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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 396]   CLASS 396,PHOTOGRAPHY
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

GENERAL STATEMENT OF THE CLASS SUBJECT MATTER

A. This class provides for photographic apparatus not classified elsewhere, generally for recording a picture made by a source of light on a photographic medium.

B. This class also includes fluid-treating apparatus for development of film.

C. This class will not receive for original placement a patent claiming alternative embodiments, one of a type proper for this class and one of a type related to another recording class. Patents claiming alternative embodiments will be placed in the class that provides for the alternative and crossed in the appropriate subclass in this class. This class will receive a patent disclosing two types of recording devices when the claims are general or related to this class.

D. Subcombinations of picture recording apparatus not otherwise provided for, such as a removable film-holder unit, hood, camera housing, and camera setting indicator or legend, are classified here.

E. Also classified here are certain accessories related to photography not otherwise provided for such as studio structure (e.g., background, photographic model, or support, etc.), camera mounting or rest, camera attachment (e.g., a vignetter), retouching, or burnishing device.

F. Nonchemical processes involving photographic apparatus of sections A-E, Class Definition, General Statement of the Class Subject Matter, above (e.g., operating such apparatus) are included in this class. See References to Other Classes, below, for processes of radiation imagery chemistry.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

Excluded from Class 396 is subject matter relating to image recording of an original or carrier which is developed by toner and video cameras utilizing a semiconductive or CCD device. Such subject matter may be found elsewhere. See below for the line between Class 396 and Class 348.

LINE BETWEEN CLASS 396 and CLASS 348

Class 396 will receive for original placement a patent disclosing both Class 396 and Class 348 devices when the claims are general or directed only towards Class 396 subject matter and are otherwise proper therefor.

Class 396 will not receive for original placement a patent claiming alternative embodiments, one of a type proper for Class 396 and one of a type proper for Class 348. Such a patent should be classified as an original in Class 348 and crossed into the appropriate subclass in Class 396.

Similar placement applies to a claim reciting a combination of Class 348 and Class 396 subject matter. The original is classified in Class 348 with a cross to Class 396 except where Class 348 subject matter merely provides a perfecting feature of a Class 396 type camera or camera system. In that case, the original is classified in Class 396.

(1) Note. Class 396, subclasses 429+ will accept a combination of a Class 396 type camera and a diverse art device where such combination is not otherwise provided for. For classification purposes above, the recitation of an "image sensor," "image pickup device," or the like that generates an image representative electrical signal which may be subsequently processed or displayed, or the positive recitation of a "video camera" in a claim is considered to be Class 348 subject matter if otherwise proper therefor. OBJECT ILLUMINATION SUBCOMBINATIONS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE Artificial light sources, per se, may be distinguished as being either noncombustible or combustible. Noncombustible incandescent lamps, where the filament is not intended to be burned or consumed and for gas discharge lamps of the "electronic flash" type are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below. The combination of a Class 313 light source and the electrical circuitry for energizing the same are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below. Circuits of general utility for igniting combustible or explosive devices, such as rockets or dynamite are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below. The combination of an artificial light source with a protector, support or distributor, and photographic lights are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below. Combustible illuminating flash devices such as photographic bulbs, and electrical circuitry for electrically igniting a combustible light source are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below.
(1) Note. This class (396) provides for the combination of an illumination device and essential camera structure other than a mere recitation of a "camera housing wall". FLUID-TREATING APPARATUS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE Class 34, Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids, is the generic class for the contacting of solids with either, or both, gases or vapors. Class 34 provides for the apparatus which merely claims a gas generator, such as ammonia, with means for containing the gas for treating "photographic" material and may include means for handling or feeding the material in or into the gas treatment area. The inclusion of heating means for vaporizing liquid or solid ammoniated compounds to release ammonia gas or vapor does not preclude classification in Class 34. Class 134, Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids, is the generic class for apparatus for contacting solids with liquids for any purpose not provided for in other classes. The Class 134 definitions should be referred to for the classification of patents directed to subcombinations of fluid treating apparatus. The combinations of photocopying apparatus and developing apparatus are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below. Mixing chambers of the print washer-type including specified feed means without a separate work holder where turbulence or agitation will inherently occur during normal usage are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below.
(1) Note. This class (396) provides for gas treatment of claimed specific material such as "diazo" sheet material. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.
This class (396) provides for the combination of a camera and developing apparatus not limited to photocopying. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.
This class (396) provides for a claimed recitation of a vessel containing a developing solution and a vessel containing a fixing or washing solution with means for moving a photographic film, print, or plate therethrough sequentially.
This class (396) provides for the combinations which include claimed recitations concerning specified solutions, such as "hypo," or specified material by its photographic characteristic or orientation, such as emulsion side up.
This class (396) provides for provide for the combination of fluid treating apparatus and a dark cabinet wherein the light-excluding features are claimed. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.
This class (396) provides for fluid treating apparatus for treating superimposed or laminar sheets. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.
See References to Other Classes, below for liquid development. CAMERA CASE SUBCOMBINATIONS CLASSIFIED ELSEWHERE Receptacles particularly constructed to contain a camera such as having a special shape and interior arrangement provided with shelves, racks, or arrangements of clasps or retaining devices for holding a camera are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below. Devices for carrying a camera wherein means are provided that are especially adapted to be supported upon a person"s body are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below. Cabinet structure designed to house picture machines or films or other highly inflammable material and cabinets for housing and supporting instruments so that relative guided motion between the instrument and the cabinet structure results in placement of the instrument in a position exposed for use or in a position as for storage, out of the way in cabinet structure are classified elsewhere. See References to Other Classes, below.
(1) Note. This class (396) provides for a camera which includes a detailed light-excluding case, casing, or housing. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below. FOREIGN ART COLLECTIONS IN CLASS 396 In establishing new Class 396, only a portion of the foreign patents/nonpatent literature from old Class 354 was reclassified along with the U.S. patents into subclasses 1-661 of the new Class 396 schedule. Those Class 354 subclasses with foreign patents/nonpatent literature which were not reclassified into subclasses 1-661 of Class 396 had these documents transferred directly to equivalent foreign art collections maintaining their original titles and positioning. Those Class 354 subclasses with foreign patents/nonpatent literature which were reclassified into subclasses 1-661 of Class 396 have no equivalent foreign art collections. The Class 396 subclasses having associated foreign patent/nonpatent literature are as follows: 1-5, 14-47, 207-209, 246-256, 268-276, 281-296, 301-309, 322-350, 429-434, 438, 505-563, and 661. The foreign art collections in Class 396 (subclasses FOR 700 - FOR 971) are intended only for receiving foreign patents/nonpatent literature. In subclasses 1-661, references to foreign art collections under "SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS" are intended only as a guide and consideration should be given to the remaining set of foreign art collections in completing a search. Definitions of the foreign art collections were excerpted from the corresponding Class 354 subclass definitions.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

30+,for the combination of a camera and developing apparatus not limited to photocopying.
535+,provide for a camera which includes a detailed light-excluding case, casing, or housing.
579,for gas treatment of claimed specific material such as "diazo" sheet material.
580+,for fluid treating apparatus for treating superimposed or laminar sheets.
589+,for the combination of fluid treating apparatus and a dark cabinet wherein the light-excluding features are claimed.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 100 for wiping-type, photographic-film cleaners.
33Geometrical Instruments,   subclass 266 for a straight line light ray geometrical instrument which is camera mounted, subclass 314 for impressing an indication of a borehole direction or inclination on a photosensitive record, subclass 334 for an indicator of the direction of force traversing a natural medium which is structurally installed on a camera and related to a feature thereof, and subclass 615 for a contact member which facilitates the positioning of a photographic element or element holder at a desired spacing with respect to a support.
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   is the generic class for the contacting of solids with either, or both, gases or vapors. Class 34 provides for the apparatus which merely claims a gas generator, such as ammonia, with means for containing the gas for treating "photographic" material and may include means for handling or feeding the material in or into the gas treatment area. The inclusion of heating means for vaporizing liquid or solid ammoniated compounds to release ammonia gas or vapor does not preclude classification in Class 34.
40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclasses 361+ for a photographic transparency viewer.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 1.42+ for camera shutter proving or calibrating.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclasses for an element of a camera; e.g., gear, cam, etc.
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   subclass 417 for processes producing free metal from photographic waste at 300 degrees Centigrade or greater combined with a step at less than 300 degrees Centigrade and using a liquid nonmetallic material, subclass 635 for processes recovering silver from photographic material at 300 degrees Centigrade or greater, and subclass 713 for processes producing free metal from photographic material below 300 degrees Centigrade using a liquid nonmetallic material.
83Cutting,   subclass 948 for a Cross-reference Art Collection relating to photographic film cutting.
116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 213 for an indicator with a camera merely providing support.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   subclass 64 for apparatus exhibiting liquid contact with a longitudinally travelling strip (e.g., photographic) where there are sequential work-treating stations or a station with means to transfer work or fluid-applying devices, and subclass 122 for apparatus exhibiting liquid contact with a longitudinally travelling strip (e.g., photographic). Class 134, is the generic class for apparatus for contacting solids with liquids for any purpose not provided for in other classes. The Class 134 definitions should be referred to for the classification of patents directed to subcombinations of fluid treating apparatus.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclass 58 for miscellaneous chemical manufacturing methods of contour or profile photography to reproduce a three-dimensional object.
178Telegraphy,   subclass 15 and 90, for telegraphy including a photographic operation.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 316.2 for a special camera receptacle or package receptacles particularly constructed to contain a camera such as having a special shape and interior arrangement provided with shelves, racks, or arrangements of clasps or retaining devices for holding a camera. .
224Package and Article Carriers,   provides for devices for carrying a camera wherein means are provided that are especially adapted to be supported upon a person"s body; subclass 908 for a Cross-reference Art Collection relating to a photographic (e.g., camera) carrier.
235Registers,   subclass 64.7 for a mechanical photographic calculator, and subclass 91 for a device (e.g., photograph) operated register.
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 324+ for an unwinding and rewinding coil-to-coil machine convertible information carrier (e.g., magnetic tape or photographic film, etc.) cartridge system, or subclasses 615+ for a residual guide or guard that directs elongated flexible material that may be combined with more than one nominal winding structure.
248Supports,   appropriate subclasses, for a device which carries the weight of an article or otherwise holds or steadies it against the pull of gravity, and a device for holding an article to its support.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 214 for a special photocell or electron tube circuit (including photographic control), subclasses 363.02+ for a luminophor body scanner or camera with radiant energy source, subclasses 475.2+ for photographic-type detection of invisible radiation, and subclasses 580+ for the making of a photograph by invisible radiation generally. A camera or part thereof which may be used to take a photograph by visible light as well as by ultraviolet or infrared rays is in Class 396. Picture making by a Class 250 device combined with a Class 396 device is provided for in Class 250.
252Compositions,   subclasses 582+ for optical filter composition and optical filter defined only in terms of its composition.
283Printed Matter,   subclass 77 for a photographic personal identifier with revealable concealed information, and subclass 112 for a photograph and revealable concealed information which is plastic laminated.
292Closure Fasteners,   Digest 48, for a camera cover fastener.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 139 for an optical instrument support per se to be gripped and carried by hand.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclass 10.1 , provides for cabinet structure designed to house picture machines or films or other highly inflammable material and subclasses 21+ provide cabinets for housing and supporting instruments so that relative guided motion between the instrument and the cabinet structure results in placement of the instrument in a position exposed for use or in a position as for storage, out of the way in cabinet structure. Some of the patents include the instrument housed by name only but in general if any instrument structure is recited, the combination is classified with the instrument.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   for noncombustible incandescent lamps, where the filament is not intended to be burned or consumed and for gas discharge lamps of the "electronic flash" type.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   provides for the combination of a Class 313 light source and the electrical circuitry for energizing the same.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 937 for a vehicle detector with camera.
342Communications, Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., RADAR, Radio Navigation),   subclass 66 for a directive radio wave system where the return signal controls a camera.
346Recorders,   particularly subclasses 107.1+ for the subject matter of that class combined with a photographic step or apparatus.
348Television,   appropriate subclasses and particularly subclasses 272+ and 294+ for an electronic camera with a semiconductor matrix in place of film or a CCD device.
351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 206+ for an eye examining instrument with eye photography.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   appropriate subclasses for motion picture method or apparatus, especially subclass 51 for methods of recording a series of drawings using photographic images as guides, subclass 137 for a motion picture camera structurally convertible to a still camera, and subclass 169 for a motion picture camera which can selectively record a single frame.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 5+ for a projection system for mapping or aerial photograph rectifying.
355Photocopying,   for photographically copying information from an original or carrier that is not classified elsewhere, while generally employing a concentrated source of light and an image receiving medium with a photosensitive emulsion surface; subclasses 27+ , 100, and 106+ for combinations of photocopying apparatus and developing apparatus.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for measuring or testing combined with photographic recording provided for there, subclass 3 for rangefinder, subclasses 213+ for photometers, subclass 302 for dispersed light spectroscopy using a photographic medium, subclass 404 for photographic light wave frequency analysis, and subclasses 443+ for light transmission or absorption analysis of photographic film.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 302 for facsimile photographic recording, subclass 527 for a color facsimile photographic previewer, and subclass 909.1 for a Cross-reference Art Collection related to an electronic still camera with a semiconductor matrix in place of film.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   appropriate subclasses for optical subcombinations of a camera, and subclass 564 for optical Fourier transform spatial filtering with photographic media.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 248+ for circuits of general utility for igniting combustible or explosive devices, such as rockets or dynamite.
362Illumination,   for the combination of an artificial light source with a protector, support or distributor; subclasses 3+ specifically for photographic lights.
366Agitating,   subclass 166 provides for mixing chambers of the print washer-type including specified feed means without a separate work holder where turbulence or agitation will inherently occur during normal usage.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclass 125 for dynamic information storage or retrieval having a photographic storage medium.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 167+ for methods and apparatus for making pictures of animate and inanimate objects by the action of X-rays and gamma rays.
386Motion Video Signal Processing for Recording or Reproducing,   appropriate subclasses for recording television or video signal.
399Electrophotography,   subclasses 9+ for diagnostics, subclasses 38+ for controls, subclasses 130+ for image formation, subclasses 168+ for charging, subclasses 177+ for exposure, subclasses 222+ for development, subclasses 237+ for liquid development; subclasses 297+ for transfer, subclasses 320+ for fixing, subclasses 343+ for cleaning, and subclasses 361+ for document handling.
427Coating Processes,   appropriate subclasses for the method of making a filter by coating.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 98+ for a structurally defined developed film or photographic print, subclasses 195+ for a structurally defined sheet with discontinuous or differential coating such as a retouched photograph, subclasses 221+ for a developed film or photographic print in which an element or component is structurally defined, and subclasses 411.1 for a developed film or photographic print defined merely by the composition of its layers.
430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   appropriate subclasses for radiation imagery chemistry involving process, composition, and product.
431Combustion,   subclasses 357+ for combustible illuminating flash devices such as photographic bulbs, and subclass 362 provides for electrical circuitry for electrically igniting a combustible light source.
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclass 408 for a simulated camera toy providing a sound.
493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   subclasses 53+ for rigid container making with photographic reproduction, subclasses 187+ for pliable container making with photographic reproduction, and subclass 270 for tube making with photographic reproduction, and subclasses 320+ for manufacturing from a sheet or web with photographic reproduction.
536Organic Compounds,   subclass 40 for recovering nitrated cellulose from photographic film, and subclass 78 for recovering cellulose acetate from photographic film.
600Surgery,   subclass 525 for electric heartbeat signal recording using a CRT and camera.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 182+ for performance or efficiency evaluation.
D16Photography and Optical Equipment,   subclasses 200+ for design patents relating to cameras or bodies therefor, and subclasses 237+ for design patents relating to photographic accessories.
D21Games, Toys, and Sports Goods,   subclass 514 for design patents relating to toy cameras and photographic type toys.

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

APERTURE

An aperture is an opening in the camera through which light passes in order to expose a photographic medium.

APERTURE VALUE (Av)

Aperture value is a logarithmic number indicative of aperture size.

CAMERA

A camera is a device which, when actuated, uses light to record an image of an object which may be chemically developable to become visible. It generally includes (a) a light-tight enclosure, (b) a lens for forming an image of an object at an image plane, (c) a holder for a photographic medium at the image plane, (d) a device to control the light flux reaching the photographic medium, and (e) an opaque device selectively operable to pass light to a photographic medium for a period of time. See References to Other Classes, above (e.g., Classes 250 and 378), for information regarding picture-making devices of diverse energy spectra.

