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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 422]   CLASS 422,CHEMICAL APPARATUS AND PROCESS DISINFECTING, DEODORIZING, PRESERVING, OR STERILIZING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is a generic class for (1) processes of disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving or sterilizing and (2) apparatus for (a) carrying out chemical reactions, (b) preparing or treating chemical compounds or compositions even though only a physical reaction is discernible, (c) performing an analysis which involves either a chemical reaction or a physical reaction not elsewhere provided, for and (d) carrying out the above processes not elsewhere provided for.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

(A) Processes involving disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving or sterilizing (and apparatus when appropriate) for treating a compound, composition, or by-product by particularly

(1) Preserving by purification only is classified with the appropriate compound, composition, or physical separation class. Where the purification involves a chemical reaction, see the appropriate compound or composition class, Class 423, Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds, subclasses 210+ having the generic art on gas purification involving a chemical reaction. Where there is purification by physical separation only, see the appropriate physical separation class in References To Other Classes below.

(2) By coating, impregnating, or laminating. See References To Other Classes below for class references to this area.

(3) By cleaning. See References To Other Classes below for class references to this area.

(4) By heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only. See References To Other Classes below for class references to this area.

(B) Art processes and apparatus are classified with the appropriate art even though the steps of, or means for, disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, are claimed in combination therewith. The disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing subcombination should be cross-referenced to the appropriate place. See References To Other Classes below for class references to this area.

(C) Other disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se. See References To Other Classes below for class references to this area.

(D) Apparatus

(1) Analytical apparatus. See References To Other Classes below for class references to this area.

(2) Material preparation or treating apparatus. See References To Other Classes below for class references to this area.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   particularly subclasses 111.1 , 111.4, 220+, 222+, 261, and 294. (processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   (processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
8Bleaching and Dyeing; Fluid Treatment and Chemical Modification of Textiles and Fibers,   subclasses 94.1+ for the preservation of hides, skins, feathers, and other animal tissues. (disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   for apparatus for brushing, beating, shaking, wiping, shotting, the use of a squeegee, or the removal of material by a draft or current of air, steam, or equivalent gaseous fluid. (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by cleaning.)
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   (processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
27Undertaking,   particularly subclasses 11 and 21.1+. (processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
27Undertaking,   subclasses 21.1+ for embalming. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
28Textiles: Manufacturing,   (processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for making named type articles. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
30Cutlery,   particularly subclasses 124+ and 140. (processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   (physical separation class)
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses for treating solid material by drying or with vapor contact. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   subclasses 124+ for process and apparatus for destroying macroscopic vermin visible to the naked eye. This class (422) provides for process and apparatus generic to destruction of vermin and micro-organisms. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
47Plant Husbandry,   when limited to treating living plants, particularly subclass 57.5 for injecting processes and apparatus. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
44Fuel and Related Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for preparing the subject matter of the class. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   for apparatus for making heating and illuminating gas. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   (processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   particularly subclasses 101 , 130, 168, and 517 for in situ used building components with attached or built-in preserving features. (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
53Package Making,   subclasses 428+ for methods; and subclasses 111+ for apparatus for packaging combined with contents treating. (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
53Package Making,   subclasses 111+ for packaging apparatus with contents material treating. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
55Gas Separation,   (physical separation class)
60Power Plants,   appropriate subclasses for power plants using named chemical material. material preparation or treating apparatus.)
62Refrigeration,   particularly subclass 78 and subclass 331 for processes and apparatus for preserving by refrigeration, including such steps or means combined with deodorizing, antisepticizing or germiciding the material which is subjected to refrigeration or providing a special atmosphere in a cooled space. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
62Refrigeration,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for cooling or freezing, especially subclass 330 for such apparatus with means for making the refrigerant. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
62Refrigeration,   particularly subclass 78 , and subclass 331 for processes and apparatus for preserving by refrigeration, including such steps or means combined with deodorizing, antisepticizing or germiciding the material which is subjected to refrigeration or providing a special atmosphere in a cooled space. (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
65Glass Manufacturing,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for making glass including glass in the form of filaments or fibers. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
68Textiles: Fluid Treating Apparatus,   subclass 1 and 2 for waste reclaiming and carbonizing apparatus, respectively. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
73Measuring, and Testing,   for apparatus for making tests and measurements not otherwise provided for. See particularly subclass 36 for testing illuminating fluids for flash point, vapor pressure, and end point. (analytical apparatus.)
95Gas Separation: Processes,   (physical separation class)
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   for apparatus for gas separation not involving a chemical reaction. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   (physical separation class)
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
99Food and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 467+ for subjecting food to a modified atmosphere; and subclasses 518+ and 600+ for grain hulling which may involve the removal of smut and other organisms by substantial rubbing, abrading, etc. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   appropriate subclass for food making and treating apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
100Presses,   subclasses 70+ for apparatus for pressing combined with means providing an additional treatment of the material being pressed. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
101Printing,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
110Furnaces,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
110Furnaces,   subclasses 235+ for apparatus for burning wet fuel, garbage and sewage, and refuse, respectively. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
117Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor,   for non-coating apparatus for growing therein-defined single-crystal of all types of materials, including inorganic or organic. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
118Coating Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for coating apparatus combined with means to treat the work or coating. (This search note is related to material preparation or treating apparatus.)
119Animal Husbandry,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
119Animal Husbandry,   subclass 156 for antivermin treatment. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
122Liquid Heaters and Vaporizers,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
122Liquid Heaters and Vaporizers,   subclass 21 for boiler heated by chemical action other than combustion of fuel; and subclasses 379+ for boiler having means to clean same. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclasses 263.01+ for means for creating heat by chemical action. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   subclasses 1+ for apparatus for treating sugars, starches, and carbohydrates material. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
126Stoves and Furnaces,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   (physical separation class)
128Surgery,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
131Tobacco,   subclass 290 , particularly subclasses 290 and 300. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   subclasses 43+ for cleaning apparatus or liquid contact with solids apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   for cleaning processes (including those performed by the apparatus of Class 15 for cleaning apparatus not otherwise provided for). (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by cleaning.)
136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   appropriate subclasses for means for generating an electrical current. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 15.1+ for apparatus for handling fluids. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 88+ for systems for controlling the mixture of a plurality of fluids in response to the sensing of a condition or characteristic of the mixture, note particularly subclass 93 in which the control is in response to a sensing of a chemical property. (analytical apparatus.)
141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
148Metal Treatment,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 345.1 through 345.55for etching adhesive bonding and various types chemical manufacture apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
159Concentrating Evaporators,   (physical separation class)
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
159Concentrating Evaporators,   for means concentrating solids held in a solution of suspension. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 232+ for apparatus for making paper or liberating fiber. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
164Metal Founding,   subclasses 139+ for apparatus for moulding metal. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
165Heat Exchange,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
166Wells,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
169Fire Extinguishers,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
169Fire Extinguishers,   especially subclass 6 and 7 for fire extinguishers operable as a result of chemical action. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   subclasses 132 and 141 for combinations of apparatus for making a test or measurement and means for controlling a reaction provided for in that class. (analytical apparatus.)
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   (physical separation class).
202Distillation: Apparatus,   (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
202Distillation: Apparatus,   (physical separation class).
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   (physical separation class).
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   (physical separation class).
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 193+ for apparatus for that class. (Material preparation or treating apparatus.)
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 194+ for electrolytic apparatus, in general, including that used for preserving, disinfecting, or sterilizing, and other appropriate subclasses for electrical or wave energy methods for the production of chlorine, ozone, or other preserving, disinfecting, or sterilizing agents. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400 through 435for apparatus specialized for the determination of hydrogen ion concentration of solutions. (analytical apparatus.)
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 334+ for electrolytic synthesis of chlorine, ozone, or other preserving, disinfecting, or sterilizing agents and subclasses 687+ for electrolytic material treatment processes, especially subclass 701 for electrolytic treatment of biological material (e.g., sterilizing, etc.). (See above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass .5 for infusion containing receptacle; and subclasses 524.1+ for container with specified material or content. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   (physical separation class).
209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   (physical separation class).
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   (physical separation class).
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 600+ for processes; and subclasses 85 and 542 for apparatus for other liquid purification. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 85+ for apparatus for purifying a liquid. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
215Bottles and Jars,   appropriate subclasses for bottles, jars, closures, and attachments therefor. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
219Electric Heating,   appropriate subclasses for electrical heating devices. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
219Electric Heating,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses for dispensing apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 2+ for fusion bonding apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclasses 31+ for comminution apparatus combined with material treating means. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   (physical separation class).
241Solid Material, Comminution or Disintegration,   for comminuting combined with physical preservation, sterilization, or disinfecting where the combined step or means is of the type provided for as a combination in that class (241). (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   Class 422 has no preservative by either purification involving a chemical reaction or by physical separation. (physical separation class)
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   (art processes and apparatus for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing when steps or means are claimed in combination.)
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   subclass 80 for automatic means with an analyzer. (analytical apparatus.)
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclass 5 for apparatus for in situ conversion of solid to fluid by dissolving or chemical action. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 31+ for cabinet structure support with gas or vapor treatment of material. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for testing an electrical property or condition of a material by electrical means, even though the results of the test may be used as an indication of some other physical or chemical property or condition. (analytical apparatus.)
346Recorders,   for recording apparatus, per se. (analytical apparatus.)
366Agitating,   subclass 142 for agitating means with a test, signal, or indicator means. (analytical apparatus.)
373Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 340+ for generally treating materials within a nuclear reactor including for such purposes as preserving, disinfecting, and sterilizing. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   subclasses 64+ for x-irradiation. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 452 for antiseptic protectors for telephones. (This search note is related to other disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 8 for flammability testing; and subclasses 31+ for calorimetry. (analytical apparatus.)
366Agitating,   appropriate subclasses for agitating apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
373Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces,   subclasses 109+ for carbon treating apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for carrying out nuclear reactions. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
396Photography,   subclasses 564+ for fluid-treating apparatus for photographic film. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
414Material or Article Handling,   appropriate subclasses for article or material handling, usually of general utility. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for process involving mere use of the composition of that class (424). (This search note is related to other disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclasses 312+ and 321+ for preservation of edible materials. (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   including apparatus for pelletizing, agglomerating, or granulating. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
429Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process,   appropriate subclasses for means for producing electricity caused by a chemical reaction. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
431Combustion,   for apparatus for burning material. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
432Heating,   for heating apparatus. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 283.1+ for apparatus for propagating, treating, or containing enzymes or living organisms or for fermenting. (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   (material preparation or treating apparatus.)
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions,   and Products (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
427Coating Processes,   for preserving a substance by coating, including the compounds, classified in Class 423, Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds and Class 260 Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, when the preserving is done by a coating operation which is, per se, classified in Class 427. (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by coating, impregnating, or laminating.)
432Heating,   (treating a compound, composition, or by-product by heating, cooking, cooling, and/or drying only.)
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   (physical separation class)
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   (physical separation class)
493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   (see above section on disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing, per se.)
494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   (physical separation class)
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   subclasses 33 through 40for apparatus specially adapted for use in combinatorial chemistry or with a library such as in identifying, screening, or creating a library.
533through 570, Organic Compounds,   appropriate subclasses. (physical separation class)
585Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Compounds,   particularly subclasses 2+ and 800+. (physical separation class)
588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 299 for the destruction of germ warfare agents by any method, subclasses 300-321 for processes of destruction by any chemical means of hazardous or toxic waste to make such waste safe for landfill disposal, and subclasses 249-260 for processes of permanently storing hazardous or toxic waste per se, particularly subclass 258 for storage of pathogenic organisms (e.g., virus, bacteria, or medical waste).
D10Measuring, Testing, or Signaling Instruments,   for design patents pertaining to the subject matter of the class. (analytical apparatus.)

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 1]    1PROCESS DISINFECTING, PRESERVING, DEODORIZING, OR STERILIZING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Process for maintaining a protective environment or counteracting destructive environment by disinfection, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing.
(1) Note. Manufacturing articles or stock material to be resistant to deterioration in use, as by adding a stabilizer or by processes of manufacture, are classifiable, per se, in; e.g., Classes 156, 264, 427, etc.
(2) Note. Manufacturing or processing steps classifiable, per se, in a class when combined with a step(s) proper for this class is classified in the, per se, class and crossed to this Class 422.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

127,for apparatus for destroying organisms by the sudden release of high pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

62Refrigeration,   particularly subclasses 78 , and 331 for processes and apparatus for preserving by refrigeration, including such steps or means combined with deodorizing, antisepticizing or germiciding the material which is subjected to refrigeration or providing a special atmosphere in a cooled space.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 748.01 through 748.2for liquid purification or separation processes utilizing electrical or wave energy directly applied to liquid or material being treated. See particularly subclass 748.03 for liquid purification or separation processes utilizing sound waves in a process involving the killing of living organisms, subclass 748.07 for liquid purification or separation processes utilizing microwaves, and subclasses 748.11 and 748.12 for liquid purification or separation processes utilizing ultraviolet light in a process involving the killing of living organisms.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 452 for antiseptic telephone protectors.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treatment Compositions,   subclasses 76.1+ for deodorant compositions which are not applied to the living body which function by destroying the odor-causing organism or by desensitizing the olfactory mechanism.
588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 300 through 321for processes of destruction by any chemical means of hazardous or toxic waste to make such waste safe for landfill disposal, and subclasses 249-260 for processes of permanently storing hazardous or toxic waste per se, particularly subclass 249.5 for permanent storage of chemical or germ warfare agents, or pathogenic organisms (e.g., sarin, VX, anthrax, virus, bacteria, medical waste, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 2]    2Step of warning or decreasing hazard of process:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process including a step intended to increase the safety of or decrease the danger of the process or to warn persons away from an area where a dangerous process is being performed.
(1) Note. The danger must be caused by the process itself. Preserving against a hazard is placed below.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 3]    3Process control in response to analysis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein the disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing step is carried out in response to a step of chemical analysis.
(1) Note. The analysis must be of the article or material which is acted upon, of the environment, or of an added agent.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 1+ for analytical and analytical-control methods.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 4]    4A gas is substance acted upon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process where the substance being acted upon is a gas.
(1) Note. There must be an intent to treat a gas. Using a gas as a carrier for a disinfectant or other material, etc., is placed below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

9,for treatment of gas to render it nondestructive to metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 5]    5Deodorizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein an offensive odor is destroyed or masked.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

