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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 348]   CLASS 348,TELEVISION
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This class deals with generating, processing, transmitting or transiently displaying a sequence of images, either locally or remotely, in which the local light variations composing the images may change with time (e.g., natural "live" scenes) by methods involving the following steps:

Step 1. The scanning of an object or a scene by partitioning the object or scene into subareas of image information (e.g., pels or pixels) and generating therefrom an electrical signal representative of an image.

Step 2. The transient display of an object or a scene image by converting an electrical signal representative of the object image (i.e., video signal) into a visible image of the object.

In this class, the sequence of images is intended to portray motion with exception of special television type systems that produce a sequence of still images from a conventional television system (e.g., videophone, slow scan, film retrieval, and security systems). These special television systems normally select an image from a sequence of images of a conventional television system and normally use a transient display (e.g., CRT or liquid crystal).

Facsimile images are normally of a fixed scene (e.g., document) that do not form a sequence, cannot portray motion, and normally the display is fixed (e.g., hard copy). (See References to Other Classes, below.) In television recording, the sequence of images are dynamically recorded for later reproduction.

SUBCOMBINATIONS OF TELEVISION SYSTEMS

This class includes circuits specially designed for dealing with a peculiar component of the television signal (e.g., sync or chrominance), as distinct from merely signals of a particular frequency range.

Electrical circuits that are not specific to television which may constitute subcombinations of such apparatus are classified in the appropriate class for such circuits.

For a video camera or television receiver having a static storage device as subcombination, see Subclass References to the Current Class, below.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

COMBINATIONS OF OTHER APPARATUS WHICH INCLUDE APPARATUS OF THIS CLASS

This class does not include the following subject matter:

1. Systems in which legible alphanumeric or like character forms are analyzed according to step 1 above to derive an electric signal from which the character is recognized by comparison with stored information are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

2. Systems for the direct photographic copying of an original picture in which an electric signal representative of a characteristic of the picture is derived and employed to modify the operation of the system are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

3. Systems for the reproduction, according to step 2, of images comprising alphanumeric or computer generated graphics and systems for the conversion of a computer generated signal into a television signal are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

4. Systems for the dynamic recording, or reproducing, of black and white television using a nonmagnetic medium, systems for the dynamic recording or reproducing of color television, and systems for photographing displayed images are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

5. Systems for the dynamic recording or reproducing of black and white images from magnetic media (e.g., magnetic tape) are classified elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

For related elements or systems, see References to Other Classes, below.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

231+,and 714+, for a video camera or television receiver having a static storage device as subcombination.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 596+ for measuring and testing an apparatus including acoustic imaging.
128Surgery,   subclasses 4+ for endoscopes in general.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ and 216+ for photocells, circuits and optics therefor, and subclasses 330+ and 338+ for devices responsive to invisible radiation.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclass 7.2 for television cabinets.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 364+ for cathode-ray tubes.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 1+ for cathode-ray tube circuits.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 41 and 85 for synchronization circuitry.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 76.12 for analysis of complex waves.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous nonlinear active device circuits.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 311+ , 315+, 345+, and 347+ for pulse frequency, phase, or amplitude demodulators, respectively.
330Amplifiers,   subclass 11 for DC reinsertion circuit, subclasses 127+ for control of power supply, and subclass 149 for noise compensation.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 20 and 172 for television type oscillator synchronization.
332Modulators,   various subclasses for modulators.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 14 and 24+ for companders and coupling networks.
334Tuners,   various subclasses for tuners, per se.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   appropriate subclasses for A/D or D/A conversion.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 1 through 205for radar systems.
345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   for systems for the reproduction, according to the Class 348 Class Definition, step 2, of images comprising alphanumeric or computer generated graphics and systems for the conversion of a computer generated signal into a television signal. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Combinations of Other Apparatus Which Include Apparatus of This Class").
346Recorders,   subclasses 150.1+ for electric recording of phenomenon, particularly subclasses 150.2 for electric discharge and 150.3 for electrochemical, subclasses 134 for particular record receivers, subclasses 139+ for scanning devices for markers, and subclasses 107.1+ for light or beam recording of phenomenon.
347Incremental Printing of Symbolic Information,   subclasses 112+ for electrostatic marking, particularly subclasses 129+ for photo scanning, subclasses 224+ for light beam marking.
355Photocopying,   subclass 38 for systems for the direct photographic copying of an original picture in which an electric signal representative of a characteristic of the picture is derived and employed to modify the operation of the system. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Combinations of Other Apparatus Which Include Apparatus of This Class").
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 3+ for range or distance measurement, subclasses 241.1+ for borescopes, subclasses 426+ and 237.1+ for inspection devices, and subclasses 402+ for shade or color measuring.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   appropriate subclasses for transmitting, processing, or reproducing a permanent picture, and particularly subclass 479 wherein the image signal is generated by a television type camera. (See References to Other Classes, above.)
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   various subclasses for optical devices, especially subclass 1 for holography, and subclasses 196.1 through 226.3for holographic deflectors, subclasses 196.1 through 226.3 and 887 for light beam deflectors and sequentially additive filters.
360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 9.1+ , 14.1+, 19.1, and 33.1+ for dynamic magnetic recorders peculiar to non-color television signal processing. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Combinations of Other Apparatus Which Include Apparatus of This Class").
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclass 243 for synchronization of shafts and subclasses 173+ and 211 for a photosensitive device in circuits for electromagnets.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses. The storage of information, which includes video signal processing, is excluded from this class.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for recording or reproducing information absent any feature peculiar to video processing.
370Multiplex Communications,   appropriate subclasses for multiplex systems in general.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   for communication using pulse or digital signals which do not include video signals, with particular exception, digital television bandwidth compression are classified in subclasses 240.01 through 240.29.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 98.2+ for systems which deal with television signals.
379Telephonic Communications,   for communication by telephone which do not include videophone.
380Cryptography,   especially subclasses 200 through 242for cryptographic video equipment and techniques.
382Image Analysis,   appropriate subclass for pattern recognition or alphanumeric character sensing.
382Image Analysis,   for systems in which legible alphanumeric or like character forms are analyzed according to the Class 348 Class Definition, step 1, to derive an electric signal from which the character is recognized by comparison with stored information. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Combinations of Other Apparatus Which Include Apparatus of This Class").
386Motion Video Signal Processing for Recording or Reproducing,   appropriate subclasses for recording television or video signals for retrieval at a later time.
396Photography,   appropriate subclasses for a camera which when actuated uses light to record a chemically developable image or subcombinations thereof. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, in the class definition therein for the line with Class 348.
398Optical Communications,   various subclasses for optical communication.
409Gear Cutting, Milling, or Planing,   subclasses 2+ , 79+, 245+, and 289+ for a pattern controlled device including scanning.
430Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or Product Thereof,   appropriate subclasses for process, composition, and product involving radiation imagery chemistry.
434Education and Demonstration,   subclass 307 for teaching devices including television combinations.
439Electrical Connectors,   for electrical connectors, per se.
455Telecommunications,   various subclasses for radio transmission or reception.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 90 through 306for the application of a computer in various combinations that may include use of television equipment, as in, for example, subclasses 95-212 product manufacturing, and subclasses 245-264 for data processing of robot control systems.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   for the application of a computer in measuring, testing, or calibrating apparatus that may include use of television equipment.
704Data Processing: Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, and Audio Compression/Decompression,   subclasses 200+ for artificial intelligence systems that process speech signals.
706Data Processing: Artificial Intelligence,   various subclasses for artificial intelligence systems that represent, apply, and acquire knowledge and subclasses 15+ for neural networks and circuits.
709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring,   appropriate subclassesfor data transmission among plurality of spatially distributed computers or digital data processing systems and FOR 101 for foreign art collection of computer-bases communication engineering which may include object defection or tracking.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   appropriate subclasses for digital data error in general.

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

BASIC RECEIVER

A receiver for converting incoming electric signals into television pictures and the associated sound.

BURST

Also called reference burst, the portion of the composite or noncomposite color-picture signal, comprising a few cycles of a sine wave of chrominance subcarrier frequency, that is used to establish a reference for demodulating the chrominance signal.

COMPOSITE COLOR SIGNAL

A color picture signal with all blanking and synchronizing signals. Including luminance and chrominance components; vertical- and horizontal-sync pulses; vertical- and horizontal-blanking pulses; and the color burst signal, with or without accompanying audio.

COMPOSITE VIDEO SIGNAL

A signal in television that conveys all of the intelligence present in the image together with the synchronizing information (e.g., vertical and horizontal pulses) with or without audio information.

CONVENTIONAL CHANNEL

A portion of the spectrum assigned for the standard operation of a specific carrier and the minimum number of sidebands necessary to convey intelligence.

FORMAT

The particular method for combining the time variable video signal with a synchronizing signal to allow reconstruction of an image from the originating video signal.

FREQUENCY DOMAIN

A way of looking at the frequency of waveform components.

IMAGE SENSOR

A generic name for both cathode-ray tube and solid-state imaging devices which converts an optical image of an object into an electrical signal representative of the object image.

KEYSTONING

A distorted scanning pattern, with a top wider than the bottom or vice versa, produced when the electron beam in the television camera tube is at angle with the principal axis of the tube.

PICKUP TUBE

A television camera tube consists of a cathode-ray tube which includes vidicon, orthocon, iconoscope, or plumbicon (i.e., vidicon with lead-oxide target, trademark of N. V. Philips of Holland).

PIXEL OR ELEMENT RATE

The smallest distinguishable and resolvable area in an image.

SCANNING

The successive analyzing or synthesizing, according to a predetermined method, the light values or equivalent characteristics of elements constituting a picture area.

SOLID-STATE IMAGING DEVICE

A device that uses a mosaic of tiny light-sensitive semiconductors (photo-transistors) to produce individual outputs which are then converted into a coherent video signal.

SPATIAL CONTENT, DOMAIN

The content of a single video image.

TEMPORAL CONTENT

The content of the image is changed with respect to time.

VIDEO SIGNAL

A signal in television derived from optical image (e.g., active video).

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.01]    14.01TWO-WAY VIDEO AND VOICE COMMUNICATION (E.G., VIDEOPHONE):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a bidirectional communication of both image signal and accompanying speech signal over a transmission line.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

725Interactive Video Distribution Systems,   subclass 99 for user-requested video program using a telephone network, subclass 106 for telephony via a television distribution network, and subclass 122 for detail of return path via telephone network in video distribution with upstream communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.02]    14.02Over wireless communication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter using communication medium other than transmission line (e.g., radio frequency or infrared frequency).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.03]    14.03User Interface (e.g., touch screen menu):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter wherein a user input command to select videophone relating functions.
(1) Note. For example, the user can input command through a touch sensor on a display.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

715Data Processing: Presentation Processing of Document, Operator Interface Processing, and Screen Saver Display Processing,   subclasses 733 through 759for concurrently established related or collaborative user interfaces including computer conferencing and computer supported cooperative work.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.04]    14.04Operating with other appliance (e.g., VCR, FAX, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter having provision for connecting other electronic communication appliance.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.05]    14.05Remote control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter having provision for controlling a videophone equipment at a distance.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.06]    14.06Answering machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter having provision for storing voice and video information for retrieval at a later time.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 67.1 through 88.28for audio message storage, retrieval, or synthesis in telephone communication, per se.
386Motion Video Signal Processing for Recording or Reproducing,   appropriate subclasses for recording television or video signals for retrieval at a later time.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.07]    14.07Display arrangement (e.g., multiscreen display):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter including circuitry for inserting additional image into an existing image on a display.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

563through 570, for basic television receiver having additional display function which may include multiscreen display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.08]    14.08Conferencing (e.g., loop):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter wherein three or more terminals intercommunicate.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 733 through 747for computer conferencing with visual display.
370Multiplex Communications,   subclasses 260 through 269for conferencing with significant multiplexing techniques.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 202 for three or more terminals on distinct subscriber lines to be included in a single call connection.
709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring,   subclasses 204 through 207for multiple computer conferencing with significant data processing.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.09]    14.09Conferencing with multipoint control unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.08.  Subject matter wherein three or more terminals intercommunicate with at least one central unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.1]    14.1Motion image conferencing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.08.  Subject matter wherein transmitted image information represents only changes from a previous image among three or more terminals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.11]    14.11Switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter including a structure for selectively connecting a conversational video call to a receiving station.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.12]    14.12Transmission control (e.g., resolution or quality):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter including detail of signals formatting, modulating, combining voice and video, or synchronizing for transmission between stations.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

469through 496, for formatting a video signal in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.13]    14.13Compression or decompression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.12.  Subject matter including particular details of transmission scheme for reducing or reconstructing transmission bandwidth.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

384.1through 440.1, for analog television signal bandwidth reduction system.

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370Multiplex Communications,   subclass 477 for transmission bandwidth conservation and subclass 521 for time compression of expansion for multiplex signals.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 240.01 through 240.29for digital television signal bandwidth reduction or expansion.
382Image Analysis,   subclasses 232 through 253for image compression or coding.
704Data Processing: Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, and Audio Compression/Decompression,   subclasses 500 through 504for audio signal bandwidth or time reduction or expansion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.14]    14.14Still frame (e.g., freeze frame):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.12.  Subject matter wherein video displayed is a single image or a sequence for nonmoving images.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

22,for slow scanning transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.15]    14.15Field or frame difference (e.g., moving frame):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.12.  Subject matter wherein transmitted image information represents only changes from a previous image.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

412.1,413.1, and 415.1-417.1, for analog television bandwidth reduction involving difference transmission which may include field or frame difference.

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 240.12 through 240.17for digital television predictive bandwidth reduction which may include field or frame difference.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 14.16]    14.16User positioning (e.g., parallax):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.01.  Subject matter including a structure to ensure that the user is positioned properly in front of a television camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 21]    21PLURAL TRANSMITTER SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS (E.G., INTERFERENCE REDUCTION):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including two or more transmitters with means or method for reducing interference between the transmitters.
(1) Note. Such methods include frequency offsets and special formats.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 22]    22SLOW SCANNING TRANSMISSION (E.G., STILL FRAME):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter involving a periodic or selective transmission of single video frames during a period greater than the period required for a portrayed motion.
(1) Note. A portrayed motion requires at least 8 frames per second. In a television system, 25 or 30 frames per second are mostly used.
(2) Note. A system included herein is normally intended for use with a telephone system, but the telephone system is not claimed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

17,for two way conversational television systems which may use a slow scanning transmission technique, and see particularly subclass 18 for a still frame transmission.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 500 through 540for facsimile scanning and subclass 479 for facsimile video scanning.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 23]    23Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Subject matter wherein the transmitted video signal includes portions indicating the existing color of an original object or scene.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 24]    24PLURAL STILL IMAGES OVER CONVENTIONAL CHANNEL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a system which forms a series of unrelated images at convention frame rates and a receiver which selectively grabs one frame for display.
(1) Note. The frame selected is selected as the viewer watches a program. The systems classified herein often are selected when the frame code matches a viewer selected code.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

473,for formats and systems that add an unrelated image to a conventional video program.
559,for frame grabbing, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 25]    25IMAGE FALSIFICATION TO IMPROVE VIEWER PERCEPTION OF SELECTIVE OBJECT (E.G., MOVING OBJECT OR TARGET):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter involving a system wherein a picture is presented or processed in such a manner as to enable a viewer to quickly perceive selected information in the picture.
(1) Note. Included herein are systems that subtract two images to present the difference, such as motion, or subtract a polarized image from a nonpolarized image to present objects that polarize light.

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578,for special effect devices that modify an image to please a viewer.

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382Image Analysis,   subclasses 254+ for image enhancement or restoration.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 26]    26Contour generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein a display is produced in the form of a line drawing, a line being generated as a result of the interconnection of points exhibiting substantial changes between adjacent pixels.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 558 for stereoplotters.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 2 for contour plotters in which the contour is recorded from stereoscopic images.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 27]    27Quantizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal is separated into discrete amplitudes to expand the difference between selected information and background.

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405,for bandwidth reduction involving transform coding adaptive quantizer.
418,for bandwidth reduction involving difference transmission with vector quantization.
422,for bandwidth reduction involving vector quantization.