CAMERA STRUCTURE

Camera structure is that subcombination of a camera not otherwise provided for in another class.

DEVELOPING APPARATUS

Developing apparatus is that which makes a photographic image visible.

DIAPHRAGM

A diaphragm is a device to change the light flux passing through the aperture.

EXPOSURE

Exposure is the act of allowing light to reach the photographic medium.

EXPOSURE CONTROL CIRCUIT

An exposure control circuit is an electronic circuit to control the exposure.

EXPOSURE OBJECTIVE

An exposure objective is an objective that focuses light from the object onto a photographic medium.

EXPOSURE SYSTEM

An exposure system is one that has means to regulate or adjust an amount of light reaching the photographic medium.

EXPOSURE TIME

Exposure time is the length of time an exposure occurs.

EXPOSURE TIME VALUE (Tv)

Exposure time value is a logarithmic number indicative of exposure time.

EXPOSURE VALUE (Ev)

Exposure value is the sum of the aperture value and exposure time value.

FLASH DEVICE

A flash device is a means to produce one or more bursts of light to provide scene illumination for exposure.

FOCUSING

Focusing is the act of obtaining a sharp image of a subject by adjusting a lens system.

FRAME

A frame is the space or area on a photographic medium normally occupied by one picture.

IN-FOCUS

An in-focus condition occurs when an object image attains its sharpness.

LIGHT FLUX

Light flux is the rate of light flow across a surface.

OBJECT (or SUBJECT)

An object or a subject refers to a person or thing within the scene to be recorded on a photographic medium.

OBJECTIVE

An objective is a lens that normally faces the object. See Class 359 for a more specific definition.

PHOTOGRAPHIC MEDIUM

A photographic medium is a material coated with a chemical that is photosensitive to actinic light.

RANGEFINDING

Rangefinding is the act of measuring the distance from a subject to the camera.

SCENE

A scene is the view to be recorded on a photographic medium.

SHUTTER

A shutter is a device for blocking or unblocking the passage of light for controlling the exposure time.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 1]    1STUDIO STRUCTURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to assist in taking a photograph which is not part of a camera or attached to a camera.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

348Television,   subclass 722 for television studio equipment.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 591+ for means for illuminating building interiors with outside light.
362Illumination,   appropriate subclasses for artificial illumination generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 2]    2Photo booth:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising a self-contained, relatively small studio enclosure which permits automatic photography of an individual or small group.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 3]    3Background or foreground:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter having means auxiliary to a primary object which are included in a photograph to produce a scenic effect.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   appropriate subclasses for backgrounds in the form of plural strips, slats, or panels interconnected for relative motion, where only the structure thereof, with or without operating, mounting, or housing means, are claimed and no features specialized to photography (such as surface characteristics of the background or particular relation to the object to be photographed) are claimed.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 88+ for sets used in motion pictures.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 4]    4Lighting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including detailed studio illuminating means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

155+,for camera structure combined with object illuminating means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

362Illumination,   subclasses 3+ for photographic lighting, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 5]    5Object support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including structure for maintaining an object at a desired position during studio photography.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

310+,for camera data recording.
419+,for camera support, in general.
556+,for phototype composing which may include diverse-type stencil carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 6]    6DISPOSABLE OR RECYCLABLE CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which a camera body structure is loaded with film at a factory and the entire structure is returned to the factory for removal and processing of the film.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

535+,for a camera body detail.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

399Electrophotography,   subclass 109 for remanufacturing of electrophotographic parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 7]    7AERIAL CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a camera is specifically adapted for aerial photography or is combined with or specially adapted for attachment to a support which is at a practically inaccessible altitude or is combined with means specially adapted for controlling exposures at inaccessible altitudes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

FOR 756+,,for foreign art collections involving aerial cameras.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

348Television,   subclasses 144+ for television cameras adapted for aerial viewing.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclass 820 for lens mounts with means to compensate for temperature change.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 8]    8Having shutter or film feed speed and air or spin speed synchronizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter wherein the camera is intended to be mounted on an air vehicle and has means for varying the speed of the shutter or photographic medium feeding mechanism in response to a change in the speed of the air vehicle.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

387+,for camera structure with film drive in general.
FOR 757,,for a foreign art collection involving an aerial camera having shutter or film speed and air or spin speed synchronizing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 9]    9Simultaneous recording of plural images:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter wherein two or more images are recorded at the same time.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

322+,for plural image recording in general.
FOR 759+,, for foreign art collections involving an aerial camera having simultaneous recording of plural images.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 10]    10Plural images recorded on plural film:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein the plural images are recorded on separate photographic media.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

322+,for plural image recording in general.
FOR 760,, for a foreign art collection involving an aerial camera having plural images recorded on plural film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 11]    11Including continuously moving film:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter wherein a film is shifted without interruption during the recording of a single exposure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

20+,for a scanning camera.
387+,for camera structure with film drive in general.
FOR 762,, for a foreign art collection involving an aerial camera including continuously moving film.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

352Optics: Motion Pictures,   appropriate subclasses for recording of motion pictures.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 12]    12Support or holder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Subject matter including means for supporting the camera against gravity.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

419+,for camera support, in general.
FOR 765,,for a foreign art collection involving an aerial camera having support or holder.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 13]    13Having stabilizing (e.g., gyroscope, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the camera support has a stabilizing system to compensate for the movement of the structure to which the support is mounted.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

55,for systems which actually sense camera shake and provide subsequent stabilization.
FOR 761,, for a foreign art collection involving an aerial camera having direction stabilizing.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 5+ for gyroscopes.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 14]    14BODY EXAMINATION PHOTOGRAPHY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a camera is adapted to photograph a living being or portion thereof for subsequent identification or inspection.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 15]    15Skin ridge pattern (e.g., fingerprint):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein a camera is adapted to photograph distinctive elongated raised areas of a skin surface.
(1) Note. This typically comprises fingerprint photography but may also include comparable photography of a palm or sole of foot.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 16]    16Mouth, jaw, or tooth:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein a camera is adapted for dental-type photography.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 17]    17Endoscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein a camera is attached to a device which may be inserted within the body through a relatively small opening.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

348Television,   subclasses 65+ for a video endoscope.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 117+ for an optical fiber bundle endoscope, per se.
600Surgery,   subclasses 101+ for a surgical endoscope with illuminating means which may or may not include an imaging device such as a camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 18]    18Eye photography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein a camera is adapted to photograph the exterior or interior of an eye.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

51,for eye gaze tracking.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 206+ for an objective-type eye examining or testing instrument that includes still or motion picture photographic apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 19]    19HOLLOW CAVITY TYPE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a camera is specifically adapted for use in photographing the interior of a hollow cavity.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

17,for a camera with endoscope.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

346Recorders,   subclass 107.2 for well-bore photographic recorders.
348Television,   subclasses 65+ , 84, and 85 for television cameras adapted for use in endoscopes, pipelines, or well-bores, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 20]    20SCANNING CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including camera structure wherein there is relative motion between the lens and a light sensitive surface in order to increase the angular extent of the view covered.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

11,for an aerial camera making a single exposure on a continuously moving film.
436,for variable frame masking producing a wide aspect ratio photograph.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

248Supports,   appropriate subclasses and particularly subclass 349.1 for a rotatable support base.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 69+ for a motion picture panoramic camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 21]    21Including reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Subject matter which utilizes a mirrorlike element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

351,for means to reflect an image to film in general.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 838+ for a mirror, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 22]    22Concave film surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Subject matter wherein a photographic medium surface is bent into the form of a partial cylinder and the exposure is made upon the inner cylindrical surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 23]    23Convex film surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Subject matter wherein a photographic medium surface is bent into the form of a partial cylinder and exposure is made upon the outer cylindrical surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 24]    24Synchronization of film and camera movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Subject matter including means to apply a force to photographic medium surfaces to effect motion, and means which operates in time relationship therewith to apply a force to the camera to effect its motion during exposure.

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8,for shutter/film speed with air/spin speed synchronizing.
11,for an aerial camera utilizing continuously moving film.
387+,for camera structure and film drive, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 25]    25UNDERWATER, WATERPROOF, OR WATER-RESISTANT CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a camera is provided with means for protection from liquid intrusion.

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535+,for a generic camera housing.

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348Television,   subclass 81 for television cameras adapted for use in underwater environments.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 26]    26Fluid pressure detection or modification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter which senses or changes gas or liquid pressure in the immediate vicinity of the camera.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 700+ for a fluid pressure gauge.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 27]    27Camera removable from handheld casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter including a camera portion readily separable from a manually supported enclosure.

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420+,for a camera with operator support, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 28]    28Having illumination device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter including structure providing light to an underwater object.

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155+,for object exposure illumination, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 29]    29Handheld camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein the camera is manually supported.

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420+,for a camera with operator support, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 30]    30SELF-DEVELOPING CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having camera structure and developing means which are enclosed in a light excluding case in which a photographic medium may be subjected to one or more fluid-treating operations, such as sensitizing, developing, etc.
(1) Note. For classification herein, the camera and treating devices must be in a single light excluding case or connected by a light excluding chamber.

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527,for plate or cut film assemblies, per se, which include processing chemicals.
564+,for photographic fluid treating apparatus, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 31]    31Including means to treat superimposed material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter wherein an image-exposed sheet or strip is brought into contact with a second sheet or strip and means to treat the sheet or strip with a fluid.
(1) Note. Generally a sheet with an exposed image thereon and a second (receptor) sheet are brought into contact after a fluid has been applied thereto to transfer the image from one sheet to the other.

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580+,for fluid-treating apparatus, per se, for treating superimposed or laminar sheets.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 32]    32Including pressure means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter having means to apply a pressing force to facilitate the dispensing of processing fluids to the image-exposed sheet.
(1) Note. This subclass includes the collapsing of a rupturable container of fluid to release the fluid on the sheet.

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582+,for treating superimposed or laminar sheets with fluid dispensing apparatus, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 33]    33Roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.  Subject matter wherein the means to apply a pressing force has a peripheral surface in the shape of a cylinder.
(1) Note. The roller must be for the purpose of dispensing the fluid as distinguished from rollers which may be used to move or press the sheets without a fluid dispensing action.

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31,for a roller dispensing the fluid by a wetting action rather than a pressing action and with superimposed sheets.
42,for a fluid roller applicator not limited to superimposed sheets.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 34]    34Light shield:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter which includes light blocking at a photographic medium exit slot.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 35]    35Tab:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein a small projection from the side of a camera is pulled to provide motive force to remove a photographic medium therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 36]    36Ejecting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter which provides means to propel a photographic medium from the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 37]    37Having pick:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Subject matter having a claw member which moves a photographic medium into engagement with the ejecting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 38]    38Exposed photographic medium engaging or holding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter having means to handle or retain a photographic medium following exposure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 39]    39Holding chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.  Subject matter wherein the retaining means comprises a container attached to or an integral part of a camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 40]    40Mechanical detail of roller or roller drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter which recites particular mechanical structure of the roller or drive mechanism therefor.

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584,for roller details in fluid treating apparatus which operates on superimposed sheets.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 41]    41Operating on rolled material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein one of the sheets or strips is wound into the form of a cylinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 42]    42Including fluid applicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter having a supply of treating fluid and including means for dispensing said fluid onto light sensitive material.
(1) Note. The fluid applicator is a saturated web, wetting roll, sprayer, doctor blade, etc.

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564+,for various fluid applicator apparatus, per se, and especially subclasses 582+, 604+, 625, and 627.

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399Electrophotography,   subclasses 239+ for liquid application members in an electrophotographic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 43]    43Including film processing tank:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Subject matter having a receptacle or container for holding the developing fluid.

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636+,for a film or print processing vessel.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 44]    44And means to move film:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Subject matter including active means to propel light sensitive material.

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387+,for camera structure with film drive, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 45]    45Having tank filling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter including a supply source of fluid and means for dispensing the fluid in the tank.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 46]    46Operating on rolled photographic medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter having a supply of light sensitive material wound into the form of a cylinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 47]    47Plural tanks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter having two or more receptacles or containers.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 48]    48CONTROL CIRCUIT FOR SEQUENCING AT LEAST THREE FUNCTIONS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a circuit to coordinate three or more major camera operations (e.g., coordination of focus operation, exposure control, and film advancing; coordination of self-timer operation, photometering, and focus operation; etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 49]    49SELF-ORGANIZING SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to self-organize previously set camera parameters in order to make decisions about subsequent camera settings.
(1) Note. This includes systems utilizing neural networks, fuzzy logic, and other artificial intelligence circuits.

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706Data Processing: Artificial Intelligence,   appropriate subclasses for artificial intelligence circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 50]    50ATTITUDE SENSING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to detect orientation of a camera.

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52+,for camera shake sensing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 51]    51EYE TRACKING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to detect gaze direction or visual axis of a camera operator"s eye.

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18,for a camera particularly adapted for eye photography.

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348Television,   subclass 333.03 for display of a frame and line of sight determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 52]    52CAMERA SHAKE SENSING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to detect vibration of a camera.

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73Measuring or Testing,   subclasses 570+ for vibration measuring.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 53]    53With accelerometer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter having a device that detects acceleration of the camera.

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73Measuring or Testing,   subclasses 488+ for acceleration measuring.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 54]    54With photoarray:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter having an array of photoelements to detect the camera vibration.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 443+ for a light-sensitive array consisting of solid-state elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 55]    55Having stabilization system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter having a means to compensate for vibration of the camera.

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13,for an aerial camera with stabilizing.
421,for an operator camera support with stabilization not having camera shake detecting.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 56]    56HAVING WIRELESS REMOTE CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to control a camera from a distance by electromagnetic signals or sound (e.g., voice).

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297+,for nonremote operator controlled data entry into a camera.

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359Optical Communications,   subclasses 106 through 114for generic optical communication remote control.
399Electrophotography,   subclass 8 for remote monitoring of an electrophotographic device or component.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 57]    57Camera system data/mode entry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 56.  Subject matter wherein the means sets camera parameters.

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297+,for nonremote operator controlled data entry into a camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 58]    58Camera aiming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 56.  Subject matter wherein the means changes the camera field of view.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 59]    59Camera release:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 56.  Subject matter wherein the means starts an exposure cycle.
(1) Note. Excluded herein is a camera release initiated by a mere burst of light from an object exposure illumination means which activates a photocell.

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171,for object exposure illumination means which may activate a photocell for camera release.
263+,for a camera release control circuit in general.
502+,for a mechanical shutter release or actuator means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 60]    60PSEUDO ZOOM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to designate and record the location of a portion of a standard size photographic frame which, during subsequent printing of such portion, simulates the use of a variable focal length lens at the time of the original exposure.

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72+,for camera structure with a variable focal length camera objective (e.g., zoom, etc.).
311,for generic recording of photographic data used in subsequent processing.
435+,for variable frame masking by an opaque element.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 61]    61FLASH SYSTEM RESPONSIVE TO FOCAL LENGTH OR DISTANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein an artificial illumination means or a circuit controlling the artificial illumination means is adjusted in accordance with the focal length of the exposure objective or the distance from the camera to an object.

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155+,for object exposure illumination in general.
FOR 771+,, for foreign art collections involving object illumination with camera structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 62]    62Illumination angle responds to focal length or distance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein an output light beam area of the artificial light varies according to the focal length of the exposure objective.

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175,for a variable illumination angle device, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 63]    63EXPOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM RESPONSIVE TO FOCAL LENGTH:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a shutter or diaphragm mechanism is adjusted in accordance with the focal length of an exposure objective.

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213+,for camera exposure control circuit in general.
FOR 710+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera automatic exposure control system or device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 64]    64Control of full open aperture value:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein the effective maximum aperture size is responsive to focal length.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 65]    65EXPOSURE CONTROL SYSTEM RESPONSIVE TO DISTANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means to adjust a shutter or diaphragm in accordance with the distance from the camera to an object.

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213+,for camera exposure control circuit in general.
FOR 710+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera automatic exposure control system or device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 66]    66With linear solenoid or rotary motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the adjusting means includes a prime mover using electromotive force to produce a mechanical rotation or translation.

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361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 139+ for control circuits of electromechanical devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 67]    67Electric distance signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter including a circuit for producing a signal indicative of the distance between the camera and an object.