62Refrigeration,   particularly subclasses 78 , and 331 for processes and apparatus for preserving by refrigeration, including such steps or means combined with deodorizing, antisepticizing or germiciding the material which is subjected to refrigeration or providing a special atmosphere in a cooled space.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 65+ for cosmetic containing a deodorant, and subclasses 76.1+ for nonbody treating deodorant compositions. Class 424 provides for process of deodorizing involving only the mere application of a Class 424 composition.
512Perfume Compositions,   subclasses 1 through 27.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 6]    6Affecting structure, article, etc., submerged in marine environment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process for preserving structures, e.g., ships, docks, etc., used in open bodies of water, e.g., lakes, ponds, rivers, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclass 14 for antifouling paints of the type proper for that class and nominal methods of application.
424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclass 78.09 for anti-fouling paints based on synthetic resins and nominal methods of application.
427Coating Processes,   for significant processes of coating or impregnating with a substance which prevents the attack of structures by marine organisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 7]    7Maintaining environment nondestructive to metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process for modifying an environment in contact with metal in a manner that damage or destruction of the metal, by other than mechanical means, is decreased or eliminated.
(1) Note. Articles or compositions and their mere method of manufacture are classified in the relevant classes even though they contain additives or features intended to prevent damage; e.g., corrosion, etc., to the metal which they come into contact with or which is part of the article. However, processes which require a continued ongoing maintenance of a condition are considered more than mere methods of manufacture and are classified hereunder.
(2) Note. Art processes combined with steps of preventing damage to metal; e.g., anticorrosion, etc., are classified with the relevant process. However, this and indented subclasses provide for nominal art processes wherein the only positive steps recited are those of preventing damage to the metal; e.g., corrosion, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 8]    8Using protective article (e.g., antitarnish fabric, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Process involving use of an article or stock material to protect metal other than by mere mechanical barrier.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclasses 205+ and 524.4 for subject matter of that class having antitarnish feature.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 31+ for structures of that class combined with gas or vapor treatment of material.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   for stock material or miscellaneous articles which do not contain metal protective feature; e.g., anticorrosion, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 9]    9Using gaseous preservative, preservative added to gaseous phase of environment, or maintaining gaseous phase nondestructive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Process wherein (a) the agent used to prevent damage to metal is a gas, (b) a substance is added to the gaseous phase to prevent damage to the metal contacted by the gaseous phase, or (c) the gaseous phase is treated to prevent it from damaging the metal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 31+ for structures of that class combined with gas or vapor treatment of material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 10]    10Manipulating gaseous environment for preservative purpose:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Process involving the step of handling the gaseous phase which is for the sole purpose of preventing damage to metal other than, per se, adding a substance to the gaseous phase.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

95Gas Separation: Processes,   appropriate subclasses for gas purification, per se, not combined with the use of treated gaseous phase to preserve metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 11]    11Steam environment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Process wherein the gaseous phase is essentially water at a temperature above its boiling point at the prevailing pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 12]    12Aqueous acid environment (i.e., pH less than or equal to 4.1):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Process for preventing damage to metal caused by an environment which contains water and a protonic acid as strong as HSorstronger(i.e.,pHlessthanorequalto4.1).2
(1) Note. See subclass 13 definition for the definition of an aqueous alkaline solution as used therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 13]    13Aqueous alkali environment (i.e., pH greater than or equal to 8.4):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Process for preventing damage to metal caused by an environment which contains water and an alkali as strong as -HCOinaqueoussolutionorstronger(i.e.,pHgreaterthanorequalto8.4).3
(1) Note. See subclass 12 definition for the definition of an aqueous acid solution as used therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 14]    14Essentially pure water environment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Process for preventing damage to metal by an environment which is essentially liquid water.
(1) Note. "Essentially pure water" is defined as water of at least industrial purity, containing no significant intentional additive intended to perfect it for an art use not possessed by water, per se. It is recognized that industrial water contains many incidental impurities and even though the nature and amount are specifically stated, the presence of these substances will not prevent classification here hereunder, nor will impurities which build up in a water system during use; e.g., boiler, etc. The following are considered essentially pure water: carbonic acid solutions which are the mere result of operating in ambient air; boiler water and cooling water even if they contain small amounts of other intentional perfecting additives; e.g., biocides, etc. Sea water is not considered essentially pure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 15]    15Using organic compound having phosphorus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Process wherein an organic compound containing phosphorus is employed to reduce damage to metal by essentially pure water.
(1) Note. The term "organic" is used as defined in Class 260.
(2) Note. Included in this subclass are inorganic phosphorus acid salts of organic compounds; e.g., amine phosphates, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 16]    16Using organic nitrogen compound other than ammonium salt:
 Process under subclass wherein an organic nitrogen compound is employed.
(1) Note. The presence of the NH+ioninanorganicsaltwillnotbeconsideredtomakethecompoundnitrogencontainingforpurposesofthissubclass.4
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 17]    17Using organic carboxylic acid or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Process wherein an organic carboxylic acid or salt thereof is employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 18]    18Using inorganic silicon or phosphorus compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Process wherein an inorganic silicon or phosphorus compound is employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 19]    19Using heavy metal or compound thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Process wherein a metal of specific gravity of 4 or greater or a compound thereof is employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 20]    20Using sonic or ultrasonic energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process including the step of treating the article or material with vibratory energy of the frequency of 10 cps or greater.

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127,for apparatus for destroying organisms by the sudden release of high pressure.

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134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   subclass 1 for combination of cleaning and stabilizing, wherein ultrasonic energy is employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 21]    21Using microwave energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process including the step of treating the article or material with electromagnetic waves in the range of 3 X 10Hzto3X10Hz;i.e.,theso-called"microwave"range.911

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219Electric Heating,   subclasses 600+ for inductive heating, subclasses 678+ for microwave heating, and subclasses 764+ for capacitive dielectric heating.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 22]    22Using direct contact with electrical or electromagnetic radiation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process including the step of treating the article or material with electrical energy or electromagnetic radiation.
(1) Note. Ordinary radiant heating, e.g., as in an oven, is included herein.

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95Gas Separation: Processes,   subclasses 57+ for methods of gas separation involving electrostatic precipitation by ionization of air in which ozone may additionally be generated.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 687+ for electrolytic material treatment processes, especially subclass 701 for electrolytic treatment of biological material (e.g., sterilizing, etc.).
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 324+ for methods of corona irradiation; subclasses 432+ for the irradiation of contained, supported, or transferred fluent material; subclasses 453.11+ for methods of irradiating supported objects; subclasses 459.1+ for methods of irradiating fluorescent and phosphorescent materials, and subclasses 492.1+ for methods of irradiating objects or materials generally.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclasses 237+ for process of treating edible material with electrical or wave energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 23]    23In atmosphere other than air:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Process wherein the treatment takes place in a specified atmosphere other than air.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 24]    24Ultraviolet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 22.  Process wherein the electromagnetic radiation has a frequency in the range of 7 X 10Hzto3X10Hz;i.e.,theso-calledultravioletrange".1416
(1) Note. X-rays having a frequency greater than 3 X 10Hzarenotincludedherein.16
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 25]    25Including additional step of preventing damage to sealed container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein the article is a sealed container and wherein the process includes a step or condition intended to prevent physical damage to the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 26]    26Using direct contact steam to disinfect or sterilize:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein water vapor at a temperature above the boiling point of liquid water at the pressure employed is used to directly contact and destroy noxious organisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 27]    27And additional disinfecting or sterilizing agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.  Process wherein an additional agent is used to disinfect or sterilize in admixture with steam.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 28]    28Using disinfecting or sterilizing substance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein an article or material is treated with a substance to disinfect or sterilize by more than the mere effect of heat.
(1) Note. A treating substance used in a disinfecting or sterilizing process is considered to be a disinfecting or sterilizing agent unless its effect is disclosed to be merely that of heating.

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62Refrigeration,   particularly subclasses 78 , and subclass 331 for processes and apparatus for preserving by refrigeration, including such steps or means combined with deodorizing, antisepticizing or germiciding the material which is subjected to refrigeration or providing a special atmosphere in a cooled space.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 29]    29In situ generation of agent other than aldehyde or glycol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the agent is prepared at the site of the process for immediate use and is other than an aldehyde or glycol.

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36,for process of generating an aldehyde in situ.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 30]    30And removing the agent by chemical reaction or sorption:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the disinfecting or sterilizing substance is removed or destroyed after treatment by use of a chemical reaction, absorption, or adsorption.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 31]    31And recovering or reusing the agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the substance is recovered for reuse or is recycled to another step of disinfecting or sterilizing.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 32]    32Treating bulk material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the material being treated is particulate matter handled in bulk of mass, e.g., sand as opposed to articles handled individually.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 33]    33With positive pressure or vacuum:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process including a step of placing the material or article under pressure either below or above the ambient pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 34]    34Using alkylene oxide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the disinfecting or sterilizing substance is an alkylene oxide; i.e., containing the group R- CH- CHwhereinRisahydrocarbonorhydrogen.2

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514Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 449 and 475 for disinfecting compositions containing an alkylene oxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 35]    35Using cyanide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the disinfecting or sterilizing substance is a cyanide, i.e., contains the group -C N.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   especially subclasses 607+ for disinfecting and sterilizing composition containing a cyanide or nitrite (N) compound.
514Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   subclasses 112 and 519+.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 36]    36Using aldehyde:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the disinfecting or sterilizing substance contains an aldehyde group; i.e., -CH.
(1) Note. This subclass also includes process wherein the disinfecting or sterilizing substance is an aldehyde yielding substance; e.g., paraformaldehyde, etc.

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514Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   especially subclasses 693+ for disinfecting or sterilizing compositions containing aldehyde.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 37]    37Using halogen or halogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Process wherein the disinfecting or sterilizing substance contains a halogen or a halogen-containing compound.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for disinfecting or sterilizing compositions containing a halogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 38]    38Using fluent heat transfer medium other than air:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein the article or material is treated by heating the same with a fluent heat transfer medium other than air.
(1) Note. When it cannot be determined whether a fluent medium is only for heat transfer or whether the medium is also a disinfecting or sterilizing agent, the patent is placed in subclass 28 and cross-referenced here. See note in subclass 28.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 39]    39By sudden release of pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein the article or material is subjected to a high pressure which is suddenly released.
(1) Note. Most patents in this subclass are drawn to the destruction of micro- organisms; e.g., bacteria, etc.

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127,for apparatus for destroying organisms by the sudden release of high pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 40]    40Process of storage or protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process directed to residual processes of storage or protection of articles or materials provided for under the definition 1.
(1) Note. This subclass requires a continuing or ongoing process. A single uniform admixture with preserving agent is not included herein.

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62Refrigeration,   particularly subclasses 78 , and 331 for processes and apparatus for preserving by refrigeration, including such steps or means combined with deodorizing, antisepticizing or germiciding the material which is subjected to refrigeration or providing a special atmosphere in a cooled space.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclass 418 for process of storing solid foods under controlled condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 41]    41Of liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 40.  Process wherein the substance stored or protected is a liquid under the conditions employed.
(1) Note. Included herein is the storage in a molten state of a material solid at room temperature.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 9+ for continuous liquid phase colloid systems (e.g., foams, emulsions, suspensions, dispersions) or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 42]    42By preventing evaporation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Process wherein the liquid is protected against loss by evaporation.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 9+ for continuous liquid phase colloid systems (e.g., foams, emulsions, suspensions, dispersions) or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 43]    43Of water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Process wherein water is the liquid protected against evaporation.

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900,for art collections pertaining to subclasses 1-43.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 9+ for continuous liquid phase colloid systems (e.g., foams, emulsions, suspensions, dispersions) or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 44]    44BLOOD TREATING DEVICE FOR TRANSFUSIBLE BLOOD:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for treating blood externally of a blooded animal.

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435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclass 2 for process of maintaining blood cells in a viable state.
494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   appropriate subclasses, for apparatus and process for breaking up a mixture of fluids or fluent substances into two or more components by centrifuging within a generally solid-walled, receptacle-like member, and see especially subclasses 16+ , for a separator of that class which includes a plurality of miniature bowls (e.g., test tubes) distributed about a rotatable carrier and readily removable therefrom, which latter design of separator, it may be observed, frequently is utilized for separating blood into two or more of its components.
604Surgery,   subclass 507 for method of introducing or removing material from the vasculature system.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 45]    45Oxygenator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Apparatus having means for extracorporeal oxygenation of blood.

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261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 75+ for devices for contacting a gas with a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 46]    46Including integral heat-exchange means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Apparatus having means integrally connected with the oxygenator for heating or cooling.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 47]    47Bubble or foam producing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Apparatus having means for producing a blood-oxygen mixture in the form of a foam or entrained bubbles.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 48]    48Membrane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Apparatus wherein a membrane (e.g., semipermeable microporous, etc.) separates the blood from the oxygenating medium.

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96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 4+ for apparatus for selective diffusion of gases (e.g., semipermeable membrane, etc.).
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 634+ for selective separation using septum selective to composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 49]    49INCLUDING MEANS FACILITATING PART REPLACEMENT OR REPAIR OTHER THAN SOLID, EXTENDED SURFACE, FLUID CONTACT MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having structure disclosed as making it easier to repair or replace parts of the apparatus which deteriorated or is inoperative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

122,171+, 631-638, and 211+, for this feature in a solid, extended surface, fluid contact means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 50]    50ANALYZER, STRUCTURED INDICATOR, OR MANIPULATIVE LABORATORY DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for quantitative or qualitative chemical analysis and laboratory devices.

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73Measuring and Testing,   for apparatus for making tests and measurement not otherwise provided for. See particularly subclass 38 for testing illuminating fluids for flash point, vapor pressure, and end point.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 88+ for systems for controlling the mixture of a plurality of fluids in response to the sensing of a condition or characteristic of the mixture, note particularly subclass 93 in which the control is in response to a sensing of a chemical property.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   subclass 132 and 141 for combinations of apparatus for making a test or measurement and means for controlling a reaction provided for in that class.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 400 through 435for apparatus specialized for the determination of a hydrogen ion concentration of solutions.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for testing an electrical property or condition of a material by electrical means, even though the results of the test may be used as an indication of some other physical or chemical property or condition.
346Recorders,   for recording apparatus, per se.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 8 for flammability testing; and subclasses 31+ for calorimetry.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 1+ for similar processes.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   subclasses 33 through 40for apparatus specially adapted for use in combinatorial chemistry or with a library such as in identifying, screening, or creating a library.
588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclass 260 for the sensing, detecting, or monitoring of hazardous or toxic waste during storage or containment.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 51]    51Calorimeter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus wherein the analyzer is a calorimeter; i.e., an analyzer using the measurement of thermodynamic parameters of the material being analyzed as the basis of the analysis.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 31+ for a calorimeter not involving the determination of the amount of a constituent in a compound or means effecting a chemical reaction other than combustion.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 52]    52Chemiluminescent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus comprising means using the measurement of light generated and emitted during a chemical reaction of the material being analyzed as the basis of the analysis.

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252Compositions,   subclass 182.11 for chemiluminescent compositions.
362Illumination,   subclass 34 for chemiluminescent lighting apparatus having light modifying structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 53]    53Corrosion tester:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus for measuring (a) the corrosivity of chemical agents or environments, (b) the corrosion resistance of materials, or (c) the effectiveness of corrosion-inhibiting agents.

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240+,for chemical apparatus constructed of material to resist corrosion.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 54]    54Flame ionization detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus comprising an analyzer using the measurement of a change in the conductivity of a standard, usually hydrogen, flame due to the inclusion of another gas or vapor therein to detect the presence or amount of that gas or vapor in a sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 62]    62Automatic analytical monitor and control of industrial process:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus having means for automatically analytically monitoring and controlling a chemical or physical industrial process; e.g., measuring the carbon monoxide concentration in a flue gas and automatically changing the fuel/air ratio based on the measurement, etc.