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382Image Analysis,   subclasses 270+ for image transformation or pre-recognition using adaptive quantization or variable thresholding.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 28]    28Selective contrast expander:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal has (a) a selected geometrical area with a gray scale which is extended generally to a full range or (b) a selected range of gray scale which is extended generally to a full range to enable a viewer to perceive a selected object from a similar background.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 29]    29False color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter including a color display with a presentation or processing that uses differences in color to accentuate different information in an image.
(1) Note. An example of a system found herein is a movement detection system that presents one field in green and the other in magenta (blue and red) such that stationary objects are in black and white and moving objects are outlined in color.
(2) Note. A system that maps different gray levels to arbitrary colors is found in subclass 34 (pseudo color including intensity to color conversion) regardless of the statement of intent to provide a colored display or to present data for easier presentation.

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34,for pseudo color including intensity to color conversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 30]    30Hue expander:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Subject matter including means for mapping a narrow area of the hue circle into a larger area of the hue circle.
(1) Note. For example, if the center of the narrow area is red after hue expanding, red input will be displayed as red, purple input will be displayed as blue, and orange input will be displayed as yellow.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 31]    31BACK SCATTER REDUCTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means to minimize an adverse effect on a reproduced picture due to the presence of an imperfect optical medium between an object being viewed and a camera.
(1) Note. Examples of imperfect optical medium are turbid water or atmospheric fog which may scatter light transmitted between the camera and the object, the reduction of backscattered light may be obtained by gating a camera during a period corresponding to the round trip transit time of light from the light source to the object and back to the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 32]    32PSEUDO COLOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including generating, transmitting, recording, reproducing, or displaying a picture representative signal which includes portions indicating arbitrarily assigned color.

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378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclass 100 for color television display of X-ray density.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 33]    33Multispectral to color conversion (e.g., infrared and visible, infrared bands, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.  Subject matter including more than one picture signal each represented by a distinct frequency band which is arbitrarily assigned a color.
(1) Note. For example, more than one camera is pointing to a sole object, each camera is responsive to a different specific band of wavelengths.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 34]    34Including intensity to color conversion (e.g., colorizer, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 32.  Subject matter wherein a color is arbitrarily assigned in relation to an amplitude of the picture signal.

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29+,for false color.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 35]    35PSEUDO BLACK AND WHITE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including generating, transmitting, recording, reproducing, or displaying a picture representative signal which includes portions indicating arbitrarily assigned gray level representative of color.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 36]    36PANORAMIC:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means for generating television information for a wide-angle field of view.
(1) Note. The wide-angle field of view should be greater than the television wide aspect ratio (e.g., 16:9).

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432,for bit-rate reduction with added video information in standard channel format.
903,for side panel information in single channel.
904,for separation or joining of side and center panels.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 69+ for panoramic motion picture apparatus.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 725 for panoramic lenses.
396Photography,   subclass 436 for panoramic cameras.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 37]    37With continuously rotating element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Subject matter wherein a continuously rotating element is used to generate images of successive portions of the scene.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 38]    38Multiple channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Subject matter wherein more than one transmission path is used to provide simultaneously plural portions of the scene.

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388,for a multiple channel bandwidth reduction system.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 39]    39With observer selected field of view:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.  Subject matter having provision for a user to select a portion of the whole scene to be displayed.

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445,for format conversion between aspect ratios.
556,for receiver with additional function to receive signals of different aspect ratio.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 40]    40HOLOGRAPHIC:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal includes information derived from an object wave formed by the resulting interference pattern of two mutually coherent component light beams.
(1) Note. In the holographic process a coherent beam is first split into two component beams, one of which irradiates a recording medium. The diffraction or scattering of the first component beam by the object forms the object wave which proceeds to, and interferes with, the second component beam or reference wave at the medium. The resulting pattern is a three-dimensional record (hologram) of the object wave.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 1+ for optical holographic system or element, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 41]    41Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal is displayed in a hue as contrasted with black, white, or gray.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 42]    42STEREOSCOPIC:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the picture signal also includes portions indicating the three-dimensional nature of the original object or scene.

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 86 for motion picture apparatus wherein an illusion of depth is presented.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 462+ for optical elements to give a three-dimensional effect.
396Photography,   subclasses 324+ for stereoscopic photography.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 43]    43Signal formatting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter including an arrangement for combining video signals representing different viewing positions for transmission.

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469+,for television signal formatting, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 44]    44Pseudo:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein an image signal is modified to simulate a three-dimensional image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 45]    45Endoscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein a stereoscopic picture signal generator is combined with an instrument which is used for the medical inspection of the interior of a human body.

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65+,for non-stereoscopic endoscope.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 241.1+ for borescope.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 117+ for imaging optical fiber bundle for use in endoscope.
600Surgery,   subclasses 101+ for endoscopes in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 46]    46Picture signal generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter including means for scanning an object or scene and deriving in response thereto a stereoscopic picture signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 47]    47Multiple cameras:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter comprising at least two picture signal generators.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 48]    48More than two cameras:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Subject matter comprising at least three picture signal generators.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 49]    49Single camera with optical path division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter including an arrangement for optically combining different views for presentation to a single scanning device.

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343,for camera optical multiplexing.
344,for camera optical path switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 50]    50Single camera from multiple positions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Subject matter wherein the camera is either continuously or intermittently moved between left and right viewing positions.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 51]    51Stereoscopic display device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter including means for converting an image representative electrical signal (i.e., video signal) of an object or scene into a visible image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 52]    52More than two display devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter comprising more than two display devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 53]    53Viewer attached:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter wherein the display device is mounted on a support adapted to be worn by a user at the level of his field of view.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 54]    54Single display with optical path division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter includes an arrangement for optically presenting different views from a single display device to the right and left eye of a viewer.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 55]    55Separation by time division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the different views are presented to respective eyes of the viewer during alternating time periods.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 56]    56With alternating shutters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the different views are presented to respective eyes of the viewer by the use of shutters alternately opening and closing.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 57]    57With alternating polarization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the different views are presented to respective eyes of the viewer by the use of at least one polarizing filter whose axis of polarization is alternately changed.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 58]    58Separation by polarization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the different views are presented to respective eyes of the viewer by the use of at least one optical device which vibrates a light ray passed therethrough in accordance with a particular orientation pattern.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 59]    59Separation by lenticular screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the different views are presented to respective eyes of the viewer by the use of a screen comprising multiple lens elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 60]    60Separation by color (i.e., anaglyphic):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the different views are presented to respective eyes of the viewer by the use of contrasting color filters on each eye, usually red on one eye and blue or green on the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 61]    61SPECIAL APPLICATIONS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including modification of or addition to an ordinary television system to adapt that system to a specific use.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 62]    62Aid for the blind:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a particular representation is generated in a form (a) which is to be principally interpreted by a sense other than the sense of sight or (b) which is easy to perceive by an individual having partial loss of sight.
(1) Note. Examples of nonvisible displays are a matrix of mechanical or electrical elements which selectively apply pressure or voltage to portions of a person and electrodes which may be implanted into appropriate areas of the brain.

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434Education and Demonstration,   subclasses 112+ for reading devices for the blind.
623Prosthesis (i.e., Artificial Body Members), Parts Thereof, or Aids and Accessories Therefor,   appropriate subclasses for artificial body members, including seeing aids for the blind.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 63]    63Image magnifying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 62.  Subject matter wherein the reproduced picture of a viewed object is greater in dimension than the viewed object.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

561,for receiver processing circuitry for magnification of part of image.
581,for special effect, geometric transformation of size.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 64]    64Combined electronic sensing and photographic film cameras:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator is combined with a photographic still or motion picture camera to provide a visible indication of the scene being photographed (e.g., remote viewing by an operator or a director).

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352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclass 131 for motion picture cameras combined with a diverse type device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 65]    65With endoscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator is combined with an instrument which is used for the medical inspection of the interior of a human body.

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45,for stereoscopic endoscope.
82+,for television systems for use in inaccessible locations such as pipeline or borehole.

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128Surgery,   subclasses 4+ for endoscopes in general.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 241.1+ for borescope.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 117+ for imaging optical fiber bundle for use in endoscope.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 66]    66Dental:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generator is combined with the endoscope for the examination of teeth or gum.

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433Dentistry,   subclasses 29+ for apparatus having means to emit radiation or facilitate viewing of the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 67]    67Laser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein an endoscopic light source is provided by an optical resonator which utilizes the natural oscillations of atoms or molecules between energy levels to transform an incoherent light into a very narrow, intense beam of coherent electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet, visible, or infrared regions of the spectrum.
(1) Note. Laser is an acronym for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation."

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372Coherent Light Generators,   for laser, per se.
606Surgery,   subclasses 2+ for light application instruments.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 68]    68Illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein an optical arrangement is used to direct a light source or to control the intensity of a light source projected on the inspected surface of a human body.

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370+,for television camera with object or scene illumination.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 203.2 for photocell control illumination of a target by artificial light source and subclasses 227.29, 227.3, 227.31, and 227.32 for light conductor with particular illumination.
362Illumination,   appropriate subclasses for illumination structure details.
600Surgery,   subclasses 101+ for endoscope illumination for use in surgery.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 69]    69Controlled by video signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter wherein the generated picture signal is fed back to the light source to regulate the intensity of light projected on the inspected surface of the human body.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 70]    70Color sequential illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal is displayed in a hue as a result of a sequential illumination of an object by different wavelengths (e.g., red, green, blue, etc.).

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269,for camera with color sequential illumination.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 71]    71Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal is displayed in a hue as contrasted with black, white, or gray.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 72]    72Plural endoscopes interchangeable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter having more than one endoscope which permits mutual substitution.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 73]    73External camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generator is placed outside of the endoscope.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 74]    74With additional adjunct (e.g., recorder control, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the endoscope is combined with another system to improve the television system.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 75]    75Adaptor or connector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter including an auxiliary structure for coupling the endoscope to the picture signal generator or to another apparatus or system.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 76]    76Physical structure of circuit element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter comprising a configuration detail of an endoscope optical arrangement or its solid-state integrated circuit layout.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 77]    77Human body observation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the television system is specifically used for examining a person in total or part.

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396Photography,   subclasses 14+ for eye, mouth, or body photography.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 78]    78Eye:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein the human body being observed is an organ of sight.

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351Optics: Eye Examining, Vision Testing and Correcting,   subclasses 206+ for eye examining or testing including eye photography.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 79]    79Microscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the television system is combined with an optical instrument which generates enlarged images of minute objects.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 368+ for microscope, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 80]    80Electronic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Subject matter wherein the microscope utilizes an electron beam for the observation and recording of submicroscopic samples.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 311 for electron microscope, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 81]    81Underwater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator is mounted on or enclosed within an apparatus permitting placement of the generator in an environment below the surface of the water.

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294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 66.2 for an underwater television camera, nominally claimed, in combination with underwater handling equipment.
396Photography,   subclasses 25+ for underwater-type photographic cameras.
398Optical Communications,   subclasses 104 through 105for underwater optical communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 82]    82Hazardous or inaccessible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator is enclosed in or provided with structure to permit its use in environments of extreme heat or radiation or where access is not possible by humans or an ordinary television system.

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65+,for picture signal generators employed in endoscopes.
81,for picture signal generators used in underwater environments.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 97 for apparatus to locate and repair cracks in pipes that may utilize television.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 241.1+ for bore inspection utilizing optical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 83]    83Furnace (e.g., nuclear reactor, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Subject matter wherein the hazardous environment is an enclosed structure in which relatively intense heat is produced.

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976Nuclear Technology,   digest 235 for monitoring, testing, or maintaining a structural combination of reactor core or a moderator structure with viewing means which may be a television camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 84]    84Pipeline:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Subject matter wherein the inaccessible environment is a tubular conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 85]    85Borehole:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Subject matter wherein the inaccessible environment is a hole drilled in the earth (e.g., an exploratory well).

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 302 and 304+ for borehole directions indications.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.01+ for instruments for borehole studies.
166Wells,   subclasses 64 and 66 for well apparatus including measuring, testing, or indicating means and subclasses 250.01+ for well processes including measuring, testing, or indicating.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 40+ for a process +or means of measuring or testing combined with an earth boring process or apparatus.
181Acoustics,   subclasses 102+ for well exploration by use of seismic prospecting systems which do not involve the handling of electric signals that contain geophysical information.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 256+ for ray energy detection or measurement (including detection or measurement of radioactive materials) applied to a borehole or drilling study.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 323+ for electrical testing of boreholes.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 853.1+ for telemetering in wells.
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 25+ for seismic well logging using acoustic wave responsive electrical means.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 86]    86Manufacturing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator (i.e., television camera) is utilized for monitoring a manufacturing operation.
(1) Note. Patents included in this subclass contain detailed structure of the television system and nominal or no specific recitation of machine or tool structure. Patents with detailed structure of the tool or machine are classified according to the tool or machine structure.

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382Image Analysis,   subclasses 141+ for manufacturing using image analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 87]    87Electronic circuit chip or board (e.g., positioning):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the manufacturing object includes a semiconductor substrate or a board on which multiple semiconductor devices are integrated.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 833 for methods of assembling an electronic component to an insulative base by utilizing an optical sighting device wherein the assembly is performed at least in part by using means which aid or enhance visual location or determination of the position of the component relative to the base.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 88]    88Web, sheet or filament:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein an object being manufactured is a thin sheet, plate or strip, or a thin flexible threadlike object.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 571 for photocell operated devices for detecting web, strand, strip, or sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 89]    89Agricultural or food production:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein an object being manufactured is a produced crop or a livestock or a preparation of these products.

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99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclass 341 for cooking with observation means.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 90]    90Welding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the manufacturing includes joining metallic parts by heating.

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219Electric Heating,   subclass 121.83 for electric heating with monitoring.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 91]    91Sorting, distributing or classifying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generator is used to separate manufactured objects in different categories by structure or destination.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 92]    92Quality inspection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generator is used to determine acceptability of a manufactured object.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 93]    93Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter wherein the control involves a distinction of different aspect of an object or a light source in terms of hue.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 94]    94Position detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein the television system is used to determine a point or a place where an object is located.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 95]    95Alignment or positioning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein the television system is used in manufacturing to help adjust an apparatus or place an object to an appropriate position.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 138+ for angle measuring or axial alignment and subclasses 399+ for alignment in lateral direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 96]    96Film, disc or card scanning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter including an apparatus to position a picture signal generator or the record whereby the record can be viewed by the picture signal generator and displayed on a display device.
(1) Note. The picture signal generator and display may also be utilized as an aid in locating a given record.

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360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 9.1+ , 14.1+, 19.1, and 33.1+ for magnetic storage or retrieval of non-color television signals.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for storage and retrieval of electrical signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 97]    97Motion picture film scanner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 96.  Subject matter including means for scanning a motion picture film (e.g., telecin) and synchronously advancing or stepping the film past the scanning apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 98]    98Mechanical optical scanning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 97.  Subject matter wherein the scanning is performed by a mechanical moving device.

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195,for mechanical optical scanning which is not applied to motion picture film.
474+,for facsimile systems utilizing mechanical-optical elements.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 234+ for photocell combined with moving optical systems.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   appropriate subclasses for mechanical film advancing devices.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 196.1 through 226.3and 298+ for optical scanning devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 99]    99Flying spot scanner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical optical scanning means provides a small beam of light which moves over a film and translates the highlights and shadows into electrical signals.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

209.99,for generic camera flying spot scanner, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 100]    100Flying spot scanner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 97.  Subject matter wherein the scanning means provides a small beam of light which moves over a film and translates the highlights and shadows into electrical signals.

