewing field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 419.  Subject matter wherein telescope images of different magnification are simultaneously viewable in a common field of view.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 421]    421Selectable magnification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the telescope includes means for step variations of the image size while the object distance remains constant.

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381,for a microscope with an imaging element movable in and out of the optical axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 422]    422Variable magnification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the telescope continuously varies the size of the image while the object distance remains constant.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 407, Binocular, and titled "Separation of optical elements axially adjustable" may include subject matter related to variable magnification.

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380,for a microscope with variable magnification.
432,for a compound lens system with variable magnification.
506,for adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
676+,for a lens having its equivalent focal length variable continously between limits.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 423]    423With relay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the telescope includes at least one lens system which forms a real image of a real image.

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402+,for a periscope including a relay.
422,for a variable magnification telescope including a relay.
434,for a compound lens system with a relay.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 424]    424With reticle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Subject matter wherein a cross-hair or emblem is present at a real image plane of the telescope.

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422,for a variable magnification telescope including a relay and a reticle.
427,for focusing or relatively sliding barrels with a reticle.
428,for a telescope with a reticle.
505,for an extended spacing structure for optical elements with a reticle.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 425]    425Focusing or relatively sliding barrels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the telescope includes (a) a device for forming an in focus image of an object of varying distances or (b) tubes supporting optical elements movable axially into and out of one another.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 362, Compound lens system, and titled "Separation of optical elements axially adjustable" may include subject matter related to subject matter in this subclass.

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410,for a binocular telescope that is body supported or with a handle and includes focusing means.
506,for an adjustable extended spacing structure for optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 426]    426Internal focusing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.  Subject matter wherein the entrance and exit lenses remain a fixed distance apart while the telescope is focused.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 427]    427With reticle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.  Subject matter wherein a cross-hair or emblem is present at a real image plane of the telescope.

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422,for a variable magnification telescope including a relay and a reticle.
424,for a telescope with a relay and a reticle.
428,for a telescope with a reticle.
505,for an extended spacing structure for optical elements with a reticle.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 428]    428With reticle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein a cross-hair or emblem is present at a real image plane of the telescope.

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422,for a variable magnification telescope including a relay and a reticle.
424,for a telescope with a relay and a reticle.
427,for a telescope with focusing or relatively sliding barrels and with a reticle.
505,for an extended spacing structure for optical elements with a reticle.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 429]    429With line of sight adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the telescope includes adjusting the direction of view and maintaining the adjustment.

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401,for a telescope with image anti-rotation.
405,for a periscope with mechanical adjustment.

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248Supports,   subclasses 127+ for stands in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 430]    430Equatorial mount:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Subject matter wherein the telescope includes structure to establish an axis (polar axis) parallel to the earth’s rotational axis about which the telescope viewing axis rotates (right ascension) at a selected angle (declination) between the polar axis and the viewing axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 431]    431With prism or U-shaped optical path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Subject matter wherein the telescope includes two right angle deflections in series to reverse the optical path.

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413,for adjustable binoculars including a prism or a U-shaped optical path.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 432]    432Variable magnification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter wherein the compound lens system continuously varies the size of a terminal image while the object distance remains constant.
(1) Note. Other subclasses in this class indented under subclass 407, Binocular, and titled "Spacing of optical elements axially adjustable" may include subject matter related to variable magnification.

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380,for variable magnification in microscopes.
422,for variable magnification in telescopes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 433]    433With tilted lens or tilted image plane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter wherein the compound lens system includes (a) at least one lens whose optical axis is oblique to the optical axis of the system or (b) is designed to produce at least one image plane tilted with respect to the optical axis of the system.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 434]    434With relay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter wherein the compound lens system includes at least one lens system that forms a real image of a real image.

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423+,for a telescope with a relay.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 435]    435Repetitious lens structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Subject matter wherein the compound lens system includes (a) a plurality of identical relays in series or side by side or (b) at least one relay comprised of identical elements or elements symmetrically reversed about a center point.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 436]    436SCALE OR INDICIA READING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including optical structure for facilitating the reading of a scale, with or without a pointer or indicator, having spaced lines or other indicia thereon; or for facilitating reading a vernier type indicator where lines from two different scales are matched.
(1) Note. The scale may be on a weighing instrument, slide rule, compass or speed indicator, etc.; and classification is here unless sufficient scale supporting structure is recited to classify with the particular art such as Class 33, Geometrical Instruments; Class 73, Measuring and Testing; Class 177, Weighing Scales; and Class 235, Registers.

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116Signals and Indicators,   subclasses 327+ for signal pointers and indicating arms.
177Weighing Scales,   subclass 234 for self-positioning scales with magnified indication of spring deformation.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 242.1 for thread counters and similar subject matter where a relationship between the counter and the fabric is recited such as a viewing aperture or support for the counter on the fabric or a fabric support, subclasses 247+ for optical reticles and crosshairs and subclasses 373 and 397 for distance measuring devices which have a scale or optical grid displaced relative to a remote fiducial mark.
362Illumination,   subclasses 23.01 through 23.22for dial illuminators.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 437]    437Polarizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 436.  Subject matter including a polarizing element.
(1) Note. A polarizing element causes incident light polarization as defined in the class definition.