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63+,and 81+, for automatic analytical system with specified transport means.
105+,for control element responsive to sensed operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 63]    63Sample mechanical transport means in or for automated analytical system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus having self-operated analytical systems or components thereof wherein the sample to be analyzed is moved to treating stations by mechanical means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 64]    64Means is turntable (circular):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus wherein the mechanical means includes a circular turntable for moving the sample from station to station.
(1) Note. The presence of a circular turntable for feeding the sample to the analytical system is not included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 65]    65Means is conveyor and rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus wherein the mechanical means includes a conveyor and sample supporting rack.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 66]    66Means is moving tape or band:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus wherein the mechanical means includes a moving band or tape having sample supports integral therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 67]    67With specific analytical program control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus having means for providing specific analytical program control, including; i.e., command instructions, data correlation, sample location, coding of sample holder, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 68.1]    68.1Means for analyzing liquid or solid sample:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus wherein the material to be analyzed is initially in the solid or liquid state, including the analysis of a gas contained in a liquid or solid sample.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 53.01+ for liquid analysis, per se; subclasses 152.18+ for a fluid analysis in testing a borehole, a casing, or a drill rigging wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic; and in particular subclass 152.42 for determining the relative proportion of fluid constituents wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 69]    69Sorption testing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus including means providing for the absorption or adsorption of the material being tested, usually on a solid material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 70]    70Liquid chromatography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Apparatus specifically designed or adapted for liquid chromas:graphic analysis.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 61.1 for liquid chromatography testing not involving a chemical reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 71]    71With radioactive material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Apparatus wherein the material being tested includes a radioactive tracer, including; e.g., apparatus for T-3 and T-4 tests.

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159,for apparatus for radioactive reactant or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 72]    72Including centrifuge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus having centrifugal apparatus.

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494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   appropriate subclasses, for apparatus for breaking up a mixture of fluids or fluent substances into two or more components by centrifuging within a generally solid-walled, receptacle-like member.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 73]    73With coagulometer for agglutination, clotting, or for particle (e.g., cell, etc.) counting, or volume or characteristics determination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus for analyzing material by measuring such coagulation phenomena as agglomeration, agglutination, precipitation, clotting, prothrombin, etc., or for particle (e.g., cell, etc.) counting, or volume or characteristics determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 74]    74Dairy tester:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus for analysis of dairy products.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 75]    75Including titrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus which utilizes titration as a means of chemical analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 76]    76Conductiometric type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.  Apparatus having a conductiometric detector which measures ion concentration; e.g., pH, etc., by incremental volumetric additions of a titrant.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 77]    77With integrating or differentiating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Apparatus having differentiating or integrating means, usually to extrapolate mathematically to the desired titration end point.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 78]    78Including means for pyrolysis, combustion, or oxidation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus having means for heating the substance to be analyzed either in the presence or absence of oxygen to cause a chemical reaction; e.g., oxidation, etc., or thermal decomposition of the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 79]    79Biological, chemical, or total oxygen demand (i.e., BOD, COD, TOD):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Apparatus for the analysis of water to determine its oxygen demand.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 80]    80And means directly analyzing evolved gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Apparatus having means for analyzing the gas which is produced as a result of the combustion or pyrolysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 81]    81Automated system with sample fluid pressure transport means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus having self-operated analytical systems wherein the sample is moved to treating stations principally by fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82]    82And means segmenting fluid material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Apparatus having means for dividing the fluid into segments with bubbles or slugs of separating fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.01]    82.01Measuring electrical property:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus having means for measuring an electrical property such as detecting the presence of electrical charge carrying substances (e.g., ions, electrolytes, etc.) in the material to be analyzed or detecting the effect of the material to be analyzed on an electrical circuit (e.g., change in voltage, current, electromotive force, potential, impedance, resistance, or conductivity).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.02]    82.02Resistance or conductivity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.01.  Apparatus having means for measuring the resistance or conductivity of the material to be analyzed or having means for detecting an alteration or a change of resistance or conductivity due to the presence of an element (e.g., an ion) in the material to be analyzed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.03]    82.03Ion selective electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.01.  Apparatus having an ion selective or ion sensitive electrode to measure the presence of a particular substance in the material to be analyzed.
(1) Note. An ion selective chloride electrode will measure only chloride ions as opposed to any negatively charged ion in a solution.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 416+ for ion selective electrodes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.04]    82.04Dissolved gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.03.  Apparatus wherein the ion selective electrode is specific for a dissolved gas; e.g., a pH sensitive electrode or an electrode specific for dissolved carbon dioxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.05]    82.05Measuring optical property by using ultraviolet, infrared, or visible light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus having means for detecting an optical property of the material to be analyzed.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are apparatus which include some sort of referencing scale with which the sample can be compared by the human eye; e.g., graduations on a pipette, a burette, or a color chart.

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400through 429 for structured visual or optical indicators, per se, in the absence of a positive claimed recitation of an indicator with a referencing scale, even though the indicator could be used with a referencing scale.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.06]    82.06Optode or optrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.05.  Apparatus wherein the means for detecting an optical property is an optode or optrode; i.e., an optical detection apparatus that includes an optical indicator which is set apart from the material to be analyzed by a semipermeable membrane.
(1) Note. In such apparatus, the substance to be measured in the material to be analyzed permeates through the semipermeable membrane reacting with the indicator to produce an optical response that is detected by an optical detector; e.g., a fluorescence detector or a color detector.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.07]    82.07Fluorescence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.06.  Apparatus wherein the optode or optrode is such that it produces a fluorescent optical response which is detected by a fluorescence detector.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.08]    82.08Fluorescence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.05.  Apparatus having means for measuring fluorescence or luminescence in the material to be analyzed; e.g., a fluorimeter or an oscilloscope.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.09]    82.09Absorbance or transmittance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.05.  Apparatus having means for measuring the absorbance or transmittance of the material to be analyzed; e.g., a spectrophotometer, a colorimeter, or a spectro-optical digitizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.11]    82.11Waveguides:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.05.  Apparatus having a waveguide which is in contact with the material to be analyzed and through which light is passed, which light interacts with the material to be analyzed modifying the light which is detected after it leaves the waveguide.
(1) Note. Such waveguides often have a coating thereon which reacts with a substance in the material to be analyzed to produce a change in the coating which in turn modifies the light passed through the waveguide.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.12]    82.12Measuring temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus having means for measuring the temperature of the material to be analyzed; e.g., a thermocouple.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 82.13]    82.13Measuring pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.1.  Apparatus having means for measuring the pressure in the material to be analyzed; e.g., a manometer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 83]    83Means for analyzing gas sample:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus wherein the material to be analyzed is initially in the gaseous state.
(1) Note. The analysis of a gas which is initially contained in a liquid or solid sample is not contained here (see this class, subclasses 68+).

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 23.2+ for gas analysis testing not involving a chemical reaction, particularly subclasses 23.35+ for chromatos:graphic testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 84]    84Breath tester:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Apparatus having means for testing breath.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 85]    85Based on color change:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Apparatus wherein the analytical measurement is based on a color change.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 86]    86Including means reacting gas with color indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Apparatus having means for reacting the gas with a color indicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 87]    87Strip indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Apparatus in the form of a strip.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 88]    88Including means for adsorbing or absorbing gas into or onto liquid or solid media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Apparatus having means for absorbing or adsorbing the gas sample or that portion to be tested into or onto liquid or solid media.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 89]    89Gas chromatography:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Apparatus wherein the analytical device is a gas chromatos:graphic system.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 23.35 for gas chromatos:graphic apparatus not involving chemical reaction.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 101+ for chromatography type apparatus for gas separation.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 90]    90With conductiometric detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Apparatus having a conductiometric detector for analyzing the gas sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 91]    91With photometric detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Apparatus having a photoelectric detector for analyzing the sorbed gas sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 92]    92With volumetric detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Apparatus having means for making volumetric measurements following the sorption of the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 93]    93Including means dividing sample stream into plural parallel segments having diverse treating means and the analytical result compared or combined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Apparatus having means for dividing a gas stream into multiple, parallel segments having diverse treating means therefor and means uniting or comparing the analytical results obtained therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 94]    94Combustible gas detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Apparatus for determining the presence or concentration of flammable material in a gas sample, including means for combusting the gas sample and means to detect the presence of, or extent of, the combustion.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 95]    95With thermoelectric detector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Apparatus including a temperature detecting means of the thermistor type, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 96]    96Wheatstone bridge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Apparatus having a resistance bridge circuit as a part thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 97]    97With specific coating on bridge element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 96.  Apparatus having a named material coating, usually a catalyst, on a bridge element.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 98]    98Analysis based on electrical measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Apparatus wherein the sample is analyzed by measuring an electrical property thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 105]    105CONTROL ELEMENT RESPONSIVE TO A SENSED OPERATING CONDITION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having means for automatically modifying an operation of the system in response to a means sensing an operating condition or change of the same; e.g., automatic shutdown of the reactor responsive to excessive temperature, pressure, etc.

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117Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor,   subclasses 202+ for non-coating apparatus combined with control element responsive to a sensed operating condition and with means for growing therein-defined single-crystal of all types of materials, including inorganic or organic.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 106]    106Responsive to liquid level:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus having a control element responsive to a sensed liquid level.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 107]    107Control element directly mechanically linked to separate sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus wherein the control element is mechanically linked directly to a separate sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 108]    108Control element responds proportionally to variable signal from a sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus wherein the control element responds proportionally to a variable signal from a sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 109]    109Controls heat transfer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Apparatus wherein the control element regulates the degree of heat transfer in the system.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 110]    110Controls flow rate of a material to or from a contact zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Apparatus wherein the control element regulates the flow rate of material into or out of a contact zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 111]    111Material is an input to contact zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Apparatus wherein the control element regulates the flow rate of material into the contact zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 112]    112Control element is fluid pressure sensitive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus wherein the control element is responsive to fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 113]    113Pressure-relief valve (e.g., pop-off valve) or check valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Apparatus wherein the fluid pressure sensitive control element is a pressure-relief valve; i.e., pop-off valve, or check valve.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 114]    114Control element is a binary responsive valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus wherein the control element is a binary responsive valve; i.e., a valve having but two operation positions; e.g., open and closed, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 115]    115Valve diverts flow from a contact zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Apparatus wherein the operation control is that of bypassing the reaction zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 116]    116Sensed condition is operating time and control is operation sequencer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus wherein the sensed operating condition is the passage of operating time and the control element is an operation sequencer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 117]    117WITH SAFETY FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having special means for protecting the operator or the environmental area surrounding the apparatus.

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113,for apparatus having pop-off valves.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 118]    118Preventing opening of closure of pressurized apparatus at unsafe pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Apparatus wherein the safety feature prevents the opening of a movable or removable closure of the apparatus when the apparatus is at such pressure that the opening of the closure is an unsafe act.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 119]    119WITH INDICATING, SIGNALLING, RECORDING, SAMPLING, OR INSPECTION MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having an indicator, signal, recorder, or inspection means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 120]    120FOR DEODORIZING OF, OR CHEMICAL PURIFICATION OF, OR GENERATION OF, LIFE-SUSTAINING ENVIRONMENTAL GAS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for (a) taking the odor out or masking the odor of, or (b) chemical purification of a life-sustaining environmental gas (for breathing) or the chemical generation of the same.

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168,for waste gas purifier which usually releases the gas to the atmosphere.

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128Surgery,   subclass 202.26 for inhaling devices having means to regenerate the exhaled air so that it can be breathed again from the same device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 121]    121With means exposing gas to electromagnetic wave energy or corpuscular radiation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Apparatus having means for exposing the gas to electromagnetic wave energy (other than ordinary visible light) or corpuscular radiation; e.g., radioactive particles, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 122]    122Including solid, extended surface, fluid contact reaction means (e.g., Raschig rings, particulate or monolithic catalyst, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Apparatus having an extended surface contact reaction means.

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177+,631-638, and 211+, for this structure in a waste gas purifier, in plural stages, and a single stage, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 123]    123Including means adding material into environmental gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Apparatus having means for dispensing or injecting material into the gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 124]    124And mechanical means creating forced draft at addition site:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Apparatus having a mechanical means forcing an air current at the site wherein the material is introduced into the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 125]    125With material-heating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Apparatus having means to increase the temperature of the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 126]    126Material is combusted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Apparatus wherein the material is burned.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 127]    127SHOCK OR SOUND WAVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having means for creating sonic energy which is used to initiate or perfect a process. Included herein is apparatus for destroying organisms by the sudden release of high pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 128]    128Including supersonic or ultrasonic energy generation means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Apparatus wherein the energy produced travels faster than the speed of sound or it is ultrasonic; i.e., sound waves having frequencies on the order of or greater than 20,000 cps.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 129]    129CHEMICAL REACTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for the formation of a product by chemical reaction not otherwise provided for.

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105+,for apparatus having means for automatically modifying an operation of the system in response to a means sensing an operating condition or change of the same; e.g., automatic shutdown of the reactor responsive to excessive temperature, pressure, etc.

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156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   appropriate subclasses for chemical manufacturing apparatus not elsewhere provided for producing articles of manufacture, and see especially subclasses 345.1-345.55 for differential etching apparatus.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for treating mineral oils. Catalytic apparatus, even though employed for carrying out a catalytic-cracking process provided for in Class 208, Mineral Oils: Processes and Products, is classified in this class (422).
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 193+ for apparatus employed in carrying out a process provided for in that class, which apparatus is not provided for in any other class.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 255 for apparatus for testing earth material samples involving, and in name only, chemical or physical separation and an invisible radiation test of the separated material; subclass 281 for ionic separation or analysis apparatus; subclasses 306+ for the inspection of solids or liquids by charged particles and the detection of the particles modified by the solids or liquids; subclasses 336.1+ for apparatus for analyzing material.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   for organic compounds and process of manufacturing the same.
401Coating Implements With Material Supply,   subclasses 40+ and 44+ (particularly subclass 47) for a coating implement by means of which diverse materials are applied to a work surface.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for inorganic compound and nonmetallic elements and processes for their manufacture involving chemical reaction.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 283.1+ for apparatus for propagating, treating, or containing living organisms or for fermenting.
506Combinatorial Chemistry Technology: Method, Library, Apparatus,   subclasses 33 through 40for apparatus specially adapted for use in combinatorial chemistry or with a library such as in identifying, screening, or creating a library.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 129.1]    129.1Soap making:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus specifically designed for effecting a saponification reaction, i.e., conversion of a higher fatty ester or a natural resin ester into an alcohol and a salt by reacting an alkali with the ester.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 130]    130Bench scale:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus which is smaller than a pilot reactor and larger than a laboratory apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 131]    131Organic polymerization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus for the chemical production of organic polymers.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 132]    132Closed loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Apparatus wherein the reactor is of the closed-loop type; i.e., one wherein substantially all of the reaction mass is continuously recycled during operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 133]    133Generating foamed plastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Apparatus wherein reactor is designed for the production of a foamed plastic or polymer.

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366Agitating,   subclasses 162.4+ for a mixing apparatus that introduces materials into a mixing chamber in colliding jets, which materials may be disclosed as reactants for forming plastic foam.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 134]    134Including plural sequential reaction stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Apparatus having multiple, serially disposed reaction stages and means for subjecting the reaction mass successively to each of the stages.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 135]    135Including reactant agitating means in reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Apparatus having means located within the reaction chamber for mixing the reaction mass.

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224,for apparatus having internal mixing or stirring means, and see the search notes thereunder.