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209.99,for camera flying spot scanner, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 101]    101Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generated having portion indicating the existing color of an object or scene in the film.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

210.99,for color camera flying spot scanner, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 102]    102Intermittent film movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the film is advanced past the scanner in a periodically stopping and moving manner.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 103]    103With modification of scanner sweep:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter including apparatus to modify the scanning motion of the scanning means to properly coordinate the scanning motion with the film position.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 104]    104Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 97.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generated having portion indicating the existing color of an object or scene in the film.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 105]    105Intermittent film movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 97.  Subject matter wherein the film is advanced past the scanner in a periodically stopping and moving manner.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 106]    106With modification of scanner sweep:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 97.  Subject matter including apparatus to modify the scanning motion of the scanning means to properly coordinate the scanning motion with the film position.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 107]    107With record location:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 96.  Subject matter including an apparatus to select a particular information containing record.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 108]    108Flying spot scanner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 96.  Subject matter wherein the scanning means provides a small beam of light which moves over a film and translates the highlights and shadows into electrical signals.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

209.99,for camera flying spot scanner, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 109]    109Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generated having portion indicating the existing color of an object or scene in the film.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

210.99,for color camera flying spot scanner, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 110]    110Slide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 96.  Subject matter including a photographic transparency or film individually mounted on a frame adapted to be moved to a scanning area.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 111]    111Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal generated having portion indicating the existing color of an object or scene in the slide.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 112]    112Microfilm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 96.  Subject matter including a film bearing a photographic record on a reduced scale.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 113]    113Navigation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator or reproducer is used with a steerable vehicle to permit control of the vehicle from a remote location or to provide an indication in the vehicle of its position as an aid in the guidance of the vehicle.
(1) Note. Included here is a significant television processing system and nominal recitation of the vehicle.

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143+,for television surveillance systems wherein a selected area is viewed from a remote location for other than navigational purposes.

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244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 3.11+ for remote control of a missile trajectory.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 945+ for electrical aircraft alarm or indication systems, subclasses 984+ for electrical watercraft alarm or indication systems, subclasses 988+ for electrical vehicle position indication systems, and subclasses 425.5+ for electrical land vehicle alarm or indication systems.
434Education and Demonstration,   subclasses 111 , 186, and 239+ for apparatus to instruct in navigation of various vehicles.
701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclasses 400 through 541for navigation using computer systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 114]    114Remote control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator or reproducer is used with a steerable vehicle to permit control of the vehicle from a distant location.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 115]    115Head-up display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter wherein a television image is optically superimposed upon a real live scene within a field of view of an observer.
(1) Note. The superimposition is typically performed by a partially silvered mirror.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 980 for aircraft alarm or indicating systems which may include a head-up display.
345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 7+ for head-up display having electrical features.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 13 for holographic head-up display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 116]    116Direction finding or location determination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter including an apparatus for assistance in pointing out a proper route or determining coordinates of an unknown place in reference to a known place.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 117]    117Aircraft or spacecraft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter wherein the vehicle is a load-carrying structure for navigation in the air or in space.

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244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   appropriate subclasses for spacecraft of aircraft, per se.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 945+ for electrical aircraft alarm or indication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 118]    118Land vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Subject matter including a steerable machine for transportation on a solid surface.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 988+ for electrical vehicle position indication systems and subclasses 425.5+ for electrical land vehicle alarm or indication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 119]    119Program control (e.g., path guidance, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Subject matter wherein certain functions of the vehicle can be set in advance by previously stored instructions.

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701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclasses 23+ for vehicle automatic route guidance system.
901Robots,   (cross-reference art collection), subclass 1 for mobile robot.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 120]    120Farm vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Subject matter wherein the vehicle being navigated is devoted to agriculture purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 121]    121Simulator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter including television means to recreate some aspects of the displayed environment (e.g., land, air, or sea).

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 384 for apparatus for producing audible sounds as signaling indications such as sound which simulates the noise in an airplane for use in training programs.
434Education and Demonstration,   subclasses 111 , 186, and 239+ for apparatus to instruct in the navigation of various vehicles; subclasses 43 and 69 for apparatus to instruct in the use of various vehicles; and subclasses 11+ for apparatus to portray various operations in war.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 122]    122Visibility (e.g., fog, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the particular environment to be simulated is a condition that affects the quality or state of being visible.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 123]    123Aircraft or spacecraft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the particular environment to be simulated is a load-carrying structure for navigation in the air or in space.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 124]    124Ship:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the particular environment to be simulated is a vessel that navigates in water.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 125]    125Flaw detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a picture signal generator is utilized to view an object and the signals so generated produce a display whereby imperfections in the object may be visually observed, or wherein the signals generated are compared with signals representative of a standard to provide an indication of whether imperfections exist in the object.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 600 for flaw detection by measuring velocity or propagation time of beamed mechanical waves.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 562+ and 572 for photocell operated devices for evaluating and detecting defects in a sheet.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 200+ for flaw testing using magnetic effect.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 426+ for optical inspection of an article with agitation or rotation; subclasses 429+ for inspection of moving webs or thread; and subclasses 237.1+ for optical systems for detecting flaws or imperfections.
382Image Analysis,   appropriate subclasses for flaw detection by image analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 126]    126Of electronic circuit chip or board:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the object to be inspected is a semiconductor substrate or a board on which multiple semiconductor devices are integrated.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 127]    127Of transparent container or content (e.g., bottle, jar, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the object to be observed for imperfection detection is a clear receptacle or a clear flexible covering or its content.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 128]    128Of surface (e.g., texture or smoothness, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the television system aids in inspecting the appearance of an surface for its polish (smoothness) or its pattern structure regularity (texture).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 129]    129By comparison with reference object:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein the picture signals of a viewed object is compared with signals representative of a standard to provide an indication of whether imperfections exist in the object.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 130]    130With stored representation of reference object:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a device is used to hold picture signals of reference objects, which will be retrieved latter to compare with picture signals of the inspected object.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 131]    131With specific illumination detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein a particular optical arrangement or material is used for directing a light source or varying its brightness on the surface of an inspected object.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

370,for camera with object or scene illumination.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 132]    132With strobe illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter wherein a flashtube is used to emit a high intensity flash of light into an examination region.

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371,for camera with flash or strobe illumination.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 133]    133With circuit detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein a structural detail of a video circuit for flaw detection is being presented.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 134]    134Including line to line comparison:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Subject matter wherein a video signal of one scan line is being compared to a video signal of a preceding line.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 135]    135Object or scene measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter including apparatus for utilizing the signal developed by a picture signal generator viewing an object or scene to provide quantitative information about the object or scene.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 3+ for range or remote distance finding utilizing optical elements in combination with a photocell.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 127+ for a generic measuring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 136]    136Projected scale on object:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein a known geometry light source (i.e., optical pattern) is projected onto the surface of an object for measuring purpose.

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353Optics: Image Projectors,   subclass 28 for projected image combined with real object and subclasses 40+ for scale or scale indicator projector.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 137]    137Scale on camera target:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein an image of a series of marks at known intervals (i.e., scale) is superposed on an image of an object on a picture pickup device for measuring purpose.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 138]    138Pulse or clock counting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein a counting of digital signals is performed for measuring purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 139]    139Multiple cameras on baseline (e.g., range finder, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein several cameras are placed on a line of known position and are aimed at a target to determine the position or orientation of the target.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 140]    140Distance by apparent target size (e.g., stadia, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter including an instrument for determining a distance to an object based on the known dimension of the object.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 141]    141By cursor coordinate location:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the picture signal of an object is displayed with a superposed identifying marker (cursor) used to determine the dimension of the object.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 142]    142With camera and object moved relative to each other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the camera or object position change is considered as a factor for determining a dimension.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 143]    143Observation of or from a specific location (e.g., surveillance):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter including apparatus to view a scene at a specified location remote from the reproducer for the purpose of monitoring a specific location, function, or event not provided for in the above subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 144]    144Aerial viewing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the specific location, function, or event is viewed from an aircraft or satellite.

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396Photography,   subclasses 7+ for aerial cameras.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 145]    145With linear array:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter having a plurality of photosensitive elements arranged in one row to perform a line scanning.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 146]    146With rotating reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter having a mirror type apparatus rotating about an axis to accomplish one scanning dimension.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 147]    147With transformation or rectification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter having an image processing apparatus which corrects any distortion produced in the picture image when the position of the observed point is moved with respect to the picture image pickup.

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580+,for geometric transformation special effects.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 148]    148Vehicular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the surveillance system includes a steerable machine for carrying or transporting a load on or below land or water surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 149]    149Traffic monitoring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 148.  Subject matter wherein the movement of vehicles through an area or along a route is being regulated.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 907+ for electrical traffic control indicator.
346Recorders,   subclass 107 for vehicle photographing.
360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclass 5 for recording for selective retention of a special occurrence (e.g., vehicle crash recorder, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 150]    150Point of sale or banking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the location to be surveyed is a place where currency is being exchanged.

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902Electronic Funds Transfer,   subclass 6 for electronic means providing security using image processor (e.g., video camera).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 151]    151Camera concealment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the picture pickup apparatus is intended to be out of normal view.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 152]    152Intrusion detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter including a camera for discovering the presence of a person or an object to which entrance is not welcomed.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 541+ for systems to detect approach of object or persons.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 153]    153Using plural cameras:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Subject matter wherein several cameras are used for intrusion detection.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 154]    154Motion detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Subject matter including apparatus for utilizing a television picture signal to develop signals indicative of whether movement has taken place in a selected scene or area over a given period of time.

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700,for signal processing circuitry involving motion dependent key signal generation or scene change detection.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 155]    155Motion detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Subject matter including apparatus for utilizing a television picture signal to develop signals indicative of whether movement has taken place in a selected scene or area over a given period of time.

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700,for signal processing circuitry involving motion dependent key signal generation or scene change detection.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 156]    156Access control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein a camera is used to permit entrance or exit of an authorized person or vehicle.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 5.2 through 5.74for authorization control (e.g., entry into an area).
382Image Analysis,   subclasses 115+ for personnel identification using image analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 157]    157Sporting event:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the camera is used for remote monitoring of an athletic endeavor.

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715Data Processing: Presentation Processing of Document, Operator Interface Processing, and Screen Saver Display Processing,   subclasses 700 through 866for operator interface processing.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 158]    158Portable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the surveillance system is made to be easily carried along with a user.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 159]    159Plural cameras:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein several cameras are used.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 160]    160Reading meter or data printer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the television system is used for remote reading of data on a measuring instrument or a printer.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 161]    161Object comparison (e.g., remote verification of signature, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the video signal of an object is sent to a viewer at a remote site for a characteristic or quality examination with respect to a reference in order to discover resemblances or differences.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 5.1 through 5.92for intelligence comparison for controlling in a selective communication system
382Image Analysis,   subclasses 2+ for personnel verification by checking signature or fingerprint, etc., using systematic analysis of image data.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 162]    162RESPONSIVE TO NONVISIBLE ENERGY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a picture signal generator that is responsive to energy other than visible light for conversion into electrical signals representative of the scene or object viewed and providing a visible display.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 336.1+ for invisible radiant energy responsive systems and non-scanning process.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 163]    163Sonic or ultrasonic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein the energy is sonic or ultrasonic waves.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 596+ for similar apparatus utilizing acoustic wave energy to produce an image corresponding to the acoustic properties (e.g., absorption, reflection) of a viewed object.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 850+ for compressional wave systems in an underwater environment.
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 7+ for acoustic image conversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 164]    164Infrared:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein energy is infrared radiation.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 330+ for infrared to visible imaging and subclasses 338.1+ for infrared responsive devices.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 124 for similar subject matter for providing the spatial distribution of temperature by measuring thermally emitted radiant energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 165]    165Pyroelectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 164.  Subject matter wherein an image is generated in response to a change of temperature of incremental pixel areas.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 166]    166With linear array:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 164.  Subject matter including a multiplicity of sensor elements which are arranged in a one-dimensional matrix.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 167]    167With rotating reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the sensor includes multifaceted polygon reflecting elements for scanning sweep in the primary (fast) direction.
(1) Note. The fast direction may be a horizontal or vertical scan.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 168]    168With rotating reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 164.  Subject matter wherein a sensor includes multifaceted polygon reflecting elements for scanning sweep in the primary (fast) direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 169]    169OBJECT TRACKING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein signals representative of the position of a moving object projected onto a picture signal generator viewing surface are utilized to control the generator (optically, electrically, or by reorientation) to maintain the object in the field of view of the generator.
(1) Note. Electrical control of the generator involves control of the sweep system as an example.

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208.99,for image stabilization.

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235Registers,   subclasses 411+ for means to determine the position of an object in ordnance control systems and not employing a particular sighting means.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 203.1+ for systems utilizing a photocell to follow a point.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 75+ wherein the position of the object determines antenna orientation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 170]    170Using tracking gate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Subject matter wherein the object is maintained within the field of view by gating signals derived from a small area of the picture signal generator viewing surface and maintaining the signals representative of the object in that gated area.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 171]    171Centroidal tracking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein a center of optical mass of the object is employed for location designation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 172]    172Centroidal tracking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Subject matter wherein a center of optical mass of the object is employed for location designation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 173]    173CATHODE-RAY TUBE BURN-IN PREVENTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a device to prevent damage to a cathode-ray tube phosphor screen or target due to a steady non-moving image or due to a sweep cessation.
(1) Note. For example, superimposed on a regular horizontal and vertical deflection of the scanning beam is an imperceptably slow horizontal and/or vertical movement of the display image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 174]    174Camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Subject matter wherein the device is applied to prevent burn-in of the target of an image pickup tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 175]    175CAMERA WITH BUILT-IN TEST SIGNAL GENERATOR, TEST PATTERN, OR ADJUSTING ADJUNCT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including the integral combination of a camera and a further means which aids in correctly adjusting the operation of the camera when the further means is used.
(1) Note. The further means is normally selected by the operator.
(2) Note. Self-regulating devices such as automatic white balance, automatic black level, or automatic gain control which often use a "test signal" are excluded from this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

207.99through 207.2, for camera with self-regulating control.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 176]    176Setup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Subject matter wherein the adjusting adjunct includes means for disabling a normal circuit function.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 177]    177DISPLAY OR RECEIVER WITH BUILT-IN TEST SIGNAL GENERATOR, TEST PATTERN, OR ADJUSTING ADJUNCT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including the integral combination of a display and means to aid in adjusting the display.
(1) Note. Self-regulating devices such as automatic white balance, automatic black level, or automatic gain control which often use a "test pulse" or "test signal" are excluded from this subclass.

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657,and 658, for a display with a self-regulation white balance.
678+,for a receiver with automatic gain control.
691+,for a receiver with automatic black level control.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 178]    178Setup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter wherein the adjusting adjunct includes means for disabling a normal circuit function.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 179]    179Color match comparator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Subject matter including a means for comparing a picture signal with a reference picture signal to permit an accurate adjustment for the color reception.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

657,and 658, for color match comparator built-in to the receiver.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 180]    180MONITORING, TESTING, OR MEASURING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means separate from the television system or components for monitoring, testing, or measuring parameters of the television system or components being tested, measured, or monitored.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 504 for color facsimile testing and measuring.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 67.11 through 67.7for modulated carrier wave systems including monitoring, measuring, or testing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 181]    181Test signal generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including a means for generating a video test signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 182]    182Chroma or color bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 181.  Subject matter wherein the test signal represents the quality of light which includes color and its purity or a color bar signal which consists of six colors (yellow, cyan, green, magenta, red, and blue).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 183]    183VITS or ILTS:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 181.  Subject matter wherein the test signal is a vertical interval test signal (VITS), interjected during the vertical blanking interval, or is an in-line test signal (ILTS), injected during the portion of the visible or image interval.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 184]    184Monitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including a means for displaying to a human observer information concerning the video signal being measured.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 185]    185Combined plural functions (e.g., picture and waveform monitor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Subject matter wherein the monitor includes plural modes for selectively displaying incompatible signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 186]    186Vectorscope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Subject matter including an instrument for displaying in two dimensions the phase relationships of two signals or signal components.
(1) Note. The signal is normally a chrominance signal with one component controlling the x-direction and the other component controlling the y-direction.