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281+,for a camera indicator, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 68]    68Selective guide number:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter including a manually adjustable member to input to the adjusting means a value related to the light output capability of an illumination means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 69]    69Low light activated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter including means to detect the amount of scene light and to enable the adjusting means when the amount of scene light is below a preset level.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 70]    70Having indicator:
 Subject matter under 65 including means to convey photographic related information to the camera operator.

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281+,for a camera indicator, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 71]    71HAVING LENS CONVERTER OR EXTENSION TUBE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a unit removably mounted to the exposure objective which alters the focal length or permits closeup photography.

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73+,for lens substitution-type focal length modification.
530,for an adapter providing mechanical interface between a lens having one type of mount and a camera having a different type of mount.
544+,for a camera attachment, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 72]    72HAVING VARIABLE FOCAL LENGTH OF CAMERA OBJECTIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having camera structure and means to change the focal length of an exposure objective.

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60,for a camera with pseudo zoom capability.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 676+ for a lens, per se, with variable magnification (e.g., zoom).
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 73]    73Lens moves in or out of light path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter wherein a lens may be inserted or removed from the photographic light path.

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71,for a converter which may be removably attached to an exposure objective to vary focal length.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 672+ for a lens, per se, having selective magnification by exchanging a lens component.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 74]    74Turret type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Subject matter including a rotating disc or table to insert or remove a lens from the photographic light path.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 75]    75Motorized lens displacement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Subject matter wherein the lens is moved in or out of the light path by a motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 76]    76Manually selected preset zoom position or range:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter including a device to move the exposure objective to a memorized zoom position or within a zoom range manually chosen by a camera operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 77]    77Automatic change of focal length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter wherein the focal length of a camera objective is adjusted in accordance with a sensed condition without operator intervention.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 78]    78Constant image size:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein the exposure objective is adjusted to maintain the size of an image unchanged (e.g., as the object moves further away or closer to the camera).
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 79]    79Having focus operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter including means to adjust the sharpness of an object image for focus compensation.

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89+,for camera exposure objective focusing, in general.
FOR 700+,, for foreign art collections involving automatic camera focusing.
FOR 835+,, for foreign art collections involving manual camera focusing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 80]    80Including focus/distance detecting circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Subject matter which has a circuit which produces a signal representative of a focus condition or range to an object.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 81]    81And focal length responsive memory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter having an electronic static storage means containing data used to maintain focus of the exposure objective system as the focal length is varied.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   particularly subclasses 103+ , 114+, and 174+ for a static storage element comprising semiconductor material.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 82]    82Focus position adjusted according to focal length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein objective focusing is modified by a change in focal length.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 83]    83Having mechanical interlock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Subject matter having a mechanical connection between compensator and variator elements of the exposure objective in order to maintain focus as the focal length is varied.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 84]    84Having direct viewfinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter having a viewfinder with an optical path separate from the optical path to the photosensitive medium.

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373+,for camera structure with viewfinder, in general.
FOR 859+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera viewfinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 85]    85Power zoom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter wherein a motor drives the exposure objective to change focal length.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 696+ for a variable magnification (e.g., zoom) lens, per se, having motor driven adjustment.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 86]    86Speed control or step driving:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Subject matter wherein the velocity of the exposure objective is regulated or where the exposure objective is moved in discrete increments.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 87]    87Having position sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Subject matter which includes a device which detects the location of the exposure objective.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 88]    88Having indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter having means to convey information to the camera operator.

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281+,for camera structure with display in general.
FOR 910+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera indicator.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   appropriate subclasses for a selective display in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 89]    89WITH EXPOSURE OBJECTIVE FOCUSING MEANS, FOCUSING AID, OR RANGEFINDING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means for adjusting the relative spacing between an exposure objective and the photographic medium to alter a sharpness of an object image; means for assisting a camera operator in making a visual determination of image sharpness; or means for measuring a distance from a camera to an object.

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48,for control circuit for sequencing at least three functions which may include focusing.
79+,for camera structure with variable focal length of an exposure objective including focusing means.
461,and 509, for diaphragm structures, per se, which may open for focusing or viewing.
534,for a camera hood which may be used in focusing or viewing.
FOR 700+,, for foreign art collections involving automatic camera focusing.
FOR 835,+, for foreign art collections involving manual camera focusing.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 201.1 for photocell controlling its optical path.
348Television,   subclasses 345+ for focus control of video camera.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 140 for focus control with a motion picture camera.
355Photocopying,   subclass 56 for automatic focusing of a projection printer.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 3+ for rangefinding, per se.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 694+ for zoom-type lens adjusting mechanism, and subclasses 823+ for lens mount adjusting mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 90]    90Lens resetting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having means to drive the exposure objective to an initial position.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 91]    91Lens characteristic compensating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having means to correct the focusing or rangefinding means according to a condition (e.g., optical aberration, full open aperture, etc.) of the exposure objective.

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FOR 814,, for a foreign art collection involving rangefinder adjustably coupled with focusing to compensate for change of camera lens.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclass 637 for path length or aberration correcting element in dividing, combining, or plural image forming, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 92]    92By selecting effective photoelements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter including means to choose appropriate photosensitive elements for a condition of the exposure objective.

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100,for dual purpose photoelement in exposure objective focusing means or rangefinding means.
111,for optical detail with photoelement system in exposure objective focusing means or rangefinding means.
172,for photocell measuring the light output of an artificial illumination means.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 93]    93By modifying electric focus or drive signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter including means to correct the data of a focus condition signal of the exposure objective in accordance with a desired in-focus condition signal.

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332Modulators,   subclasses 123+ and 159+ for frequency or amplitude modulation including stabilization, noise reduction, or compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 94]    94With mechanical rangefinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter including means to alter an interconnection between a nonelectrical device, which determines a distance from a camera to an object, and an exposure objective to compensate for exposure objectives having different characteristics.

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138+,for mechanical rangefinding means for measuring the distance from the camera to the object.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 3+ for rangefinders, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 95]    95Having pursuit mode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having a means to predict movement of the object for focusing the exposure objective.

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153,for actual detection of object motion.

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348Television,   subclass 352 for video camera, system, and detail with motion detection in focus control.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 96]    96Having accumulation photoarray and time control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having an array of photoelements that integrates an amount of light received from the object over a time period for focusing the object image and a means to vary the time period.

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54,for camera shake sensing using photoarray.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
348Television,   subclass 332 for video camera, system and detail with array of photocells.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 97]    97Temperature compensating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having a means to correct for changes in the operation of the focusing or rangefinding means due to changes in temperature of the surrounding atmosphere.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclass 820 for lens mount with temperature compensation or control.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 98]    98Ambient light compensating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having a means to correct for changes in the operation of the focusing or rangefinding means due to changes in light of a scene to be photographed.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 99]    99With amplification control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein the means for focusing the exposure objective includes a variable gain circuit.

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330Amplifiers,   subclass 254 and 278+ for semiconductor amplifying device with gain control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 100]    100Dual purpose photoelement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having a light responsive element used for another purpose besides focusing or rangefinding.
(1) Note. A dual purpose photoelement is, for example, a photoelement that monitors the brightness of a scene and transmits signals to an automatic focusing control circuit.

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111,for optical detail with photoelement system in focusing or rangefinding means.
162,for photocell in the termination control of an illumination means.
171,for photocell used as a flash trigger.
172,for photocell measuring the light output of an artificial illumination means.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 101]    101With electronic filtering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including a circuit for eliminating unwanted components of a signal from the focusing or rangefinding means (e.g., spatial filtering, frequency filtering, etc.).

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 551+ for unwanted signal suppression using electrical nonlinear devices.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 166 and 167+, for time domain or frequency domain filters.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 190+ for signal extraction or separation (e.g., filtering).
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 300+ , and 819 for digital and analog filters, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 102]    102Having in-focus threshold adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including a circuit for generating a variable reference signal representing adequate sharpness of an object image (e.g., an in-focus condition of an object image).
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 103]    103Manually selected preset focus position or range:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including a circuit to move the exposure objective to a memorized focus position chosen by the camera operator or within a manually chosen focus range.

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76,for a manually selected preset zoom position or range.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 104]    104Reliability of focus/distance signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including a circuit for judging a performance of focusing or rangefinding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 105]    105Using sound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein the distance from the camera to the object is determined by emitting or detecting sound.

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56,for camera controlled by electromagnetic signals or sound.
FOR 701,, for a foreign art collection involving camera autofocusing using sound.

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367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 99+ for an acoustic echo system, per se, for distance or direction finding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 106]    106Having auxiliary illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter which includes an artificial illumination source.

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4,for studio structure with lighting.
28,for underwater, waterproof, or water­ resistant camera having an illumination device.
61+,for flash system responsive to focal length or distance.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 541 for burglar alarms combined with means to photograph the burglar.
348Television,   subclasses 370+ for video camera, system, and detail with object or scene illumination.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 198+ for projection light sources.
355Photocopying,   subclasses 67+ for illumination systems with a projection printer.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 248+ for electrical circuits of general utility for igniting combustible or explosive devices.
362Illumination,   subclasses 3+ for photographic lighting, per se.
431Combustion,   subclasses 357+ for combustible illuminating flash devices such as photographic bulbs.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 107]    107Intersecting focusing lights:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter having means to project light rays from two separate stations within the camera to a common point on the object for focusing or rangefinding.

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FOR 812,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera rangefinder using focusing lights.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 108]    108Intensity control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter having means to adjust the brightness of the artificial illumination source.

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205,for power supply control in artificial illumination means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 109]    109Having plural emitters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter having more than one artificial illumination source.

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362Illumination,   subclasses 11+ for photographic lighting with plural light sources.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 110]    110Scanning emitter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the artificial illumination source emits light rays that move across the object.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 111]    111Optical detail with photoelement system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including a photoelement system and a specific light-modifying means used to control focusing or rangefinding.

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FOR 702+,, for foreign art collections involving photoelectric-type, automatic camera focusing.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 201.2+ for photocell controlling its own optical systems with automatic focus control.
348Television,   subclasses 336+ for video camera, system and detail with color separating optics.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 618+ for light dividing, combining, or plural image forming.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 112]    112Double wedge prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the light modifying means includes at least two triangular shaped refracting elements.

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353Image Projectors,   subclass 81 for prism in an image projector light path.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclass 625 for focusing or defocusing using noncurved surfaces (e.g., prismatic, etc.), subclass 640 for light-dividing, combining, or image-forming by prismatic-type refractor, and subclass 837 for a prism with refracting surface.
362Illumination,   subclass 339 for light modifier with prismatic type refractor.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 113]    113Microprism or lenslet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the light modifying means includes an array of refracting elements producing a plurality of identical images.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 621+ for light dividing, combining, or plural image forming using plural lenticular plates.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 114]    114Dual reimage lens type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the light modifying means includes two lenses behind the lens system for producing images of the object.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 115]    115Photosensor area with unique edge pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the photoelement system includes a photosensor area having a specific edge configuration (e.g., a sawtooth, a curve, a ramp, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 116]    116Scanning type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the light modifying means includes a moving optical element other than an exposure objective.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 209.1 through 211.6for light deflection using a moving transmissive element and 212.1 through 221.1 and 223.1 through 226.1 for deflection using a moving reflective element.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 117]    117Mirror type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 116.  Subject matter wherein the moving optical element is reflective.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 212.1 through 221.1and 223.1 through 226.1 for deflection usi ng a moving reflective element.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 118]    118Moving photocell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the photoelement system is moved.
(1) Note. A photocell is an electronic device having electrical properties which vary in accordance with illumination.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 119]    119Photoelements with different optical path lengths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the photoelement system includes photoelements located at different distances from the exposure objective.
(1) Note. The different distances may be the result of a light-modifying element that changes the distance the light travels (i.e., optical distance) which may be different than the distance measured by a ruler (i.e., physical distance).

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 120]    120With Position Sensitive Device (PSD):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Subject matter wherein the photoelement system is a light receiving element which can produce two or more current outputs upon receiving light from an object.
(1) Note. A distance from a camera to an object is measured based on the ratio of the current outputs of the PSD.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 206.1 and 206.2 for position sensitive device in photocell controlled circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 121]    121Plural focusing or rangefinding areas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including a circuit that obtains data from more than one object area for focusing or rangefinding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 122]    122Utilizing weight coefficients:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter having a circuit to assign a priority factor to each datum of the obtained data.

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104,for a circuit judging a performance of focusing or rangefinding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 123]    123Automatic area selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the object area is selected by a device using an algorithm for determining whether or not the object area is in focus.

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104,for a circuit judging a performance of focusing or rangefinding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 124]    124Single focus area with variable size or location:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having a photoarray and means for selecting a subset of the photoarray to perform focusing or rangefinding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 125]    125Processing circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including details of an analyzing circuit that generates at least one signal for focusing or rangefinding.

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102,for a circuit generating a variable reference signal of an in-focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 126]    126Null type or zero-difference type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the processing circuit generates two signals and detects an in focus condition when the two signals are essentially equal in magnitude.
(1) Note. An in-focus condition occurs when the image of the object attains a desired sharpness.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits and Systems,   subclasses 63+ for an amplitude discriminator, per se, having plural inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 127]    127Inflection point type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the processing circuit generates a signal and detects an in-focus condition when the signal is at a relative maximum or minimum magnitude (i.e., when the first derivative of the signal function becomes zero).

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits and Systems,   subclasses 58+ for signal extrema discriminating, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 128]    128Image correlation type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the processing circuit generates two image signals and determines the phase difference of the image signals for focusing or rangefinding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 129]    129Power supply control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein the means for adjusting an exposure objective includes details of an electrical power generation, regulation, or control circuitry.

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301+,for generic camera power supply.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for power supply or regulation, in general.
348Television,   subclass 372 for power supply in video camera, system, and detail.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 130]    130Focus lock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including means to stop further focusing or rangefinding once an in focus condition of the object is obtained to allow a camera operator to change an area of a scene to be photographed while maintaining the in focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 131]    131Manually actuated power focus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein the means for adjusting the exposure objective includes a manually manipulated member (e.g. lever, dial, knob, push button) and a motor (spring or electrical type) responding to the manually manipulated member for displacing the exposure objective for focusing.

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68,for manual manipulator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
216,for manual manipulator in exposure control circuit with clamp or stop needle device.
218,for manual manipulator in exposure control circuit with direct drive galvanometer device.
297+,for operator controlled data entry into camera.
391,for a film drive double exposure prevention mechanism having manual override.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 132]    132Dual purpose motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having a single motor for adjusting the exposure objective and for controlling an exposure system.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 133]    133Lens drive circuit or motor structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein the means for adjusting the exposure objective includes a circuit and a motor, or details of the motor structure, responding to the circuit for displacing the exposure objective. (e.g. motor drive control circuit, piezoelectric motor, wave motor).

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248,for shutter driven by piezoelectric motor.
256,for shutter controlled by stepping motor.
259+,for diaphragm controlled by stepping motor.
261,for diaphragm driven by piezoelectric motor.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 696+ for lens adjusting mechanism driven by motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 134]    134Backlash or jam detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Subject matter which includes means to correct a deviation that occurs in the displacement of the exposure objective or to detect a malfunction of the exposure objective adjusting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 135]    135Speed control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Subject matter having means to control the rate of motion of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 136]    136Duty cycle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the speed of the motor is controlled by varying the percentage of time that power is applied to the motor during a periodic power cycle.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 137]    137Auto/manual mode selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having means to choose between automatic or manual focusing or rangefinding.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 138]    138Mechanical rangefinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including nonelectrical means to measure the distance from the camera to the object.

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94,for mechanical rangefinding means with lens characteristic compensating.
FOR 809+,, for foreign art collections involving camera structure and rangefinder.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 3+ for rangefinders, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 139]    139Rangefinder coupled with focusing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical rangefinder is connected to the exposure objective and both are moved simultaneously for focusing.

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FOR 810+,, for foreign art collections involving camera structure and rangefinder coupled with focusing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 140]    140Having parallax correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter including means to correct for the difference between an actual view covered by the exposure objective and an apparent view seen by the mechanical rangefinder.

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149,for parallax correction with viewfinder in focusing or rangefinding operation.
377,for parallax correction with viewfinder in general.
FOR 811,, for a foreign art collection involving parallax correction in a camera rangefinder with coupled focusing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 141]    141Having viewfinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter including an optical device attached to or part of a camera to indicate an extent of a scene to be photographed.