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366Agitating,   subclasses 162.4+ for a mixing apparatus that introduces materials into a mixing chamber in colliding jets, which materials may be disclosed as reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 136]    136And means rotatably mounting reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Apparatus having means to rotate the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 137]    137Horizontal reaction chamber with screw or worm agitator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Apparatus having a horizontally disposed reaction chamber and a mixing means in the form of a screw or worm.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 138]    138With heat exchanger for reaction chamber or reactants located therein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Apparatus having means for modifying the ambient temperature disposed within or surrounding the reaction chamber and in heat-transfer contact therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 139]    139Fluidized bed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus wherein a bed of fluidizable solid particulate material, which may be a reactant, catalyst, or inert material, is disposed in a reaction chamber for the purpose of carrying out a chemical reaction in the formation of a product and including means for introducing a fluidizing medium into the bed.

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34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   subclasses 576+ for similar fluidized bed structure for drying of particulate material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 140]    140With liquid present:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus having a liquid present in the apparatus as either part of the reaction medium or part of the fluidizing medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 141]    141Plural reaction beds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus comprising multiple reaction beds.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 142]    142Sequentially arranged:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus wherein the beds are serially disposed and having means for sequentially subjecting the reaction stream to multiple beds.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 143]    143Including specific wind box or particulate matter support grid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus wherein the fluidizing medium introducing means includes a particulate matter support grid or a fluidizing inlet manifold chamber; i.e., wind box located within the reaction chamber, either structure being more than nominally recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 144]    144Including means to strip reaction mass from, or to regenerate, the particulate matter (including fluidized bed regenerators, per se):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus having means to remove the reaction mass from or renew the particulate material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 145]    145And means providing flow of particulate matter into or out of reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus having means for flowing the particulate matter to or from the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 146]    146With heat exchange means affecting reaction chamber or reactants located therein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus having means for modifying the ambient temperature disposed within or surrounding the reaction chamber and in heat-transfer contact therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 147]    147And means mechanically separating and removing particulate bed material from fluid effluent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus having means for mechanically separating and removing the solid particulate material from the reaction product or fluidizing stream; e.g., fluidized bed in combination with upstream filter, cyclone, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 148]    148Ammonia synthesizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus specifically adapted for the chemical synthesis of ammonia; e.g., a high pressure, catalytic ammonia synthesis reactor, etc.

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128Surgery,   subclass 202.26 for ammonia medicator.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclass 552 for electrolytic synthesis of ammonia.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 149]    149With means simultaneously carrying out conjugated reactions within single reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means for simultaneously carrying out conjugated; i.e., sequential reactions within a single reactor; e.g., first reaction stage produces an intermediate product which is fed to a second reaction stage within the reactor wherein the intermediate product is converted into the final product, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 150]    150Pigment or carbon black producer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus wherein the reactor is specifically adapted for the chemical generation of pigmentary product; e.g., TiOetc.,orcarbonblack.2

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclass 173 for chemical preparation of carbon by using an electrostatic field or electrical discharge.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 615+ for electrolytic synthesis of carbon or other nonmetal elements and subclass 768 for electrolytic treatment of a solid containing free carbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 151]    151With means injecting quench stream into reaction chamber downstream of reaction site:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Apparatus having means for injecting a stream of quench fluid into the reaction chamber at a location downstream of the reaction site.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 152]    152With particulate product collecting surface and means mechanically removing product therefrom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Apparatus having a collecting surface for collecting the particulate material product of the reaction and means associated with the collecting surface for mechanically removing the product therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 153]    153Moving collecting surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus wherein the collecting surface is mounted for movement during use.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 154]    154Rotary collecting surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Apparatus wherein the collecting surface is rotatably mounted.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 155]    155Disk or plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.  Apparatus wherein the collecting surface is a rotatably mounted disk or plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 156]    156With plural sequential reaction zones or chambers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Apparatus having multiple, sequentially arranged reaction zones or chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 157]    157With movably or removably mounted plug means for converting reactor from (N) to (N+1) reaction stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 156.  Apparatus wherein the plural stages are located in (a) a single reaction chamber or (b) in plural reaction chambers and includes a movably or removably mounted plug means in a reaction chamber for selectively converting the same from (N) to (N+1) reaction zones therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 158]    158Vapor phase reaction type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.  Apparatus wherein the product is produced by a vapor phase reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 159]    159For radioactive reactant or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus for a radioactive reactant or producing a radioactive product.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 160]    160Inorganic sulfur acid or anhydride producing type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus for producing an inorganic sulfur acid or anhydride thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 161]    161Acid is final product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Apparatus wherein an acid is produced.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 162]    162Inorganic hydrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus wherein water is a chemical reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 163]    163Explosives synthesizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus for producing a product which is an explosive.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 164]    164Solid reactant type (i.e., absence of fluid reactants):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus specifically designed for nonfluid reactants wherein all of the reactants are in a nonfluid state (i.e., solid); e.g., generation of oxygen from chlorate candles, etc.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 728.1+ for air bag devices, or accessories therefor, or subcombinations therefor, for use in land vehicles, which are more than the chemical or physical reactor per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 165]    165Including ignition means for reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 164.  Apparatus having means for kindling the reactant.

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431Combustion,   appropriate subclasses for various types of ignition means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 166]    166Electrically actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Apparatus wherein the ignition means is electrically actuated.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 167]    167Including reactor cooling means surrounding reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 164.  Apparatus having means for cooling the external surface of the reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 168]    168Waste gas purifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus for the modification of a waste gas, prior to its discharge into the atmosphere, by chemical reaction to reduce the pollutant content thereof.

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120+,for apparatus for purifying life-sustaining gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 169]    169Including means providing sequential purification stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 168.  Apparatus having means for subjecting the waste gas to multiple, succeeding purification stages, at least one being of the chemical reaction type.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 170]    170Plural chemical reaction stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus having multiple chemical reaction stages.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 171]    171Solid, extended surface, fluid contact type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Apparatus wherein the reaction stages contain solid extended surface fluid contact reaction means (i.e., means providing a relatively large solid fluid contact surface area within the reaction zone).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 172]    172And means downstream of a stage for injecting a reactant into waste gas for interreaction in subsequent stage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Apparatus having means located downstream of a reaction stage for injecting a reactant into the waste gas stream for reaction therewith in a subsequent reaction stage (e.g., a catalyst bed for reducing NOx in the waste gas followed by a catalyst bed for oxidizing CO in the waste gas, with means for injecting oxygen into the waste gas, as it passes between the two catalyst beds).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 173]    173With heat exchanger for reaction chamber or reactants located therein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 168.  Apparatus having means for heating or cooling the reaction chamber or for heating or cooling the reactants located within the reaction chamber.

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182+,for heat exchange means injecting a combustion fuel into reaction chamber and burning the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 174]    174Electrical type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Apparatus wherein the heat exchange means includes an electrical heater.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 175]    175Regenerative heat sink:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Apparatus wherein the heat-exchange means includes a regenerative heat-sink means; e.g., a low heat capacity mass which absorbs heat from the hot waste gas and gives up the heat, upon reversal of flow, to colder waste gas to preheat the same upstream of the reaction site, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 176]    176Including waste gas flow distributor upstream of reaction site and within reaction chamber modifying velocity profile of gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 168.  Apparatus having waste gas flow distribution means upstream of the purification reaction site and located within the reaction chamber for the purpose of equalizing or otherwise modifying the velocity profile of the waste gas at the upstream end of the reaction site.

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183,for claimed mixing means combined with means injecting combustion fuel in the reaction chamber. The mixing means may inherently act as a distribution device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 177]    177Including solid, extended surface, fluid contact reaction means; e.g., inert Raschig rings, particulate absorbent, particulate or monolithic catalyst, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 168.  Apparatus including solid extended surface, fluid contact reaction means; i.e., means providing a relatively large solid contact surface area within the reaction zone wherein the large surface area presents multiple reaction sites for contact by the reaction mixture and, thereby, enhance the rate and/or the completeness of the purification reaction, including; e.g., inert Raschig rings, particulate absorbent, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 178]    178And contact regenerating means or means for cleaning an internal surface of the reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Apparatus having either (a) means for renewing the spent extended surface contact means or (b) means for cleaning an internal surface of the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 179]    179Fixed bed with resilient or differential thermal expansion compensating bed support means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Apparatus wherein the solid extended surface, fluid contact means is in the form of a relatively fixed bed of contact material and including means for supporting the contact bed within the reaction chamber, said support means either itself being resilient or being resiliently mounted to provide for the absorption of mechanical shock or to maintain the contact material within the bed or being specifically designed to compensate for differences in thermal expansion of components in the reaction chamber.

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221,for this structure generally in a chemical reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 180]    180Unitary (i.e., nonparticulate) contact bed (e.g., monolithic catalyst bed, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Apparatus wherein the extended surface contact means is in the form of a unitary (i.e., nonparticulate) contact bed; e.g., a monolithic honeycomb coated with a catalyst, catalyst-coated metallic screen, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 181]    181Fixed annularly shaped bed of contact material and means directing gas therethrough substantially perpendicular to longitudinal axis of bed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Apparatus wherein the extended surface contact means is in the form of a relatively fixed, annularly shaped bed of contact material and including means for directing the flow of waste gas through the contact bed in a direction substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the contact bed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 182]    182Including means injecting combustion fuel into reaction chamber in direct contact with waste gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 168.  Apparatus having means for injecting combustion fuel into the reaction chamber for direct contact of the fuel itself, or products of combustion thereof, with the waste gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 183]    183And means mixing combustion fuel with waste gas upstream of reaction site:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Apparatus wherein the fuel-injecting means includes means for injecting the fuel into the waste gas stream and for mixing the fuel therewith at a location upstream of the reaction site.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 184.1]    184.1For chemically destroying or disintegrating solid waste, other than burning alone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus for destroying or breaking up solid waste utilizing a chemical reaction, other than burning alone.
(1) Note. This subclass is not intended to contain an apparatus related to composting. Such matter is provided for elsewhere. See Search Note below.

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4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   subclasses 222+ for subject matter of that class combined with disinfecting means.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclasses 38+ for apparatus of that class combined with means for applying a fluid to the material being worked upon.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 290.1+ for composting apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 185]    185For chemical recovery of chemicals from waste paper making liquor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus for chemically recovering chemicals for waste kraft or black liquors, e.g., waste liquor from a paper-making process.

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 232+ for paper making apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186]    186With means applying electromagnetic wave energy or corpuscular radiation to reactants for initiating or perfecting chemical reaction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means for applying electromagnetic wave energy (other than visible light) or corpuscular radiation; e.g., radioactive particles, etc., to the reactants for initiating or perfecting the reaction.

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21,and 22+, for process of using electromagnetic radiation for disinfecting, deodorizing, preserving, or sterilizing.
121,for apparatus for deodorizing, chemically purify, or generating a life sustaining environment (e.g., air, etc.)

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34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   subclasses 245+ and 266+ for processes and apparatus involving subjecting material to electrical or selected radiant energy.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   subclass 1 for processes of cleaning or liquid contact with solids, including application of electrical radiant or wave energy to work.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   appropriate subclasses for process which employ the apparatus of this subclass (Class 422, subclasses 186+ ).
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 748.01 through 748.2for liquid purification or separation processes utilizing electrical or wave energy directly applied to liquid or material being treated.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 600+ for inductive heating, subclasses 678+ for microwave heating, and subclasses 764+ for capacitive dielectric heating.
373Industrial Electric heating Furnaces,   subclasses 18+ for plasma or combination furnaces; and subclasses 60+ for electric use furnaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.01]    186.01Magnetic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.  Subject matter including means establishing a magnetic field in which the chemical reaction takes place.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 155 and 156 for corresponding processes; and subclass 193 for apparatus establishing a permanent or nonvarying magnetic field in which the reaction takes place.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 222+ for separators for separating solids from a liquid by magnetic action.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.02]    186.02Object protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.01.  Subject matter specialized for the protection of objects by the application of an electromagnetic field.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 196.01+ for electrolytic object protection apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.03]    186.03With electrical discharge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.01.  Subject matter including in addition to the electromagnetic field means to give an electric discharge.

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186.2+,for chemical reactor apparatus employing only an arc or spark discharge means.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclass 156 for corresponding processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.04]    186.04Electrostatic field or electrical discharge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.  Subject matter wherein an electrostatic field or electric discharge is included in the reaction zone.

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186.3,for apparatus employing an electromagnetic field in addition to the electric discharge.

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96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 15+ for electric or electrostatic field separation apparatus for gas separation not involving conversion of constituents to other compounds by chemical reaction.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 164+ for corresponding processes.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for electrical space discharge devices, including those for producing arcs or sparks.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices, Systems,   appropriate subclasses for systems for supplying electric energy to electric space discharge devices of the gas vapor ionization type; especially subclass 111 where the discharge device includes means to supply a fluent material to the discharge space.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.05]    186.05Treating surface of solid substrate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.04.  Subject matter wherein the material being treated is a nonfluent solid and the treatment involves only the surface of the solid.

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118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 620+ for coating apparatus including means to apply electrical and/or radiant energy to a workpiece and/or coating material.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 457+ for coating processes including direct application of electric, magnetic, or wave energy to the workpiece.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.06]    186.06Surface is metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.05.  Subject matter wherein the solid is a metal.
(1) Note. Particularly included in this subclass is apparatus for ion nitriding (or other ion bombardment treatment) of metal workpieces.

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148Metal Treatment,   appropriate subclasses for processes of heat treatment of solid metal to modify or maintain the internal physical structure (i.e., microstructure) or chemical property of metal. Particularly, see subclass 222 for processes of carburizing or nitriding of metal from an external source of carbon or nitrogen and subclass 239 for a process of ion implantation of solid metal. Also, see Class 148, subclasses 224, 525, and 565 for other processes which use electromagnetic wave energy, plasma, electron arcs, or beams to treat solid metal for purposes of that class.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.07]    186.07Ozonizers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.04.  Subject matter specialized for the production of ozone.

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128Surgery,   subclass 202.25 for ozone inhalers.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclass 176 for corresponding processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.08]    186.08With preparatory or product-treating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.07.  Subject matter including means for the preparatory treatment of the material fed to the ozonizer, or means to treat the product thereof.
(1) Note. Combination of an ozonizer and apparatus for the application of the ozone to material to be sterilized or otherwise treated are not here included unless not otherwise provided for in other classes.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.09]    186.09With drying means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.08.  Subject matter in which the treatment means includes means to remove water or water vapor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.1]    186.1With filtering or particle removal means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.08.  Subject matter wherein the treatment means includes means to remove suspended solid or liquid particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.11]    186.11With cooling, compression, condensation, or liquefying means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.08.  Subject matter wherein the treatment means effects a cooling, compression, condensation, or liquefying of the gas being treated or the treated gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.12]    186.12With subsequent use means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.07.  Subject matter including means for the application of the ozone to the object or material to be sterilized or otherwise treated.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 760 for processes of that class utilizing ozone.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.13]    186.13With electrode moving means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.07.  Subject matter including means to move one or more of the electrodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.14]    186.14With fluent reactant flow control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.07.  Subject matter including means to control the direction or amount of a fluent reactant (e.g., oxygen, containing gas or liquid) flowing to or through the reaction zone.
(1) Note. Such a means is frequently disclosed as one or more valves.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.15]    186.15With current control or special electrical supply means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.07.  Subject matter including means to control the supply of electrical current to the treatment zone or which includes special electrical current supply means.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous systems for controlling the current and/or voltage in a single circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.16]    186.16With pulse generating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.15.  Subject matter wherein the voltage, current, frequency, or polarity of the power supply is changed regularly and deliberately overtime.
(1) Note. Simple sine wave AC current is not included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.18]    186.18Cylindrical electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.07.  Subject matter in which one or more of the electrodes of the ozonizer is cylindrical.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.19]    186.19With heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.18.  Subject matter in which the ozonizer is provided with a heating or cooling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.2]    186.2With heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.07.  Subject matter including means to cool or heat the ozonizer.