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324Electricity: Measuring, and Testing,   subclass 88 for phase measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 187]    187Testing of camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including a means for testing an image signal generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 188]    188Using test chart:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter wherein the means includes an optical pattern containing a group of lines and circles for testing the performance of the TV camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 189]    189Testing of image reproducer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including a means for testing a device that converts a scene-representative electrical signal into a visible image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 190]    190Alignment-manufacturing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter including a means for an initial adjustment of the television receiver during a manufacturing process.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 191]    191Display photometry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter including a means for measuring and displaying the properties of light generated by the receiver or monitor.

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356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 213+ for photometry, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 192]    192Transmission path testing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including a means for testing a quality of a TV transmission channel.

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714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclasses 712+ for error testing of a transmission channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 193]    193Signal to noise ratio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Subject matter wherein the testing includes a signal to noise ratio.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 194]    194Synchronization (e.g., H-sync to subcarrier):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter including a means for measuring the time or phase relationships between components of a TV synchronizing signal.

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186,for phase measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 195]    195MECHANICAL OPTICAL SCANNING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a mechanical moving device is used for scanning an object or a scene (i.e., partitioning it into elemental imaging areas to generate image representative electrical signals) or scanning imaging areas by a modulated light beam to reproduce the object or scene visible image.

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98,for mechanical-optical scanning systems in motion picture film scanning.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 234+ for photocell combined with moving optical systems.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 474 through 498for facsimile systems utilizing mechanical - optical elements.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 196.1 through 226.3for deflection using a moving element or medium and subclasses 227+ for light control by opaque element or medium movable in or through light path.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 196]    196Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the image signal generated or reproduced is in color.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 197]    197With fiber optics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter including an optical waveguide which confines a transmitted radiation therewithin by means of the principle of total internal reflection.
(1) Note. Optical fibers are usually comprised of a central light transmitting core of relatively high refractive index, surrounded by a concentric cladding of relatively low refractive index.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 227.11+ for photocell with fiber optic elements.
385Optical Waveguides,   appropriate subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 198]    198By acoustic wave:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the scanning is effected by using an elastic or sound wave for displacing or deforming portions of an optically transmitting medium surface or interface.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 285+ and 305+ for acousto-optic modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 199]    199Moving aperture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the scanning is accomplished by a moving device which has one or multiple openings that will pass light, electrons, or other forms of radiation (e.g., Nipkow disk).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 200]    200Drum or belt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the moving device is a cylinder or a continuous band of flexible material.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 201]    201Multiple scanning elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter in which the apertures are included on more than one scanning element.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 202]    202Moving lens or refractor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the scanning is performed by a lens or refracting element that is given a prescribed motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 203]    203Moving reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the scanning is performed by an element that is given a prescribed motion and that has a property of returning incident light or sound wave.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 204]    204Helical element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter in which the reflecting element is of a spiral configuration.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 205]    205Vibrating or oscillating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter wherein the prescribed motion consists of periodic movements in alternately opposite directions from a position of equilibrium.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 206]    206SPECIAL SCANNING (E.G., SPIRAL, RANDOM, ZIGZAG):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a pattern of scanning is not generally horizontal from one side to the other with a quick blanked retrace to start all lines from the same side (e.g., spiral scanning, scanning without retrace, vertical scanning).
(1) Note. For systems using spotwobble which is generally horizontal with a small undulating vertical component, see subclass 428.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 207.1]    207.1Camera connected to computer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein a camera is used as a computer peripheral for generating image data that is processed and/or stored by the computer for display to a local user, for downloading to an end user, or for being combined with computer-generated data.
(1) Note. Image transmission may be by asynchronous, isochroous or other protocol.
(2) Note. Network communication details are classified elsewhere.

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207.1,for camera combined with diverse art such as a computer.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 207.11]    207.11Computer can control camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.1.  Subject matter wherein an external computer controls camera parameters.
(1) Note. Camera parameters are for example exposure, focus and gain and/or the camera s shutter timing and frame rate.

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211.99,for remote control.
207.1,for camera combined with diverse art such as a computer.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 207.2]    207.2Camera connected to printer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including a system or device for scanning image or scene is connected to the printer wherein the data obtained by the scanning system or device is transferred to the printer for a hard copy print out.

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347Incremental Printing or Symbolic Information,   subclass 2 for combined.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 1.1 , for Static presentation processing (e.g., processing data for printer), subclass 906 for hand-held camera with recorder in single unit, subclass 909.1, for electronic still camera or scene reproducer.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 207.99]    207.99CAMERA, SYSTEM AND DETAIL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a system or device for scanning image of the object or scene (i.e., partitioning the scene into sub-areas of image information and generating there from an image representative electrical signal) or the above combined with circuitry for processing the image signal, and sub combinations specific to the camera.
(1) Note. The sub-area is usually an elemental area or pixtel.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 479 for a video camera scanning document or other static image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.1]    208.1Electrical motion detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.99.  Subject matter wherein the direction and magnitude of a camera s movement is computed by measuring changes in direction and magnitude between consecutive planes of image data.

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699,for motion vector generation.

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382Image Analysis,   subclass 107 for motion measuring.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.11]    208.11Optics, lens shifting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.7.  Subject matter wherein the portion of the camera that is moved is its lens or another optical element.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 554 for image stabilization.
396Photography,   subclass 55 for stabilizing system.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.12]    208.12Combined with other camera operations (e.g., autofocus or autoexposure details):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.99.  Subject matter wherein modification is camera operations are made in response to camera movement.
(1) Note. For instance, image stabilization is used to move a signal processing window from which signals are derived to perform an operation such as autofocusing or autoexposure, the movement of the window being made to follow camera movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.13]    208.13Motion correction plus resolution enhancement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.12.  Subject matter wherein image signals are processed so as to compensate for loss of resolution due to motion signal processing.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.14]    208.14Object tracking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.12.  Subject matter wherein camera motion is distinguished from object motion and object motion information is used to accomplish object tracking in the presence of camera shake.

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169,for object tracking.

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382Image Analysis,   subclass 103 for target tracking.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.15]    208.15Warning/indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.12.  Subject matter wherein a warning is indicated when camera shake exceeds acceptable limits.
(1) Note. For instance, a warning may be via sound, light or display, etc.

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396Photography,   subclass 52 for camera shake sensing.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.16]    208.16Changing camera function based on motion detection (mode, power supply):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.12.  Subject matter wherein the camera s operating mode is automatically changed or power to the camera is automatically turned off when camera shake exceeds acceptable limits.

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372,for power supply control.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.2]    208.2Mechanical motion detection (gyros, accelerometers, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.99.  Subject matter wherein the direction and magnitude of a camera s movement is measured using a motion transducer mounted on or within the camera body.

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396Photography,   subclass 53 for shake sensing using accelerometers.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.3]    208.3Differentiating unintentional from purposeful camera movement (pan, tilt):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.99.  Subject matter wherein measurements of a camera s movement are evaluated in order to distinguish between camera movement done on purpose and camera movement that is not done on purpose, i.e., accidental.
(1) Note. Image processing (including compensation for camera movement) is performed according to the differentiation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.4]    208.4Motion correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.99.  Subject matter wherein the movement of a camera during a photographing operation is compensated in order to produce an output image that is free from blur or other motion-induced artifacts.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.5]    208.5Including both electrical and mechanical correcting devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.4.  Subject matter wherein the compensation for camera movement is performed by both electronic image shifting and mechanical movement of a portion of the camera.
(1) Note. These operations may be performed simultaneously or in sequence.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.6]    208.6Electrical (memory shifting, electronic zoom, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.4.  Subject matter wherein the compensation for camera movement is performed electronically.
(1) Note. For instance by reducing the image size and shifting the reduced image data either as it being stored in a memory or as it is being read out there from. Such an operation is often accompanied by electronic zooming of the image data to its original size.

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382Image Analysis,   subclass 103 for target tracking.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.7]    208.7Mechanical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.4.  Subject matter wherein the compensation for camera movement is performed by mechanically moving either a portion of the camera, e.g., lens or the entire camera itself.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 554 for image stabilization.
396Photography,   subclass 55 for stabilizing system.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.8]    208.8Variable angle prisms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.7.  Subject matter wherein the portion of a camera that is moved is a solid whose bases or ends are any similar, equal, and parallel plane figures, and whose sides are parallelograms and said solid is moved through a variable angle.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 554 for image stabilization.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 208.99]    208.99Camera image stabilization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including a device to compensate for unwanted movement of a camera to prevent blurring or distortion of resulting pictures.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 209.99]    209.99With flying spot scanner
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter having a device in which a rapidly moving spot of light scans an image on a transparent screen; a phototube then absorbs the light reflected by the screen and converts it into electric signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 210.99]    210.99For color scanning
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.99.  Subject matter wherein the electric signals represent the colors of the spectrum.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.1]    211.1Communication methods:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.99.  Subject matter wherein specific methods of communication are used to transmit the signals used to implement remote control of a camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.11]    211.11Plural cameras being controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.99.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of cameras are controlled by the remote control system, including networks of cameras used for a common imaging operation.

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159,for plural cameras.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.12]    211.12Video teleconferencing (including access or authorization):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.11.  Subject matter wherein the camera network is used for video teleconferencing and remote control of the camera includes authorizing the camera s access to the network via a password or assignment of priority.
(1) Note. Also included are control of camera functions such as pan, tilt, zoom, iris and focus.

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14.08,for conferencing.

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709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring,   subclasses 204 for computer conferencing.
715Data Processing: Presentation Processing of Document, Operator Interface Processing, and Screen Saver Display Processing,   subclasses 733 through 759for concurrently established related or collaborative user interfaces including computer conferencing and computer supported cooperative work.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.13]    211.13Monitor (including for controlling camera):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.12.  Subject matter wherein a display is used to generate control signals.
(1) Note A camera is made to respond to touch screen commands or to positions designated on the screen that displays the camera s output image.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 156 for display peripheral input device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.14]    211.14Camera located remotely from its image processor (i.e., camera head):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.99.  Subject matter wherein the imaging portion of the camera (i.e., camera head) is physically separated from the camera’s image processing circuitry.
(1) Note. Camera is connected thereto by a cable over which are communicated image signal from the camera head to the processor and control signals from the processor to the camera head.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.2]    211.2Wireless:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.1.  Subject matter wherein a wireless method is used to transmit the remote control signals.

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14.01,over wireless communication.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 12.22 , 12.3, 12.5-12.55, and 13.24-13.32 for wireless remote control, in general.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 259 through 285for wireless pulse or digital communication systems.
455Telecommunications,   subclass 3.06 combined with diverse art.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.3]    211.3Network (master/slave, client/server, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.1.  Subject matter wherein the remote control signals are communicated via a network, including networks configured in a master/slave or client/server arrangement.

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207.1,for camera connected to computer.
552,for combined with diverse art (e.g., computer, telephone).

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340Communications: Electrical,   appropriate subclasses for communication networks.
370Multiplex Communications,   appropriate subclasses for multiplex communication networks.
709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring,   subclass 208 for master slave computer communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.4]    211.4Control devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.99.  Subject matter wherein various control devices are used to generate signals for remote control of a camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.5]    211.5Multiplexed or other embedded control signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.4.  Subject matter wherein the control devices generate and/or respond to control signals that are multiplexed with each other or with other types of control signals, or are embedded with data signals.

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476,for during sync, blanking, or overscan.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.6]    211.6Preprogrammed or stored control instructions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.4.  Subject matter wherein the control devices operate according to digital control signals that have been stored in a computer memory or in a special purpose digital control device.

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709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multicomputer Data Transferring,   subclass 208 for master slave computer controlling.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.7]    211.7Electromechanical controls (joystick, trackball, mouse, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.4.  Subject matter wherein control is implemented using a manual electromechanical device to generate control signals.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 156 for a display peripheral interface input device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.8]    211.8Monitor used to control remote camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.4.  Subject matter wherein a display is used to generate control signals.
(1) Note. A camera is made to respond to touch screen commands or to positions designated on the screen that displays the camera s output image.

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345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclass 156 for a display peripheral input device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.9]    211.9Camera characteristics affecting control (zoom angle, distance to camera, time delays, weight, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.99.  Subject matter control signals are computed using camera characteristics as a parameter.
(1) Note. Pan and tilt driving speeds are varied as a function of zoom angle and/or distance between the camera and the subject; control voltages are varied in accordance with camera weight; compensation is made for time delays created by the length of the cable used to transmit control signals; etc.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 597 for slewing systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 211.99]    211.99Remote control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein the scanning system or device is operated by a control signal sent by a controller from a remote location.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 215.1]    215.1With streak device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein the camera comprises a device which converts time information from a luminous event into spatial information, such conversion enable the measurement of high speed variations in intensity distribution of a light emission.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 216.1]    216.1Low light level:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including means suitable for detecting a weak or faint input image applied to the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 217.1]    217.1With image intensifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter including means for amplifying the light level of an image applied to the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 218.1]    218.1Unitary image formed by compiling sub-areas of same scene (e.g., array of cameras):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein images of separate parts of a single scene are scanned by separate image sensors for subsequent combination into a single complete-image signal.

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262,for plural image sensors and each sensor scans the complete image of a scene.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 219.1]    219.1Swing driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor is mechanically vibrated or oscillated to produce the effect of an increased resolution.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 220.1]    220.1Still and motion modes of operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein the operation of the camera is altered for single-frame (still) and multiple-frame (motion) photography.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 221.1]    221.1Exposure control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.1.  Subject matter having a device for regulating the total illumination (e.g., duration or intensity) admitted to an imaging device.

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229.1,for exposure control combined with image signal automatic gain control.
362,for general exposure control.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 222.1]    222.1Combined image signal generator and general image signal processing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including at least one image sensor or pickup device and in combination therewith related circuitry for correcting, adjusting, or otherwise altering the image signal output from the image sensor or pickup device.
(1) Note. The signal processing herein is limited to normal television signals, such as red, green and blue, or luminance and chrominance.
(2) Note. The image signal processing which depends upon structure of a sensor is not classified in this subclass, but is with the sensor, per se. For example, a single solid-state image sensor which converts the dot interlace output representing for example cyan, magenta, and yellow (i.e., not normal television signal) to red, green, and blue is found in subclass 280 for solid-state color image sensor with filter based on three colors.

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571through 721, for general image signal processing not with the image generator (i.e., not in the camera).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 223.1]    223.1Color balance (e.g., white balance):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter wherein the processing of the video output signal includes adjustment of relative amplitudes of plural color signals which are output from the camera.

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655,for color balance not combined with the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 224.1]    224.1Dependent upon operation or characteristic of iris, flash, lens, or filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter wherein the relative amplitudes of the plural color signals are adjusted in response to a parameter, a function, or the presence or absence of a camera peripheral which includes diaphragm, stop, illuminator, zoom or focus device, or a device altering the incident light on the sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 225.1]    225.1With means for preventing colored object from effecting color balance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter including means for preventing a colored object from effecting the color balance.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 226.1]    226.1Including flicker detection (e.g., fluorescent):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter wherein means are provided for detecting the characteristic spectrum or periodic nature of an electric discharge lamp.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 227.1]    227.1With ambient light sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter including an optical sensor separated from the image sensor for sensing the characteristics of the ambient light.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 228.1]    228.1Responsive to output signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Subject matter wherein the adjustment of the relative amplitudes is derived by feedback from the output of the image sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 229.1]    229.1Combined automatic gain control and exposure control (i.e., sensitivity control):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter including a control unit which controls both the exposure to the image sensor and the amplitude of the sensor output signal.

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345,for generic focus control camera optics.
363,for exposure control camera optics by automatic control of an iris, stop, or diaphragm.
678,for general automatic gain control.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 230.1]    230.1Readout of solid-state image sensor considered or altered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 229.1.  Subject matter wherein the camera comprises a solid-state image scanning device and wherein the accumulation time and readout process thereof is altered in coordination with the operation of the camera`s shutter, iris or diaphragm.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.1]    231.1Available memory space detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.99.  Subject matter wherein the remaining storage capacity of a memory is detected and storage of additional image data is either permitted, reduced or prohibited based on the detection result.
(1) Note. A warning may be given to indicate insufficient capacity.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 404 for facsimile memory monitoring.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.2]    231.2Image file management:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.99.  Subject matter including manual or automatic file naming and categorizing of stored images enabling enhanced image retrieval and arrangement using the camera according to user instructions.
(1) Note. File naming may take place either before of after a picture is taken.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 450 for plural images combined into a single image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.3]    231.3Storage of additional data:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.99.  Subject matter wherein the camera output memory stores, in addition to the picture information, information other than that of the picture,
(1) Note. Information other than the picture information may be audio or character type information (e.g., time, date, etc.), or information relating to a camera or image sensor aspect ratio.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.4]    231.4Audio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.3.  Subject matter wherein the additional data is audio that accompanies the stored image.