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483.01,through 494.01, for specific polarizing elements in polarization without modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 438]    438Prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 436.  Subject matter including a prism which may reflect or refract light for better viewing the scale or indicia.
(1) Note. See subclass 831 for the definition of a prism.

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831+,for specific prism elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 439]    439Mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 436.  Subject matter including a mirror to reflect light from the scale or indicia to the viewer.
(1) Note. See subclass 838 for the definition of a mirror.

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838+,for mirrors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 440]    440Lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 436.  Subject matter including a lens.
(1) Note. See subclass 642 for the definition of a lens.
(2) Note. The lens is usually employed to magnify the image of the scale markings or indicia.

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806,for optical reading devices including line markers.
809+,for lenses combined with diverse type art devices in general.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 327 for a reflector or magnifier used for sighting in a liquid level or depth gauge.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 441]    441Movable or adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 440.  Subject matter including means for adjusting or moving the lens with respect to the scale or indicia as for positioning or focusing the lens.

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642+,for lenses, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 442]    442Along scale or indicia:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter including means to guide a lens along the reading direction of a linear scale or indicia.
(1) Note. The lens may be movable along a nonlinear (e.g., circular) scale as well as a linear scale and the structure must be included which constricts or guides the movement of the lens along the scale or indicia.
(2) Note. An actuator, per se, is not classified in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 443]    443PROJECTION SCREEN:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a sheet or other extending surface or area which is especially adapted to render an image of an object which is projected thereon visible to an observer, usually by diffusing the projected light.
(1) Note. This subclass and those indented thereunder in this class (359) include screens where the size, shape, or refractive index of embedded particles is claimed or screens with elements having geometric curves, with relative refractive indices or parts with claimed patterns, with wave plates, acoustical characteristics or other optical criterion. Such criterion must be more than mere "light diffusing particles" or a "light diffusing surface" to classify a patent in Class 359 as opposed to Class 139 or Class 428. See Class 427, appropriate subclasses for methods of making screens by coating.
(2) Note. The screen may be merely tracing paper or a canvas as in indented subclass 447.

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350+,for a viewing screen having infrared or ultraviolet characteristics.
900,for miscellaneous methods of making screens not classified in Class 427, Coating Processes, or Class 156, Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture, etc.

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139Textiles: Weaving,   subclasses 383+ for light diffusing woven screens.
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   especially subclasses 19+ and 371+ for framed screens without optical details other than merely "translucent" or something similar.
248Supports,   especially subclasses 158+ for screen supports.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 1.1+ for processes directed to forming optical articles capable of producing an optical effect other than mere transparency or planar reflection.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 21+ for screens supported in a cabinet.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 61 for a motion picture projector combined with a screen.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 18 , 47, 67, 72+, 74+, and 79+ for cabinet which encloses projector and one side of screen or structurally related projector and screen.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 162+ for coating processes, per se, wherein the product is an optical element.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   especially subclasses 143+ for embedded light diffusing particles or for light diffusing stock material in the form of a single or plural layer web or stock material which may be useful for projection purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 444]    444With sound producer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter including a loudspeaker or other sound producing means combined with the screen.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 36 for motion picture devices combined with screens and sound producers.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 18 for an image projector in combination with a sound producer.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 150+ for electrical loudspeakers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 445]    445Acoustical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein the screen is especially adapted to transmit or damp sound waves.

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444,for acoustical screens combined with means to produce sound.

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181Acoustics,   subclasses 175+ for mufflers and sound filters.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 446]    446Moving during projection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter including means to rotate or oscillate the screen, usually for the purpose of improving the image seen by viewers or for imparting a three dimensional effect.

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520+,for vibrating, oscillating, or rotating signal reflectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 447]    447Tracing (e.g., camera lucida, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein the screen upon which an image is formed is adapted to have an outline of the image traced or sketched thereon.
(1) Note. The instrument, commonly referred to as a camera lucida, usually includes a prism or mirrors and sometimes a lens to cause a virtual image of an object to appear as if projected upon a plane surface so that an outline may be traced.

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369,and 400, for a compound lens system combined with a viewing screen.
448,for a lens combined with a viewing screen.
449,for a reflector combined with a viewing screen.