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186.08,for the combinations of an ozonizer and a preparatory or subsequent cooling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.21]    186.21Arc or spark discharge means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.04.  Subject matter specialized for the formation of the spark or arc type of electrical discharge.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for electric space discharge devices including those for producing arcs or sparks.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   appropriate subclasses for electric space discharge devices of the gas or vapor type; note especially subclasses 111.01+ where the discharge device includes means to supply fluent material to the discharge device.
373Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces,   subclasses 60+ for arc furnaces in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.22]    186.22With electrode or reaction space heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.21.  Subject matter including means to heat or cool the arc chamber or a portion thereof or one or more of the electrodes.

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186.25,for combinations of arc or spark discharge means with heating or cooling means for preparatory treatment of the material fed to the chamber, or of the product produced thereby.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.23]    186.23With preparatory or product-treating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.21.  Subject matter including in addition to be arc or spark discharge means, a preparatory treatment means for the materials added to the arc or spark discharge chamber or means for treatment of the products from such chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.24]    186.24With nitrogen fixation means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.23.  Subject matter including means for separating nitrogen as nitrogen compounds from the other components of air.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.25]    186.25With cooling or pressurizing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.23.  Subject matter including means for cooling or increasing the atmospheric pressure in the arc or spark chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.26]    186.26With electrode moving means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.21.  Subject matter including means to move one or more of the electrodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.27]    186.27With current control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.26.  Subject matter including means to control the electrical current.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous systems for controlling the current and/or voltage in a single circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.28]    186.28With current control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.21.  Subject matter including means to control the electrical current.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous systems for controlling the current and/or voltage in a single circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.29]    186.29With RF input means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.04.  Subject matter wherein the chemical reaction occurs under the influence of a radiant (e.g., microwave) electromagnetic field or "high frequency" AC current having a frequency greater that 60 KH.

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219Electric Heating,   subclasses 600+ for inductive heating, subclasses 678+ for microwave heating, and subclasses 764+ for capacitive dielectric heating.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 186.30]    186.30With ultraviolet radiation generating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.  Subject matter utilizing wave energy in the ultraviolet range.
(1) Note. The ultraviolet portion of the spectrum is considered to include 4,000-40,000 A° or 10HZ.15-1017
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 187]    187Combined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus combined with the subject matter of other class(es) not specifically provided for in this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 198]    198Including heat exchanger for reaction chamber or reactants located therein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means for heating or cooling the reaction chamber or the reaction mass located within the chamber.
(1) Note. Excluded from this and indented subclasses are heat-exchange means which generate a direct contact heat-exchange medium in situ (e.g., a fuel gas burner wherein the flame is produced within the reaction chamber, a catalyst bed used to generate heat via the maintenance of an autothermic reaction, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 199]    199Electrical type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Apparatus having an electrical heating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 200]    200Indirect heat-exchange tube within reaction chamber with a nonreactant heat-exchange fluid passing therethrough:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Apparatus comprising an indirect heat-exchange means located within the reaction chamber and being in the form of a tube having nonreactant heat-exchange fluid pass therethrough, (e.g., a steam coil in the reaction chamber mass, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 201]    201Tube and shell type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Apparatus in the form of a shell having inlet and outlet manifolds with plural tubes connected therebetween.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 202]    202Heat-exchange jacket surrounding reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Apparatus wherein the heat exchanger is in the form of a heat-exchange jacket surrounding at least a portion of the exterior of the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 203]    203Including fluid-transfer means connecting chamber to heat-exchange jacket:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus having fluid-transfer means connecting the reaction chamber and the heat-exchange jacket whereby reactants or products from the reaction chamber are used as a heat-transfer medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 204]    204Means associated with jacket providing combustion gas as heat-exchange medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus comprising means associated with the jacket using a combustion gas as the heat-exchange medium within the jacket.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 205]    205Including baffle or stirring means disposed within jacket or chamber, the baffle means within chamber connected directly to wall thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus comprising baffle or stirring means located within the heat-exchange jacket or the reaction chamber wherein the baffle means located within the chamber are attached directly to the wall of the chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 206]    206Regenerative heat sink:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Apparatus wherein the heat-exchanger includes a regenerative heat-sink means; e.g., a low heat capacity mass which adsorbs heat from hot reaction products and gives up heat to colder reactants to preheat them, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 207]    207Means injecting internal quench stream into reaction stream downstream of reaction stage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Apparatus wherein the heat exchanger includes means located within the reaction chamber for injecting a quench stream into the reaction stream at a location downstream of the reaction stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 208]    208Apparatus operates at positive pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Apparatus wherein the apparatus operates a pressure above that of the ambient environment.

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242,for positive pressure reactor, per se.
295,for physical type positive pressure reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 209]    209Including means rotating reaction chamber during use:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means for revolving the reaction chamber during use.

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270,for a rotating container in a liquid-solid contact apparatus.

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366Agitating,   subclasses 219+ for agitating by use of a rotating receptacle.
432Heating,   subclasses 103+ for a tumbler rotary-drum furnace.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 210]    210And means wiping or scraping interior surface of reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.  Apparatus having means contacting the inner surface of the reactor for removing material from the surface as a result of the contact.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 211]    211Including solid, extended surface, fluid contact reaction means; e.g., inert Raschig rings, particulate absorbent, particulate or monolithic catalyst, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus including solid extended surface fluid contact reaction means, i.e., means providing a relatively large solid contact surface area within the reaction zone wherein large surface area presents multiple reaction sites for contact by the reaction mixture and, thereby, enhance the rate and/or the completeness of the reaction, including; e.g., inert Raschig rings, particulate absorbent, etc.

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122,for subject of this subclass for use in a life-sustaining gas treating apparatus.
171,for plural and 177 for single structures of this type used in a waste gas purifier.
631through 638 for plural structures of this type.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 212]    212With means removing and recovering product from extended surface contact material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus having means for removing and reclaiming product material from the extended surface contact material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 213]    213Particulate contact material type and means providing flow of particulate material into or out of reaction chamber with reactants or products:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus wherein the solid extended surface contact means is particulate material and the apparatus has means for flowing the material into or out of the reaction chamber along with reactants or products, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 214]    214Transfer line type reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus wherein the reaction chamber is in the form of a transfer line reactor; i.e., a relative narrow reaction chamber having a relatively high length-to-diameter ratio and means to flow the particulate contact material out of the reaction chamber with the reaction product stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 215]    215And internal mixing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus having means within the reaction chamber for maintaining the mixture of the material and reaction medium in a mixed or agitated state.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 216]    216Compact bed of particulate, fluid contact material and means providing gravity flow of material within bed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus wherein the extended surface, fluid contact material is in the form of a compact bed of particulate material and having means providing flow of the material by gravity inside the bed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 217]    217And means upstream of extended surface, fluid contact means removing particulate impurities from reactant stream:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus having means located before the contact means for taking particulate impurities from the reactant feed stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 218]    218Fixed annularly shaped bed of contact material and means directing reactant therethrough substantially perpendicular to longitudinal axis of bed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus having a fixed annularly shaped bed of contact material and means directing the flow of the reaction stream through the bed substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the contact bed.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 219]    219And means loading contact material into, or unloading contact material from, reactor or means providing internal contact material reservoir:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus having means for either (a) loading the solid fluid contact material into the reaction chamber, (b) unloading the same from the reaction chamber, or (c) providing a contact material reservoir within the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 220]    220And reactant flow distributor upstream of contact means and within reaction chamber modifying velocity profile of reactant flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus having reactant flow distributing means located within the reaction chamber and before the contact means for equalizing or otherwise modifying the velocity profile of the reactant stream at upstream contact face of the contact means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 221]    221Fixed contact bed type with resilient or differential thermal expansion compensating bed support means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus wherein the solid extended surface, fluid contact means is in the form of a relatively fixed bed of contact material and including means for supporting the contact bed within the reaction chamber, said support means either itself being resilient or being resiliently mounted to provide for the absorption of mechanical shock or to maintain the contact material within the bed or being specifically designed to compensate for differences in thermal expansion of components in the reaction chamber.

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179,for this structure in a waste gas purifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 222]    222Unitary (i.e., nonparticulate) contact bed (e.g., monolithic catalyst bed, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus wherein the extended surface contact means is in the form of a unitary (i.e., nonparticulate) contact bed (e.g., a monolithic honeycomb coated with a catalyst, catalyst coated metallic screen, etc.)

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180,for this structure in a waste gas purifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 223]    223With contact material regenerating means, per se, or combined with reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Apparatus having means for renewing the contact material, the means being recited either, per se, or in combination with a chemical reactor utilizing the contact material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 224]    224Including internal mixing or stirring means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means located within the reaction chamber for mixing or stirring the reaction mass therein.

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131,for agitating means in an organic polymerization reactor.

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366Agitating,   appropriate subclasses for agitators consisting of a receptacle and stirrer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 225]    225Mechanical type stirring means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.  Apparatus wherein the mixing and stirring means includes a mechanical-type stirrer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 226]    226In positive pressure reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Apparatus wherein pressure is maintained greater than the ambient pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 227]    227Including a draft tube for internal recirculation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Apparatus including a draft tube (i.e., a longitudinally extending tubular means open at both ends thereof) located within the reaction chamber and providing, in combination with the stirring means, fluid recirculation within the reaction chamber via fluid movement through the tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 228]    228Including flow directing baffle attached directly to reaction chamber wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Apparatus wherein the stirring means includes a flow directing baffle directly attached to the reaction chamber wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 229]    229Longitudinally extending spiral stirring means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Apparatus wherein the stirring means is in the shape of a spiral extending in a direction parallel to the major axis of the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 230]    230Thermosyphon or differential density mixing means; e.g., means internally recycling reaction mass via differential density pumping, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.  Apparatus having thermosyphon or differential density type mixing means; e.g., means internally recycling the reaction mass via differential density pumping through a draft tube, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 231]    231Gas sparger type mixing means submerged in liquid reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Apparatus wherein a gas sparger type mixing means is submerged in a liquid reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 232]    232Including solid reactant and means charging solids into, or discharging solids from, reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus wherein the reactants include a solid particulate material and means for charging the solids to, or discharging the same from, the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 233]    233Having both charge and discharge means along with means conveying solids therebetween located within reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Apparatus having means for conveying the solids into, through, and out of the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 234]    234Including external recycle loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means located outside of the reaction chamber for recycling at least a portion of the product stream or reaction mass to the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 235]    235And means heating or cooling loop or reaction mass located therein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Apparatus having means for changing the temperature of the reaction mass within the external recycle loop.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 236]    236Including means separating reaction chamber into plural reactant-containing compartments and means moving reactant therebetween:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means dividing the reaction chamber into plural distinct reactant-containing compartments and means for transporting the reactants, or permitting such transportation of the reactants, between the compartments.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 237]    237Movably mounted container-type separating means and means moving same:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Apparatus wherein the separating means includes a movably mounted container having means for moving the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 238]    238Solid reactant containing perforated or porous container-type separating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Apparatus wherein one reactant is a solid material and the separating means includes a perforated or porous container for containing the reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 239]    239Reaction chamber includes at least one perforated, porous, or semipermeable wall and is adapted for holding solid reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus wherein the reaction chamber comprises at least one perforated or porous wall and is designed for holding a solid reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 240]    240Including specific material of construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus wherein specific materials of construction for the reactor or components thereof are recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 241]    241Reactor liner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Apparatus having a liner of a specified material of construction for the reactor chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 242]    242Positive pressure type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus having means for operating the same above the ambient pressure.

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208,for apparatus having heat exchanger operating at a positive pressure.
226,for positive pressure apparatus with mixing means.
295,for physical type positive pressure reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 243]    243PHYSICAL TYPE APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for carrying out a physical process.

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105+,for apparatus having means for automatically modifying an operation of the system in response to a means sensing an operating condition or change of the same; e.g., automatic shutdown of the reactor responsive to excessive temperature, pressure, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 244]    244Including serially disposed vaporizing heating means (sublimer) and solid material deposition means maintained at a temperature lower than said heating means (condenser):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Apparatus having serially arranged vaporizing heating means and solid material depositing means being maintained at a temperature lower than the heating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 245.1]    245.1Crystallizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Non-coating apparatus for producing non-metal, non-glass crystalline material, with no clear intent to provide a shaped article, and with no intent to grow single-crystal.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for the apparatus which operates to crystallize by only a physical (i.e., not chemical) reaction.
(2) Note. Apparatus which involve removing heat to solidify a material are generally provided for elsewhere, for example in Class 62.
(3) Note. Apparatus for coating or molding are generally provided for elsewhere, for example in Classes 117, 118, 164, 249, or 425.
(4) Note. Apparatus which involve evaporating which causes crystallizing or precipitating, and involves no significant chemical change, are generally provided for in Class 159.

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105+,for non-coating crystallizing apparatus which further includes a means for automatically modifying an operation thereof in response to a means sensing an operating condition or a change of the same.
129+,for non-coating crystallization apparatus which includes means for a chemical reaction.

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62Refrigeration,   for apparatus peculiar to removing heat from a substance and apparatus peculiar to handling the resultant product, especially subclasses 123+ for apparatus having means to separate a constituent of a liquid mixture by cooling it and subclasses 317+ for apparatus having a filter or gravitational separator for the fluid cooled by refrigeration means.
65Glass Manufacturing,   for apparatus making glass, especially subclasses 187+ and 193+ for means for pulling glass from a melt.
117Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor,   subclasses 200+ for processes and non-coating apparatus for growing therein-defined single-crystal of all types of materials, including inorganic or organic.
118Coating Apparatus,   for apparatus for applying or obtaining a surface coating on a base, where it is not provided for in another class. See the Class 118 definition for guidance in the placement of coating apparatus art.
127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   subclasses 15+ and 17+ for apparatus for crystallizing or treating crystals of class-defined materials.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   for apparatus for evaporating, including those which cause crystallization, absent defined vapor recovery means (except energy recovery), and absent significant chemical changes.
164Metal Founding,   subclasses 139+ for apparatus for molding non-semiconductor metal.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   subclass 14.5 for apparatus to separate wax which may include chilling to solidify.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for apparatus for crystallizing where the primary intent is a Class 210 defined purpose. Since references are placed according to disclosed intent, cross-referencing is required where secondary intent is disclosed or evident.
249Static Molds,   appropriate subclasses for a static mold of fluent material not combined with a diverse art device.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 6+ for apparatus for making non-metal, non-glass powders, which may be crystalline, from liquid by means dividing or comminuting and allowing the liquid to solidify while in particulate form of a desired size or shape but with no shaping surface; subclass 77 for ultra-high-pressure generating apparatus; and appropriate subclasses for dynamic molding apparatus for other than metal or glass.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 250.1]    250.1Crucible-free zone refiner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.1.  Apparatus having a refining zone which is free of contact with a solid shaping surface such as a crucible (wall).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 251]    251Including means separating and conveying crystals to a melting zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.1.  Apparatus having means for separating and transporting crystals to the melting zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 252]    252Hydraulic classifier with crystallizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.1.  Apparatus having hydraulic means to maintain a suspension for classification of crystals within the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 253]    253Including feed compartment for introducing nutrient:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.1.  Apparatus having a feed section within crystallizer vessel for introducing a solute (per se, or in solution) during crystallization.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 254]    254Movable crystallizer or scraping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.1.  Apparatus having a movable crystallizer or scraping means acting on the wall of the crystallizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 255]    255Means separating or dissolving a material constituent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Apparatus having means to segregate or liquefy at least one component of the matter being treated.
(1) Note. The apparatus classified here carries out a process which generally leaves an insoluble residue.