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84,for direct viewfinder in camera structure with variable focal length of camera objective.
148,for viewfinder in focusing or rangefinding operation in general.
373+,for camera structure with viewfinder in general.
FOR 813,,for a foreign art collection involving camera structure with rangefinder coupled with focusing and viewfinder.
FOR 839,+, for foreign art collections involving manual camera focusing having viewfinder.

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348Television,   subclass 341 for optical viewfinder in video camera, system, and detail.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 8 , for combination of a rangefinder and viewfinder, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 142]    142Cam means to actuate rangefinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical rangefinder and the exposure objective are moved by a cam/follower mechanism.
(1) Note. A cam/follower mechanism is a device that produces movement by using a mechanical element that rides on the surface of a rotating or translating eccentric.

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FOR 815,, for a foreign art collection involving a rangefinder actuated by a cam.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 143]    143Lever means to actuate rangefinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical rangefinder and the exposure objective are moved by a lever/fulcrum mechanism.
(1) Note. A lever/fulcrum mechanism is a device that produces movement by using a mechanical element that rotates on a pivot point.

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FOR 816,, for a foreign art collection involving a rangefinder actuated by a lever where the rangefinder is focus coupled.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 144]    144Mechanical mechanism for displacement of exposure objective:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having mechanical means (e.g., gear train, lever) for moving the exposure objective to obtain a sharp image.

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FOR 835,+, for foreign art collections involving manual camera focusing.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 822+ for lens mount with adjustable focusing mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 145]    145Bed or bellows type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter including a flat platform upon which the exposure objective moves or a pleated expandable element between the exposure objective and the camera body.

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341+,for bellows objective camera exclusive of recited focusing operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 146]    146Having lock mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter including a means to prevent accidental movement of the exposure objective.

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344,for bellows objective camera with guide and lock.
503,for safety lock of shutter actuator.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 147]    147Having indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter having means to convey focusing or rangefinding information to a camera operator.

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70,for indicator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
88,for indicator in camera structure with a variable focal length camera objective.
163,for indicator in camera structure with artificial illumination termination control.
201+,for indicator with object exposure illumination.
239,for indicator in exposure control circuit with manually selective exposure mode.
255,for indicator in exposure control circuit of shutter speed function.
281+,for camera indicator in general.
515,for detachable film holder unit with integral means to show film use which is not visible to operator during normal operation.
578,for fluid treating apparatus testing, calibrating, or indicating.
FOR 709,, for a foreign art collection involving automatic camera focusing with focus indicator.
FOR 838,, for a foreign art collection involving manual camera focusing with distance indicator.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 84 for light-controlling display.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 148]    148Having viewfinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter including an optical device attached to or part of the camera to indicate an extent of a scene to be photographed.

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141,for viewfinder and a mechanical rangefinder.
373+,for camera structure with viewfinder in general.
FOR 839+,, for foreign art collections involving manual camera focusing with viewfinder.
FOR 859+,, for foreign art collections involving camera detail including viewfinder.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 8 for combination of a rangefinder and viewfinder, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 149]    149Having parallax correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Subject matter including means to correct for a difference between an actual view covered by the exposure objective and an apparent view seen by the viewfinder.

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140,for parallax correction with mechanical rangefinder coupled with focusing.
377,for parallax correction with viewfinder in general.

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348Television,   subclass 333.09 for parallax correction.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 150]    150Including focusing screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Subject matter including an optical device having a surface upon which a scene image formed by the exposure objective can be seen.

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FOR 840+,, for foreign art collections involving manual camera focusing with viewfinder including focusing screen.

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355Photocopying,   subclasses 44+ for focusing screen in projection printing or copying cameras.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 151]    151Film and focusing screen interchangeable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Subject matter wherein the focusing screen and a photographic medium are successively brought into a same position relative to the exposure objective.

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FOR 808,, for a foreign art collection involving camera having interchangeable film and focusing screen.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 152]    152And reflector or refractor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Subject matter including an optical device that turns back or bends light (e.g., mirror or prism), behind the exposure objective for directing light to the focusing screen.

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FOR 841,, for a foreign art collection involving manual camera focusing including focusing screen and reflector.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 153]    153OBJECT MOTION DETECTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein movement of a photographic subject is sensed.

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95,for focusing having means to predict object movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 154]    154FORESHOOTING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means to partially expose a photographic medium prior to the main picture taking exposure in order to modify photographic medium sensitivity.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 155]    155WITH OBJECT ILLUMINATION FOR EXPOSURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to illuminate an object with artificial light (illumination means; e.g., a flash device) for exposure purposes in combination with a camera structure.
(1) Note. Exposure purposes include, for example, preexposure illumination for red-eye reduction, determining a proper exposure, or providing illumination when the shutter is open.
(2) Note. See "OBJECT ILLUMINA­TION SUBCOMBINATIONS" note under the main class definition for line notes with other classes.

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4,for studio structure with lighting.
28,for underwater, waterproof, or water- resistant camera having an illumination device.
61+,for flash system responsive to focal length or distance.
106+,for focusing or rangefinding operation with auxiliary illumination.
FOR 713+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera automatic exposure control system including artificial illumination.
FOR 771+,, for foreign art collections involving object illumination with camera structure.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   see (2) Note above.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   see (2) Note above.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 541 for burglar alarms combined with means to photograph the burglar.
348Television,   subclasses 370+ for video camera, system, and detail with object or scene illumination.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 198+ for projection light sources.
355Photocopying,   subclasses 67+ for illumination systems with a projection printer.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 248+ for electrical circuits of general utility for igniting combustible or explosive devices.
362Illumination,   subclasses 3+ for photographic lighting, per se.
431Combustion,   see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 156]    156With Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter having an IGBT connected in series with an illumination means circuit and used to control the start and termination of the artificial light producing from the illumination means.
(1) Note. An Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) is a voltage-controlled, three-terminal, switching device that is a combination of a transistor of pnpn structure and a MOS field effect transistor.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 427+ and 438+ for switching device using field effect transistor or four-or-more layer device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 157]    157Having preexposure illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter in which the illumination means operates a first time to illuminate the object for a preparatory photographic operation prior to exposure and operates a second time to illuminate the object for exposure.
(1) Note. A preparatory photographic operation includes red-eye reduction, photometering, test flashing, etc.

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FOR 715,, for a foreign art collection involving automatic exposure control including artificial illumination and preexposure flashing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 158]    158For red-eye reduction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Subject matter wherein the preparatory photographic operation is to decrease the pupil size of a subject"s eyes to minimize having the color of a subject"s eyes appear red in the developed picture (e.g., red-eye effect).
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 159]    159Having artificial illumination termination control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter having a means to stop the illumination means from producing light whenever a proper amount of illumination has been given to the object.

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FOR 716+,, for foreign art collections involving automatic exposure control including flash termination control of artificial illumination.

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315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: System,   subclasses 307+ for automatic current or voltage regulation of lamp or discharge devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 160]    160Including multipurpose terminal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Subject matter having a detailed terminal which connects an illumination means to a camera body and through which plural distinct control signals are transmitted in either direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 161]    161Including exposure control circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Subject matter having a circuit to control an exposure system (e.g., shutter or diaphragm).

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166+,for exposure control circuit with illumination mode.
171,for photocell that responds to a burst of light for starting a flash operation or for starting an exposure system.
180+,for camera structure with object illumination and exposure synchronizer.
213+,for generic camera exposure control circuit.
FOR 720+,, for foreign art collections involving an automatic exposure control system including artificial illumination where exposure is controlled without controlling flash.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

348Television,   subclass 221.1 , 229.1, and 362 through 368 for exposure control circuit in video camera, system, and detail.
352Motion Pictures,   subclass 141 and 177 for automatic diaphragm or shutter control in a motion picture camera; subclass 199 for projection light source synchronized with shutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 162]    162Having photocell optical path structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Subject matter wherein the termination control includes a photocell and an optical means for conducting, directing, or modifying light reaching the photocell.

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111+,for optical detail with photoelement system in focusing or rangefinding operation of the camera.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 201.1 for photocell controlling its own optical system.
348Television,   subclasses 336+ for video camera, system, and detail with color separating optics.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 618+ for light-dividing, combining, or plural image forming.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 163]    163Having indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Subject matter having a means to convey information to a camera operator.

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70,for indicator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
88,for indicator in camera structure with a variable focal length camera objective.
147,for indicator with focusing and rangefinding means.
201+,for indicator with object exposure illumination.
239,for indicator in exposure control circuit with manually selective exposure mode.
255,for indicator in exposure control circuit of shutter speed function.
281+,for camera indicator in general.
515,for detachable film holder unit with integral means to show film use which is not visible to operator during normal operation.
578,for fluid treating apparatus testing, calibrating, or indicating.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 84 for light-controlling display.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 164]    164Variable intensity control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter having a means to adjust the brightness of the artificial light from the illumination means.

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FOR 718,, for a foreign art collection involving automatic exposure control including artificial illumination which is charge level or power supply responsive.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 307+ for automatic current or voltage regulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 165]    165Activated under low light condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter in which the illumination means is automatically enabled whenever scene light is insufficient for a proper exposure.

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FOR 719,, for a foreign art collection involving automatic exposure control including artificial illumination automatically activated under low light condition.

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315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 307+ for automatic current or voltage regulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 166]    166Exposure control circuit with illumination mode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter in which a circuit controlling a shutter or a diaphragm (i.e., exposure control circuit) is modified when the illumination means is intended to be used.

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161,for artificial illumination termination control with exposure control circuit.
171,for photocell that responds to a burst of light for starting a flash operation or for starting an exposure system.
180+,for camera structure with object illumination and exposure synchronizer.
213+,for generic camera exposure control circuit.
FOR 720+,, for foreign art collections involving an automatic exposure control system including artificial illumination where exposure is controlled without controlling flash.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

348Television,   subclass 221.1 and 229.1 and 362 through 368 for exposure control circuit in video camera, system, and detail.
352Motion Pictures,   subclass 141 and 177 for automatic diaphragm or shutter control in a motion picture camera; subclass 199 for projection light source synchronized with shutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 167]    167Exposure control circuit responsive to illumination source readiness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter having means to detect when the illumination means is enabled in order to automatically switch the shutter or diaphragm control circuit to the illumination mode of operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 168]    168Program mode function:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit automatically determines both an aperture value and exposure time value in accordance with a scene illumination (i.e., no manual setting of the aperture value or exposure time is required).

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242+,for program mode in generic exposure control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 169]    169Shutter speed function only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit adjusts an exposure time value to control a shutter only.
(1) Note. Manual control circuit that has an illumination mode and that adjusts both exposure time value and aperture value is classified in subclass 166.

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242+,for program mode in generic exposure control circuit.
246+,for adjustment of shutter speed function only in generic exposure control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 170]    170Diaphragm function only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit adjusts an aperture value to control a diaphragm only.
(1) Note. Manual control circuit that has an illumination mode and that adjusts both exposure time value and aperture value is classified in subclass 166.

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242+,for program mode in generic exposure control circuit.
257+,for adjustment of diaphragm function only in generic exposure control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 171]    171Having photocell used as flash trigger or used for camera release:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter in which a photoelement responds to a burst of light for starting an illumination means (a flash operation) or for starting the exposure system.
(1) Note. Slave flashes are included in this subclass.

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59,for a remote control circuit which provides a wireless signal to achieve camera release.
100,for dual purpose photoelement in focusing or rangefinding operation.
263+,for a release control circuit, in general.
FOR 724,, for a foreign art collection involving automatic exposure control including a photocell used as flash trigger for artificial illumination.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 172]    172Photocell directly illuminated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein a photoelement receives the artificial light directly from the illumination means to measure the light output of the illumination means.

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92,for lens characteristic compensating by selecting effective photoelements during focusing.
96,for focusing or rangefinding with accumulation photoarray and time control.
100,for dual purpose photoelement in focusing or rangefinding.
111+,for focusing or rangefinding devices with optical details of a photoelement system.
162,for photocell in the termination control of an illumination means.
171,for photocell used as a flash trigger.
269,for a photocell having specific camera location and responsive to an adjacent light emitter in general.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 173]    173Multiple flashing from a single unit for a single exposure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter in which one flash device operates more than one time during one exposure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 174]    174Bounce type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter in which the illumination means rotates about an axis to make the artificial light reflect from a surface, such as a ceiling, to the object to more fully diffuse the artificial light.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 175]    175Variable illumination angle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein the illumination means includes means to change the cross-section area of the artificial light beam.

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274,for a camera photocell and means for changing the photocell field of view.
FOR 795,, for a foreign art collection involving camera structure and a variable angle artificial illumination system.

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348Television,   subclass 369 for changing viewing angle via optics in video camera.
362Illumination,   subclass 287 for angularly adjustable or repositionable light source with modifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 176]    176Having flash built into camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein the illumination means and a camera body are constructed as a single integrated unit.

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FOR 796,, for a foreign art collection involving camera structure and flash built into camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 177]    177Pop-up flash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the single integrated unit includes a spring or a motor to extend the illumination means from the camera body.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 178]    178Folding flash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the illumination means is manually collapsed and extended from the camera body.

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348+,for folding or collapsible camera.
FOR 848,, for a foreign art collection involving double exposure preventing with foldable camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 179]    179Flash mode mechanical exposure control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter including an all mechanical device to adjust an aperture size or an exposure time when the illumination means is enabled.

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472+,for shutter with mechanical delayed release means.
475+,for shutter with mechanically delayed closing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 180]    180Having exposure synchronizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter including means to actuate the illumination means in timed relationship with an exposure.
(1) Note. This and the indented subclasses include shutter mechanism which is synchronized with an operation of an activation switch in a flash lamp circuit.

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FOR 776,+, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and camera synchronization.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 177 for motion picture camera with starting or stopping means responsive to shutter and subclass 199 for projection light sources synchronized with shutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 181]    181Shutter controlled by explosive force of flash device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein a flash device includes a combustible material the ignition of which provides a mechanical force to open or close a shutter.

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FOR 777,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination with synchronized shutter controlled by explosive force of flash device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 182]    182Multiple illumination units for single exposure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including more than one illumination means actuated during a single exposure.

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FOR 779,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and camera synchronizing including multiple illumination units.

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362Illumination,   subclasses 11+ for plural light sources in photographic lighting.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 183]    183Shutter relay or solenoid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including electromagnetic means to actuate or release a shutter.

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463+,for shutter with dynamoelectric actuator.
FOR 780,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and camera synchronizing with shutter relay or solenoid.

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361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 139+ for electromagnetic device control circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 184]    184Having pneumatic shutter release:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including gas pressure means to actuate a shutter.

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476,for shutter mechanically delayed closing including pneumatic means.
499,for shutter with plural oscillating blades including pneumatic actuator.
FOR 781,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and camera synchronizing having pneumatic shutter release.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 185]    185Electromechanical energizing generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including an electromechanical transducer which produces electric current for operating the illumination means.

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FOR 782,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and camera synchronizing having energizing generator in flash unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 186]    186Reflex mirror activates switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including a reflex mirror which closes a switch for activating the illumination means when it moves from a viewing position to an exposure position.
(1) Note. A reflex mirror is a mirror which when in a viewing position diverts light from the objective to the viewfinder, and when in an exposure position allows light from an objective to pass to the photographic medium (film).

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352,for camera structure having reflex mirror to reflect image to film.
353,for a twin lens reflex camera.
354+,for a single lens reflex camera.
447,for camera detail with reflex mirror.
FOR 783,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and camera synchronizing where a reflex mirror closes contacts.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 187]    187Having time delay adjustment means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including means to alter the starting time of the illumination means with respect to an initiation of shutter opening.

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FOR 784,+, for foreign art collections involving artificial illumination and camera synchronizing having time delay adjustment.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 188]    188Positional:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter wherein a mechanical device is displaced for altering the starting time of the illumination means with respect to the initiation of shutter opening.

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FOR 785,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and camera synchronizing having a positional time delay adjustment.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 189]    189Detachable synchronizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the means to actuate the illumination means in timed relationship with the exposure can be disconnected from the camera.
(1) Note. Illumination means connected to a camera by a detachable cable are proper for this subclass.
(2) Note. The synchronizer is not part of the camera nor of flash unit but only attached thereto.