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353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 44 and 45 for an image projector having a concentrated source of light to project an image for the purpose of tracing it.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 448]    448With lens (e.g., camera obscura, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter including a lens combined with the screen, the screen usually being positioned in the second principle focal plane of the lens.
(1) Note. The device, commonly known as a camera obscura, usually has a darkened chamber with a lens at the entrance thereof to permit light from external objects to enter and to form an image of the objects on a screen in the chamber.
(2) Note. The combinations classified here are often constructed to function normally only when the light rays approaching the entrant lens from the object are substantially parallel, under which conditions the image produced by the device is always greatly reduced relative to the size of the object. The lens and screen combinations classified in Class 353, Optics: Image Projectors, differ from those classified here in that they are constructed to operate normally only when the light rays approaching the entrant lens from the object are of the widely diverging type, that is, when the object is near the first principal focal plane of the entrant lens, under which conditions the image produced by the device is enlarged relative to the size of the object, a condition that usually necessitates the use of intense artificial object illumination to provide an adequately illuminated image. Moreover, the lens and screen combinations of Class 353, Optics: Image Projectors, always have their object and screen in the conjugate focal planes of the projection lens employed with the screen spaced more distant from the lens than the object, while the lens and screen combinations of this subclass 448 have their object and screen substantially at infinity and at the principal focal plane of the lens respectively.

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369,and 400, for a compound lens system combined with a viewing screen.

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353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 18 , 47, 67, 72+, 74+, and 79+ for an image projector having a light source or means to concentrate solar light and including a lens and screen combination. See (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 449]    449With reflector or additional screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter including another screen or a reflector which usually is between the first screen and a projector.

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447,for camera lucidas which include reflectors.

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353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 67 , 73, 77, and 78 for an image projector having a screen and a reflector.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 450]    450Border, mask, shade, or curtain:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter including means connected to the screen to shield or shade the screen or to modify the contrast between the screen and the surrounding area.
(1) Note. For the purpose of this subclass, drapes, hoods, and covers are considered to be curtains.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 451]    451Curved:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein the surface of the screen is articulated rather than flat.
(1) Note. In this subclass the overall shape or surface of the screen is curved but subclasses 455 and 459 have curved individual elements but the overall surface of the screen is generally flat.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 452]    452Embedded particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter including a mass or sheet of material (e.g., resin, etc.) with particles partially or fully embedded therein to affect the light transmission or reflection characteristics of the screen, the particles having characteristics such as a particular geometric shape, size, or refractive index.
(1) Note. The screens in Class 428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, subclasses 143+ may include particles claimed as light diffusing or as causing translucency. However, if the particles are claimed as having certain refractive index, size or shape, or an index or size relative to the remainder of the screen material, the patent is classified here in subclass 452. Further, if a geometric configuration is formed by the particles in the screen the patent is also classified here in subclass 452.

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427Coating Processes,   subclasses 162+ for coating processes, per se, wherein the product is an optical element.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 143+ for a stock material product containing embedded particles which diffuse light, and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 453]    453Rear projection screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Subject matter wherein an image is projected on one side of a screen and viewed from the opposite side.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 454]    454Unitary sheet comprising plural refracting areas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of refracting elements are each part of a unitary plate or mass.

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455,for a lenticular screen.
542,for signal reflectors with plural refracting elements formed as a unitary mass.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 455]    455Lenticular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 454.  Subject matter wherein at least some of the plurality of refracting elements have spherical or cylindrical curvature.

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542,for signal reflectors with plural refracting elements formed as a unitary mass.
619+,for surfaces composed of lenticular elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 456]    456Rear projection screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 455.  Subject matter wherein an image is projected on one side of a screen and viewed from the opposite side.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 457]    457With Fresnel lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 456.  Subject matter wherein the lenticulated rear projection screen includes a Fresnel lens or a lens resembling a plano-convex or plano-concave lens that is cut into narrow rings and flattened out.
(1) Note. See subclass 742 for the definition of Fresnel type lens.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 458]    458Stereoscopic imaging or three dimensional imaging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 455.  Subject matter wherein a lenticulated refractive screen is placed between a picture and a viewer eye to provide an illusion of relief or an illusory three dimension picture of a single perspective.

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462+,for stereoscopic device that may include a nominal recitation of a projection screen.
478,for relief illusion.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 57+ for stereoscopic camera or projectors and subclasses 85+ for special effects, particularly subclass 86 for devices creating an illusion of three dimensional viewing without employing separate left and right images.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 459]    459Unitary sheet comprising plural reflecting areas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of discrete reflecting elements are part of a unitary plate or sheet, the reflecting elements redirecting the impinging light in different directions.
(1) Note. The discrete elements are usually angularly related or curved.

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530,for a unitary sheet comprising a plurality of cube corner or triple reflectors.
546,for discrete reflecting elements formed as a unitary mass.
619+,for surfaces composed of lenticular elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 460]    460Rear projection screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein an image is projected on one side of a screen and viewed from the opposite side.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 461]    461Roll up screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein the screen is flexible and can be wound around a roller for easy storage or for portability.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 462]    462STEREOSCOPIC:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising (1) a separate optical system for each eye of one person, which are looking at a common object, for producing separate visual records containing information from the two different points of view relative to that object, or (2) the stereoscopic record itself, or (3) the devices for viewing such records.
(1) Note. This subclass takes optical systems of stereo projectors and cameras which are not sufficient to constitute a complete projector or camera.