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386Motion Video Signal Processing for Recording or Reproducing,   subclass 287 for video editing capable of replacing a video or an audio signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.5]    231.5Time or date, annotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.3.  Subject matter wherein the additional data is time or date data or annotations that are stored along with the image data produced by the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.6]    231.6Processing or camera details:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.3.  Subject matter wherein the additional data may include the compression ratio of the stored image and camera setting used in taking the picture.
(1) Note. Camera setting such as lens settings, processing parameters, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.7]    231.7Detachable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.99.  Subject matter wherein the camera output memory can be removed from the camera system.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 906 for hand-held camera with recorder in a single unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.8]    231.8Multiple detachable memories:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.7.  Subject matter wherein the detachable memory is in the form a plurality of detachable memories, having a plurality of memory insertion slots, plural memories used in tandem or for separate storage.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.9]    231.9Details of communication between memory and camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.7.  Subject matter including details of how image data is transmitted between the camera and the detachable memory.
(1) Note. Details such as temporary interrupts of data transfer, temporary storage in an auxiliary memory prior to transfer to the detachable memory, etc.
(2) Note. The distinct luminance sensor may be either black and white or monocular (e.g., green).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 231.99]    231.99With details of static memory for output image information (e.g., for a still camera):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter wherein the camera includes a non-dynamic memory device for storing one or more frames of image information.
(1) Note. Dynamic memory requires relative motion between the storage medium and the playback or recorder head.

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360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for television signal storage system.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for details of static information storage structure which may be used for the storage of an image signal.
386Motion Video Signal Processing for Recording or Reproducing,   appropriate subclasses for recording television or video signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 234]    234Details of luminance signal formation in color camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter including specific circuitry for forming a brightness component of a television color signal.

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659,for general formation of luminance and color difference signal from red, green, and blue or vice versa.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 235]    235With means for providing high band and low band luminance signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Subject matter having an arrangement in which the image signal is channeled through appropriate filters for producing low frequency and high frequency brightness signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 236]    236Using distinct luminance image sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Subject matter wherein part of the image signal is supplied by a separate sensor for producing a luminance signal only.
(1) Note. The distinct luminance sensor may be either black and white or monocolor (e.g., green).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 237]    237For single sensor type camera supplying plural color signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Subject matter wherein the plural luminance signals are derived from signals output of one multicolor image scanning device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 238]    238Using distinct luminance image sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Subject matter wherein part of the image signal is supplied by a separate sensor for producing a luminance signal only.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 239]    239Camera and video special effects (e.g., subtitling, fading, or merging):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter including means for modifying the image signal by selectively inserting, deleting, or replacing signal portions.

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578+,for general special effects not combined with camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 240.1]    240.1Using both optical and electronic zoom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.99.  Subject matter wherein image size is expanded or reduced using both an optical zoom lens and electronic signal processing circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 240.2]    240.2Electronic zoom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.99.  Subject matter wherein the image signal is electronically expanded or reduced.

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333.12,for modification of images.
581,for general size change of an image signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 240.3]    240.3Optical zoom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.99.  Subject matter wherein an optical zoom lens is provided to change the magnification of the image or picture generated by a solid-state sensor.

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396Photography,   subclass 72 for having variable focal length of camera objective.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 240.99]    240.99Zoom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter including means to change the magnification of image or picture signal generated by a solid-state sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 241]    241Including noise or undesired signal reduction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Subject matter wherein a circuit is provided to compensate for signal defects.

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607+,for noise reduction in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 242]    242Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein the correction is related to color image signals.
(1) Note. An example is false color due to smear.

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607+,and 624, for general noise reduction of a color TV signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 243]    243Dark current:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter including control circuitry which compensates for an output current generated by the image sensor in the absence of an incident light.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 244]    244With control of sensor temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the control circuitry compensates the dark current by heating or cooling the image sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 245]    245Using dummy pixels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor is provided with non-imaging (i.e., blank) elements which are used to generate a dark current correction signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 246]    246Defective pixel (e.g., signal replacement):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein a circuit is provided to compensate for effects of an inoperable image analyzing element or area.

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616,for dropout compensator normally associated with tape or dynamic recording.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 247]    247With memory of defective pixels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein the location or nature of the inoperable image analyzing element is stored for repeated correction.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 248]    248Smear:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter including circuitry which reduces signal defects due to crosstalk or leakage between pixels.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 249]    249In charge coupled type sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor is of the type which comprises an array of photosensitive shift registers, photoelectric charges therefrom being shifted out in a predetermined order to produce an image signal.

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250,for general noise or undesired signal reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
282,for charge coupled type color image sensor combined with color filter.
298,for charge coupled type image sensor with accumulation or integration time responsive to light or signal intensity.
311,for charge coupled image sensor architecture.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous circuits utilizing a charge coupled device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 250]    250In charge coupled type sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor is of the type which comprises an array of photosensitive shift registers, photoelectric charges therefrom being shifted out in a predetermined order to produce an image signal.

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249,for smear reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
282,for charge coupled type color image sensor combined with color filter.
298,for charge coupled type image sensor with accumulation or integration time responsive to light or signal intensity.
311,for charge coupled image sensor architecture.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 251]    251Shading or black spot correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter including an apparatus to compensate for brightness level variations in different areas of a given reproduced picture due to unequal characteristics of, or imperfections in, the image signal generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 252]    252With transition or edge sharpening (e.g., aperture correction):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter including means for reducing the time of an amplitude transition or for increasing the size of an amplitude transition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 253]    253Color TV:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Subject matter wherein the image signal being processed has a portion representing a hue as contrasted with black, white, or gray.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 254]    254Gray scale transformation (e.g., gamma correction):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter including circuitry which modifies the range of values contained in a TV signal.

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671,for general gray scale transformation not combined with the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 255]    255Amplitude control (e.g., automatic gain control):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter including means to control the amplitude of an input signal.

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300,for amplifier integrated in solid-state image sensor without controlling the amplitude.
678,for general automatic gain control not combined with the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 256]    256Color TV (e.g., saturation):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Subject matter wherein the image signal being processed has a portion representing brightness (i.e., black and white), hue (i.e., wavelength), and saturation (i.e., purity from white) as contrasted with black, white, or gray.
(1) Note. Examples of saturation are: Both red and pink have the same wavelength, but red is saturated and pink is desaturated.

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645,for chrominance signal amplitude control not combined with the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 257]    257With DC level control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.1.  Subject matter including means for modifying the DC bias of the output signal.

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691,for general DC insertion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 258]    258With bias illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter wherein a uniform auxiliary light of low luminosity is used to illuminate the light receiving surface of the camera image sensor.
(1) Note. Bias illumination is usually used to eliminate a blurred image or a trailing on an image caused by the motion of a scanned object.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 259]    259Combined with color separating optical system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter including, associated with the bias illumination, an optical structure which resolves a light beam from a scanned object into two or more beams of different wavelengths corresponding to different color components of the object.

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336+,for general color separating optics.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 260]    260For single scanning device color camera:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter wherein the bias illumination is used with a single image sensor device supplying plural color signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 261]    261Plural bias illuminators:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 260.  Subject matter including more than one bias illuminator.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 262]    262With plural image scanning devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein the camera comprises more than one image sensor and each image sensor scans the complete image of a scene.

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218,for plural image scanning devices whereby each device scans a sub-area of the complete image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 263]    263Color imagery registration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Subject matter including apparatus to ensure at any instant that the signal from one device corresponds to the same analyzed point on a picture as the signals from another device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 264]    264Scanning devices offset in the image plane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Subject matter wherein the image sensors are displaced with respect to each other (e.g., by a half-pixel) in a direction orthogonal to the incident optical axis of the image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 265]    265Each supplying only one color signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Subject matter wherein each image sensor generates one distinct color signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 266]    266With single image scanning device supplying plural color signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein a single photosensitive element of the camera is used for supplying more than one color signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 267]    267Separate complete images on face of pickup device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein plural images of the same object or scene are focused onto separate areas of a single pickup device target.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 268]    268Color sequential:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter including a device to decompose colors of an object or scene into components which are imparted in sequence to an image pickup device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 269]    269With color sequential illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter wherein a light source, additional to ambient light, is provided in different wavelengths (e.g., red, green, blue, etc.) during successive intervals for producing color signals using a monochrome camera.

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70,for color illumination endoscope which may use color sequential technique.
371,for flashing or strobing illumination, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 270]    270With moving color filters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter wherein colors are decomposed by a device having a plurality of color transmitting or absorbing elements which move in and out of the camera’s optical path.
(1) Note. Both continuous moving and oscillating filters are classified herein.

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743,for image reproducer combined with moving color filters.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 271]    271Four or more color types:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.  Subject matter wherein the camera generates four signals of different wavelengths which correspond to four or more distinct color signals, or three or more distinct color signals and a luminance signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 272]    272Solid-state multicolor image sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein the photosensitive scanning device, which supplies more than one color signal, is an electronic device which operates by virtue of the movement of electrons within a solid material.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 273]    273With color filter or operation according to color filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter having a color absorbing or transmitting device applied to each resolution element of the sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 274]    274Having overlapping elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter comprising two or more color absorbing or transmitting filters which are partially superimposed.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 275]    275Staggered or irregular elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter which includes filter elements that are arranged on a surface in any of various zigzags or alternations; or comprises filter elements that are nonuniform in shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 276]    276Including transparent elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter wherein the filter has a mosaic pattern made up of individual filter elements, some having a luminance transparency and some a chrominance transparency characteristic.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 277]    277With three or more colors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein at least three chrominance components are applied to selected resolution elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 278]    278Based on more than four colors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter comprising more than four types of filter elements, each element passing a different wavelength.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 279]    279Based on four colors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter comprising exactly four types of filter elements, each element passing a different wavelength.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 280]    280Based on three colors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter comprising exactly three types of filter elements, each element passing a different wavelength.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 281]    281X-Y architecture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor comprises a two-dimensional matrix of photoelectric conversion elements, each element being individually selected by external scanning circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 282]    282Charge coupled architecture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor is of the type which comprises an array of photosensitive shift registers, photoelectric charges therefrom being shifted out in a predetermined order to produce an image signal.

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249,for smear reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
250,for general noise or undesired signal reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
298,for charge coupled type image sensor with accumulation or integration time responsive to light or signal intensity.
311,for charge coupled image sensor architecture.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 283]    283With multiple output registers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Subject matter wherein the charges are shifted into at least two orthogonal shift registers for providing plural outputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 284]    284Cathode-ray tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter including a camera tube in which an optical image of an object is converted to a charge on a photosensitive target surface and then scanned by an electron beam to convert the charge image to an electrical signal.
(1) Note. Common cathode-ray tubes include iconoscope, orthicon, and vidicon.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 285]    285Phase separable signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein at least two color components of an image of a scene are spatially modulated (e.g., by optical striped filters) and the resulting modulated color signals are demodulated by utilizing electrical phase detectors for generating color signal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 286]    286With indexing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter including means for generating a position signal for indicating the instantaneous position of the scanning electron beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 287]    287Conductive grid at target:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein the indexing signal is produced by one or more conductive elements at the target location.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 288]    288Index elements outside of image area:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein the indexing signal is produced by one or more conductive elements located outside of the image area of the target.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 289]    289Frequency separable signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein at least two color components of an image of a scene are spatially modulated (e.g., by optical striped filters) and the resulting modulated color signals are demodulated by utilizing electrical bandpass filters for generating color signal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 290]    290Specified optical filter arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 289.  Subject matter having specific detail of an optical filter arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 291]    291Combined with grating, lens array, or refractor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Subject matter wherein the optical filter arrangement includes a diffraction grating, a single or a multiple element refractor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 292]    292Having diagonally arranged stripes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Subject matter wherein at least one array of color stripes is oriented non-orthogonally to the scanning direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 293]    293Interdigital signal electrodes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 289.  Subject matter wherein the cathode-ray tube includes a target structure comprising a plurality of interleaved sets of conducting strips for deriving respective component color signals.
(1) Note. For example, a target structure comprises red, green, and blue striped color filters in front of corresponding transparent electrodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 294]    294Solid-state image sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including an electronic device which operates by virtue of the movement of electrons within a solid material (e.g., semiconductor) for producing electrical signals in response to light incident on elemental resolution elements thereon.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photocell circuits and apparatus.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for solid-state devices responsive to light.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 482 through 483for image sensors relating to facsimile apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 295]    295Time delay and integration mode (TDI):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of photosites or photosensitive devices are provided for each resolution element, and charges produced by each photosite or photosensitive device are summed to provide a signal corresponding to the resolution element.
(1) Note. There is a time delay of the charges sensed prior to the charge sensed by the last of the plurality of photosites before summation of the charges.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 296]    296Electronic shuttering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein charges in the solid-state sensor are periodically cleared to emulate the effect of a mechanical shutter.
(1) Note. This subclass includes a large number of electronic still cameras wherein the image signal is read-out inhibited when the shutter is opened and read-out is enabled when the shutter is closed.

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229,for a mechanical aperture control structure as a final control element for an exposure determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 297]    297Accumulation or integration time responsive to light or signal intensity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the photo conversion period (i.e., accumulation time or integration time) of the sensor is controlled in accordance with the intensity of light or of the picture signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 298]    298In charge coupled type image sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor is of the type which comprises an array of photosensitive shift registers, photoelectric charges therefrom being shifted out in a predetermined order to produce an image signal.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

249,for smear reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
250,for general noise or undesired signal reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
282,for charge coupled type color image sensor combined with color filter.
311,for charge coupled image sensor architecture.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 299]    299With overflow gate or drain:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter wherein the charge coupled type image sensor device includes a structure to eliminate excess charges within the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 300]    300With amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter includes a device for increasing the magnitude of a sensor intermediate or immediate output signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 301]    301Pixel amplifiers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein an amplifier is provided for every imaging element.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 302]    302X - Y architecture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor comprises a matrix of rows and columns of photoelectric conversion elements, each element representing one image or picture resolution element of the entire image and each element being individually selected by external scanning circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 303]    303With charge transfer type output register:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein charge signals from the rows or columns of the image sensing elements are collected in parallel and serially output by a charge transfer type shift register.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for charge transfer shift register, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 304]    304With charge transfer type selecting register:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein external scanning signals for addressing row or column sensing elements are provided by a sequential charge transfer type shift register.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 305]    305With interlacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter includes scanning means whereby odd- and even-numbered lines of a picture are outputted consecutively as two separate fields.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 306]    306Charge injection device (CID):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein the solid-state image sensor is composed of a two-dimensional array of coupled MOS charge-storage capacitors and is designed to convert near infrared energy to electrical signals, providing broad gray shade or tonal rendition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 307]    307Photosensitive switching transistors or "static induction" transistors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein the image resolution elements comprise light sensitive switching transistors.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 308]    308Including switching transistor and photocell at each pixel site (e.g., "MOS-type" image sensor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein each image resolution element comprises at least one photosensitive element coupled to a switching transistor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 309]    309Exclusively passive light responsive elements in the matrix:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein each element of the image resolution array is composed only by a passive device (i.e., excluding transistor).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 310]    310With diode in series with photocell:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Subject matter wherein a two-electrode bipolar solid-state device is connected in sequence with a photosensitive element.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 311]    311Charge-coupled architecture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the image sensor is of the type which comprises an array of photosensitive shift registers, photoelectric charges therefrom being shifted out in a predetermined order to produce an image signal.