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34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   has drying processes and apparatus which remove extraneous liquids from solids even though there is subsequent condensation or recovery of vapors and also drying processes and apparatus in which solids are contacted with liquids to promote drying.
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   appropriate subclasses for processes using nonmetallic material which is liquid under standard conditions.
100Presses,   subclass 90 for devices for pressing combined with means for separating materials.
127Sugar, Starch, and Carbohydrates,   subclasses 3+ for apparatus for leaching or dissolving sacchariferous material in the manufacture of sugar, starch, or carbohydrates.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   subclass 43 is the generic place for apparatus for contacting a solid with a liquid. See the definition and notes to that class.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   subclasses 168 through 170for leaching or extracting apparatus combined with distillation apparatus.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass .5 for infusion receptacles or packages.
209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   subclasses 155+ for fluid suspension in a liquid; and subclasses 423 to 465 for stratification involving liquid treatment which may include treatment of the solids with a liquid.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 177+ and 198.1+ for apparatus for liquid purification or separation which involves the addition of a treating liquid and subclass 167.11 for liquid purification or separation apparatus comprising a closed circulating system for a swimming pool or spa with means to add a treating material.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 310+ for dissolvers and mixers combined with a fluid discharging element.
252Compositions,   subclasses 625+ for radioactive compositions and methods of making them involving a mere blending of materials.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   subclass 101 for apparatus for metallurgical leaching and precipitating; subclasses 161+ and 168+ for extracting metal apparatus.
366Agitating,   for processes and apparatus for mere agitation of a solid in a liquid.
401Coating Implements With Material Supply,   subclasses 40+ and 44+ for a coating implement having diverse materials which are mixed therein prior to application to a work surface.
426Food or Edible Material: Processes, Compositions, and Products,   subclasses 77+ for food infusion type containers, per se, or containing edible material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 256]    256Liquid-liquid contact means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Apparatus comprising liquid-liquid contact means for removing a constituent from a liquid.

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196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclass 14.52 for apparatus limited to the extraction of mineral oils.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 198.1+ for apparatus for purifying liquid with means to add a treating material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 257]    257Including pulsator, adjustable plates, or plural inlets; e.g., spraying, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus having pulsating means or adjustable plates or plural orifice inlets for the same liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 258]    258Including rotating chamber or rotating member within chamber; e.g., mixer-settler, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus having a rotatable containing means or a rotating means within the containing means.

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494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   subclass 22 , for a separator of that class and the introduction thereto of differing weight fluids for counter current flow therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 259]    259Having rotating member within chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Apparatus wherein the rotating means is located within the containing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 260]    260Including heating and cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus having means for both elevating and lowering the temperature of the material being treated.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 261]    261Liquid-solid contact means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Apparatus having means for liquid-contacting a solid or vice versa.

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134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   subclasses 43+ for the generic place for apparatus for contacting a solid with a liquid. See the definition and notes to that class.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 167.11 for liquid purification or separation apparatus comprising a closed circulating system for a swimming pool or spa with means to add a treating material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 262]    262Sulfur extraction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus for the liquid extraction of sulfur from a solid material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 263]    263Including monolithic nonporous body of solute:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having the solid material in the form of a substantially nonporous body of solute, thereby restricting the liquid-solid contact to the outer surface of the body.
(1) Note. This subclass does not preclude the existence of a flow conducting bore through the solute body to increase the "outer" surface contact area.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 264]    264Including means restricting solvent contact to one end of body of solute:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having means restricting the liquid or solvent contact with a body of solute to substantially one end thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 265]    265Buoyant holder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having solute-containing holder constructed to float on a liquid.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 167.11 for liquid purification or separation apparatus comprising a closed circulating system for a swimming pool or spa with means to add a treating material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 266]    266Manual or mountable holder; e.g., soap holder, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having a material holder that includes a handle or similar structure, or it is readily connectable to a structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 267]    267Including means to remove solids from a filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having means for removing solids from a filter.

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210Liquid Purification, or Separation,   subclass 396 for scraper for cleaning a filter.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 268]    268Conveyor support for solid material during contact; e.g., bucket, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having a support means for conveying the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 269]    269Including rotating member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having rotatable means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 270]    270Member is container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Apparatus wherein the rotating means is a receptacle.

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366Agitating,   subclasses 219+ for agitating by a rotating receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 271]    271Including internal rotating member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.  Apparatus having a rotating means within the container.

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366Agitating,   subclasses 244+ for agitating means comprising a receptacle and an internal rotating stirrer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 272]    272Partitions divide container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.  Apparatus where means are provided to separate the container into sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 273]    273Member conveys material into and out of container; e.g., screw propeller, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Apparatus wherein the member transports the solid material through the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 274]    274Including perforated member which is nonlinear or inclined with respect to the major axis of container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having a perforated member located at an angle other than parallel with the major axis of the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 275]    275Including parallel perforated members perpendicular to, or parallel to, major axis of container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having multiple parallel apertured members located perpendicular to, or parallel to, the major axis of the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 276]    276Side wall of holder perforated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus wherein the side walls of a receptacle are apertured.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 277]    277Perforations of holder form inlet for solvent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Apparatus where the apertures of the holder form inlet sites of the solvent.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 278]    278Including plural orifice inlet, or deflector adjacent inlet for solvent flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having a solvent inlet either with plural orifices or with a deflector adjacent to the inlet for directing solvent flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 279]    279Having inlet submerged within body of a solid solute:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Apparatus wherein the inlet is submerged within the body of the solid solute.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 280]    280Solvent vapor condenser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having means to condense the solvent vapor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 281]    281Means recirculating solvent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having means for conveying the solvent from and returning at least a part of it to the contact means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 282]    282Including bypass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having a separate and distinct path through which a portion or all of the liquid solvent is passed out of contact with the solid being dissolved.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 283]    283Including dip tube for inlet or outlet of fluid solvent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having a tube inserted in a container at a point above the normal level of the liquid contained therein and terminating at a point below the normal liquid level.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 284]    284Internal heater; e.g., steam coil, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus having heating means located within the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 285]    285And heating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Apparatus having means to elevate the temperature of the apparatus or its contents.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 286]    286Including mechanical comminuting or conveying means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Apparatus having mechanical means to subdivide or transport the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 287]    287Within treating vessel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus wherein the mechanical means are located inside of the treating container.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 288]    288Including means removing vapor from treated material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Apparatus having means for taking out gaseous matter from the material being treated.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 289]    289And direct contact heating fluid means within separating or dissolving chamber vessel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Apparatus having means for directly contacting a heating fluid with the material being treated, the means being located within the chamber in which separation or dissolution occurs.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 290]    290And indirect contact heating fluid means in separating or dissolving chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Apparatus having means for indirectly contacting a heating fluid with the material being treated and being located within the chamber wherein separation or dissolution occurs.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 291]    291Combined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Apparatus combined with subject matter of other class(es) not specifically provided for in this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 292]    292Apparatus for treating solid article or material with fluid chemical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Apparatus for treating a solid article or material with a "chemical" in a liquid, gaseous, or vapor state wherein the article or material is recovered essentially unchanged from the treatment.
(1) Note. For purposes of this and indented subclasses, a "chemical" is defined as a substance which has a function beyond that of another class, per se, e.g., drying, heating, cleaning, etc. A recitation that a substance disinfects, sterilizes, deodorizes, or preserves will cause the substance to be considered a "chemical" unless accompanied by positive disclosure that the disinfecting, sterilizing, deodorizing, or preserving is done only by a function provided for elsewhere; e.g., heating, etc.
(2) Note. Steam is considered a "chemical" also when it disinfects, sterilizes, deodorizes, or preserves, since steam so used appears to have a function more than mere heating. This and indented subclasses contain many patents to steam sterilizers.

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39+,for similar processes.

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588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 300 through 321for processes of destruction by any chemical means of hazardous or toxic waste to make such waste safe for landfill disposal, and subclasses 249-260 for processes of permanently storing hazardous or toxic waste per se, particularly subclass 258 for storage of pathogenic organisms (e.g., virus, bacteria, or medical waste).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 293]    293Fluid having simultaneous diverse function:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Apparatus wherein the treating fluid performs a simultaneous function other than disinfecting, sterilizing, deodorizing, or preserving; e.g., steam sterilizes and condenses to form distilled water, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 294]    294Including flexible or collapsible treating chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Apparatus having a treating chamber made of thin, flexible material; e.g., plastic film.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 295]    295Including pressure treating chamber (above ambient):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Apparatus having a compartment for treating the article or material with the compartment pressure being above normal pressure.

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28+,for process of disinfecting or sterilizing using steam.

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99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 323.4+ for cereal puffing apparatus; subclasses 359+ for canned food processors; and subclasses 403+ for food boilers and fryers.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclasses 19 through 22for a cooking stove having an oven, subclasses 273-275 for a domestic oven, or subclasses 369-369.3 for a liquid heater having a steaming chamber for food.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 233+ for fiber digesters (for making paper pulp).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 296]    296Fluid pressure maintains closure or seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Apparatus wherein fluid pressure is used to close or seal the apparatus against the positive pressure therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 297]    297And rack, support or handling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Apparatus having a work holder functioning to hold article or material in a desired relation within the compartment or to place the same within, or remove the same from, the compartment.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 298]    298And vaporizer; e.g., boiler, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Apparatus having means to render the fluid gaseous.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 299]    299Constituting treating chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Apparatus wherein the vaporizing means is the treating compartment.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 300]    300Including rack, support or handling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Apparatus having a work holder functioning to hold an article or material in a desired relation within the apparatus or place the same within or remove the same from the apparatus.

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297,for the same subject matter enclosed within a pressure chamber.

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211Supports: Racks,   for rack type supports.
248Supports,   for supports of a general nature.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 301]    301Apparatus closure operates means immersing article or material in liquid chemical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Apparatus including a means closing the apparatus and having means operatively connected therewith for immersing the article or the material in the liquid chemical.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 302]    302For treating containers or covers therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Apparatus designed to support or handle containers or covers for containers.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 303]    303Container is inverted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Apparatus wherein the container is supported or handled in an upside-down position.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 304]    304Including endless conveyer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Apparatus wherein the support or handling means is a transporter of the endless type.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 305]    305Including gas generating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Apparatus having means for creating a gas including generating formaldehyde from a polymer thereof (e.g., paraformaldehyde, etc.).

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120+,for apparatus for generating life-sustaining gas.
129+,for apparatus for generating gas using chemical reaction.

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48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   for apparatus and processes of generating heating or illuminating gas.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclass 276 for generating gas in a beverage by fermentation.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   e.g., subclasses 334 , 363, 364+, 367+, and 530+ for gas-generating ammunition and explosives.
122Liquid Heaters and Vaporizers,   for steam generator, per se.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   for apparatus involving carbonation when special arrangements for gas and liquid contact are claimed.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 283.1+ for apparatus that includes means for generating gases by fermentation, particularly subclass 300.1 with means for trapping off-gases.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 306]    306Including means for adding a material to a gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Apparatus having means for adding material to the gas.

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4,for process of adding material to a gas to treat the same.
28,for process involving the addition of a disinfecting or sterilizing agent to steam.
123,for apparatus for adding a material to a life-sustaining gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 307]    307Heat treating vessel with heating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Apparatus comprising container means for treating material at an elevated temperature and means operatively associated with the container for furnishing the elevated temperature.

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99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclasses 359+ for canned food processors; and subclasses 403+ for food boilers and fryers.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 343.5 for a melting furnace or subclasses 373.1-390.1 for a liquid heater having an open-top vessel that may include a lid or have its heating means submerged under the liquid.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 253+ for fiber digesters (for making paper pulp) combined with a heater.
165Heat Exchange,   appropriate subclasses for a container with heat-exchange means.
219Electric Heating,   subclass 385 for electric heater combined with a container for material to be heated.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 308]    308Including multiple stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.  Apparatus wherein multiple heat-treating means are formed by a single vessel being divided or plural vessels interconnected.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 309]    309Including comminuting, kneading, or surface-wiping means interior of vessel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.  Apparatus having means within the vessel providing contact and relative movement between two or more apparatus elements for comminuting or kneading the material or wiping the surface of the vessel wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 310]    310ELEMENTS OR ADJUNCTS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus providing for subcombinations not set out above.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 311]    311Bed support means (e.g., support grid or plate for supporting particulate bed or contact material, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Apparatus comprising a support means for material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 312]    312Tube element containing extended surface contact reaction means (e.g., a tube internally coated or packed with a catalyst, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Apparatus comprising a tube element containing solid extended surface contact means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 400]    400Structured visual or optical indicator, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus comprising a structured indicator; i.e., an indicator which is more than a composition, per se, and has structure, which gives a visual or optical indication of the presence or amount of material to be tested in the sample.
(1) Note. Visual or optical indicators, per se, include color indicators such as test papers or test strips and columns which give a visual or optical indication, (e.g., color, etc.) of the presence or amount of material in the sample.

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82.05+,for structured visual or optical indicators which include a standard referencing scale such as pipettes, burettes, color charts, and test strips including a standard colored chart.

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116Signals and Indicators,   subclasses 200+ for indicators of general utility.
252Compositions,   subclass 299.01 for a liquid crystal composition, and 408.1 for a nonreactive analytical, testing or indicating composition.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   appropriate subclasses for analytical and analytical control processes employing liquid crystals.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 401]    401In a holder or container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Apparatus wherein the indicator is contained in a receptacle (e.g., test plate, dish, tray, slide, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 402]    402Structure to facilitate analysis of the results:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Apparatus designed to provide easier interpretation of the outcome of the reaction of the indicator with the sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 403]    403Read by automated means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 402.  Apparatus wherein the results of the reaction are interpreted using an instrumental analyzer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 404]    404Registration of the structure within the analyzer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Apparatus comprising a means for aligning the indicator receptacle inside the instrument prior to measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 405]    405Tubular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Apparatus wherein the indicator is contained within an elongated cylindrical or oval structure (e.g., test tube, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 406]    406Including a swab:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Apparatus comprising an absorbent material attached to a grasping member for enabling sample-reagent contact (e.g., swab, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 407]    407Well plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Apparatus wherein the indicator is contained within at least one depression or recessed feature in a generally planar structure (e.g., microtitre plate, etc.).

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   appropriate subclasses for multiwell plates having liquid separation membrane structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 408]    408Structure for contacting the sample with the reagent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Apparatus designed to facilitate the reaction of the indicator with the sample.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 409]    409Envelope, packet or sleeve (e.g., for fecal occult sample, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Apparatus wherein the indicator is contained within a flat, thin, folding sheet-like structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 410]    410Lancet (e.g., for finger prick, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a structure for transferring the sample to the indicator reagent structure using a sharp instrument, (e.g., needle, lancet etc.).