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478,for devices giving an illusion of relief but where information is obtained only from a single point of view.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclass 1 for measuring stereoscopes and subclass 20.4 for plotting stereoscopes combined with a stylus.
40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclass 1 for exhibitors in general, and subclasses 361+ for nonstereo transparent film viewers.
348Television,   subclasses 42+ for stereoscopic television systems.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 57+ for stereoscopic motion picture cameras.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 7+ for attachments which convert a conventional projector to a stereoscopic image projector.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 12+ for base line type range or height finders which include stereoscopic viewers and subclass 390 for mensuration or configuration comparison devices which may involve stereo-viewers.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 41+ for a stereoscopic X-ray or gamma ray system.
396Photography,   subclasses 324+ for stereoscopic camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 463]    463Having record with lenticular surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 462.  Subject matter comprising a record with a plurality of reflecting or transmitting elements, each having a curved or figured surface.

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455+,for lenticular projection screens.
619+,for surfaces composed of lenticular elements.
642+,for lenses generally.
727,for lenses having concave and/or convex reflecting surfaces with coatings.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 464]    464With right and left channel discriminator (e.g., polarized or colored light):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 462.  Subject matter associated with stereo systems wherein by appropriate viewing devices (e.g., colored or polarizing spectacles), light rays representing the right and left stereoscopic channels and having different optical properties (e.g., color, direction of polarization), in accordance with the channel they represent, will affect only the eye appropriate to a given channel.
(1) Note. This subclass includes for example, (1) apparatus for forming superimposed images from light rays having different optical properties, (2) the record containing right and left stereo images characterized by having different optical properties, or (3) the viewing devices for discriminating between the light rays from the right and left images.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 465]    465Using polarized light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter wherein the particles of the light vibrate perpendicular to the direction of travel and these vibrations are either in straight lines, circles, or ellipses.

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483.01,through 494.01, for optics, systems, and elements for polarization of light or using polarized light.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 466]    466Stereo-viewers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 462.  Subject matter comprising either (1) viewing devices which are used to aid the observer in fusing adjacently mounted right and left stereoscopic pictures or (2) the adjacently mounted right and left stereoscopic pictures themselves.

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804+,for nonstereo viewers with a significant lens system.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 467]    467View changers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter including means to facilitate changing from one stereoscopic slide or picture to another.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclasses 446+ for changeable exhibitors in general.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 92 and 103+ for a slide changer for an image projector.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 468]    468Picture moves linearly past viewing aperture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Subject matter wherein the slide or picture being viewed moves linearly past the viewing aperture, i.e., each point on the picture generates a straight line as it passes the aperture.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 469]    469Using film-strips:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 468.  Subject matter wherein a carrier is formed as a tape or strip with individual elements of a motion picture sequence uniformly spaced along the strip.
(1) Note. Film strips may include moving film, film-roll band, ribbon of film, film tape, or film spools.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 37 for strip type films with a sound record, subclass 56 for methods of working or making a film strip, subclass 59 for stereoscopic apparatus involving plural film strips, subclasses 166+ for drive mechanisms for film strips, and subclasses 232+ for motion picture carriers.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 120 for picture carriers for still projectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 470]    470Compensates for camera position (e.g., plotting or mapping type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter wherein compensation is made for the orientation or position of the recording device or devices which produced the stereo pictures.
(1) Note. This subject matter generally involves stereoscopes for plotting, mapping, or measuring where the raw data must be adjusted to compensate for such things as parallax, different image size, skew, or tilt, etc., caused by a particular camera orientation.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclass 1 for similar subject matter combined with measuring means and subclass 20.4 for similar subject matter combined with scribing means.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for similar devices employing photocells.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 6 for an image projector for stereoscopic mapping or for rectifying an aerial photograph.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 2 for contour plotting devices which may involve stereo-viewers.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 471]    471Reflected line of sight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter including means for reflecting the line of sight of at least one eye of the observer.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 472]    472Pictures offset, transposed, or have respective right or left sides adjacent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 471.  Subject matter wherein (1) the pictures viewed are vertically offset (i.e., the tops and bottoms are not in line), (2) the picture to be viewed by the right eye is on the left side of the picture to be viewed by the left eye, or (3) the respective right or left sides of the stereo pictures are adjacent.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 473]    473Ocular spacing or angle between ocular axes adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter comprising means for adjusting the spacing of the stereoscope oculars or means for adjusting the angular relationship of their optical axes.

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412+,for binocular lenses having adjustable interocular spacing.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 474]    474Collapsible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter wherein the stereoscope after use can be folded, collapsed, or dismantled to form a more compact package or wherein the stereoscope, prior to use, is folded, collapsed, or dismantled.

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817,for lenses with foldable or collapsible supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 475]    475Having Illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter including means to illuminate or improve the illumination of the stereo picture.