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FOR 786,, for a foreign art collection involving artificial illumination and detachable camera synchronizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 190]    190Convertible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including means for changing from one type of illumination means to another.
(1) Note. A camera capable of alternatively using a percussive flash or electrically activated flash, or a flash unit capable of using two forms of flash bulbs, is proper for this subclass.

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FOR 787,, for a foreign art collection involving a convertible artificial illumination source and camera synchronizing.

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362Illumination,   subclass 7 for a convertible photographic lighting device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 191]    191Percussive illumination source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the illumination means includes combustible illuminating material which is ignited by a mechanical striking blow.

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181,for a shutter controlled by the explosive force of a flash device.
FOR 788,, for a foreign art collection involving a percussive illumination source and camera synchronizing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 192]    192Bulb substitution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the illumination means includes extra flash bulbs which are automatically substituted for flash bulbs that have already been activated or are defective and which cannot produce light (e.g., flashcubes, flipflash, etc.).
(1) Note. A flash bulb is a light bulb giving a brief, intense light for exposure.

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173,for multiple flashing from a single unit for a single exposure.
197,for bulb substitution of the illumination means without exposure synchronizer.
FOR 789+,, for foreign art collections involving a flash unit having spare lamps and camera synchronizing.

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362Illumination,   subclasses 13+ for lamp substitution or selection in photographic lighting devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 193]    193Having unison film advancing and lamp switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Subject matter including means for coordinating an advance of a photographic medium (film) with the automatic substitution of the extra flash bulbs.

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387+,for camera structure with film drive.
FOR 790,, for a foreign art collection involving a flash unit having spare lamps and camera synchronizing including unison film advance and lamp switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 194]    194Curtain shutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the camera structure includes a shutter which is formed by a flexible sheet or curtain.

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479+,for curtain-type shutter, per se.
FOR 792,, for a foreign art collection involving object illumination and camera synchronizing including a curtain shutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 195]    195Actuated by shutter movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the camera structure includes a shutter and a switch responsive to the shutter movement for activating the illumination means.

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FOR 793,, for a foreign art collection involving object illumination and camera synchronizing where flash unit contacts are actuated by shutter movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 196]    196Bulb ejector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter including means to remove a flash bulb from its socket.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 197]    197Bulb substitution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein the illumination means includes extra flash bulbs which are automatically exchanged for flash bulbs that have already been activated or are defective and which cannot produce light (e.g., flashcubes, flipflash, etc.).

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173,for multiple flashing from a single unit for a single exposure.
192,for bulb substitution of the illumination means in timed relationship with an exposure.
FOR 794,, for a foreign art collection involving object illumination with camera structure having lamp substitution.

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362Illumination,   subclass 13 for lamp substitution or selection in photographic lighting devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 198]    198Having adapter unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter including an additional housing detachably mounted between the illumination means and the camera body to connect the illumination means to the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 199]    199Lens mounted illumination unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter having a flash device attached onto an exposure objective (e.g., lens) of the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 200]    200Reflector detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein the illumination means includes structure of an optical element that turns back (i.e., reflects) the artificial light from the illumination means to an object.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 838+ for a mirror, per se.
362Illumination,   subclass 16 for specific light modifier in photographic lighting.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 201]    201Having indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter having means to convey visible illumination information to a camera operator.

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70,for indicator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
88,for indicator in camera structure with a variable focal length camera objective.
147,for indicator with focusing and rangefinding means.
163,for indicator in camera structure with artificial illumination termination control.
239,for indicator in exposure control circuit with manually selective exposure mode.
255,for indicator in exposure control circuit of shutter speed function.
281+,for camera indicator in general.
515,for detachable, film-holder unit with integral means to show film use which is not visible to operator during normal operation.
578,for fluid-treating apparatus testing, calibrating, or indicating.
FOR 772+,, for foreign art collections involving camera structure and object illumination having measuring, testing, or indicating.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 84+ for light-controlling display.
362Illumination,   subclass 5 for measuring or indicating in photographic lighting devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 202]    202Go/no-go indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Subject matter wherein the indicator informs a camera operator that the illumination means is ready to produce light.

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FOR 773+,, for foreign art collections involving camera structure and object illumination having flash ready indicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 203]    203Indicating power source status:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Subject matter wherein the indicator shows a status of a capacitor charge level or a battery level of the illumination means.

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FOR 774,, for a foreign art collection involving camera structure and object illumination having flash ready indicator showing power source status.

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399Electrophotography,   subclass 37 for power supply diagnostics in an electrophotographic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 204]    204Effective distance indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Subject matter wherein the indicator shows a distance an object should be from the camera for proper illumination of the object.

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FOR 775,, for a foreign art collection involving camera structure and object illumination having distance indicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 205]    205With power supply detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter including a specific structure of an electrical power generation, regulation, distribution, or control circuitry of the illumination means.

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301,for camera power supply in general.
FOR 718,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control including artificial illumination which is charge level or power supply responsive.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for power supply or regulation, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 206]    206Having DC to DC converter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Subject matter including means to step up or step down the direct voltage of the power supply.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 207]    207EXPOSURE DATA FROM FILM CONTAINER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein exposure data which is stored on a photographic medium container is transferred to another camera component.
(1) Note. Exposure data includes, for example, mode information, film speed, latitude, etc.
(2) Note. Excluded herein is midroll interrupt means which may utilize information on a film container.

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390,for midroll interrupt means which may utilize information stored on a film container.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 208]    208Electrical component on or in film container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Subject matter wherein the film container comprises an electrical circuit element.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 209]    209Controlling optical filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Subject matter wherein the exposure data is used to regulate an optical path filter.
(1) Note. Intensity attenuation by such a filter may occur over a particular range of optical frequencies or be uniform over all frequencies.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 885+ for absorption filters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 210]    210EXPOSURE DATA FROM FILM ITSELF:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein exposure data stored directly on a photographic medium is transferred to another camera component.
(1) Note. Exposure data includes mode information as well as such information as film speed or latitude.
(2) Note. Excluded herein is midroll interrupt means which may utilize information placed on film.

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390,for mid roll interrupt means which may utilize information stored on a photographic film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 211]    211EXPOSURE DATA FROM DETACHABLE MEMORY CARD:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein exposure data stored in a semiconductive memory device which is itself removable from a camera is transferred to another camera component.
(1) Note. This does not include, for example, a removable lens or electronic flash unit containing a fixed (i.e., nonremovable) semiconductor memory device.
(2) Note. Exposure data includes mode information as well as such information as film speed or latitude.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for memories, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 212]    212BULB OR TIME EXPOSURE MODE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to keep the shutter open as long as the shutter release button is depressed or to open the exposure path upon the first depression of the shutter release button and to close the exposure path upon the second depression.

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263+,for a camera release control circuit.
502+,for a shutter release mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 213]    213EXPOSURE CONTROL CIRCUIT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having electric circuit means to control a shutter, a diaphragm, or another optical element; e.g., a light filter for regulating the amount of light reaching a photographic medium or film.

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48,for control circuit for sequencing at least three functions which may include exposure control.
63+,for exposure control system responsive to focal length.
65+,for exposure control system responsive to distance.
100,for photocell used for another purpose besides focusing or rangefinding.
161,for camera structure with artificial illumination termination control including exposure control circuit.
166+,for exposure control circuit with illumination mode.
171,for photocell that responds to a burst of light for starting a flash operation or for camera release.
180+,for camera structure with object illumination and exposure synchronizer.
263+,for a generic release control electrical circuit.
FOR 710+,, for foreign art collections involving camera automatic exposure control system or device.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   subclasses 243+ for photoelectric devices, per se.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Device,   subclasses 523+ for photosensitive devices and subclasses 103+ for photosensitive devices having secondary emitters.
348Television,   subclass 221.1 , 229.1, and 362 through 368 for exposure control in video camera.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 141 and 177 for automatic diaphragm or shutter control in motion picture camera.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 213+ for photometers.
399Electrophotography,   subclasses 51+ for control of exposure in an electrophotographic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 214]    214Clamp or stop needle control device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter in which the shutter or the diaphragm responds to a device sensing a deflected position of a galvanometer needle.
(1) Note. A galvanometer is an instrument having a needle attached to a coil rotated by electrodynamic force when a current is passed through the coil.

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FOR 738,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having clamp or stop needle-type control of a diaphragm shutter.
FOR 747,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having clamp or stop needle-type control of a diaphragm.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.11+ for measuring electricity using a galvanometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 215]    215To control exposure time:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.  Subject matter in which the clamp or stop needle control device regulates exposure time of the shutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 216]    216Override or manual control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.  Subject matter having camera operator manipulated means to regulate the amount of light reaching the photographic medium to supersede an automatic exposure control or independent of automatic exposure control.
(1) Note. Automatic exposure control is the adjustment of the shutter or the diaphragm in accordance with the brightness of the scene as detected by a photoelement without camera operator intervention.

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297+,for operator-controlled data entry into camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 217]    217Direct drive galvanometer control device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter including a galvanometer having its rotation directly transmitted to control the shutter or the diaphragm.
(1) Note. A galvanometer is an instrument having a needle attached to a coil rotated by electrodynamic force when a current is passed through the coil.

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FOR 749+,, for foreign art collections involving camera automatic exposure control having direct drive galvanometer control of a diaphragm.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.11+ for measuring electricity using a galvanometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 218]    218Override or manual control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter having camera operator manipulated means to regulate the amount of light reaching the photographic medium to supersede automatic exposure control or independent of automatic exposure control.
(1) Note. Automatic exposure control is the adjustment of the shutter or the diaphragm in accordance with the brightness of the scene as detected by a photoelement without camera operator intervention.

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297+,for operator-controlled data entry into camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 219]    219Circuit detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter in which the electric circuit means contains another component (e.g., a switch, transistor, etc.) in addition to a photocell or a battery.

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FOR 750,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having direct drive galvanometer control of a diaphragm which uses a bridge circuit.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 220]    220Plural blades:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter wherein the shutter or the diaphragm comprises more than one blade.

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497,for shutter with plural oscillating blades.
510,for diaphragm with plural pivoted blades.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 221]    221Responsive to power source condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having a means to avoid changes in the operation of the exposure control means due to fluctuations in current or voltage of a power source (e.g., voltage/current regulator).

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277+,for camera operation responsive to battery condition in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 222]    222Bracketing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having means to take a plurality of exposures at incremented exposure times or aperture values to obtain an intentional under, over, or proper exposure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 223]    223Override control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having means to regulate the amount of light reaching the photographic medium to supersede automatic exposure control.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 224]    224Photometer lock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having means to allow a camera operator to store a value indicative of a scene brightness which will be used by the exposure control circuit during a future exposure (i.e., AE lock).
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 225]    225Color temperature compensation or detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having means to correct or sense a spectral distribution of light reaching the photographic medium.
(1) Note. Spectral distribution is the function that represents intensity of each frequency of light in a visible spectrum.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 226]    226Film latitude responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit operates in accordance with a range of gray scale values or tonal values that can be recorded on the photographic medium; i.e., film latitude.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 227]    227Maximum or minimum f-number responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit takes into account the smallest and largest aperture size of an exposure objective.
(1) Note. F-number represents light passing ability of a lens and is equal to the ratio of the lens focal length divided by the aperture size value.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 228]    228Having log transformation circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit includes means to convert a voltage or current to a voltage or current having a logarithmic function.

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FOR 725+,, for foreign art collections involving camera automatic exposure control having a logarithmic transformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 229]    229Digital:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Subject matter in which a counter, a register, or CPU is used in the transformation.

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,FOR 726, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having a digital logarithmic transformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 230]    230Antilog:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Subject matter in which the logarithmic voltage or current is transformed to its original value.

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FOR 727,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control with log expansion.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 231]    231Having temperature compensation circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having a means to correct for changes in the operation of the exposure control means due to changes in ambient temperature.

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FOR 728,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control with temperature compensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 232]    232Viewfinder light compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having a means to correct for changes in the operation of the exposure control means due to light entering a camera viewfinder eyepiece.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 233]    233Having plural photocells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter having more than one light responsive device in the exposure control means.

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FOR 729+,, for foreign art collections involving camera automatic exposure control having plural photocells.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 234]    234More than two photometering areas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter in which the light responsive device has more than two discrete light responsive areas.
(1) Note. A single photocell array or self- scanning photocell is considered to have more than two discrete light responsive areas unless it is explicitly stated to have only two.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 235]    235Velocity control of shutter or diaphragm component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit controls the rate of motion of a shutter or diaphragm element.

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246,for exposure time circuit control of the shutter.
257,for aperture size circuit control of the diaphragm.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 236]    236Look-up table memory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit has an addressable semiconductor memory for storing exposure related values.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for memories, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 237]    237Manually set limit of exposure time or aperture value:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit responds to a manually set range restricting an exposure time or aperture value.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 238]    238Manually selective exposure mode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter in which a plurality of exposure modes can be selected by a camera operator.
(1) Note. Exposure modes include, for example, manual mode, aperture priority, shutter priority, or program mode.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 239]    239Having indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.  Subject matter having means to convey photographic related information to the camera operator.

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70,for indicator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
88,for indicator in camera structure with a variable focal length camera objective.
147,for indicator with focusing and rangefinding means.
163,for indicator in camera structure with artificial illumination termination control.
201,for indicator with object illumination for exposure.
255,for indicator in exposure control circuit of shutter speed function.
281+,for camera indicator in general.
515,for detachable film holder unit with integral means to show film use which is not visible to operator during normal operation.
578,for fluid treating apparatus testing, calibrating, or indicating.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 84+ for light-controlling display.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 170+ for indicating means visible in viewfinder of motion picture camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 240]    240Pulse train type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control means includes means producing a series of pulses.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 291+ for pulse waveform generators, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 241]    241With exposure filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter includes an optical device which eliminates unwanted components of the light reaching the photographic medium.

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209,for exposure data derived from film container which controls an optical filter.
275,for filter in front of photocell to block undesired wavelengths of light.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 212+ for shutters with light-modifying blades including means to alter the color content of light.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 586 through 590for light interference using device with layers of specified refracting index, and subclasses 885+ for generic color filters.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 242]    242Program mode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit adjusts both exposure time and aperture value in accordance with a detected brightness of the scene.

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168,for program mode circuits combined with object illumination.
FOR 742,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having selectable priority.
FOR 743,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having programmed control only.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 243]    243Program selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein a camera operator can choose one of a plurality of algorithms for adjusting both exposure time and aperture value.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 244]    244Stepping motor type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit drives a stepping motor for controlling the amount of light reaching the film.
(1) Note. A stepping motor is an electromechanical device which rotates by a fixed amount each time it is pulsed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

256,for shutter speed function controlled by stepping motor.
260,for diaphragm function controlled by stepping motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 12.05 , for a linear motor structure designed as an X-Y positioner; subclass 12.17, for a linear stepping motor; and subclasses 49.01-49.55, for a rotary stepping motor, per se.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 685 for stepping motors in a closed-loop servo environment, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 245]    245Manual Av circuit with automatic Tv circuit, or vice versa:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter including a manual aperture control circuit (Av circuit) responsive to a manually set aperture value with an automatic exposure time control circuit (Tv circuit) generating an exposure time calculated from the manually set aperture value and a detected scene brightness; or a manual Tv circuit responsive to a manually set exposure time value with an automatic Av circuit generating an aperture value calculated from the manually set exposure time value and a detected scene brightness.
(1) Note. Aperture value (Av) or exposure time value (Tv) is a logarithmic number indicative of the aperture size or the exposure time.

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FOR 741+,, for foreign art collections involving camera automatic exposure control having circuit for controlling separate diaphragm and shutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 246]    246Shutter speed function only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit determines an exposure time to control a shutter mechanism only.
(1) Note. Manual control circuit for both Av and Tv is classified in subclass 213.

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169,for shutter speed function control in exposure control circuit with illumination mode.
452+,for a camera shutter, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 247]    247Shutter lag correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit sets an exposure time that compensates for a built-in delay of the shutter mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 248]    248Piezoelectric driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit drives the shutter mechanism using a piezoelectric device.
(1) Note. A piezoelectric device produces a voltage when stressed or undergoes mechanical stress when subjected to a voltage.

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261,for piezoelectric device driving a diaphragm mechanism.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for a piezoelectric device, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 249]    249Electro-optical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the shutter is an electro-optical device (e.g., Kerr cell, liquid crystal device, etc.).