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128Surgery,   appropriate subclasses and its dependent classes for a lance or lancet combined with specific structure adapted to interact with the human body.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 411]    411Swab:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a structure for swiping the sample onto an absorbent material containing the indicator reagent structure which is attached to a grasping member, (e.g., a stick or handle etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 412]    412Device using capillary action:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a structure for absorbing the sample onto a receiving material containing the indicator reagent using capillary action.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 413]    413Device having frangible compartment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a structure for beginning the reactive process by allowing the contents of separate sample and reagent compartments of a container to mix using a breakable feature of the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 414]    414Device having torturous path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a structure for accomplishing intimate contact between the sample and the reagent by utilizing a porous, reagent containing matrix consisting of serpentine, twisting passages through which the sample components flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 415]    415Including centrifuge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a structure for enabling sample and reagent contact using an apparatus that rotates at high speed around a central axis creating forces that enable transfer of the reagent to the sample or sample to the reagent.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 416]    416Including means for facilitating reaction of a gaseous fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a structure for enabling contact between a sample or reagent in a vapor state so that a reaction occurs.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 417]    417Including channel, valve or chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a compartment, passageway, capillary or flow control feature for enabling sample and reagent contact.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 418]    418Wiping means to acquire solid test substance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter comprising a means for obtaining a solid sample and contacting it with a reagent by a rubbing technique.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 419]    419Acquisition of liquid sample:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Apparatus comprising a means for obtaining a sample in liquid form and contacting the sample with the reagent.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 420]    420Having reagent in absorbent or bibulous substrate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Apparatus wherein a substance used to detect or measure another substance (i.e., indicating reagent) is contained in a substrate capable of taking up or sponging liquids via capillary action, (e.g., a dip-stick, test paper, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 421]    421Plural layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Subject matter wherein the absorbent or bibulous substrate has additional strata, (e.g., blocking layer, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 422]    422Filtering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 421.  Subject matter wherein an additional stratum (e.g., membrane, etc.) is present to treat a sample by removing a certain substance from it while allowing another to pass through to the reagent substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 423]    423Spreading:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 421.  Subject matter wherein an additional stratum is present to assist sample diffusion to the reagent substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 424]    424Support layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 421.  Subject matter wherein an additional stratum (e.g., a polymer, etc.) is present on which other layers are applied.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 425]    425Having coated reagent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein the surface of a substrate is covered with a substance, (e.g., indicating reagent, etc.) used to detect or measure another substance.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 426]    426Plural layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.  Subject matter wherein the coated substrate has additional strata, (e.g., blocking layer, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 427]    427Filtering layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.  Subject matter wherein the substrate contains a stratum, (e.g., membrane, etc.) that is designed to treat a sample by removing a certain substance from it while allowing another to pass through.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 428]    428Spreading layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.  Subject matter wherein an additional stratum is present to assist sample diffusion to the reagent substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 429]    429Support layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 426.  Subject matter wherein an additional, non-flexible stratum (e.g., glass, etc,) is present on which other layers are applied.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 430]    430Test package or kit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus comprising (a) a package containing reagents and all the necessary ingredients to perform a test or (b) self contained test kits for field testing, usually having dosage amounts of each material needed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

400through 429, for a structured visual or optical indicator which may be a component of a kit or package.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclass 569 for containers for test kits without specified chemical contents such as reagents or reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 500]    500Miscellaneous laboratory apparatus and elements, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus specifically designed for use in a laboratory.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 501]    501Volumetric fluid transfer means (e.g., pipette, pipettor, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus for conveying from one place to another a specified quantity of a liquid or gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 502]    502Micro-fluidic device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus for precisely controlling and manipulating a liquid or gas which is constrained to a small, typically sub-microliter scale.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 503]    503Plate design or structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 502.  Apparatus wherein the constraining means is in the form of a flat thin sheet of uniform thickness with micro-channels formed in the surface thereof, and the particular pattern or makeup of that constraining means is recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 504]    504Liquid moving means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 502.  Apparatus for causing the liquid or gas to travel within a micro-fluidic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 505]    505Pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 504.  Apparatus wherein a piston, plunger, or a set of rotating vanes is the force which causes fluid to travel within the micro-fluidic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 506]    506Centrifugal force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 504.  Apparatus wherein the effect that tends to move an object away from the center of a circle it is rotating about is the force which causes the fluid to travel within the micro-fluidic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 507]    507Capillary action:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 504.  Apparatus wherein the ability of a narrow interstice to draw a fluid due to surface tension is the force which causes the fluid to travel with the microfluidic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 508]    508Spray tip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 502.  Apparatus wherein fluid is delivered to an analyzer in the form of a fine mist.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 509]    509Automated system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein the processes of drawing, measurement, delivery, positioning or movement of a liquid are controlled by a machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 510]    510Including washing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 509.  Apparatus additionally including an automated procedure for cleaning the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 511]    511Including tip attachment or removal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 509.  Apparatus additionally including an automated procedure for fastening a new fluid delivery end to the device, or taking away a used fluid delivery end.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 512]    512Including seal penetration means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein the device tip acts to pierce a container in order to reach a liquid to be drawn into the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 513]    513Including filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein a means to trap or to pass a specific liquid or solid in order to separate out constituents is included in the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 514]    514Mixing of diverse substances within pipette:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein an agitation means is included in the device in order to combine plural distinct substances introduced into the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 515]    515Sequential multidispensing from a single tip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein a single dosing device delivers plural doses before recharging its supply.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 516]    516Variable volume:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein the device can be set to draw in and expel differing amounts of liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 517]    517Including liquid level sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 516.  Apparatus including a device to detect height at which liquid is accumulated within the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 518]    518Electrically operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus wherein the means to detect the height of the level of liquid within the device is operated by electricity.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 519]    519Interaction of dispensing tip with surface upon which fluid is dispensed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein the end of the device which expels liquid physically contacts the device upon which the liquid is to be deposited.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 520]    520Drawing of liquid into pipette by capillary action:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus wherein liquid is caused to flow into the device by the ability of a narrow interstice to draw a liquid due to surface tension upwards against the force of gravity.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 521]    521Dispensing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus including a means to expel liquid from the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 522]    522Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 521.  Apparatus wherein the means to expel liquid from the device is actuated by a force applied to the top surface of the liquid or a vacuum applied to the bottom of the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 523]    523Gravity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 521.  Apparatus where the means to expel liquid from the device is the force generated by the mass of the Earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 524]    524Tip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Apparatus dealing with that portion of the device which first receives the liquid, and which last contacts the liquid during expulsion.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 525]    525Removable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 524.  Apparatus wherein the portion of the device which first receives the liquid and last contacts the liquid during expulsion is capable of being taken off the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 526]    526Including storage rack therefore:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Apparatus including a structure for storing pipette tips.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 527]    527Including means for separating a constituent (e.g., extraction, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus for isolating in a different physical space a particular component of a gas or liquid compound or mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 528]    528Evaporator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 527.  Apparatus including means for changing a liquid to a gas or vapor phase thereby isolating a constituent.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 529]    529Operated at ambient temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 528.  Apparatus wherein the transition from liquid to gas or vapor phases occurs at the temperature of its surroundings.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 530]    530Heated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 528.  Apparatus wherein a heat source is used to cause transition form liquid to gas of vapor phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 531]    531Condenser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 527.  Apparatus including means to change gas or a vapor to a liquid phase or to separate out combined liquids or liquids and solids in order to separate out specific constituents.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 532]    532Cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 531.  Apparatus wherein the transition from gas or vapor phase to a liquid phase occurs at a temperature below that of its surroundings.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 533]    533Gravity or centrifuge separation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 527.  Apparatus for separation of various combined liquids or liquids from solids wherein separation is carried out by means of the gravitational pull of the Earth or accelerated separation by a device that rotates rapidly and uses centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 534]    534Filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 527.  Apparatus including means to trap or to pass a specific liquid or solid in order to separate out constituents.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 535]    535Porous media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 534.  Apparatus including a material which permits the movement of certain fluids or gases through it by way of pores or other passages.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 536]    536Tissue processing device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus including a device that processes tissue samples in different forms, either thin sections or deposits on a slide or similar carrier, for purposes such as histological analysis and cytological examination.
(1) Note. This subclass takes apparatus involved in the analysis of non-viable cells or tissue.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus involved in the analysis of tissue and cells which are viable/living (e.g., maintained or growing).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 537]    537Valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus including a device that controls the movement of liquids or gases through pipes or other passages by opening or closing ports and channels.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for valves and valve actuation in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 538]    538Including connector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus which further includes a pipe or other passage which links a valve to another part of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 539]    539With multiple discrete settings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus wherein the valve has several different distinct opening positions.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 540]    540Stator and rotor, petcock/stopcock, or slider:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus that comprises a fixed member and a moveable member in contact with the fixed member which rotates about an axis either perpendicular or parallel to the fixed member or moves in parallel to the fixed member.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 541]    541Check:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus wherein the valve has an internal structure allowing a unidirectional flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 542]    542Ball or seat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus in which a ball with a bore hole passage is mechanically rotated relative to an opening to control flow or in which a seal or seat are mechanically moved relative to one another to control flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 543]    543Gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus wherein the valve is specifically designed for the transfer of material in the gaseous state.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 544]    544Connector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus including a pipe or other passage which links one part of an apparatus to another part.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 545]    545Terminal end threaded or tapered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 544.  Apparatus wherein an end portion of the connector is provided with a continuous helical ridge or becomes progressively smaller.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 546]    546For needle, syringe, or capillary tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 544.  Apparatus wherein the connector is specifically designed for use with a tube having a nozzle and piston for sucking in and ejecting liquid in a thin stream, often fitted with a pointed hollow end for piercing the skin in order to inject or withdraw bodily fluids, or a tube with an internal diameter of hair-like thinness.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 547]    547Container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus including a receptacle for holding material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclasses 363 through 370for a container for tools employed for body treatment, subclasses 524.1-524.7 for a container of a specified material, and subclass 569 for a container for a test kit without specified chemical contents such as reagents or reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 548]    548Used with centrifuge equipment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  Apparatus consisting of a material holder that is to be used with a machine which turns a material holder round very quickly, causing the solids and liquids inside that material holder to separate by centrifugal action.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

533,for the centrifuge apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 549]    549Tube shaped vessel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  Apparatus wherein the means for holding material is in the form of an elongated and cylindrical shape (e.g., test tube, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 550]    550Including closure or sealing mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Apparatus including a system for covering an opening in the elongated cylindrical member or for keeping out the outside atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 551]    551Plate, sheet, dish or tray:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  A shallow container having a small depth to length or circumference ratio or a planar, smooth, flat, thin piece of material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 552]    552Including a plurality of wells or receptacles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 551.  Apparatus wherein the plate or sheet includes distinct multiple test areas, pits, or containers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

210Liquid Purification or Separation,   appropriate subclasses for multiwell plates having liquid separation membrane structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 553]    553Microtitration plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 552.  Apparatus specifically designed for use in a method for determining the concentration of a dissolved substance in terms of the smallest amount of reagent of known concentration required to bring about a given effect in reaction with a known volume of the test solution.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 554]    554Cartridge, cassette or cuvette:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  A case or housing having at least one space or slot for accommodating sample or reagent materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 555]    555Bag type containers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  Apparatus which includes a flexible or collapsible sack or pouch (e.g., intravenous bags or specimen collection bags, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 556]    556Flask, bottle or beaker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  A container having a narrow neck opening and wide bottom or a wide opening and cylindrical body.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

215Bottles and Jars,   appropriate subclasses for bottles, jars, closures, and attachments therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 557]    557Cup or crucible:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  A generally circular container with a narrow base and wide opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 558]    558Vial or ampoule:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  A cylindrical shaped container that has a removable or frangible closure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 559]    559Including multiple internal compartments or baffles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  A container having more than one internal chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 560]    560Holder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus comprising means to fix in an immobile position an object.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 561]    561For sample or specimen container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 560.  Apparatus comprising means to fix in an immobile position a removable device carrying biological, chemical, or physical items intended for analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 562]    562For tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 561.  Apparatus comprising means to fix in an immobile position a hollow cylinder closed at one end.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 563]    563For slide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 561.  Apparatus comprising means to fix in an immobile position a small plate used to support an item for analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 564]    564For burette, pipette, or pipette tip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 561.  Apparatus comprising means to fix in an immobile position a hollow, cylindrical liquid volume measuring device or the terminal apparatus thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 565]    565Housing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus comprising an enclosure for laboratory equipment or components thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 566]    566Support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus comprising means to bear the weight of an object.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

211Supports: Racks,   appropriate subclasses for structures designed to support articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 567]    567Hood:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus comprising a cover above laboratory equipment or components thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 568]    568Stopper cover, plug, or seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Apparatus including a device that closes the opening of a container.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 569]    569Covering multiple containers or wells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 568.  Apparatus including a closure device for an array of containers or a plurality of well openings.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 570]    570Penetrable cover (e.g., septum, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 568.  Apparatus wherein the closure device is self-sealing when punctured.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 600]    600Including plural reaction stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Apparatus comprising multiple reaction means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

141,for plural fluidized reaction beds.
156,for plural pigment or carbon making apparatus.
169,for waste gas purifier having plural stages.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 601]    601Including plural parallel reaction stages with each stage in the form of a plate:
 This subclass is indented under 600. Apparatus wherein the reaction stages in a planar form are arranged side by side in reaction zones and the reactions occur concurrently.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 602]    602Plate-type laminated reactor:
 This subclass is indented under 600. Apparatus wherein the chemical reaction takes place in a device in the form of a plate which is covered by at least one layer of the same or different material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 603]    603Microscale reactor:
 This subclass is indented under 600. Apparatus wherein the chemical reaction takes place in a micro-structured device, (e.g., micro-reactor, micro-structured reactor, or micro-channel reactor).
(1) Note. The typical lateral dimension is below 1 mm; the most typical form is micro-channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 604]    604With gas contact means for degassing or agitating (e.g., sparging, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus for stirring or removing a volatile substance by entrainment from a liquid, or for increasing the liquid/gas contact area using compressed gas entering the liquid through a pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 605]    605With draft tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus comprising a longitudinally extending tubular means open at both ends located within the reaction chamber and providing fluid recirculation within the reaction chamber via fluid movement through the tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 606]    606With multiphase mixing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus comprising means to blend substances in different physical states, e.g., a mixing chamber for a liquid and a gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 607]    607With distributor or collection tray:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus comprising means to ensure a steady flow and uniform distribution of fluids, or an apparatus comprising a horizontal shallow container to collect fluids from an upstream reaction stage.
(1) Note. A distributor can be a distribution plate or tray at the top of the reactor or between superimposed catalyst beds.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 608]    608With separation or purification means (e.g., rectification, evaporation, ion exchanger, extraction, settler, absorption, recrystallization, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus including means to segregate components from a mixture or to remove an impurity from a mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 609]    609Stripper tower:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus wherein at least one stage includes a physical separation process to remove one or more components from a liquid stream through entrainment by a vapor stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 610]    610Distillation means (e.g., retort, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus including means for separating components of the mixture based on volatility differences, by successive steps of evaporation and subsequent condensation.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 611]    611Scrubbing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus including means for separating components of the mixture which uses a scrubbing solution or slurry for removing or neutralizing a specific particle or gas from a gas stream.
(1) Note. A scrubbing solution can be water or a solution of a reagent for a certain target compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 612]    612Absorption:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus wherein the purification or separation means includes a bibulous material for taking up a component of the mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 613]    613Cyclone separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus wherein the purification or separation means includes a device for removing small or powdered solids from a fluid by centrifugal force.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 614]    614Condenser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus wherein the purification or separation includes a cooling means whereby a gas-phase component of the mixture is cooled to turn it into a liquid phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 615]    615Condenser downstream of a heat exchanging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 614.  Apparatus wherein the condenser is positioned following a heat exchanging means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 616]    616Filtering means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus wherein the purification or separation means includes a permeable material, (e.g., a porous material, etc., which traps or passes a specific substance).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 617]    617Membrane separation (e.g., palladium membrane hydrogen purifier, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 616.  Apparatus including means for segregating components of the mixture by a selective barrier impermeable to a group of particles or substances.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 618]    618Including product separation or purification means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  Apparatus including means for segregating a product from a reaction stream, or removing an impurity from a product.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 619]    619Combined with contact material regenerating means (e.g., regenerating catalyst, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus wherein a contact material is reproduced or reactivated.
(1) Note. Contact material has a relatively large contact surface area within a reaction zone wherein a large surface area presents multiple reaction sites for contact by the reaction mixture and, thereby, enhances the rate or the completeness of the reaction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