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798+,for illuminating a viewer including a significant lens system.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 476]    476Ocular to picture distance adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter including adjustment of the distance between the stereoscopic eyepieces and the viewed picture.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 477]    477Supporting, mounting, enclosing, or light shielding structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter comprising supporting, mounting, enclosing or light shielding structure for stereo viewer or its components.
(1) Note. Examples of this subclass are stereoscopic hoods, cases or handles.

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407+,for compound lens binocular with supports or handles.
811+,for lenses with supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 478]    478RELIEF ILLUSION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for giving a depth or relief effect comprising a visual record which contains information of the object viewed obtained from only one point of view.

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462+,for stereoscopic devices where the visual record contains information obtained from two different points of view.

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348Television,   subclass 44 for pseudo stereoscopic television.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 86 for a motion picture device for depth illusion.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 479]    479Reflected line of sight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 478.  Subject matter wherein the line of sight of at least one eye of the observer is reflected.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 480]    480BINOCULAR DEVICES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising one separate optical element, aperture or tube for each eye of the user or comprising a single optical element used alternately by each eye.

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404,for telescopic binocular having plural optical axes.
407+,for binocular type compound lens system.
466+,for stereoscopic viewing devices.
618+,for systems including a single optical channel which merges to or from a plural optical channel, the plural channel lacking the binocular use.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 481]    481Binocular loupe type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter including a support shaped to position one or more lenses before each eye so that the lenses move with the head of the user.
(1) Note. The support may be adapted to be attached directly to either the head, e.g., a head band, or spectacle frames.

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407+,for binocular type compound lens systems.
815,for such structure which is body or apparel carried.
816,for monocular loupes.

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2Apparel,   subclasses 426+ for goggles.
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 41+ for spectacles and eyeglasses. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Lenses, in the 351 Class Definition for the distinction between the vision correcting structure of Class 351 and the magnifying structure of Class 359.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 482]    482Reflected line of sight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter wherein the line of sight of at least one eye of the observer is reflected.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 483.01]    483.01POLARIZATION WITHOUT MODULATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a polarization of an incident light beam is produced or modified in a time invariant fashion as a result of passing through an optical device.
(1) Note. Where both a polarizing device and a composition are claimed, the patent is classified here and cross-referenced to class 252, subclass 585.
(2) Note. Where a method of making the polarizing device is claimed as well as the polarizing device, the patent is classified here and cross-referenced to any other class providing for the method.
(3) Note. The nominal recitation of a polarizing area in the form of a design, image, etc., or specifics of a polarization element (e.g., polarization light characteristics) is sufficient to include this subject matter in these subclasses. However, the nominal recitation of a polarization element in an optical system is not sufficient to include the subject matter in these subclasses and should be classified elsewhere where such combination meets the class requirements.