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457,for an electro-optical camera shutter.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 237+ for an electro-optical modulator per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 250]    250With digital counter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit contains a digital counter or register.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for an electrical counter, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 251]    251Having RC circuit for timing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit contains at least one RC (resistor and capacitor) circuit, the time constant of which is used for exposure time control.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 252]    252Including memory capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter in which the RC circuit contains at least one capacitor to store a voltage proportional to a scene brightness for a period of time during which the exposure control circuit cannot sense the scene brightness.
(1) Note. A single capacitor which performs both memory and timing is proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 253]    253Including plural selective capacitors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter having multiple capacitors from which to choose.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 254]    254Including plural selective resistors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter having multiple resistors from which to choose.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 255]    255Having indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter having means to convey photographic related information to the camera operator.

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70,for indicator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
88,for indicator in camera structure with a variable focal length camera objective.
147,for indicator with focusing and rangefinding means.
163,for indicator in camera structure with artificial illumination termination control.
201,for indicator with object illumination for exposure.
239,for indicator in exposure control circuit with manually selective exposure mode.
281+,for camera indicator, in general.
515,for detachable film holder unit with integral means to show film use which is not visible to operator during normal operation.
578,for fluid treating apparatus testing, calibrating, or indicating.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 84+ for light-controlling display.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 170+ for indicating means visible in viewfinder of motion picture camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 256]    256Stepping motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit drives a stepping motor for driving the shutter mechanism.
(1) Note. A stepping motor is an electromechanical device which rotates by a fixed amount each time it is pulsed.

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244,for stepping motor under program mode of an exposure control circuit.
260,for stepping motor driving a diaphragm mechanism.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 12.05 , for a linear motor structure designed as an X-Y positioner; subclass 12.17, for a linear stepping motor; and subclasses 49.01-49.55, for a rotary stepping motor, per se.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 685 for stepping motors in a closed-loop servo environment.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 257]    257Diaphragm function only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control circuit determines an aperture value to control a diaphragm mechanism only.
(1) Note. Manual control circuit for both Av and Tv is classified in subclass 213.

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170,for diaphragm function control in exposure control circuit with illumination mode.
505+,for a camera diaphragm, per se.
FOR 746+,, for foreign art collections involving camera automatic exposure control having circuit for controlling diaphragm only.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 258]    258Pawl/ratchet type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter in which the diaphragm is adjusted to obtain a specific aperture size by an engagement of a mechanical device allowing rotation in only one direction (i.e., a pawl) with a toothed wheel (i.e., a ratchet).

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FOR 748,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having a ratchet/pawl mechanism for controlling diaphragm only.

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74Machine Elements and Mechanisms,   subclasses 575+ for generic pawls and ratchets.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 259]    259Servo motor type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter wherein the diaphragm mechanism is controlled by an electric motor, the rotation or speed of which is controlled by a corrective electrical signal that is fed back to the motor circuit.

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FOR 751+,, for foreign art collections involving camera automatic exposure control having servo motor type circuit for controlling diaphragm only.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 560+ for motors in a positional servo system.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 260]    260Using stepping motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Subject matter in which the exposure control circuit drives a stepping motor for driving the diaphragm to obtain a specific aperture size.
(1) Note. A stepping motor is an electromechanical device which rotates by a fixed amount each time it is pulsed.

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244,for stepping motor under program mode of an exposure control circuit.
256,for stepping motor driving a shutter mechanism.
FOR 752,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having servo motor-type circuit which uses a stepping motor for controlling diaphragm only.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 12.05 , for a linear motor structure designed as an X-Y positioner; subclass 12.17, for a linear stepping motor; and subclasses 49.01-49.55, for a rotary stepping motor, per se.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 685 for stepping motors in a closed-loop servo environment, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 261]    261Piezoelectric driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control means drives the diaphragm mechanism using a piezoelectric device.
(1) Note. A piezoelectric device produces a voltage when stressed, or undergoes mechanical stress when subjected to a voltage.

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248,for shutter driven by piezoelectric device.
FOR 753,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having special driving arrangement for controlling diaphragm only.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for a piezoelectric device, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 262]    262Electro-optical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter wherein the diaphragm is an electro-optical device (e.g., Kerr cell, liquid crystal device, etc.).

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506,for an electro-optical camera diaphragm.
FOR 753,, for a foreign art collection involving camera automatic exposure control having special driving arrangement for controlling diaphragm only.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 237+ for an electro-optical modulator, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 263]    263CAMERA RELEASE CONTROL CIRCUIT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having an electrical circuit which controls a signal starting a photographic exposure cycle.

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59,for a wireless remote control camera release circuit.
502+,for a mechanical shutter release or actuator means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 264]    264Self-timer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter including a circuit which delays for a time the signal which starts a single photographic exposure cycle.
(1) Note. An operator initiates the self-timer and then may enter the picture before a shutter is actuated.

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59,for a wireless remote control camera release circuit.
286,for a self-timer indicator.
472,for a mechanically delayed release means (e.g., self-timer).
FOR 878,, for a foreign art collection involving an electrical circuit providing delayed shutter release.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 265]    265Intervalometer (e.g., rapid sequence):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter wherein a signal starting an exposure cycle is produced at a particular time period after the end of a previous exposure cycle.

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387+,for camera structure with film drive, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 266]    266Safety lock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter having means to inhibit the camera release signal to prevent accidental initiation of an exposure cycle.

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503,for a mechanical shutter safety lock.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 267]    267WITH LIGHT PIPE OR GUIDE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including an optical waveguide (e.g., a fiber optic cable) which conveys light between points.

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385Optical Waveguides,   appropriate subclasses for an optical waveguide, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 268]    268HAVING PHOTOCELL AT SPECIFIC POSITION WITHIN CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which a photocell is located with respect to a specific camera structure.

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54,for camera shake sensing using photoarray.
92,for lens characteristic compensating by selecting effective photoelements.
96,for focusing or rangefinding with accumulation photoarray and time control.
100,for dual purpose focusing photoelement.
111+,for focusing or rangefinding devices with optical details of a photoelement system.
162,for photocell in the termination control of an illumination means.
171,for photocell used as a flash trigger.
172,for photocell measuring the light output of an artificial illumination means.
570,for fluid-treating apparatus with photocell control.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for generic photocell circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 269]    269Photocell responsive to adjacent illuminator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter wherein the photocell is radiated by a light emitter in close proximity to the photocell.

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172,for photocell measuring light output of an object exposure illumination means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 270]    270Movable into or out of light path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter including a mechanism to displace the photocell into or out of the light entering the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 271]    271In viewfinder area:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter in which the photocell is mounted in or in the vicinity of a viewfinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 272]    272Having two or more mirrors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter in which the camera has at least two mirrors and the photocell receives light reflected by at least one of the mirrors.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 850+ for generic plural mirror systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 273]    273Having light reflected from film or shutter or through film:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter in which the photocell receives light reflected from a surface of the film in the camera or from a surface of the camera shutter or through the film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 274]    274Having means for changing the photocell field of view:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter including means to change a cross-section area through which the photocell receives light from a scene to be photographed.

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348Television,   subclass 369 for changing viewing angle via optics in video camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 275]    275With color filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter includes a filter in front of the photocell to block undesired wavelengths of light.

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209,for exposure data derived from film container which controls an optical filter.
241,for exposure filter in exposure control circuit.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 212+ for shutters with light-modifying blades including means to alter the color content of light.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 586 through 590for light interference using device with layers of specified refracting index and subclasses 885+ for generic color filters.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 276]    276Having variable light transmission means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter wherein the camera structure has means to adjust a light flux received at the photocell from an object to be photographed.
(1) Note. Predetector adjustable apertures or neutral density filters are properly classified here.
(2) Note. This does not include the camera diaphragm.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclass 888 for a neutral density absorption filter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 277]    277BATTERY INSERTION/REMOVAL/ DEPLETION RESPONSIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a camera element is responsive to loading, unloading, or low voltage condition of a battery.

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221,for exposure control circuit responsive to power source condition.
301+,for camera structure with power supply details.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 278]    278Having battery backup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter having a device for maintaining power upon removal or depletion of primary battery.

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280,for a power switch responsive camera system.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 279]    279Having indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter having means to convey information regarding battery insertion, removal, or depletion to a camera operator.

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281+,for camera structure with indicator, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 280]    280INITIALIZING/STORING RESPONSIVE TO POWER SWITCH:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to set a camera element or information to a preset condition upon turning a power switch on or off.

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277+,for camera responsive to battery insertion, removal, or depletion.
301+,for camera structure with power supply details.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 281]    281HAVING CAMERA INDICATOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to convey photographic information to a camera operator.

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70,for indicator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
88,for indicator in camera structure with a variable focal length camera objective.
147,for indicator with focusing and rangefinding means.
163,for indicator in camera structure with artificial illumination termination control.
201,for indicator with object illumination for exposure.
239,for indicator in exposure control circuit with manually selective exposure mode.
255,for indicator in exposure control circuit of shutter speed function.
515,for detachable film holder unit with integral means to show film use which is not visible to operator during normal operation.
578,for fluid treating apparatus testing, calibrating, or indicating.
FOR 709,, for a foreign art collection involving automatic camera focusing including focus indicator.
FOR 763,, for a foreign art collection involving an aerial camera and indicator.
FOR 772+,, for foreign art collections involving object illumination and indicator.
FOR 819,, for a foreign art collection involving motor film drive and spring tension indicator.
FOR 838,, for a foreign art collection involving manual camera focusing and distance indicator.
FOR 855,, for a foreign art collection involving film advancing and film position indicating.
FOR 910+,, for foreign art collections involving camera detail indicator or setting means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 84+ for light-controlling display.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 170+ for indicating means visible in viewfinder of motion picture camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 282]    282Display intensity control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter having means to adjust a brightness of the indicator to render it easily observed.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 589 through 605for intensity control for a visual display system.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 283]    283Sound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter in which the indicator produces a sound or vibration perceptible to the camera operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 284]    284Film condition indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter in which the indicator shows a status of the film resulting from a camera operation (e.g., end-of-film, film frame count, etc.).

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515,for a film cassette or cartridge with integral means to show film use which is not visible to an operator during normal operation.
FOR 855,, for a foreign art collection involving film advancing means including film position indicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 285]    285Double exposure warning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the indicator shows that a film section has been exposed and the film must be fed to bring another section into position before another exposure can be made.

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389,for film drive with double exposure prevention.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 286]    286Self-timer indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter in which the indicator conveys information concerning delayed release of a shutter.

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264,for camera release control circuit with self-timer.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 287]    287Nonmechanical visual display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter in which the indicator produces an optically perceivable indication without using moving parts (e.g., lamps, LED"s, etc.).
(1) Note. Excluded herein are mere comparison type indicators which produce light adjusted by an operator until the light intensity matches scene brightness.

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295,for comparison-type camera indicator.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 84+ for light-controlling display.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 288]    288Having holographic display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which the indicator exhibits a three-dimensional pattern (i.e., in holographic form).

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 1+ for generic holographic system or element.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 289]    289Ambient light condition display using one of three light emitters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which brightness of a scene is shown as above, below, or correct for photographic operation by using one of three indicator lamps.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 589 through 605and subclass 697 for selective color attributes with optical means in visual display systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 290]    290Bar graph/scale display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which the indicator is shown in the form of a bar whose length varies essentially in a continuous manner or by lighting one of a plurality of emitters adjacent to a printed legend.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 35+ and subclass 440.2 for bar graph dis.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 291]    291Pictograph display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which the indicator shows an image symbol.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 618 for display of specified image of abnormal condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 292]    292Character segment display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which the indicator includes a plurality of segments arranged to produce optically viewable letters or numbers when selected segments are activated.

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318,for camera structure with data recording including segmented alphanumeric indicia.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 34 and subclasses 467-472.3 for character display.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 293]    293Galvanometer type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter in which the indicator includes a needle of a galvanometer.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.11+ for measuring electricity using a galvanometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 294]    294Having plural pointers or match needle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter which includes a second needle manually displaced to a predetermined position with respect to the needle of the galvanometer in order to adjust a camera mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 295]    295Comparison type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter in which the indicator produces light that is adjusted by a camera operator until the intensity of the light matches a scene brightness.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 296]    296Having display in viewfinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Subject matter wherein the indicator is disposed within the field of view of the viewfinder of the camera.

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373+,for camera structure with viewfinder, in general.

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348Television,   subclasses 333.01 through 333.13for video camera with viewfinder or display monitor.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 170+ for indicating means visible in viewfinder of motion picture camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 297]    297HAVING OPERATOR CONTROLLED DATA ENTRY INTO CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to input desired photographic operating parameters or modes into a camera system by an operator.
(1) Note. Also included here are patents reciting specific locations of camera manual manipulators.
(2) Note. Excluded herein are mechanisms which merely manually override double exposure prevention in a camera film drive.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

57,for wireless remote camera system data/mode entry.
68,for manual manipulator in exposure control system responsive to distance.
131,for manual manipulator actuating power focus.
216,for manual manipulator in exposure control circuit with clamp or stop needle device.
218,for manual manipulator in exposure control circuit with direct drive galvanometer device.
391,for a film drive double exposure prevention mechanism having manual override.
543,for photographic switch details.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 298]    298Manual manipulators on lens unit or lens mount:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Subject matter wherein manual manipulators for entering data into the camera system are on the exposure objective or lens mount.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 299]    299Manual manipulators on camera body unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Subject matter wherein manual manipulators for entering data into the camera system are on the camera housing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

535+,for a camera housing detail.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 300]    300Manual data entry using peripheral device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Subject matter wherein data is entered into the camera system using an external device (e.g., bar code readers, external general purpose computers, etc.).
(1) Note. For data entry using detachable memory cards, see subclass 211.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 301]    301WITH POWER SUPPLY DETAIL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including specifics of electrical power generation, regulation, or control.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for generic power supply or regulation.
399Electrophotography,   subclasses 88+ for controlling power supply in an electrophotographic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 302]    302Having time-out circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter having a circuit which disables camera power after a predetermined time period.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 303]    303Power distribution management:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein power is selectively supplied to various camera elements for power management.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 304]    304Having nonelectrochemical power source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein power is generated by means other than an electrochemical battery.
(1) Note. This might include, for example, piezoelectric or solar cell sources.

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136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   appropriate subclasses for a thermoelectric or solar cell power source, per se.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for a piezoelectric generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 305]    305COLOR IMAGE USING MONOCHROME FILM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means for recording an image set on a light sensitive surface of a monochromatic base, the individual pictures or images representing an intensity image of the scene photographed corresponding to a particular color which is different from the color of the other images of the set.

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322+,for means to record plural images, in general.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 66+ for motion picture cameras using monochromatic film for recording color images.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 31+ for composite color image projectors.
355Photocopying,   subclasses 32+ for multicolor photocopying projecting and copying cameras; subclass 88, for multicolor contact printing.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 491.01 for polarization elements with color filters, subclasses 618+ for light dividing, combining or plural image forming and subclasses 885+ for absorption filters, per se.
399Electrophotography,   appropriate subclasses for plural diverse color involving exposure, development, transfer, fixing, and cleaning in an electrophotographic device.
430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   appropriate subclasses for chemical radiation imagery involving color.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 306]    306Using a lenticular element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter including means involving the interposition of a planar surface composed of a plurality of transmitting elements, each having a curved surface, between a subject and the light-sensitive surface.
(1) Note. Lenticular elements may be applied directly or in conjunction with a photosensitive film. Apparatus designed for use with such a composite film that necessitates the inclusion of additional color selective elements (e.g., filters, etc.) is classified herein.

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322+,and particularly 327, for means to record plural images that include lenticular elements and not limited by color selective means.

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353Optics: Image Projectors,   appropriate subclasses for projectors involving lenticular film.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 619+ for a surface composed of lenticular elements, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 307]    307Plural color filter sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter including a color selective element composed of plural portions that are selective to different colors, e.g., trichromic filter disk composed of red, green, and blue selective juxtaposed sections or portions.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 885+ for absorption filters, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 308]    308Simultaneous recording of images:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein the individual pictures are recorded on separate light sensitive surfaces at the same time.
(1) Note. Recording the individual pictures or images on contiguous portions of the same film by separate light paths is proper for this subclass.