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249,for smear reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
250,for general noise or undesired signal reduction in charge coupled type image sensor.
282,for charge coupled type color image sensor combined with color filter.
298+,for accumulation or integration time responsive to light or signal intensity in charge coupled image sensor.

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377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 63 for charge-coupled device shift register.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 312]    312With timing pulse generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter including a device for producing precisely timed, repetitive voltage pulses to actuate the transfer of charges.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 313]    313With bias charge injection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein photosensitive resolution elements associated with potential wells formed under charge transfer are supplied with uniform charges in order to raise the operating point of the shift register, thereby increasing transfer speed.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 314]    314With excess charge removal (e.g., overflow drain):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter having means to remove unwanted electric charges from the charge coupled type image sensing device.

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299,for charge coupled type image sensor accumulation or integration time responsive to light with overflow gate or drain.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 315]    315With staggered or irregular photosites or specified channel configuration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein the solid-state image sensor comprises sensor elements that are arranged on a surface of a substrate in any of various zigzags, or overlappings of position, or comprises sensor elements that are nonuniform in shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 316]    316Charges transferred to opposed registers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein alternate rows or columns of charges are shifted to separate storage or transfer registers located at opposite sides of the charge coupled photosensitive area.
(1) Note. This technique is often used to produce odd and even fields.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 317]    317Field or frame transfer type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein charges of an entire image area are shifted in parallel from an exposure area to a storage area of the charge coupled image sensing device prior to a readout.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 318]    318With recirculation of charge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter including provision for recycling the output from an output register to an input register or storage register.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 319]    319Charges alternately switched from vertical registers into separate storage registers; or having vertical transfer gates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter wherein charges from columns of photosensitive shift registers are transferred to storage registers other than those directly below respective columns; or subject matter wherein charges from the photosites are transferred horizontally into vertical shift registers which are separate from the photosensitive area.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 320]    320Interline readout:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter wherein image charges of every other column are shifted in parallel from an exposure area to a readout area of the charge coupled device prior to a sequential readout.
(1) Note. The term "interline" comes from the word "interlace-line".
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 321]    321Using multiple output registers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 320.  Subject matter wherein the readout area comprises more than one horizontal register.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 322]    322Interline readout:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein image charges of every other column are shifted in parallel from an exposure area to a readout area of the charge coupled image sensing device prior to a sequential readout from the readout area.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 323]    323Using multiple output registers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Subject matter wherein the readout area comprises more than one horizontal register.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 324]    324Line transfer type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein charges of an image line are shifted in parallel from an exposure area to a readout area of the charge coupled image sensing device prior to a readout.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 325]    325Cathode-ray tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including a camera tube in which an optical image of an object is converted to a charge on a photosensitive target surface and then scanned by an electron beam to convert the charge image to an electrical signal.
(1) Note. Common cathode-ray tubes include iconoscope, orthicon, and vidicon.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 326]    326Automatic beam focusing or alignment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Subject matter including means to automatically ensure that the beam scanning the target of the tube remains converged essentially to a point at the target face.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 327]    327Automatic beam current control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Subject matter including means to regulate the beam current of the tube such that it is held at a constant value, or to increase, decrease, or maintain the beam current such that the signal output has a fixed relationship to the light energy input.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 328]    328Remanent image erasure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Subject matter including means to remove charges still remaining on the tube target after it has been scanned by an electron beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 329]    329With emissive target or photocathode (e.g., orthicon):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Subject matter wherein the cathode-ray tube includes a target surface which releases electrons when exposed to light or other radiation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 330]    330Dissector tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter in which an electron image emitted from the photocathode is scanned across an aperture, behind which aperture an electron detector is disposed.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 331]    331With photoconductive target (e.g., vidicon):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Subject matter wherein the cathode-ray tube includes a target which changes its electrical conductivity when exposed to varying amounts of light incident thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 332]    332Array of photocells (i.e., nonsolid-state array):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein the scanning is performed by a plurality of elements sensitive to light, each corresponding to a discrete, elemental area of the image.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photocells, circuits, and apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.01]    333.01With electronic viewfinder or display monitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including an electronic display, which is a fixed or removable part of the camera for permitting an operator to see a captured image produced from the camera output signal or from an auxiliary.

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396Photography,   subclass 374 for an electronic viewfinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.02]    333.02With display of additional information:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.01.  Subject matter wherein the display shows additional information related to the camera operation or data related to the captured camera image.
(1) Note. Additional information is displayed in order to indicate camera status, to implement camera control, to classify images captured by the camera, or to annotate images.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.03]    333.03Including display of a frame and line of sight determination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.02.  Subject matter wherein the additional information includes a frame that is displayed in order to permit the user to discern the field of view or to discern the portion of the field of view of a captured camera image.
(1) Note. Automatic selection of a focus or exposure control area may be made by determining the user’s line of sight to the area.
(2) Note. Examples of frames are a zoom frame, a field frame, a focus frame, or an exposure frame.

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396Photography,   subclass 51 for eye tracking.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.04]    333.04Including warning indication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.02.  Subject matter wherein the additional information includes a visible warning which is displayed to indicate an undesirable picture-taking condition.
(1) Note. An undesirable condition may be excessive camera motion, inability to achieve focus or insufficient exposure condition.

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396Photography,   subclass 296 for camera indicators having display in a viewfinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.05]    333.05Display of multiple images (e.g., thumbnail images, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.01.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of images are displayed thereby enabling comparison between images, selection, combining, or deletion of images.
(1) Note. The images may be compressed to "thumbnail" size in order to facilitate display of a large number of images.

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552,for camera combined with diverse art such as a computer.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.06]    333.06Movable or rotatable unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.01.  Subject matter wherein the display includes a mechanism for rotating or translating the viewfinder to a variety of angles.
(1) Note. This may include 180 degrees rotation for a self-photography operation.

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373through 376, for support or housing for specified camera accessory.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.07]    333.07Detachable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.06.  Subject matter wherein the viewfinder is detachable from the body of the camera in order to remotely view camera images or remotely control the camera.
(1) Note. This subclass includes a mechanism for detachably attaching the viewfinder to the camera body.

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373through 376, for support or housing for specified camera accessory.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.08]    333.08Including optics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.01.  Subject matter including a specific optical configuration.
(1) Note. For example, an optical configuration may be a relative positioning of lenses, mirrors, and special purpose optical elements designed to perform viewfinder functions.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.09]    333.09With optical viewfinder (e.g., correction for parallax, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.08.  Subject matter wherein the electronic viewfinder is used in combination with an optical viewfinder.
(1) Note. Solutions to parallax problems produced by the offset of the optical viewfinder from the electronic viewfinder are presented.

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341,for optical viewfinders.

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396Photography,   subclass 149 and subclass 377 for parallax correction.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.1]    333.1With projector function:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.08.  Subject matter wherein an image is projected from the viewfinder onto a screen for enlargement of the image.
(1) Note. A projected image from the viewfinder may be viewed by a person other than the photographer.

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744through 789, for projection device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.11]    333.11Use for previewing images (e.g., variety of image resolutions, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.01.  Subject matter wherein the viewfinder is used to preview an image prior to either a photographing or an image storing operation.
(1) Note. In this way a proper exposure condition and desired location of the subject within the image field can be determined before camera resources are used to take the picture or store the captured picture. In some cases the image displayed in the preview mode is of lower resolution than that of the captured picture.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.12]    333.12Modification of displayed image:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.01.  Subject matter wherein changing of the size (i.e., electronic zooming) or aspect ratio of the displayed image is performed by the viewfinder.

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240.99through 240.3, for electronic zoom.
441through 459, for format conversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 333.13]    333.13Power saving mode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.01.  Subject matter wherein the viewfinder is automatically turned off by a condition.
(1) Note. This mode of operation is used to conserve battery power when the viewfinder is not in use.

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372,for power supply.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 335]    335Optics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein the camera includes an optical structure which changes a property of an incident light beam.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   appropriate subclasses for optical devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 336]    336Color separating optics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter having an optical arrangement for resolving a multi-wavelength image into its component color signals.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 618+ for optical beam splitting or combining.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 337]    337Prism arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter including a multi-sectional refractive optical element or a group of refractive optical elements for color-separating the incident image.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 831+ for prism, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 338]    338With dichroic layer or air gap between prism sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein the color separation is obtained at the intersection between refractive optical elements by the optical effect of an air gap or a layer of material having a property of passing different colors by selectively reflecting or transmitting particular wavelengths of a light beam incident thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 339]    339Exclusively dichroic elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter wherein the separation of color components of an image signal is performed solely by elements having a property of passing different colors by selectively reflecting or transmitting particular wavelengths of a light beam incident thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 340]    340With optics peculiar to solid-state sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including a significant optical structure for solid-state image sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 341]    341Optical viewfinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including an apparatus permitting an operator to see the image that is focused on the sensor.

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333.09,for an optical viewfinder used in combination with an electronic viewfinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 342]    342With frequency selective filter (e.g., IR cut, optical LPF, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including an optical device for selectively absorbing or transmitting a specific frequency band of the spectral response of the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 343]    343Optical multiplexing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including optical elements in the optical path to the picture signal generator permitting the light output of a plurality of diverse light sources to enter the path of the picture signal generator.
(1) Note. The light sources may include motion picture and slide projectors, for example.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 618+ for optical elements to permit the light from plural channels to enter a single channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 344]    344Optical path switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including a device for selecting diverse optical input or output paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 345]    345Focus control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including a structure to adjust a camera’s optical arrangement so that the optical image is maximally resolved on the sensor.

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229,for depth of focus or field in the interrelated camera peripheral operation using an iris, a stop, or a diaphragm.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 346]    346With display of focusing condition or alarm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter including a device to visually or audibly indicate to an operator the state of the focused image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 347]    347With zoom position detection or interrelated iris control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter including a device to detect a relative position of a variable focal length lens element or a relative position of an aperture with respect to a reference position or a reference optical element position.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 348]    348Using active ranging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter including a device, usually acoustical or optical, emitting energy and detecting the reflected emitted energy for the determination of the distance of a subject from a camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 349]    349Using image signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter including a device for detecting a characteristic of the video output of the camera sensor for determining a focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 350]    350With auxiliary sensor or separate area on imager:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Subject matter wherein a second photosensitive detector or an area outside an active imaging area of a primary photosensitive detector is used to determine the focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 351]    351With oscillation of lens or sensor to optimize error signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Subject matter wherein a periodic relative movement of the lens or the sensor is used to determine the proper focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 352]    352With motion detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Subject matter including a device to detect the movement of an object within a scene to control or disable the automatic focusing.

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700+,for image processing circuitry which may deal with scene change detection.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 353]    353By detecting contrast:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Subject matter including a device for detecting brightness differences of video signal components for determining the focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 354]    354By analyzing high frequency component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Subject matter including a device for evaluating characteristics of a video signal upper frequency component for determining the focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 355]    355Plural high frequencies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter wherein more than one high frequency component is analyzed.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 356]    356Detection of peak or slope of image signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter including a device to detect upper amplitudes or rate of change of the high frequency component for determining the focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 357]    357Servo unit structure or mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter including details of an electromechanical device for achieving the focus condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 359]    359Fiber optics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including the use of an optical waveguide.

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804,for video display system using fiber optics.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 901.1 for fiber optics cross-reference art collection.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 116 for optical imaging fiber bundles.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 360]    360Lens or filter substitution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein one or more of a plurality of wavelength refractive or absorptive optical elements (e.g., lens or filter) are selectively positioned in the optical path of the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 361]    361Automatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein the selective positioning of a lens or a filter is performed responsive to a predetermined condition without intervention of a human operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 362]    362Exposure control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including a device for regulating the total illumination (e.g., duration or intensity) admitted to an imaging device.

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221.1,for exposure control in a still and motion camera system.
229.1,for exposure control combined with image signal automatic gain control.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 363]    363Automatic control of iris, stop, or diaphragm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter wherein the exposure is controlled by opening or closing an aperture responsive to a predetermined condition without intervention of a human operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 364]    364Based on image signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 363.  Subject matter including a device for analyzing the video output of the camera for determining an exposure condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 365]    365Contrast:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Subject matter including a device for detecting brightness differences of video signal components for determining the exposure condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 366]    366Based on ambient light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 363.  Subject matter wherein the exposure control is based on an environmental illumination.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 367]    367Periodic shuttering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter including an element for alternately blocking and passing light to the image sensor at every field or frame.

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296,for electronic shuttering.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 368]    368Rotary:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 367.  Subject matter wherein a rotating mechanical blade or apertured device is used to accomplish shuttering.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 369]    369Changing viewing angle via optics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter including an optical structure for bringing image illumination from a certain position not on the principle optical axis of the camera to a position within a field of view of the camera.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 370]    370With object or scene illumination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter wherein a scanned object or scene is supplied with light or radiation in addition to ambient light.

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258+,for bias illumination of the camera surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 371]    371Flash or strobe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Subject matter wherein periodic or transient impulses of light are applied to the scanned object or scene.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 372]    372Power supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including a detail of energy supply necessary for the functioning of the camera.

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333.13,for power saving modes.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 373]    373Support or housing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.99.  Subject matter including a detail of a mounting or casing structure for the picture signal generator.

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333.06,for a movable or rotatable unit for an electronic viewfinder or display, and subclass 333.07 for a detachable viewfinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 374]    374For internal camera components:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter including a mounting for elements within the camera housing.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 375]    375For specified accessory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter wherein the support or housing is associated with an auxiliary camera component (e.g., flash).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 376]    376Portable or hand-held:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter wherein the casing for the camera is readily carried or grasped by the user.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 377]    377CATHODE-RAY TUBE DISPLAY EXCESSIVE VOLTAGE CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a device to prevent the occurrence of high electrical potential which may damage the cathode-ray tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 378]    378With disabling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Subject matter including a device, responsive to a detected overvoltage, to inhibit the function of one or more display circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 379]    379CATHODE-RAY TUBE DISPLAY AUTOMATIC BLACK LEVEL BIAS CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a device to regulate the cut-off potential of the cathode-ray tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 380]    380CATHODE-RAY TUBE DISPLAY BEAM CURRENT CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a device to regulate or limit the brightness of the displayed image.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 381]    381With beam energy determining color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 380.  Subject matter including an apparatus for imparting color to the picture by controlling the energy supplied to the beam.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 473 for tubes with screens of the plural layer type.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 382]    382Variable depth of penetration of electron beam into the luminescent layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Subject matter wherein the depth of penetration of the beam into the luminescent layer determines the color.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 383]    383MODULAR IMAGE DISPLAY SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which includes a display system comprising more than one display device, each displaying an image of part of the scene being televised.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 384.1]    384.1BANDWIDTH REDUCTION SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including apparatus to compress the frequency range of the signal produced by a picture signal generator prior to transmission to accommodate the bandwidth limitation of the transmission medium or means at the receiver to utilize the signal to reconstruct an image.
(1) Note. Analog television bandwidth reduction system is classified in this subclass and its indented subclasses. See search class notes below for the location of the digital television bandwidth reduction system.

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341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclasses 50 through 107for code converters wherein the signal may be encoded to reduce bandwidth.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 426.01 through 426.16for bandwidth reduction systems peculiar to facsimile.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 240 through 254for bandwidth reduction or expansion, especially subclasses 240.01-240.29 for digital television bandwidth reduction.
704Data Processing: Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, and Audio Compression/Decompression,   subclasses 500 through 504for bandwidth, or time compression, or expansion of audio signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 385.1]    385.1Plural video programs in single channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.1.  Subject matter wherein two or more video signals are processed to reduce their bandwidth and combined such that the combined signal bandwidth is less than or equal to the bandwidth of one of the video signals.
(1) Note. Examples are time compressing and frequency limiting.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 386.1]    386.1Color television:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.1.  Subject matter wherein color video signals are specified.
(1) Note. The color signals may be composite (chrominance modulated on a subcarrier) or component (e.g., luminance and chrominance or red, green, and blue).
(2) Note. Nominal recitations are insufficient to be classified here.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 387.1]    387.1Data rate reduction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.1.  Subject matter wherein the compression utilizes techniques to reduce the number of samples.