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204.3,for polarized light to be deflected using moving element.
246,through 258, for polarization with modulation by eletro-optic devices with applied time variant electric signal.
281,through 289, for polarization with modulation by magneto-optic devices with applied time variant magnetic signal.
301,for light wave directional control of polarized light.
352,for a polarizing element having significant infrared or ultraviolet properties.
371,and 386, for compound lens systems combined with polarizers.
437,for polarizers used in a scale or indicia reading.
465,for polarizers used in stereoscopic systems.
484.01,for polarization using an applied external time-invariant electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic signal.
484.02,through 484.1, for polarization requires magneto rotation.
485.01,through 485.07, for polarization by reflection or refraction.
486.01,through 486.03, for polarization direction or magnitude varied over surface of the medium.
487.01,through 487.06, for polarization by dichroism.
489.01,through 489.2, for polarization by birefringence.
601,through 614, for optical structure in general used to reduce unwanted light, not polarizing structure for reducing antiglare.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   particularly subclasses 434 and 548 for illuminated signs utilizing polarizers.
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 30.1 and 32.1 for processes for forming polarizing glass material.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 225 and 559.09 for a light polarizer and a photocell and subclass 341.3 for invisible radiation energy response methods including polarization means.
252Compositions,   subclass 585 for chemical compositions which produce polarized light.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes, subclass 1.31 for light polarizing articles.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 112 for electric lamps and electronic tubes combined with a polarizer.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclass 756 for antennas with a polarization converter and subclasses 909+ for radio wave polarizations, per se.
348Television,   subclasses 57 and 58 for stereoscopic displays with polarization.
349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   subclass 9 for projectors with liquid crystal cell which produces S and P polarized light, subclass 80 for color polarizers in a liquid crystal cell, subclass 87 for variable polarizers in a liquid crystal cell, subclasses 96-103 for liquid crystal cell structure with polarizing element, and subclass 194 for liquid crystal polarizer.
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 49 , 215, and 232 for light-polarizing devices used in eye examining vision testing and correcting means.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 8 and 20 for polarizers used with image projectors.
355Photocopying,   subclass 71 for photocopy system having illumination system with a polarizer.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 30 and 31 for gem or crystal examining using polarized light; subclass 33 for material strain analysis with polarized light, subclasses 322 and 327 for spectrometers which utilize polarized light, subclasses 364-370 for polarized light examination devices generally, and subclasses 453, 487 and 491 for interferometers with polarizing elements.
362Illumination,   subclass 19 for illumination systems with a polarizing element.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 121 and 122 for polarization techniques used in the storage and retrieval of information.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 13.29 through 13.31for employing polarized light in a storage or retrieval device and subclasses 110.01-110.04 and 112. 16-112.21 for polarizing optical elements in an optical pick-up device.
372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 106 for a polarizer in a coherent light generator (i.e., laser).
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 11 for polarization devices without modulation and including an optical waveguide.
398Optical Communications,   subclass 65 for polarization in multiplexing optical communication devices, subclass 152 for transmitter/receiver systems that include polarization.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 163.1 through 163.4for coating processes, per se, where the product is an optical element.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 1.31 for liquid-crystal layers including polarizer.
472Amusement Devices,   subclasses 57 through 84for a theatrical stage device which may use a polarizer.
501Compositions: Ceramic,   subclasses 30 and 56 for polarizers with specified glass compositions.
977Nanotechnology,   subclass 834 for nanomaterials having optical properties that may include polarization.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.01]    484.01Polarization using a time invariant electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic field (e.g., electro-optical, magneto-optical):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 483.01.  Subject matter wherein an electric, magnetic, or electromagnetic field, which is unchanging in time, is applied to the optical device to produce or alter the polarization.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 368 for polarimeters which include electro-optical light rotation.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 121 and 122 for information masking using magneto-optical polarization.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 13.01 through 13.55for magneto-optical storage systems.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 11 for polarization devices without modulation and including an optical waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.02]    484.02Faraday effect:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.01.  Subject matter wherein the applied field is a magneto-optic field in which the magneto-optic field interacts with the optical device to produce a rotation in the plane of polarization (i.e., Faraday effect).
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are Faraday rotation devices without modulation. Faraday rotation devices that include modulation would be appropriate for subclasses 280-284.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclass 122 for information masking using magneto-optical polarization.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 13.01 through 13.55for magneto-optical storage systems.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 11 for polarization devices without modulation and including an optical waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.03]    484.03Isolator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.02.  Subject matter wherein a Faraday effect element is used in an optical isolator.
(1) Note. An optical isolator is an optical device which allows the transmission of light in only one direction.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 703 for optical isolator in a coherent light generator (i.e., laser).
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 11 for polarization devices without modulation and including an optical waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.04]    484.04With reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.03.  Subject matter wherein the optical isolator includes at least one reflective element (e.g., mirror, retroreflector, etc).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.05]    484.05Circulator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.02.  Subject matter wherein a Faraday effect element is used in an optical circulator.
(1) Note. An optical circulator is an at least three-port device that allows light to travel in only one direction (e.g., lights travels from port 1 to port 2, then from port 2 to port 3).

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385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 11 for polarization devices without modulation and including an optical waveguide.
398Optical Communications,   subclass 65 for polarization in multiplexing optical communication devices, subclass 152 for transmitter/receiver systems that include polarization, subclass 205 for heterodyne receiver including polarization.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.06]    484.06Optical switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.02.  Subject matter wherein a Faraday effect element is used in an optical switch.
(1) Note. An optical switch is an optical device which enables light to be selectively switched from one port to another.

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385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 16 through 23for optical switches utilizing an optical waveguide.
398Optical Communications,   subclasses 45 through 57for optical switching in multiplexing optical communication devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.07]    484.07Interleaver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.02.  Subject matter wherein a Faraday effect element is used in an optical interleaver.
(1) Note. An optical interleaver is an at least 3-port device that is used to combine two sets of wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) channels (e.g., odd and even channels) into a composite signal stream in an interleaving way.

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385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 11 for polarization devices without modulation and including an optical waveguide.
398Optical Communications,   subclass 65 for polarization in multiplexing optical communication devices, subclass 152 for transmitter/receiver systems that include polarization, subclass 205 for heterodyne receiver including polarization.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.08]    484.08Attenuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.02.  Subject matter wherein a Faraday effect element is used in an optical attenuator.
(1) Note. An optical attenuator is an optical device that reduces the amplitude or power of a signal.

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337.1,through 337.13, for spectral gain flattening or equalization.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 370 for measuring/testing of polarized light having light attenuation.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 140 for optical attenuators including an optical waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.09]    484.09Interference or comb filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.02.  Subject matter wherein a Faraday effect element is used in an interference or comb filter.
(1) Note. An interference or comb filter is an optical filter that selectively reflects or transmits light in a narrow band of wavelengths.

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489.19,for frequency filters used for polarization by birefringence.
589,and 590, for general interference filters.