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305,where the images are recorded successively.
306,for producing a color image using monochrome film utilizing an element comprising a planar surface having multiple lenses thereon.
322+,for plural simultaneous image recording, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 309]    309Images recorded on separate films:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.  Subject matter wherein the separate light sensitive surfaces are on different light sensitive material.

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446,for plural film in a camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 310]    310WITH DATA RECORDING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including camera structure and means for storing photographic information either on the photographic medium or on a separate storage element.
(1) Note. Photographic information includes exposure information as well as other information related to a photograph such as date, place, or operator name.
(2) Note. The data recorded is auxiliary to the image being recorded.

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322+,for plural image recording.
549+,for phototype composing having letter or other symbol transfer to a photographic medium.
FOR 766+,, for foreign art collections involving exposure identification.

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346Recorders,   appropriate subclasses for data recorders, per se.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 90 for devices to place titles on motion pictures.
355Photocopying,   subclass 39 and 40+ for means to mark photosensitive surfaces which are also used to copy an original or carrier (document or negative) and does not involve a three dimensional subject.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 162+ for exposure identification of X-ray photographs.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 311]    311Data for control of subsequent processing of film:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein the data recorded by the camera provides input for processing apparatus.

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60,for a camera with pseudo zoom data recording.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 312]    312Sound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein audio information is recorded.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 313]    313Having handwritten data:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein photographic data is placed on the photographic medium by a handheld instrument.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 314]    314Having transfer strip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein data is transferred to the photographic medium from a carrier by pressure.

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FOR 768+,, for foreign art collections involving exposure identification by transfer strip.

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462Books, Strips and Leaves for Manifolding,   subclasses 25+ for transfer strips, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 315]    315Optical:
 Subject matter under 310 wherein data is recorded using light.

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346Recorders,   subclasses 107.1+ for photographic data recorders, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 316]    316Mask or stencil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter including means for blocking light from the film to form indicia.

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435+,for means to variably mask portions of a frame, in general.
556+,for phototype composing using stencil-type characters.
FOR 768+,, for foreign art collections involving exposure identification by stencil.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 317]    317Having auxiliary illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 316.  Subject matter wherein a camera itself generates light for illuminating the mask or stencil.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 318]    318Segmented alphanumeric indicia:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein discrete optical elements are patterned in such a way that indicia representing letters or numbers are formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 319]    319Magnetically on film or film cassette:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein data is recorded onto a magnetic medium which is a part of the film or film cassette.

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360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for dynamic magnetic information storage or retrieval means.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for statically storing or retrieving information on a magnetic medium in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 320]    320Recording head position control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter which includes means to locate a recording head relative to the magnetic medium.

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360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 75+ for automatic head control in dynamic magnetic information storage or retrieval, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 321]    321Removable semiconductor memory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein data is recorded into an integrated circuit memory temporarily attached to a camera body or film cassette.

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211,for a detachable memory card which provides exposure data to a camera system.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for statically storing or retrieving information utilizing semiconductive elements in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 322]    322PLURAL IMAGE RECORDING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to photographically record (1) plural images on one or more frames by a single exposure or (2) plural exposures on a single frame.
(1) Note. As indicated in the search notes below, this section does not provide for a plurality of single plate or frame exposures taken successively with a corresponding movement of unexposed plate or film frames into exposing position.

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305+,for means for forming plural color sensitive images utilizing monochrome film.
353,and 354+, for reflex cameras which may allow successive recording of plural images.
360+,for a magazine camera which may allow recording plural images successively.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 323]    323Having alternative single image recording:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Subject matter including means to select plural image recording or single image recording during a single exposure.
(1) Note. A stereoscopic camera including means to allow making nonstereoscopic exposures such as single frame exposures are proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 324]    324Stereoscopic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Subject matter wherein the plural images recorded correspond to the perspectives offered by a right and left eye.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 57+ for stereoscopic motion picture cameras.
353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclasses 7+ for stereoscopic image projectors.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 462+ for miscellaneous stereoscopic devices.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 41+ for method and apparatus for making stereoscopic X-ray photographic exposures.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 325]    325Plural camera arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Subject matter having more than one camera each with its own lens and housing system.
(1) Note. Included here is a stereoscopic plural camera mount, per se.

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326+,for plural spaced lens systems with a common housing, and subclasses 322+ for dual cameras which record plural images and are not limited to stereoscopic recording.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 326]    326Single camera with plural spaced objectives:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Subject matter wherein a single camera has plural spaced lenses for recording separate images.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 327]    327With lenticular screen, mirror, or prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Subject matter including a plane surface composed of a plurality of transmitting curved elements, a reflector, or a transparent body bounded in part by two plane surfaces angularly related (i.e., not parallel) where at least one of the plane surfaces is internally reflecting or refracting to impinging incident light.

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331,for plural image reflection onto a single objective.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 619+ for a surface composed of lenticular elements, subclasses 831+ for prisms, and subclasses 838+ for reflectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 328]    328Having film feed or guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Subject matter including means to move a photographic medium or to direct a photographic medium in a desired path.

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387+,for camera structure with film drive, in general.
440+,for film-restraining means or a pressure plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 329]    329Having adjustable camera mount:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Subject matter including means to adjust the positioning of a camera to effect the recording of plural images that are to give the impression of solidity or relief.
(1) Note. An adjustable single camera stereoscopic mount, per se, is classified here.

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325,for a stereoscopic plural camera mount, per se.
FOR 914,, for a foreign art collection involving a stereoscopic mounting or rest.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 330]    330Having lenticular screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Subject matter including a planar surface composed of a plurality of transmitting elements each having a curved surface.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 619+ for a surface composed of lenticular elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 331]    331Plural image reflection onto single objective:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Subject matter including means having two or more mirrors or prisms for reflecting their images onto a lens.

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351,for means to reflect an image to film.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 831+ for prisms, per se, and subclasses 838+ for reflectors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 332]    332Simultaneous recording of plural distinct subjects:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Subject matter which records at the same time two or more images of subjects at locations having diverse optical paths to a camera focal plane.

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310+,for image and photographic data recording.
FOR 770,, for a foreign art collection involving exposure identification including auxiliary identification photographing system.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 333]    333Simultaneous recording of single subject:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Subject matter having means within an integral housing to facilitate simultaneously recording plural images of a single subject.

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308+,for simultaneous recording of color images using monochrome film.
324+,for recording plural stereoscopic images.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 334]    334Different planes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein the images are recorded in diverse planes.

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309,for simultaneous recording of color images using monochrome film where the images are recorded on separate films.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 335]    335Sequential recording on different areas of a single frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Subject matter wherein exposures are made upon successive portions of a single frame of a photographic medium.

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20+,for a scanning camera.

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378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 167+ for photographic detector supports including film and plate moving and positioning means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 336]    336Including rotary objective or photographic medium support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein successive exposures are obtained by relative revolving movement of a lens and a light sensitive surface holder between exposures.

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387+,for camera structure and film drive, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 337]    337Including preobjective mask:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein an element is disposed or attached between the subject and the lens to limit the exposure areas of the successive portions of exposed material.

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435+,for post-objective masking, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 338]    338Including shiftable objective or photographic medium support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein successive sections are brought into exposure position by relative shifting movement between a lens and a light sensitive surface holder.

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336,for relative rotary movement.
387+,for camera structure and film drive, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 339]    339Shiftable photographic medium support only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 338.  Subject matter wherein only the light sensitive surface holder is moved.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 340]    340Including shiftable post-objective mask:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein successive light sensitive sections are exposed by shifting an apertured opaque device that is located between the objective and the light sensitive surface.

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435+,for post-objective masking, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 341]    341BELLOWS OBJECTIVE CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a flexible (usually pleated) opaque cylinder expandable along the optical axis of an objective and which connects the objective with a camera body.
(1) Note. The expandable (i.e., bellows) portion of this type of camera which joins an objective to a camera body may either be recited or disclosed for classification herein.

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145,for a mechanical focusing mechanism in a bed or bellows camera in which an exposure objective is displaced.
350,for a foldable or collapsible camera with pivoting lens which may have bellows structure joining diverse camera housing portions.
373+,for a bellows viewfinder.
FOR 805,, for a foreign art collection involving a bellows reflex camera having single objective.
FOR 848,, for a foreign art collection involving double exposure prevention having extensible camera structure.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 121+ for corrugated bellows, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 342]    342Camera front or lens mount angularly adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Subject matter wherein a camera front or objective mount is pivotable with respect to a photographic medium plane so that the plane of the camera front or objective mount is not parallel to the photographic medium plane.

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437,for a camera back or film carrier angularly adjustable.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 343]    343Having lens movable in its plane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Subject matter including means to move an objective within a single plane that is perpendicular to the lens axis.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 813+ for lens support, per se, which includes relatively movable portions to permit movement of the lens in a single plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 344]    344Having guide and lock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Subject matter including guides or ways on a camera base along which a lens holder moves and clamping means to hold the lens holder at various positions along the base.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 345]    345Having hinged base attached to bellows:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Subject matter including a hinge joining a base or front of the camera with the pleated expandable element.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 346]    346Having self-erecting lens holder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter wherein a lens holder, connected to the bellows, is moved into operating position as the hinged base or front is moved from a closed inoperative position to an open operative position.

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349,for a folding camera which stows an axially moving nonbellows objective.
350,for a folding camera which stows a pivoting nonbellows objective.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 347]    347Hinged linkage between objective mount and housing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Subject matter wherein hinged braces between an objective support and a camera housing provide support for the bellows or help to maintain the bellows at a particular extension.
(1) Note. A typical example of such a structure is the "lazy tong".
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 348]    348FOLDING OR COLLAPSIBLE CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means to effect a reduction in camera size from an operative condition to an inoperative condition.

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341+,for a bellows objective camera.
373+,for a folding or collapsible viewfinder.
FOR 805,, for a foreign art collection involving a folding reflex camera having single objective.
FOR 848,, for a foreign art collection involving double exposure prevention having folding camera structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 349]    349Having axially moving lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 348.  Subject matter wherein a camera lens moves parallel to its optical axis during folding or collapsing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 350]    350Having pivoting lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 348.  Subject matter wherein a camera lens partially rotates about an axis located in the plane of the lens during folding or collapsing.

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346,for a bellows objective camera with self-erecting lens holder.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 351]    351HAVING MEANS TO REFLECT IMAGE TO FILM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a mirror to reflect the light rays from an object onto a light sensitive surface.

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21,for a scanning camera which includes a reflector.
FOR 797,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera which reflects an image to film.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 94 for a motion picture camera with deflected field of view.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 838+ for a mirror, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 352]    352Having reflex mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Subject matter which includes means to reflect light passing through the objective lens to a viewfinder.

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186,for illumination means and a reflex camera.
353,for a twin lens reflex camera.
354+,for a single lens reflex camera.
447,for details of a camera reflex mirror.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 353]    353TWIN LENS REFLEX CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising camera structure with two similar lenses, one a camera lens and one for a viewfinder, which are so coupled that they both focus on exactly the same plane and the viewfinder shows the view as focused by the camera lens.

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186,for illumination means and a reflex camera.
354+,for a single lens reflex camera.
447,for details of a camera reflex mirror.
FOR 798,, for a foreign art collection involving a twin lens reflex camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 354]    354SINGLE LENS REFLEX CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising camera structure with one lens and a mirror to reflect image light passing through the lens to a viewfinder.

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186,for illumination means and a reflex camera.
353,for a twin lens reflex camera.
447,for details of a camera reflex mirror.
FOR 799+,, for foreign art collections involving a reflex camera with single objective.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 355]    355Having shutter and additional means to block light from film (e.g., screen):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter having means to obstruct light from the light sensitive surface in addition to a shutter.

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FOR 801,, for a foreign art collection involving a reflex camera with single objective and light blocking from film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 356]    356Having manually operated mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter wherein the mirror is moved into and out of the image light path by hand.

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FOR 803,, for a foreign art collection involving a reflex camera with single objective having manipulating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 357]    357Having focal plane shutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter including a shutter positioned adjacent to the plane where an image will be formed on a photographic medium.

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452+,for details of a camera shutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 358]    358With mirror support or drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter which includes a mount for the mirror or means to move the mirror.

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356,for a manually operated mirror.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 871+ for a mirror with mount, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 359]    359Plate camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter including two or more light sensitive surfaces, herein called "plates," not in the same plane which are encased within a camera and are brought to the exposure position one at a time without opening the receiver to light.

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360+,for a generic magazine camera which utilizes photographic plates.
FOR 804,, for a foreign art collection involving a reflex plate camera having single objective.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 360]    360MAGAZINE CAMERA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein two or more light-sensitive surfaces (herein called "plates"), not in the same plane, are encased within a camera structure or light-tight receiver attachable thereto and are brought to the exposure position one at a time without opening the camera or receiver to light or removing the receiver from the camera.

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30+,for self-developing cameras which may include a film magazine.
335+,for plural image recording formed successively on a single plate.
359,for a plate-type single lens reflex camera.
517+,for plate or cut film holders.
FOR 822+,, for foreign art collections involving a magazine camera.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 98+ for individual picture plate type.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 167+ for photographic detector supports including film and plate moving and positioning means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 361]    361Rotatable magazine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein the plates are mounted on a turret or drum magazine which is rotatable 360 degrees and which places a new plate in the exposure position upon a predetermined amount of rotation (e.g., a turret may have 2 or more sides with plates mounted on each side and pivoted at its center).

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FOR 823,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera having a rotatable magazine.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 362]    362Flexible light guard for entrance of hand:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein a flexible end to the magazine box or light guard admits the hand of the operator to the box to permit a change of the plate which is effected by hand guidance of the changing mechanism or by a handhold on the plate.

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590+,for a fluid-treating, dark cabinet with hand insertion.
FOR 824,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera with a hand-changed plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 363]    363Tilting receiver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein the change of the plate from storage to exposure position or vice versa, necessitates vertical tilting of a receiver holding more than one plate in different planes.
(1) Note. Receivers which are hinged to the camera or to another in order that they may be moved out of the way when not in use, but which can be kept immovable for successive transfers, are not placed here, but are classified according to the method of transfer.

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FOR 825,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera with tilting magazine.

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221Article Dispensing,   subclasses 186+ for article dispensers in which the supply container is movably mounted for dispensing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 364]    364Flexible carrier for plates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein the magazine is characterized by flexible carrier means (e.g., a belt) for transferring the plates between the storage and exposure positions.

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FOR 826+,, for foreign art collections involving a magazine camera having flexible carrier for plates.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 365]    365Having tab means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Subject matter wherein each sensitized plate has its own carrier with a tab portion for manually pulling the plate around a curved track to or from the exposure area.

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FOR 827,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera having flexible carrier for plates including tab means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 366]    366Sliding plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein plates are moved in a straight line.

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FOR 828+,, for foreign art collections involving a magazine camera having a sliding plate.

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221Article Dispensing,   subclasses 268+ for article dispensers not otherwise provided for having reciprocating (including oscillating) means for ejecting the articles therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 367]    367Sliding and return:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Subject matter wherein plates are moved to an exposure position and back to the receiver in alternate directions.

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FOR 829,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera having a plate which slides and returns.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 368]    368Intermediate exposure chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Subject matter wherein the plate is moved to an exposure position between two other plate receivers.

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FOR 830,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera having a sliding plate and intermediate exposure chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 369]    369Quarter-turned plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter including two receivers with plates, the planes of these plates are perpendicular to each other, and means for exposing the plates or transferring them from one receiver to the other.

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363,for rotating an entire receiver.
FOR 831+,, for foreign art collections involving a magazine camera having a quarter-turned plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 370]    370Tilting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Subject matter wherein the plate transfer from one receiver to the other is effected by swinging the plate upon an axis in or near one of its edges.

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363,for rotating an entire receiver.
FOR 832+,, for foreign art collections involving a magazine camera having a tilting quarter-turned plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 371]    371Base guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Subject matter wherein the plate is guided at its base during movement between its two storage positions.

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FOR 833,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera having a tilting quarter-turned plate with base guides.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 372]    372Rear plates replaceable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein the plates are removed from one end or face of a receiver and replaced at the other end or back of the same receiver in a plane parallel to their first positions.
(1) Note. A space does not cease to be the same receiver in the sense used in the above definition because it is divided by a partition whose plane is parallel to that of the plates and which moves transversely to this plane.