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390.1through 425.4, for data rate reduction in a system not including plural video program in a single channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 388.1]    388.1Multiple channel (e.g., plural carrier):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.1.  Subject matter wherein the signal is split and fed into plural channels, each of which has less bandwidth than the original signal.
(1) Note. Included herein are systems where the combined bandwidth, of the plural channels, equals the bandwidth of the input signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 389.1]    389.1Including one conventional or compatible channel (e.g., two channel NTSC systems):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 388.1.  Subject matter wherein one channel can be received and utilized by a standard receiver to provide a standard display.
(1) Note. Examples of signals included in the augmentation channels are side panels to expand the aspect ratio of the high definition display; high frequency information, both horizontal and vertical; and extra audio information.
(2) Note. The second or additional channels are often referred to as augmentation channels and normally cannot provide a display by themselves. Reception of all channels allows a high definition display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 390.1]    390.1Data rate reduction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.1.  Subject matter wherein the signal is processed to reduce the number of samples.

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341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclass 67 for data rate conversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 391.1]    391.1Specified color signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein the signals compressed are the components of a natural color video signal (e.g., luminance and chrominance or red, green, and blue).
(1) Note. A composite signal that is separated into chrominance and luminance or red, green, and blue is classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 392.1]    392.1Sub-Nyquist sampling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.1.  Subject matter wherein the bandwidth reduction is performed by folding the higher frequencies down to fit inside a reduced frequency spectrum by sampling at a rate less than twice the highest frequency, causing the alias and baseband spectrums to overlap.
(1) Note. The Nyquist criteria states that the sampling rate should be at least twice the baseband. In sub-Nyquist systems, the sampling rate is less than the required Nyquist sampling rate.
(2) Note. The alias components, which are generated by sampling and centered on the sampling frequency, are normally placed in teeth or gaps of the video spectrum to allow recovery of the original full band signal.
(3) Note. These systems often use comb filters (two- or three-dimensional filters using line, field, or frame delays) to remove any signal in the gaps.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 393.1]    393.1Direct coding of color composite signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.1.  Subject matter wherein the video signal that is band reduced is a video signal having a color subcarrier in the same band as the luminance signal or black and white signal.
(1) Note. Examples are NTSC, PAL, or SECAM.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

391.1,for systems that receive a color composite signal, separates it into luminance and chrominance components, and reduces the band of the separated components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 394.1]    394.1Predictive coding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 393.1.  Subject matter including a means for coding the difference between the actual signal and an estimated signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 395.1]    395.1Transform coding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 393.1.  Subject matter including a remapping of image values (e.g., between spatial and frequency domains).
(1) Note. The video signals and frequency domain can have one, two, or three dimensions (horizontal, vertical, and temporal).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 396.1]    396.1Including luminance signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.1.  Subject matter wherein one of the components is a brightness or luminance signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 397.1]    397.1Using separate coders for different picture features (e.g., highs, lows):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein individual systems of characters or rules are used for representing information related to diverse image portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 398.1]    398.1Subband encoding (e.g., low horizontal/low vertical frequency, low horizontal/high vertical frequency):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 397.1.  Subject matter wherein the signal is divided into a plurality of frequency bands.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 399.1]    399.1Picture feature dependent sampling rate or sample selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein an instantaneous value of a signal is obtained at irregular intervals.

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341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclass 61 for data rate conversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 400.1]    400.1Involving hybrid transform and difference coding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein a remapping of image values (i.e., between spatial and frequency domains) occurs in combination with a diminution of signal quantity by comparison with a preceding signal.
(1) Note. The preceding signal may be a temporal or spatial signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 401.1]    401.1With prior difference coding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.1.  Subject matter wherein the comparison with the preceding signal occurs prior to the remapping.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 402.1]    402.1Including motion vector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.1.  Subject matter wherein the comparison is used to produce a signal indicative of the magnitude and direction of spatial change during the stated temporal interval.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 403.1]    403.1Involving transform coding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter involving a remapping of image values (i.e., between spatial and frequency domains).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 404.1]    404.1Adaptive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.1.  Subject matter wherein an operation or parameter of the encoder is varied based upon the output signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 405.1]    405.1Sampling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.1.  Subject matter wherein the operation or varied parameter relates to signal amplitudes.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 406.1]    406.1Normalizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.1.  Subject matter wherein the operation or varied parameter is the gain of the encoder.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 407.1]    407.1Motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.1.  Subject matter wherein the operation or parameter is varied as a result of spatial change during a temporal interval.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 408.1]    408.1Transformed sample selection (e.g., hierarchical sample selection):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.1.  Subject matter wherein the remapped values are chosen for further processing or transmission based upon content.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 409.1]    409.1Involving difference transmission (e.g., predictive):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein an output signal represents the difference between the input signal and a predicted value.
(1) Note. The predicted signal may be the preceding signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 410.1]    410.1Involving both base and differential encoding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.1.  Subject matter wherein the signal is sampled periodically and each sample comprises a reference combined with additional difference information.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 411.1]    411.1Plural predictors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.1.  Subject matter wherein more than a single predicted value is used for comparison.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 412.1]    412.1Including temporal predictor (e.g., frame difference):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.1.  Subject matter wherein at least one comparison signal represents a prior image in time.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 413.1]    413.1Including motion vector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.1.  Subject matter wherein at least one comparison is used to produce a signal indicative of the magnitude and direction of spatial change during the stated temporal interval.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 414.1]    414.1Involving pattern matching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.1.  Subject matter wherein at least one comparison is with a set of stored reference image or subimage portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 415.1]    415.1Including temporal prediction (e.g., frame difference):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.1.  Subject matter wherein the comparison signal represents a prior image in time.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 416.1]    416.1Including motion vector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 415.1.  Subject matter wherein a signal is produced which is indicative of the magnitude and direction of spatial change during the stated temporal interval.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 417.1]    417.1Involving pattern matching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 415.1.  Subject matter wherein a comparison is made with a set of stored reference image or subimage portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 418.1]    418.1Involving pattern matching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.1.  Subject matter wherein the resulting signal is further compared with a set of stored reference image or subimage portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 419.1]    419.1Coding element controlled by buffer fullness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.1.  Subject matter wherein the resolution of the comparison is determined by the amount of the remaining capacity of a temporary storage device.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 420.1]    420.1Involving block coding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein a sampled image matrix is processed by the use of plural submatrices of reduced area.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 421.1]    421.1Involving minimum, maximum, or average of block:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.1.  Subject matter including a representative of the lowest value of the block or the greatest value of the block or the sum of the values of a two-dimensional spatial array of values divided by the number of elements in the array.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 422.1]    422.1Involving pattern matching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein the sampled image representation matrix is compared with a set of stored reference image or subimage portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 423.1]    423.1Arrangements for multiplexing one video signal, one or more audio signals, and a synchronizing signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein concurrent transmission of the sampled image signal, at least one related sound channel signal and a signal to ensure receiver scanning align with the picture signal generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 424.1]    424.1Sub-Nyquist sampling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein the sampling rate is less than twice the highest frequency component.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 424.2]    424.2Adaptive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 424.1.  Subject matter wherein the sampling rate is determined by image signal content.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 425.1]    425.1Associated signal processing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.1.  Subject matter wherein the signal is further processed by circuitry unique to the rate reduction encoding/decoding process.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 425.2]    425.2Involving error detection or correction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.1.  Subject matter wherein the further circuitry detects or corrects invalid data.

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466,for error correction or prevention in nonpictorial data packet in television format.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 425.3]    425.3Involving signal formatting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.1.  Subject matter wherein the further circuitry combines the time variable video signal with a synchronizing signal to allow reconstruction of an image and converts the resultant signal into a format suitable for storage or transmission.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

441through 459, appropriate subclasses for format conversion circuitry, per se, in television.
469through 496, appropriate subclasses for format circuitry, per se, in television.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 425.4]    425.4Involving synchronization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.1.  Subject matter wherein further circuitry utilizes a synchronizing signal component to maintain a proper time or phase correspondence between components of the rate reduction encoding/decoding process with respect to a regular television frame rate of 25 to 30 frames per second (e.g., 100 frames per second, etc.).
(1) Note. Systems in this collection are mostly used to view high speed motion (e.g., a bullet or an airplane in motion, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 426.1]    426.1Format type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.1.  Subject matter including systems that produce a narrow band signal, which resembles a conventional TV signal, from a broadband source and allow reconstruction of a broadband display.
(1) Note. Included herein are systems in which additional video information is transmitted by using a subcarrier, sampling, additional modulation of the picture carrier (e.g., quadrature), undulatory scanning, line number conversion, or placing an extra video in normal blanking areas.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 427.1]    427.1Including frequency folding (e.g., subsampling):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.1.  Subject matter wherein additional information is embedded in the video signal by causing the alias components centered about the sampling frequency to extend into the normal baseband signal.
(1) Note. Systems that use a subcarrier to achieve the same effect are classified herein.
(2) Note. Recitation and recognition of frequency folding is not required for classification herein.
(3) Note. The lower sideband of the alias components has the F or F s -F v, with F s being the sampling frequency, and F v being the video frequency the higher F v (the lower the alias F s -F v) the frequency folding occurs around F s/2.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 428.1]    428.1Spotwobble (e.g., pixels from plural lines form single transmitted line):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 427.1.  Subject matter wherein at least some pixels on the same transmitted line are vertically displaced from each other in addition to the horizontal displacement between pixels.
(1) Note. Included herein are systems that have vertically aligned samples as long as the scan is generally horizontal.
(2) Note. Systems that scan vertically are not classified herein.
(3) Note. The source and display either have more lines than the transmitted signal or undulate the scan.

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206,for special scanning which may include systems that scan in vertical, spiral, random, or zigzag.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 429.1]    429.1Including video-related information:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 427.1.  Subject matter including signals, in addition to the video signals, used in the receiver to reconstruct a broadband signal resembling the original broadband signal.
(1) Note. Examples of video-related information are motion vectors or motion indicators.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 430.1]    430.1Using two or more frames:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 427.1.  Subject matter wherein the same pixel is sampled at least every other frame.
(1) Note. Such systems are often referred to as dot interlaced.
(2) Note. Such systems require several frames to build up the broadband display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 431.1]    431.1Motion adaptive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 430.1.  Subject matter wherein different operating modes are used depending upon frame-to-frame differences.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 432.1]    432.1Added video information in standard channel format:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.1.  Subject matter wherein the narrow band signal is a conventional TV signal, and the broadband display is reconstructed using the conventional signal and at least one other signal is transmitted with the conventional signal.
(1) Note. The conventional signal is usable by itself to produce a narrow band display. Chrominance information is not considered additional video information.
(2) Note. Examples of the conventional TV signals are NTSC, PAL, or SECAM.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 433.1]    433.1Including additional modulation of picture carrier (e.g., quadrature):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 432.1.  Subject matter wherein the other video information modulates the picture carrier in a manner different than the conventional signal.
(1) Note. Included herein are quadrature modulation, phase modulation, and frequency modulation involving modulation of a carrier of the same frequency as the picture carrier and differing in phase by 90 degrees.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 434.1]    434.1Including information in sync, blanking, or overscan:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 432.1.  Subject matter wherein the added video information occupies a time interval not occupied by the conventional display video.
(1) Note. Overscan is active video which is normally hidden by the faceplate.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 435.1]    435.1During vertical blanking interval:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.1.  Subject matter wherein the added video information is inserted between the active interval of successive frames.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 436.1]    436.1Including use of a subcarrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 432.1.  Subject matter wherein the additional signal is modulated on a carrier having a frequency other than the picture carrier and is located in the bandwidth of the video signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 437.1]    437.1Individual processing of different parts of image frequency band (e.g., sum and difference, high band/low band):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.1.  Subject matter having at least two frequency bands which are treated differently.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 438.1]    438.1Individual processing of different parts of image frequency band (e.g., sum and difference, high band/low band):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.1.  Subject matter having at least two frequency bands which are treated differently.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 439.1]    439.1Frame field or line dropping followed by time expansion and time compression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.1.  Subject matter wherein the original signal is band reduced by decimating frames, fields, or lines and time expanding the signal to occupy the time base of the original signal.
(1) Note. The process is reversed at the receiver to produce a signal having at least the same frame, field, and line rate as the original signal.

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438.1,for similar systems that also produce a different signal for the missing line field or frame which is band limited.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 440.1]    440.1Scan rate variation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.1.  Subject matter wherein the frequency range is reduced by lowering the speed of the scanning at the time significant transitions in the image occur and resume higher scanning speed when little or no transition occurs.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 441]    441FORMAT CONVERSION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including particular methods or apparatus for converting one format into another format.
(1) Note. Examples of converters found herein are NTSC to PAL or SECAM, High Vision to NTSC, or field sequential color to simultaneous color signal (e.g., NTSC).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