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353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 20 for polarizers used with image projectors.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 491 through 495for interferometers having polarization.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 484.1]    484.1With particular Faraday effect material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.02.  Subject matter wherein details of materials that are involved in the generation of the Faraday effect are recited.

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117Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor,   subclass 54 for the process of growing magnetic compositions.
252Compositions,   subclass 585 for chemical compositions which produce polarized light and subclasses 62.51+ for the magnet material composition.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 209 through 306for the magnet structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 485.01]    485.01Polarization by reflection or refraction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 483.01.  Subject matter wherein a light beam is polarized as a result of either (1) by striking a surface and returning into the originating medium of an optical element or (2) by redirecting as it passes through media of differing indices of refraction of the optical element.
(1) Note. The reflection or refraction phenomena must follow Snell’s Law to be appropriate for this subclass.

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349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   subclass 9 for projectors with liquid crystal cell which produces S and P polarized light, subclasses 96-103 for liquid crystal cell structure with polarizing element and subclass 194 for liquid crystal polarizer.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 20 for polarizers used with image projectors.
362Illumination,   subclass 19 for illumination systems with a polarizing element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 485.02]    485.02Brewster angle polarizer (reflective or transmissive):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical element reflects or transmits light at Brewster’s angle.
(1) Note. Since the reflection coefficient for light which has an electric field parallel to the plane of incidence goes to zero at some incidence angle between 0 and 90, the reflected light at that angle (Brewster’s angle) is linearly polarized with its electric field vectors perpendicular to the plane of incidence and parallel to the plane of the surface from which it is reflecting.

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372Coherent Light Generators,   subclass 106 for a polarizer in a coherent light generator (i.e., laser).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 485.03]    485.03Multilayer polarizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical element includes a plurality of layers, at least one of which is reflective or refractive.
(1) Note. Multilayer optical elements which operate using optical interference are appropriate for this subclass.
(2) Note. Multilayer optical elements that include one or more birefringent layers should be classified in 489.19 and are not appropriate for this subclass.

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371,for interference microscopes which may utilize polarized light.
580,through 590, for general optical inference elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 485.04]    485.04Pile-of-plates polarizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.03.  Subject matter wherein a polarization is reflected or transmitted from a stack of plates (e.g., dielectric plates).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 485.05]    485.05Wire grid polarizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical element includes metallic conductors in the form of a reflective grid (i.e., each grid opening forms a half wavelength of the applied light) to produce a polarization of the applied light.

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352,for a polarizing element having significant infrared or ultraviolet properties.
569,through 576, for diffractive optical elements.

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216Etching a substrate: Processes,   subclass 24 for general etching processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 485.06]    485.06Prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical element has at least two plane surfaces inclined relative to each other, from which light is reflected or through which light is refracted.
(1) Note. A prism may be employed for refracting or reflecting light. Prism reflections are considered to be internal reflections; that is, the light is inside the prism body both before and immediately after the reflection.
(2) Note. The prismatic element may include a plurality or an array of prisms (e.g., crossed prisms, x-prisms or kernel prisms).

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489.09,and 489.1, for prisms used for polarization by birefringence.
629,through 638, for general beam splitting elements.
831,through 837, for prisms, per se.

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349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   subclasses 8 through 9for projectors with liquid crystal cell which produces S and P polarized light.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 20 for polarizers used with image projectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 485.07]    485.07Mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.01.  Subject matter wherein the reflective element is a mirror.
(1) Note. The reflective element may include a plurality or an array of mirrors.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 486.01]    486.01Polarization (direction or magnitude) variation over surface of the medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 483.01.  Subject matter comprising a surface which transmits or reflects light and whose ability to polarize light is not uniform across the surface.
(1) Note. This variation in polarizing ability may be continuous or discontinuous and may form any type of pattern. For example, the different areas of a surface may form an image or design as in a vectograph.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 486.02]    486.02Linear variation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 486.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarization varies along a single direction or two orthogonal directions (e.g., matrix or checkerboard).

Image 1 for class 359 subclass 486.02

A typical example of the subject matter.

Image 2 for class 359 subclass 486.02

A typical example of the subject matter.

Image 3 for class 359 subclass 486.02

A typical example of the subject matter.

  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 486.03]    486.03Radial variation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 486.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarization varies around an optical axis.

Image 1 for class 359 subclass 486.03

A typical example of the subject matter.

  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 487.01]    487.01Polarization by dichroism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 483.01.  Subject matter including an optical element made of dichroic materials which have different absorption for different incident polarization planes of light.
(1) Note. Included here are elements where the medium comprises a lamination or a coating on a supporting structure and where the supporting structure is significant or the means to form the lamination or coating is significant.

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352,for a polarizing element having significant infrared or ultraviolet properties.
580,for general dichroic elements without polarization properties.

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156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 99 through 108for processes of adhesively bonding laminae.
252Compositions,   subclass 585 for chemical compositions which produce polarized light.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 163.1 through 163.4for coating processes, per se, where the product is an optical element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 487.02]    487.02With stain or dye:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical element is made of dichroic coloring agent, such as a dye or stain (e.g., Polaroid H or K sheets or dichroic iodine-based films).