620,for recycling reactants.
631,for plural solid, extended surface, fluid contact reaction stages.
223,for contact material regenerating means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 620]    620Combined with recycling means (e.g., recycling products, reactants, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus additionally comprising recovering and reusing at least a portion of the product stream or reaction mass in the reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 621]    621Including reaction heat recovery or recycling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 620.  Apparatus wherein the thermal energy from one reaction stage is captured and may be reused.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 622]    622Including external recycle loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 620.  Apparatus wherein the recycling means includes a conduit located outside of the reaction chamber.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

234,for an external recycle loop, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 623]    623Including a boiler:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus comprising a vessel in which a fluid is heated to boiling.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 624]    624Including a mechanical means for transportation of material (e.g., conveyor, turntable, truck, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus comprising a mechanical apparatus for transporting material (e.g., feedstock, reactant, product, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 625]    625Including reformer reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus wherein one of the reaction stages produces hydrogen from hydrocarbons in the presence of a catalyst.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   appropriate subclasses for reforming apparatus specific for the generation of a fuel gas, such as hydrogen, for the purposes of heating or illuminating.
429Chemistry: electrical current producing apparatus, product, and process,   appropriate subclasses for the combination of a fuel cell and a reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 626]    626Including water gas shift reaction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 625.  Apparatus wherein within the reformer reactor, carbon monoxide reacts with water vapor to produce carbon dioxide and hydrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 627]    627Combined with selective or preferential oxidation reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 625.  Apparatus wherein the reformer reactor is combined with a reactor within which a specific reductant gas component is oxidized on a catalyst, e.g., the reactor preferentially oxidizes carbon monoxide using a heterogeneous catalyst.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 628]    628Autothermal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 625.  Apparatus wherein the heat produced by an exothermic reaction is absorbed by an endothermic reaction, e.g., oxygen and carbon dioxide or oxygen and steam react with methane to produce a hydrogen-containing gas mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 629]    629Steam reformer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 625.  Apparatus wherein the reformer reactor uses water vapor in the hydrocarbon reformation to produce hydrogen gas in a product mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 630]    630Discrete sequential reaction stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus having means for subjecting the reaction stream to multiple separate successive reaction stages.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 631]    631Plural solid, extended surface, fluid contact reaction stages (e.g., inert Raschig rings, particulate sorbent, particulate or monolithic catalyst, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus including means providing a relatively large solid contact surface area within the reaction zone presents multiple reaction sites for contact by the reaction mixture and, thereby, enhances the rate or the completeness of the reaction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

177,for this apparatus used in a waste gas purifier.
211,for this structure, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 632]    632With down-flow fixed bed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 631.  Apparatus comprising an immobilized solid extended surface in contact with a reaction stream moving downward by gravity.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 633]    633Including a unitary, monolithic catalyst bed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 631.  Apparatus wherein the extended surface contact means is a catalyst in the form of a unitary (i.e., non-particulate) contact bed, e.g., a monolithic honeycomb coated with a catalyst, catalyst coated metallic screen, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 634]    634With metal catalyst (e.g., metal oxide, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 631.  Apparatus wherein the extended surface contact means is a catalyst that contains a metal element.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 635]    635Including random inert packing (e.g., Raschig rings, balls, saddle rings, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 631.  Apparatus wherein the extended surface contact means include pieces of chemically inactive material used in large numbers and packed randomly.
(1) Note. Raschig rings are usually ceramic or metal and provide a large surface area for interaction between liquid and gas or vapor.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 636]    636At least one reaction stage formed of a fixed, annularly shaped bed of contact material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 631.  Apparatus wherein at least one of the extended surface contact means is in the form of a stationary, ring shaped packing.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 637]    637With means for directing reaction stream therethrough substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bed:
 This subclass is indented under 636. Subject matter wherein a reactor with at least one of the extended surface contact means in the form of a stationary, ring shaped packing includes means for directing the flow of reactants in a radial direction through the packing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

181,for this structure in a waste gas purifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 638]    638Superimposed reaction stages in single reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 631.  Apparatus wherein the reaction stages are located one over the other and within a single reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 639]    639Wherein at least one reaction stage is upstream or downstream of parallel stages (e.g., AA-B, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus wherein reaction stages which are arranged side by side in the reaction zone and the reactions occur concurrently are positioned preceding or following a separate reaction stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 640]    640With parallel repeat of a sequence of reaction stages (e.g., AB-AB, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus wherein at least two sequences of separate successive reaction stages are arranged side by side in the reaction zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 641]    641With each stage in the form of a reaction tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus wherein each reaction stage has a relatively high length-to-diameter ratio.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 642]    642Wherein the reaction stages are the same:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus wherein the reaction stages are repeated, e.g., the same structure, the same catalyst, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 643]    643Including thermal combustion means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus wherein one of the discrete sequential reaction stages is thermal oxidative decomposition of a combustible substance.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 644]    644Reaction stages located within single reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus wherein all the sequential reaction stages are located in a single confining means.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 645]    645With baffle (i.e., deflector plate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 644.  Apparatus comprising a sheet-like structure for directing fluid flow in the single reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 646]    646With heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 644.  Apparatus wherein a heat exchange occurs in the single reaction chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 647]    647And means downstream of a stage for internally injecting a reactant into a reaction stream for reaction in a subsequent stage, or injecting an internal quench stream into a reaction stream passing between stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 644.  Apparatus having means after a reaction stage for introducing either (a) a reactant into the reaction fluid within the reaction chamber for reaction therewith in a later reaction stage or (b) a quench stream into the reaction fluid within the reaction chamber as the reaction passes between stages.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

172,for waste gas purifier having plural chemical stages and means downstream of a stage for injecting a reactant into the gas for interaction in a subsequent stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 648]    648Means within reaction chamber for redistributing reaction stream as it passes between adjacent stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 644.  Apparatus having means within reaction chamber for redistributing the reaction fluid; i.e., for equalizing or otherwise modifying the velocity profile of the reaction fluid, as it passes between adjacent reaction stages.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 649]    649With the provision of heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 630.  Apparatus comprising means for transferring thermal energy in any of the sequential reaction stages.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 650]    650Including plural parallel reaction stages with each stage in the form of a reaction tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Apparatus wherein the reaction stages are arranged side by side in reaction zones with relatively high length-to-diameter ratios and the reactions occur concurrently.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

222,for parallel passages through a monolithic mass; e.g., honeycomb catalyst, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 651]    651Tubular stages in a single reaction chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 650.  Apparatus wherein the reaction tubes are located within a single reaction confining area, e.g., a tube and shell reactor with the reactant flowing through the tubes.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 652]    652Reaction tubes filled with catalyst particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the reaction tube contains a catalyst in a particulate form.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 653]    653Reaction tubes containing structured catalyst:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the catalyst in the reaction tube has a specific solid shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 654]    654Reaction tubes having catalyst coating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the tubular surface is covered with a layer or film of catalyst.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 655]    655Individual supply of reactants for each reaction tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the starting materials are fed separately to each tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 656]    656With a solid reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the starting material is of stable shape and volume.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 657]    657Operating at positive pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the reaction stage is functioning above ambient pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 658]    658With tube plate (e.g., supporting plate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the tubes are fixed on a planar structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 659]    659With heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 651.  Apparatus wherein the single reaction chamber includes a means for thermal energy transfer.
  

CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS

[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 900]    900DECREASING POLLUTION OR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:
 A cross-reference art collection under subclasses 1 through 43 comprising process of diminishing unclean conditions or detrimental conditions affecting the environment.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 901]    901POLYMER DISSOLVER:
 A cross-reference art collection of apparatus specifically designed for the dissolution of a polymer.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 902]    902SODIUM CHLORIDE AND POTASSIUM CHLORIDE DISSOLVER:
 A cross-reference art collection of apparatus specifically designed for the dissolution of NaC1 or KC1.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 903]    903RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL APPARATUS:
 Apparatus for making or containing radioactive material.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 904]    904NITROGEN FIXATION MEANS:
 Art collection relevant to subclasses 186+ comprising documents disclosing the separation of nitrogen as nitrogen compounds from the other components of air.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 905]    905MISCELLANEOUS LIQUID STERILIZATION MEANS:
 Art collection relevant to subclasses 186+ comprising documents disclosing means for sterilization of miscellaneous liquids employing electromagnetic wave energy or corpuscular radiation.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 906]    906PLASMA OR ION GENERATION MEANS:
 Art collection relevant to subclasses 186+ comprising documents disclosing means for generating ions or plasma.
  
[List of Patents for class 422 subclass 907]    907CORONA OR GLOW DISCHARGE MEANS:
 Art collection relevant to subclasses 186+ comprising documents disclosing apparatus comprising means to produce a corona discharge or a glow discharge.
  

FOREIGN ART COLLECTIONS

The definitions below correspond to abolished subclasses from which these collections were formed. See the Foreign Art Collection schedule of this class for specific correspondences. [Note: The titles and definitions for indented art collections include all the details of the one(s) that are hierarchically superior.]

FOR 100Structured visual or optical indicator, per se (422/55):
 This foreign art collection is indented under unnumbered placeholder 422/50. Foreign art collection comprising (a) a structured indicator; i.e., an indicator which is more than a composition, per se, and has structure, or (b) liquid crystals, per se, which give a visual or optical indication of the presence or amount of material to be tested in the sample.
(1) Note. A visual or optical indicators, per se, include color indicators such as test papers or test strips and columns which give a visual or optical indication (e.g., color) of the presence or amount of material in the sample.
  
FOR 101Having reagent in absorbent or bibulous substrate(422/56):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 100. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein indicating reagent is contained in absorbent or bibulous carrier or substrate; e.g., a dip-stick, test paper, wick, etc.
  
FOR 102Having coated reagent(422/57):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 100. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein the reagent is coated on the surface of a carrier or substrate.
  
FOR 103In holder or container having special form(422/58):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 100. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein the indicator is contained in a holder or container having a special form or design; e.g., test plates, dish, tray, slide, etc.
  
FOR 104Column(422/59):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 103. Foreign art collection for apparatus in the form of a column-like structure.
  
FOR 105Having plural-layered material(422/60):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 104. Foreign art collection for apparatus having material consisting of multiple distinct layers.
  
FOR 106Test package or kit(422/61):
 This foreign art collection is indented under unnumbered placeholder 422/50. Foreign art collection wherein the apparatus comprising (a) a package containing reagents and all necessary ingredients to perform a test or (b) self-contained test kits for field testing, usually having dosage amounts of each material needed.
  
FOR 107Miscellaneous laboratory apparatus and elements, per se(422/99):
 This foreign art collection is indented under unnumbered placeholder 422/50. Foreign art collection for apparatus specifically designed for use in a laboratory.
  
FOR 108Pipette or other volumetric fluid transfer means(422/100):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 107. Foreign art collection for apparatus having means for volumetrically transferring a fluid.
  
FOR 109Including means for separating a constituent; e.g., filter, condenser, extractor, etc.(422/101):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 107. Foreign art collection for apparatus having means for separating a constituent by filtration, condensation, extraction, etc.
  
FOR 110Container(422/102):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 107. Foreign art collection for apparatus having means for holding material.
  
FOR 111Valve or connector structure(422/103):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 107. Foreign art collection for apparatus having valve or connector structure or this structure, per se.
  
FOR 112Holder, support, housing, or hood(422/104):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 107. Foreign art collection for apparatus for supporting, maintaining in a desired relationship with other structure, or surrounding other laboratory structures.
  
FOR 113Including plural reaction stages(422/188):
 This foreign art collection is indented under unnumbered placeholder 422/129. Foreign art collection for apparatus comprising multiple reaction means.
  
FOR 114And means providing discrete sequential reaction stages, e.g., train, etc.(422/189):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 113. Foreign art collections for apparatus having means for subjecting the reaction stream to multiple separate successive reaction stages.
  
FOR 115Plural solid, extended surface, fluid contact reaction stages each containing; e.g., inert raschig rings, particulate sorbent, particulate or monolithic catalyst, etc.(422/190):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 114. Foreign art collection for apparatus including solid extended surface fluid contact reaction means, i.e., means providing a relatively large solid contact surface area within the reaction zone wherein large surface area within the reaction zone wherein large surface area presents multiple reaction sites for contact by the reaction mixture and, thereby, enhance the rate and/or the completeness of the reaction, including; e.g., inert raschig rings, particulate absorbent, etc.
  
FOR 116Superimposed reaction stages in single reaction chamber(422/191):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 115. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein the reaction stages are located one over the other and within a single reaction chamber.
  
FOR 117At least one reaction stage formed of fixed, annularly shaped bed of contact material and means directing reaction stream therethrough substantially perpendicular to longitudinal axis of bed(422/192):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 115. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein at least one of the extended surface contact means is in the form of a relatively fixed, annularly shaped bed of contact material and including means for directing the flow of reactants through the contact bed in a direction substantially perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the contact bed.
  
FOR 118Reaction stages located within single reaction chamber(422/193):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 114. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein the reaction stages are located in a single confining means.
  
FOR 119And means downstream of a stage for internally injecting a reactant into a reaction stream for interreaction in a subsequent stage, or injecting an internal quench stream into reaction stream passing between stages(422/194):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 118. Foreign art collection for apparatus having means after a reaction stage for injecting either (a) a reactant into the reaction stream within the reaction chamber for reaction therewith in a subsequent reaction stage or (b) a quench stream into the reaction stream within the reaction chamber as the reaction passes between stages.
  
FOR 120Means within reaction chamber redistributing reaction stream as it passes between adjacent stages(422/195):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 118. Foreign art collection for apparatus having means within reaction chamber for redistributing the reaction stream; i.e., for equalizing or otherwise modifying the velocity profile of the reaction stream, as it passes between adjacent reaction stages.
  
FOR 121Including plural parallel reaction stages with each stage in form of a reaction tube(422/196):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 113. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein the reaction stages are formed by parallel (i.e., nonsequential) reaction tubes; i.e., reaction zones with relatively high length-to-diameter ratios.
  
FOR 122Tubular stages in single reaction chamber(422/197):
 This foreign art collection is indented under FOR 121. Foreign art collection for apparatus wherein the tubes are located within a single reaction confining area; e.g., a tube and shell reactor with the reactant flowing through the tubes.
  

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