333.12,for modification of images.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 442]    442Involving polar to Cartesian or vice versa:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter including a means for converting a radial scanned pattern to a rectangular scanned pattern or vice versa.
(1) Note. Examples herein are radar to TV or vice versa.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 443]    443Involving both line number and field rate conversion (e.g., PAL to NTSC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter wherein the conversion from the first signal to second signal changes both the number of lines per field and the number of fields per second.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 444]    444Specified chrominance signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter including structure or process for converting a first chrominance signal into a second chrominance signal (e.g., converting from the quadrature modulated NTSC chrominance to either the line reversing PAL quadrature signal or the line alternating frequency modulated SECAM chrominance).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 445]    445Conversion between standards with different aspect ratios:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter wherein input and output signals have different width to height ratios and the conversion adjusts the ratios.
(1) Note. Examples herein are systems that select the standard 4:3 aspect ratio of a wide aspect ratio signal or systems that fill in the top and bottom of a 4:3 aspect ratio (e.g., letter box) to display a wide aspect ratio signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 446]    446Progressive to interlace:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter wherein an input signal has all the lines scanned during one vertical period and an output signal requires at least two vertical periods to scan all the lines.
(1) Note. In the input signal the spatially adjacent lines are temporally adjacent while in the output signal the spatially adjacent lines are not temporally adjacent and the temporally adjacent lines are not spatially adjacent.
(2) Note. Often the conversion also changes the frame rate, but such frame rate conversion is not required for classification herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 447]    447Field rate type flicker compensating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter comprising means to decrease the period of the output signal below 1/60th of a second to reduce large area flicker in a display.
(1) Note. Rate change between formats such as NTSC and PAL are classified in subclass 459 or subclass 441.
(2) Note. These systems can include line number doubling or halving.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 448]    448Line doublers type (e.g., interlace to progressive IDTV type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter wherein an input signal has N lines per vertical period and an output signal contains at least 2N lines per vertical period.
(1) Note. Most systems use a progressive scan where vertical periods (field) are in the same position on the display as compared with an interlaced system where lines in adjacent fields are offset. Classified herein are systems that double the number of the lines and produce an interlace display (e.g., conversion from 525 2:1 to either 525 1:1 or 1050 2:1).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 449]    449Including nonstandard signal detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 448.  Subject matter including a means for determining whether the signal has a fixed line period (broadcast) or a variable line period (tape machine).
(1) Note. These systems normally switch operating modes using the previous field for standard signal and line interpolation for nonstandard signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 450]    450Specified chrominance processing (e.g., Y/C separation):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 448.  Subject matter including a means for processing a composite color signal (a signal with a color subcarrier in the luminance band like NTSC, PAL, or SECAM).
(1) Note. The processing is normally chrominance luminance separation wherein the normal field delay used in line doubling is also used as a delay for chrominance luminance separation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 451]    451Motion adaptive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 450.  Subject matter including a detector which senses field to field or frame to frame differences and which processing has at least two modes (e.g., still, moving, slow motion, or fast motion) with the difference signal selecting the mode.
(1) Note. The two modes maybe either the line doubling selecting between the previous field or interpolation or some other two modes processing like Y/C separation or noise reduction.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 452]    452Motion adaptive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 448.  Subject matter including a detector which senses field to field or frame to frame differences and which has at least two modes of line doubling (e.g., still, moving, slow motion, or fast motion) with the difference signal selecting the mode.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 453]    453Specified chrominance processing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter wherein an input color signal and an output color signal differ in the method in which the color information is assembled and wherein the system changes from the first method of assembly to the second method of assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 454]    454PAL to NTSC or vice versa:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 453.  Subject matter wherein a chrominance signal having the phase of one of the quadrature components inverted in alternating lines is converted into a quadrature modulated chrominance signal without phase inversion or vice versa.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 455]    455In which simultaneous signals are converted into sequential signals or vice versa:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 453.  Subject matter wherein one of the signals has information for all three colors, red (R), green (G), and blue (B) all the time and the other has information for no more than two colors at any one time with at least two signals being time division multiplexed.
(1) Note. Systems that alternate signals at the pixel rate (dot sequential) are considered simultaneous.
(2) Note. Included herein are systems that convert from SECAM to PAL or NTSC or vice versa.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 456]    456Field or frame sequential to simultaneous:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 455.  Subject matter wherein the sequential signals alternate at field or frame rate.
(1) Note. The signal are normally R, G, and B.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 457]    457Frequency change of subcarrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 453.  Subject matter including a means for changing the frequency of the subcarrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 458]    458Changing number of lines for standard conversion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter including a means for converting numbers of line per field of an input signal to different numbers of lines per field of output signals.
(1) Note. Details of how output lines are formed from the input lines are classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 459]    459Changing number of fields for standard conversion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Subject matter including an apparatus or method for changing an input signal having a vertical period to an output signal having a different vertical period.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 460]    460DIVERSE DEVICE CONTROLLED BY INFORMATION EMBEDDED IN VIDEO SIGNAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a device other than the normal video processing circuits of a receiver which is controlled by a signal added to a normal TV signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 461]    461NONPICTORIAL DATA PACKET IN TELEVISION FORMAT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein lines of a TV signal are used to carry coded character data.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 462]    462Audio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Subject matter wherein the coded character data represent audio information.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 463]    463Full field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Subject matter wherein all the lines of the TV signal are utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 464]    464Sync:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Subject matter including details of synchronizing a coded character transmitted with a coded character receiver.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 465]    465Data separation or detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Subject matter including circuitry for separating or identifying the character codes from the video signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 466]    466Error correction or prevention:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Subject matter including circuitry for detecting or correcting invalid data within the character codes.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 467]    467Data format:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Subject matter wherein details of the character code format are specified.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 468]    468Including teletext decoder or display:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Subject matter including circuitry for processing extracted coded character information for display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 469]    469FORMAT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including particular methods or apparatus for combining the time variable video signal with a synchronizing signal to allow reconstruction of the image from which the video signal originated.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 470]    470Adapted to reduce noise or for frequency modulation (e.g., variable gain):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 469.  Subject matter including particular methods or apparatus for reducing the effects of noise or for optimizing the signal for FM transmission.
(1) Note. Time division multiplexing of chrominance and luminance components is classified in subclass 488.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 471]    471Including pulse modulation of video signal (e.g., pulse width, PAM):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 469.  Subject matter wherein the video signal is encoded using short duration amplitude spikes.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 472]    472Pulse code modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 471.  Subject matter wherein the video is quantized into plural bits and the amplitude spikes represent either a one or zero with the absence of a pulse representing the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 473]    473Including additional information:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 469.  Subject matter including a signal component other than the video and sync components.
(1) Note. Additional information includes sound signal which may or may not be related to the image carried by the video signal.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

426+,for similar systems wherein the added signal is an additional part of the image such as a side panel, a high frequency component, or a vertical high frequency component.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 474]    474For controlling video processing (e.g., digitally assisted video):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 473.  Subject matter wherein the additional signal component is derived from video and controls the receiver processing of the signals.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

429,for similar subject matter where the video signal has been frequency folded.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 475]    475Additional modulation of picture carrier (e.g., quadrature):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 473.  Subject matter wherein the additional signal directly modulates a carrier of the same frequency as the picture carrier.
(1) Note. Most often the addition modulation is amplitude modulation of a carrier at 90 degrees to the picture carrier which is called quadrature modulation. However, both phase and frequency modulation of the carrier before or after amplitude modulation of the carrier by the video are classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 476]    476During sync, blanking, or overscan:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 473.  Subject matter wherein the signal component occupies a time interval not occupied by the normal display video.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 477]    477During both vertical and horizontal blanking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 476.  Subject matter wherein the time interval is a time period of vertical and horizontal retrace.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 478]    478During vertical blanking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 476.  Subject matter wherein the time interval is a time period of the vertical retrace.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 479]    479During horizontal blanking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 476.  Subject matter wherein the time interval is a time period of the horizontal retrace.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 480]    480Sound signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 479.  Subject matter wherein the additional information is an audio signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 481]    481Plural (e.g., stereo or SAP):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter including more than one audio signal.
(1) Note. The audio signals may be related such as stereo or unrelated such as a second language.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1+ for binaural and stereophonic, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 482]    482Sound signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 476.  Subject matter wherein the additional information is an audio signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 483]    483Plural (e.g., stereo or SAP):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 482.  Subject matter including more than one audio signal.
(1) Note. The audio signals may be related such as stereo or unrelated such as a second language.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 484]    484Sound signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 473.  Subject matter wherein the additional information is an audio signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 485]    485Plural (e.g., stereo or SAP):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.  Subject matter including more than one audio signal.
(1) Note. The audio signals may be related such as stereo or unrelated such as a second language.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 486]    486Including the use of a subcarrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 473.  Subject matter wherein the additional information modulates a carrier located within the bandwidth of the picture carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 487]    487Broadband (e.g., occupying two adjacent channels or parts thereof):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 469.  Subject matter wherein the signal occupies a continuous frequency band greater than a conventional channel.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

389,for systems that occupy two nonadjacent channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 488]    488Specified color signal format:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 469.  Subject matter including particular methods or apparatus for combining individual color signals together with a sync signal for transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 489]    489Time division multiplexing of luminance and chrominance (e.g., MAC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 488.  Subject matter wherein a signal representing the brightness or the black and white information and signals representing the color content are sequentially transmitted at a rate substantially less than the pixel or element rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 490]    490Field or frame sequential systems:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 488.  Subject matter wherein signals are transmitted sequentially with a duration of at least one vertical period.
(1) Note. Dot sequential systems which select one color or luminance pixel followed by another color pixel etc., are classified in subclass 492.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 491]    491Simultaneous and sequential (e.g., SECAM):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 488.  Subject matter wherein a single color or luminance signal is transmitted continuously while at least two additional color signals are transmitted alternately at a rate substantially less than the pixel or elemental rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 492]    492Simultaneous signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 488.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of color signals or luminance and color signals are transmitted simultaneously.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 493]    493Luminance plus dual-phase modulated color carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 492.  Subject matter in which one signal conveys brightness or black and white information and a second carrier signal conveys two distinct quantities of color information at either two distinct phases or phase and amplitude.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 494]    494Dot sequential:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 492.  Subject matter wherein the components are time division multiplexed at the pixel or element rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 495]    495Of sync signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 469.  Subject matter wherein the format includes details of sync information for transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 496]    496Color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 495.  Subject matter wherein the sync information is for a color TV signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 497]    497FLUTTER OR JITTER CORRECTION (E.G., DYNAMIC REPRODUCTION):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including circuitry for correcting a timebase error of a video signal which may vary with respect to time.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 498]    498Specified color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Subject matter wherein the video signal is a specified color.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 499]    499Using frequency shifting (e.g., heterodyne):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter wherein the chrominance signal is corrected by mixing another frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 500]    500SYNCHRONIZATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including particular techniques or apparatus for utilizing synchronizing signal components to maintain proper time or phase correspondence between scanning components of the television system.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 141+ for miscellaneous synchronizing circuits.
331Oscillators,   subclasses 20 , 21, 145, 149, 153, and 172 for TV sync type oscillators and oscillators with sync circuits.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 243+ for electrical systems including synchronization of shafts.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 501]    501Reprocessing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including means for extracting, processing, or reinserting the sync signal of a video signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 502]    502Specified color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Subject matter wherein the video signal is a specified color.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 503]    503For sequential color components:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including apparatus for synchronizing the color components of a sequential system.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 504]    504With line rate switch (e.g., SECAM):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter wherein the sync is used to cause a switch to change state at a horizontal line rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 505]    505Phase locking regenerated subcarrier to color burst:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including circuitry for generating continuous color subcarrier from the burst of a video signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 506]    506Burst gate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 505.  Subject matter including specific circuitry for separating the burst from other components of a composite color signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 507]    507Including demodulator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 505.  Subject matter including means for demodulating the color components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 508]    508Digital:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 507.  Subject matter wherein the demodulator is implemented using digital circuitry.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 509]    509With line rate switch (e.g., PAL):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 507.  Subject matter wherein the sync is used to cause a switch to change state at a horizontal line rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 510]    510Locking of computer to video timebase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including means for controlling a programmable processor so as to operate in time or phase of a TV signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 511]    511Control of picture position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including means for directly changing the phase or time relationship between a video signal and its sync signal components in order to produce picture translation upon display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 512]    512Locking of video or audio to reference timebase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including means for changing the time or phase of video or audio signals so as to correspond to a reference time or phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 513]    513Frame or field synchronizers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Subject matter in which the audio or video data is written into a frame or field memory according to its own time or phase and read out according to the reference time or phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 514]    514Color television:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 513.  Subject matter wherein the video signals are natural color video signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 515]    515Audio to video:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Subject matter including means for changing the time or phase of one of a video or audio signal so as to be in time or phase with the other one of the audio or video signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 516]    516By controlling video or sync generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Subject matter wherein the time or phase is changed by control of video or sync generation.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 517]    517Color television:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 516.  Subject matter wherein the video signals are natural color video signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 518]    518Including compensation for transmission delays:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Subject matter wherein the change in time or phase take into account the time or phase shifts caused during transmission through a channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 519]    519Color television:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 518.  Subject matter wherein the video signals are natural color video signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 520]    520Color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Subject matter wherein the sync signal components are for natural color signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 521]    521Sync generation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including methods and apparatus for the generation of the synchronizing signal components necessary for the proper synchronization between components of the television system.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass is apparatus for the generation of synchronizing signal components to achieve interlace scanning.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 141+ for miscellaneous synchronizing circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 522]    522Means on video signal generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 521.  Subject matter including means integral with the picture signal generator for producing the synchronizing signal components (e.g., separate aperture on a Nipkow disc for sync pulse generation conductive strip at raster edge on vidicon for sync signal generation).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 523]    523With addressable memory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 521.  Subject matter including a memory from which the sync signal components are read.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 524]    524With counter or frequency divider:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 521.  Subject matter including means for counting or dividing a reference signal to generate the sync signal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 525]    525Sync separation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including apparatus for separating the synchronizing signal components or a synchronizing signal component from other portions of a television signal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 1+ for miscellaneous pulse selecting and separating circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 526]    526Field or frame identification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter wherein the apparatus detects a field or a frame type.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 527]    527Color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 526.  Subject matter wherein the TV signals are natural color signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 528]    528Including automatic gain control (AGC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter wherein the separating circuitry includes an output providing a control signal for automatic gain control (AGC).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 529]    529To produce distinct vertical output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter wherein the separating circuitry includes an output providing only a vertical rate sync signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 530]    530With distinct horizontal output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 529.  Subject matter wherein the separating circuitry includes an additional output providing only a horizontal rate sync signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 531]    531To produce distinct horizontal output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter wherein the separating circuitry includes an output providing only a horizontal rate sync signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 532]    532By amplitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter wherein the sync signal components are separated based on amplitude.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 533]    533Noise reduction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter including apparatus for reducing the deleterious effects of noise on the utilization of the synchronizing signal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 534]    534Amplitude limiting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Subject matter including apparatus to amplitude limit the synchronizing signal components to reduce the effects of noise on the utilization of such components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 535]    535Noise inversion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Subject matter including apparatus for inverting the polarity of noise components associated with the synchronizing signal components and algebraically adding such inverted noise components to the synchronizing signal components to reduce the effects of noise on the utilization of the synchronizing signal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 536]    536Automatic phase or frequency control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including a means for automatically controlling the time or phase of an oscillating signal in response to sync signal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 537]    537Of sampling or clock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 536.  Subject matter wherein the oscillating signal is used to control the sampling or clocking of video data.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 538]    538With data interpolation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Subject matter including means for creating data at a desired phase from two or more original data samples.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 539]    539Color:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Subject matter wherein the sync signal components are for natural color signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 540]    540Horizontal sync component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 536.  Subject matter wherein the sync signal components are horizontal sync.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 541]    541Cascaded phase or frequency adjusting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 540.  Subject matter wherein the means includes plural serially connected time or phase control circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 542]    542Plural distinct operating modes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 540.  Subject matter wherein the horizontal phase or frequency control means includes a plurality of distinct operating states.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 543]    543Line rates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 542.  Subject matter wherein the distinct modes correspond to different line rates.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 544]    544Locking rates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 542.  Subject matter wherein the distinct modes correspond to different locking rates.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 545]    545Different mode during vertical blanking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 544.  Subject matter wherein the locking rate is changed during the vertical blanking intervals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 546]    546Countdown:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 540.  Subject matter including a resetting divider for controlling the phase or time of the oscillating signal in response to the horizontal sync.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 547]    547Vertical sync component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 536.  Subject matter wherein the sync signal components are the vertical sync.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 548]    548Countdown:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  Subject matter including a resetting divider for controlling the phase or time of the oscillating signal in response to the vertical sync.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 549]    549Using color subcarrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 536.  Subject matter wherein the sync signal component is a component of a color subcarrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 550]    550To achieve interlaced scanning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including apparatus for utilizing synchronizing signal components to achieve a scanning process in which the distance from center to center of a successively scanned line is two or more times the nominal line width, and in which the adjacent lines belong to different fields.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 551]    551Of mechanical scan:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter wherein the scanning is performed by mechanical means.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 552]    552COMBINED WITH DIVERSE ART DEVICE (E.G., COMPUTER, TELEPHONE):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the receiver is combined with a device that has utility other than a TV receiver.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

333.05,for display of multiple images.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 553]    553BASIC RECEIVER WITH ADDITIONAL FUNCTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry that adds additional functions to a basic receiver.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 554]    554Multimode (e.g., composite, Y, C; baseband RF):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Subject matter wherein the signal processing of the receiver is changed depending upon the format, modulation, or the nature of the signal inputs such as R, G, B, or composite (e.g., antenna signal).
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 555]    555For receiving more than one format at will (e.g., NTSC/PAL):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 554.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry that enables the receiver to receive and display two or more signal formats.
(1) Note. A conventional receiver receives and displays only on signal standard. A standard is limited to the number of lines, frame rate, and aspect ratio. Signals which have the same number of lines, frame rate, and aspect ratio wherein the only difference is the stage of signal development, such as R, G, B, or composite or SVHSs luminance and chrominance components are classified in subclass 554.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 556]    556For format with different aspect ratio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 555.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry to allow display of signals having different width to height ratios.
(1) Note. The receiver is normally designed to display one aspect ratio, the aspect ratio of the display, and circuitry is provided to change the second signal standard to make it displayable on the display. Examples of such signal changing include selecting a narrow aspect ratio section from a wide aspect ratio signal for display on a narrow aspect ratio display or time compressing a narrow aspect ratio signal for display on a wide aspect ratio display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 557]    557Color processing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 555.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry for processing color signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 558]    558Format detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 554.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry for detecting the number of lines or the frame rate of the signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 559]    559Instant replay or freeze frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry for storing at least one frame for display.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 560]    560Color television processing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 559.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry for processing a color signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 561]    561For magnification of part of image:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Subject matter including a specific circuitry for expanding a portion of the video signal to display an enlarged portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 348 subclass 562]