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 1.31 for liquid crystal layers including polarizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 487.03]    487.03Wire grid polarizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical element includes metallic conductors in the form of an absorptive grid (i.e., each grid opening forms a half wavelength of the applied light) to produce polarization of the applied light.

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569,through 576, for diffractive optical elements.

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216Etching a substrate: Processes,   subclass 24 for general etching processes
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 487.04]    487.04Wavelength-selective beamsplitter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing dichroic optical element is used to selectively separate or split the light beam into components of different wavelengths.

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634,for wavelength-selective, dichroic reflectors.

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349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   subclasses 8 through 9for projectors with liquid crystal cell which produces S and P polarized light.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 20 for polarizers used with image projectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 487.05]    487.05Having plural elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical device includes a plurality of dichroic elements.
(1) Note. The plurality of dichroic elements may include a plurality of layers, films, coatings or optical devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 487.06]    487.06Oriented particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarization of the applied light is dependent upon the spatial positioning of microscopic particles embedded in the dichroic medium of the polarizing optical element.

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487.01,for polarization caused by the molecular orientation of the matrix material or of a reaction product.
487.02,for stain or dye molecules acting as oriented particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 488.01]    488.01Glare prevention by discriminating against polarized light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 483.01.  Subject matter wherein unwanted glare-producing polarized light is eliminated by a polarizing structure.

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490.01,through 490.03, for two superimposed relatively adjustable polarizers mounted as a unit and used to reduce or control light intensity.
601,through 614, for glare reduction not utilizing a polarizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.01]    489.01Polarization by birefringence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 483.01.  Subject matter wherein the polarizing optical element includes crystalline materials having two distinct indices of refraction associated with different crystallographic directions, i.e. birefringent materials.
(1) Note. A birefringent element has the property of dividing a ray or beam of energy into two polarized rays or beams (known as the ordinary and extraordinary rays), the directions of polarization being at right angles to each other.

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489.09,for a birefringent element in the form of a Nicol prism where the unwanted ray is deflected.

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65Glass Manufacturing, subclasses 30.1 and 32.1 for processes for forming polarizing glass material.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 365 for measuring/testing of polarized light having a birefringent element.
501Compositions: ceramic, subclasses 30 and 56 for polarizers with specified glass compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.02]    489.02With compensation techniques:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.01.  Subject matter wherein the birefringent element corrects for unwanted effects.

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349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   subclasses 117 through 121for liquid crystal cell including compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.03]    489.03Intrinsic birefringence or photoelastic (stress) effect:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.02.  Subject matter wherein the unwanted effect is intrinsic birefringence or photoelastic (stress) effect.

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349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   subclass 120 for liquid crystal cell including compensation for negative intrinsic birefringence (i.e., negative refractive index anisotropy).
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.04]    489.04Temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.02.  Subject matter wherein the unwanted effect is temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.05]    489.05Path length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.02.  Subject matter wherein the unwanted effect is changes in optical or physical path length.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are optical delay lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.06]    489.06Form birefringent element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.01.  Subject matter wherein the optical element exhibits different refractive indices as a result of an anisotropic physical structure on a scale much larger than molecular but much smaller than the wavelength of light.
(1) Note. Examples of such elements may include polarizing dielectric diffraction gratings or polarizing lattice grids.
(2) Note. Form birefringence is also known as structural birefringence or structure-induced birefringence.

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566,through 576, for diffractive optical elements.

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369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 112.03 through 112.15for optical pick-up devices having a diffractive element.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.07]    489.07Waveplate or retarder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.01.  Subject matter wherein the birefringent element is used to alter the polarization state of a light wave traveling through it by shifting the phase between the two perpendicular polarization components of the incident light beam, i.e., birefringent waveplate or retarder.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are waveplates or retarders that are EXPLICITLY birefringent, i.e. the waveplate or retarder is birefringent, anisotropic, uniaxial, biaxial or double (doubly) refractive; the waveplate or retarder is made from a birefringent crystalline material such as quartz, calcite, tourmaline, rutile, sodium nitrate, magnesium fluoride, sapphire, etc.; or the waveplate or retarder has been specified to have two distinct indices of refraction associated with different crystallographic directions, such as those producing ordinary and extraordinary rays.

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349Liquid Crystal Cells, Elements and Systems,   subclass 18 for projectors with liquid crystal cell that includes a variable or rotatable retarder and subclasses 117-118 for specific liquid crystal cell structures with birefringent retarders.
  
[List of Patents for class 359 subclass 489.08]    489.08Beam deflector or splitter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.01.  Subject matter wherein the birefringent element is used to change the direction of the entire beam or a portion of the beam for positioning purposes or is used to split the beam into two or more portions.
(1) Note. The polarization splitter may include a plurality or an array of splitters.

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