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362,for hand-changed plates using a flexible light guard.
363,for tilting the receiver.
FOR 834,, for a foreign art collection involving a magazine camera with rear plate replaceable.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 373]    373WITH VIEWFINDER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including camera structure combined with means to show a scene that will be included in a frame.
(1) Note. If no camera structure is claimed then the viewfinders, per se, will be classified elsewhere.

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141,for rangefinder and viewfinders.
148+,for lens focusing and viewfinders.
296,for a camera indicator in a viewfinder.
FOR 859+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera viewfinder.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 227+ for finders that do not deflect light.
348Television,   subclasses 333 and 341 for television camera viewfinder or display monitor.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 171 for viewfinder and motion picture cameras.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 247+ for fiducial instruments.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 374]    374Electronic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter in which the scene is electrically reproduced on a viewing screen, such as an LCD monitor.

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348Television,   subclass 333.01 for television camera electronic viewfinder or display monitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 375]    375Lensless:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter in which the scene is viewed directly without any optics.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 376]    376Pose reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter having means to reflect an image of a human subject as seen in the viewfinder back to the human subject.

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FOR 860,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera viewfinder having pose reflector.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 838+ for mirror, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 377]    377Parallax correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter including means to correct the difference between an actual view covered by the exposure objective and an apparent view seen by the viewfinder.

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140,for parallax correction in a mechanical rangefinder coupled with focusing.
FOR 861,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera viewfinder having parallax correction.

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348Television,   subclass 333.09 for parallax correction.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 378]    378Selective or adjustable viewfinder field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter having means to choose between plural viewfinder fields or to vary a viewfinder field.

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FOR 862,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera viewfinder having selective or adjustable viewfinder field.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 379]    379Zoom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 378.  Subject matter in which a focal length or angle of view can be adjusted continuously.

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72+,for variable focal length of camera objective.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 380]    380Variable size of mask opening:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 378.  Subject matter in which a portion of the scene that is viewed is changeable by altering the dimension of a viewing aperture.

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435+,for variable frame masking.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 381]    381Variable orientation of finder image:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 378.  Subject matter in which the position of a mask opening is changeable between horizontal and vertical.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 382]    382Lens detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter including specifics of an optical component that refractively focuses light.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 642+ for a lens, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 383]    383Selective or adjustable viewing position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter which permits an operator to view one of several viewfinder images on fixed diverse planes or which permits angular adjustment of the viewfinder.
(1) Note. The viewfinder may have a viewing window or screens which are at 90 degrees to each other.

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FOR 863,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera viewfinder having selective or adjustable viewing position.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 384]    384With prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter having means to internally reflect or refract the light such as a pentaprism or porro prism.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 831+ for a prism, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 385]    385With reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter having means for returning light striking a surface into the medium from which it came.

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FOR 864+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera viewfinder having a reflector.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 838+ for a mirror, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 386]    386Plural:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Subject matter having more than one reflector.

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FOR 865,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera viewfinder having plural reflectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 387]    387WITH FILM DRIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having camera structure and means to convert energy to produce or impart motion to a light-sensitive material.
(1) Note. If no camera structure is claimed, then the drive means, per se, would be classified in the appropriate mechanical drive class. See SEARCH CLASS below for typical mechanical drive classes and search notes attached thereto for lines with other classes.

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FOR 817+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera motor film drive.
FOR 852+,, for foreign art collections involving camera film advance.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   appropriate subclasses for material advancement, per se, by acting on the material intermediate its length.
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 324+ for unwinding and rewinding a machine convertible information carrier, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 388]    388Detachable drive unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Subject matter wherein a device providing powered film movement is readily removable from or attachable to a camera body.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 389]    389Double exposure prevention:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Subject matter wherein the camera has some structure which inhibits two superimposed images.

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285,for double exposure warning.
FOR 847+,, for foreign art collections involving camera double exposure prevention.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 390]    390Midroll interrupt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein the camera has structure enabling the removal of a roll of film prior to exposure of the entire roll and to return the roll of film at a later time for completion of the exposure of the roll of film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 391]    391Having manual override:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter including means to permit the operator to manually manipulate a shutter actuating means so that the double exposure can be made.

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FOR 849,, for a foreign art collection involving manual override of camera double exposure prevention.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 392]    392Having film-sensing member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter including means for engaging a film to detect a state of film advancement and, responsive to the detection, either permitting or prohibiting exposure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 393]    393Having double cable release:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter including two synchronously operated elongated actuators, one for the film drive and the other for a shutter release.

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504,for cable release, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 394]    394Responsive to film-winding lever:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter in which a manually operated member for film transport cocks a shutter or releases a shutter lock.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 395]    395Film movement limiting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Subject matter including means to restrict film advancement to an increment corresponding to one film frame.

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FOR 846,, for a foreign art collection involving interlocking film advance and shutter tension or setting including film movement limiting.
FOR 853,, for a foreign art collection involving film advancing means having film movement limiting.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 396]    396From film drive transmission member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.  Subject matter wherein a mechanical driving mechanism controls the amount of film advancement to the desired increment without sensing film movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 397]    397From film itself:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.  Subject matter including means to detect film movement and in response to the detection limiting advancement to the desired increment.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 398]    398Having switch actuated by perforation sensing pawl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 397.  Subject matter wherein the means for detecting film movement is a member which rides on the film and in response to a film opening makes or breaks a circuit connection.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 399]    399Having film locked by perforation sensing pawl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 397.  Subject matter wherein engagement of a member which rides on the film and in response to a film opening directly restrains further advancement of the film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 400]    400Having film transport mechanism locked by perforation sensing pawl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 397.  Subject matter wherein movement of a member which rides on the film and in response to a film opening shifts a member to prohibit further operation of the film drive means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 401]    401Film transport cocks shutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Subject matter wherein a motive power for moving the film also charges a shutter mechanism.

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443,for camera element cocking or resetting in general.
FOR 844+,, for foreign art collections involving interlocking film advance and shutter tension or setting.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 402]    402Film transport cocks shutter and mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Subject matter wherein the motive power also charges a reflex mirror.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 403]    403Having mechanically actuated circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Subject matter wherein a film drive circuit is triggered by the motion of a physical element.
(1) Note. This would include, for example, a cam-actuated circuit.
(2) Note. A significant electronic film drive circuit not mechanically actuated is classified in subclasses 406+.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 404]    404Film feed error detection or end of film detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein a mechanically actuated circuit senses improper film movement or maximum film extension from its container.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 405]    405Rewind:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein a mechanically actuated circuit reverses film movement at the completion of all desired exposures thereon.

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410,for a significant electronic rewind circuit.
413,for mechanical detail of a rewind mechanism.
FOR 854,, for a foreign art collection involving film advance including rewind means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 406]    406Having significant electronic circuit detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Subject matter having a particular electrical or electronic device for controlling film movement.

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FOR 821,, for a foreign art collection involving automatic film advance having electronically timed electrical motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 407]    407Prewind:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 406.  Subject matter wherein the electrical or electronic device controls a mechanism to withdraw the entire length of film from the film container prior to a first exposure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 408]    408Initialization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 406.  Subject matter wherein the electronic circuit controls film movement prior to the first desired exposure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 409]    409Film feed error detection or end of film detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 406.  Subject matter having electrical or electronic means to sense improper film movement or maximum film extension from its container.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 410]    410Rewind:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 406.  Subject matter having an electrical or electronic circuit which reverses film movement at the completion of all desired exposures thereon.

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405,for a mechanically actuated rewind circuit.
413,for mechanical details of a rewind mechanism.
FOR 854,, for a foreign art collection involving film advance including rewind means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 411]    411Mechanical detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Subject matter wherein the subject matter relates to miscellaneous mechanical structure or particular mechanical features of the film drive.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 412]    412Spring motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Subject matter including means to mechanically store energy.

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185Motors: Spring, Weight, or Animal Powered,   subclasses 37+ for a spring motor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 413]    413Rewind:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Subject matter comprising means to reverse film movement at the completion of all desired exposures thereon.

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405,for a mechanically actuated rewind circuit.
410,for a significant electronic rewind circuit.
FOR 854,, for a foreign art collection involving film advance including rewind means.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 124 for rewinding of film strip.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 414]    414Posterior film roll:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Subject matter having a photographic medium roll which lies behind the plane upon which an exposure is made.

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511+,for a removable film holder unit.
FOR 856,, for a foreign art collection involving film advance including a posterior roll.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 415]    415Having threading structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Subject matter including means for the initial advancement of a film leader from a supply chamber to a take-up chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 416]    416Drive means having rectilinear path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Subject matter wherein a member supplying motive power to the film moves linearly while in engagement with the film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 417]    417Sheet film:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Subject matter wherein transported film comprises an individual piece of rectangular or cut film.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 418]    418Including electric motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Subject matter also having means converting electrical energy to mechanical energy to provide motive power.

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FOR 820+,, for foreign art collections involving automatic film advance having an electric motor.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   appropriate subclasses for electric motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 419]    419CAMERA SUPPORT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including structure for maintaining a photographic camera in a fixed position or fixed path of movement with respect to some reference point.
(1) Note. Camera structure combined with a camera support is classified here.

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12+,for an aerial camera support or holder.
329,for an adjustable stereoscopic camera support.
FOR 913+,, for foreign art collections involving a camera mounting or rest.

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108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   appropriate subclasses for a horizontally supported planar surface.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 316.2 for a camera case.
224Package and Article Carriers,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclass 185 for camera carriers that are attached to the operator"s body or belt.
248Supports,   for supports of general utility, and especially subclasses 163.1+ for a plural leg support.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 139 for an optical instrument (e.g., camera) carrier gripped and carried by hand.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 243 for a motion picture camera with support, and see (1) Note thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 420]    420Operator supported:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 419.  Subject matter wherein a camera operator assists in maintaining the photographic camera in fixed position.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 421]    421Having stabilization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Subject matter wherein provision is made for damping out vibrations due to the movement of an operator.

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13,for aerial camera stabilizing.
55,for systems which actually sense camera shake and provide subsequent stabilization.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 422]    422Having means to attach other photographic accessories:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Subject matter which allows additional photographic accessories to be connected to the operator support.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 423]    423Having strap:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Subject matter wherein a flat belt provides camera operator support structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 424]    424Integral with camera body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Subject matter wherein an interface structure between the operator and the camera is a constituent part of a camera housing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 425]    425Having release actuator on support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Subject matter wherein a shutter release is located on the support itself.

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502+,for mechanical camera shutter release means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 426]    426Having actual or simulated handheld weapon structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.  Subject matter including an individually carriable implement of hunting or war or simulated version thereof.

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42Firearms,   appropriate subclasses for a firearm, per se, such as a rifle.
124Mechanical Guns and Projectors,   appropriate subclasses for a mechanical projector, per se, such as a crossbow.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 427]    427Surveillance type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 419.  Subject matter wherein a camera mount is particularly adapted to permit surreptitious photographic monitoring of an area usually for security purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 428]    428Adjustable support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 419.  Subject matter wherein the support may be selectively fixed in any one of a plurality of positions.

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329,for an adjustable stereoscopic camera support.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 429]    429CAMERA COMBINED WITH OR CONVERTIBLE TO DIVERSE ART DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a camera is combined with means recognized as the subject matter of some other class, or selectively performs two dissimilar functions by appropriate rearrangement of parts or use of special adaptor structure.

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544+,for a camera attachment, per se.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 137 for conversion from a still to motion picture camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 430]    430Convertible to developed image projector or viewer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Subject matter wherein a camera is convertible to a device which projects or allows observation of a visible image.

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353Image Projectors,   for an image projector, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 431]    431With light beam projector for delineating field of view:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Subject matter wherein a camera is combined with a light source which marks object boundaries which will appear in a photographic frame.

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362Illumination,   appropriate subclasses for illumination devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 432]    432With diverse compound lens system (e.g., microscope):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Subject matter wherein a camera is combined with a separate plurality of lenses or lens groups arranged in series coaxially along an optical axis so that light rays passing from an object external to the plurality of lenses form an image of that object, which is subsequently viewed and which plurality of lenses or lens groups is recognized as subject matter of another class.

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359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclass 363 for a compound lens system which may have a broadly recited photographic image recorder where the primary purpose of the system is that of viewing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 433]    433With camouflage structure (e.g., spy camera):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Subject matter wherein a camera is combined with structure intended to hide the presence of such camera from an outside observer.

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427,for a surveillance-type camera support.

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89Ordnance,   subclass 36.01 for ordnance shrouds or cloaks.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 919 for a Cross-reference Art Collection related to camouflaged articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 434]    434With radio or clock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Subject matter wherein a camera is combined with either a wireless audio receiver or timekeeping device.

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368Horology,   subclasses 10+ for a detailed horological device combined with disparate device.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 344+ for a detailed telecommunications receiver combined with diverse art device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 435]    435VARIABLE FRAME MASKING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to change the physical dimensions of the exposed area of a frame utilizing an opaque element.

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337,for plural image recording which includes a preobjective mask.
FOR 806,, for a foreign art collection involving camera with picture size variable.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 79+ for plural picture size motion pictures.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 436]    436Having wide aspect ratio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 435.  Subject matter wherein longitudinal strips at the top and bottom of a frame are simultaneously blocked off by an opaque element.

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20+,for a scanning camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 437]    437CAMERA BACK OR FILM CARRIER ANGULARLY ADJUSTABLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having means to cover the rear of a camera or means to support a photographic medium wherein either is shiftable with respect to an objective so that the vertical plane of the objective is not parallel to a plane of the means to cover the rear of a camera or of the means to support a photographic medium.

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342,for a bellows objective camera having a front or lens mount which is angularly adjustable.
FOR 807,, for a foreign art collection involving a camera having camera back or film carrier angularly adjustable.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 438]    438DAGUERREOTYPE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to that branch of photography known as "daguerreotypy" in which sensitization and development are secured by the use of mercury vapor to produce a positive image on a silver coated copper plate.
(1) Note. Included here also is a plate vise or holder, per se, which is adapted for daguerreotype use.

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579,for gaseous treating photographic apparatus, in general.
654,for photographic plate holders, in general.
658+,for burnishing, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 439]    439CAMERA DETAIL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which defines miscellaneous structure or particular details of a camera.

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FOR 842+,, for foreign art collections involving camera details.

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399Electrophotography,   subclass 207 for diaphragm, shutter, or shading board in an electrophotography device.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 440]    440Film restraining means or pressure plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Subject matter having means to press or hold a film in a plane.

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FOR 843,, for a foreign art collection involving film restraining means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 441]    441Pneumatic or magnetic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 440.  Subject matter in which a force to press or hold the film is generated by a pressure differential created by a gas medium or by a magnet.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 442]    442On camera door:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 440.  Subject matter in which the means to press or hold the film is located on a closure member.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 443]    443Camera element cocking or resetting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Subject matter having means to move camera components to a ready position in preparation for taking a picture.

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401+,for film transport that cocks shutter.
FOR 891,, for a foreign art collection involving a pivoting or rotating blade shutter and cocking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 444]    444Shutter charging lever on lens housing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein an elongated member for cocking a shutter is on the body structure surrounding the optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 445]    445Film cutoff:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Subject matter having means for cutting a portion of a light-sensitive material from a strip.

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613,for photographic cutting in a fluid treating apparatus.
FOR 851,, for a foreign art collection involving film cut-off.

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242Winding and Reeling,   subclasses 522+ for convolute winding with cutting.
355Photocopying,   subclass 29 for means to cut film in projection printing.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 446]    446Plural film types:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Subject matter wherein the camera structure provides for an alternative use of more than one type of supply or size of light sensitive material for recording.
(1) Note. Excluded herein are mere plate holders having provision for accepting plates of diverse sizes (i.e., plate holder kit).

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309,for plural film in a camera used for color photography which utilizes monochrome film.
322+,for plural image recording.
519+,for plate or cut film holder kit.
FOR 850,, for a foreign art collection involving a plural film-type camera.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 79+ for motion pictures with plural picture sizes or types.
  
[List of Patents for class 396 subclass 447]    447Reflex mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Subject matter comprising means for selectively reflecting light from an optical path of the camera lens to a viewfinder to enable through the lens viewing of the object.
(1) Note. Included here are submirrors which operate in conjunction with the reflex mirror.

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353,for twin lens reflex camera.
354+,for single lens reflex camera.

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359