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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 164]   CLASS 164,METAL FOUNDING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the generic class for:

1. METAL* CASTING - Process and/or apparatus for shaping of fluid metallic material.

2. MOLD MAKING - Process and/or apparatus, per se, for shaping of fluent material to produce a forming surface to carry out in METAL* CASTING, supra.

3. PATTERN MAKING - Process and/or apparatus for shaping a fluent material to produce a form or pattern to be used in MOLD MAKING, supra.

4. PRODUCT TREATING - Process and/or apparatus for treating, mixing, or mechanically working the metallic material while molding or while the metallic material is in a mold, i.e., while carrying out an operation of METAL* CASTING, supra.

5. OTHER - Process and/or apparatus not elsewhere provided for to perfect or effect METAL*CASTING or MOLD MAKING, supra.

*Throughout this class, the term "metal" is to include pure metal, metal alloys and inter-metallic compounds.

AMPLIFIED STATEMENT OF CLASS SUBJECT MATTER.

This class in general provides for the foundry operations including from those of making the molds and patterns to those of casting a final metal product. These operations, particularly that of casting the metal, do not have to be limited to a foundry operation in the locational sense; but may be performed in any physical location, e.g., cast-welding rail ends in the field.

The metal casting of this class involves the shaping of a free flowing liquid metal and as such is distinguished from other forms of metal deformation such as metal bending, forging, billet extrustion, etc., where the metal is never free flowing. Also a shaping surface is required for placement in the class. For example, forming metal by a shot tower will be found elsewhere. The shaping surface, though, may remain as part of the final product. (See References to Other Classes, below).

The mold making procedures provided for in this class are generally of the sand shaping type although any fluent material is included such as metal, plaster of paris, ceramic materials and synthetic plastics. There molds so formed are limited to use in metal casting operations and are not of general utility. Making molds by shaping of solid materials are found in the particular shaping classes except where the operation is combined with a subsequent metal casting step; in such a case, the operation is provided for in this class.

The pattern making procedures provided for in this class are those of shaping a fluent material such as wax and other plastic materials. Shaping a pattern from solid material such as by cutting from wood are provided for in this class only when followed by a further foundry operation such as forming a sand mold by using the pattern.

The metal product treating operations provided for in this class are those that are performed in conjunction with a metal casting operation. Alloying of metals while pouring the metal into a mold or while the metal is in a mold is provided for in this class. Any reshaping of the metal while in the mold such as cutting, or solid deforming are provided for in this class. Also, particularly in the case of a continuously casting operation, the rolling or bending of the continuously cast product (where the casting is also claimed) is provided for herein if some of the contiguous product is still in the mold.

Other miscellaneous adjuncts which are used to perfect a foundry operation are provided for in this class if there is not a specific class which provides for the subject matter. The main items of this type are flasks, mold jackets, strippers, and core supporting devices, e.g., chaplets. See Subclass References to the Current Class, below.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

A. MOLDING PROCESS AND APPARATUS CLASSES

1. Molds Without Structure.

A mold recited only by composition with no structure recited will go to the appropriate composition class. See References to Other Classes, below.

Patents wherein all the claims are limited to a mold mentioned by name only with no structure recited and defined only in terms of the composition of individual layers are classified in the appropriate composite layer class. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

2. Metal

Class 249 provides for molds of a static character for metal shaping. Generally any mold having a dynamic feature of the feature of the following list is included in this class (164):

(a) A mold combined with means or pressing molding material within the mold.

(b) A mold combined with a cover having projections penetrating into the fluent hardenable material upon movement of the cover to its operative position.

(c) A mold combined with means for moving the mold from one side to another.

(d) A mold formed of separable and unconnected parts combined with means to individually handle each part for assembly.

(e) A mold provided with a core or ejector combined with a machine-type means for actuating the core or ejector.

(f) A mold combined with means to position the work relative to the mold and which means functions to release the work to permit it to fall in the mold.

(g) A mold or core combined with means for creating differential pressure within the mold or core for dynamically shaping a molding material.

(h) A mold combined with means for feeding material thereto, except that a mold with an integral funnel element or a mold so modified to provide structure especially designed for supporting a feeding means, is classified in Class 249.

(i) A mold and means to vibrate the mold.

(j) A segmented female mold or core, e.g., tunnel type, etc., and power means, i.e., motor to move the segments to inoperative or operative position.

(k) Continuous or semi-continuous forming apparatus.

Also, Class 249 provides for all static molds for metal shaping except for molds made of sand or a similar particulate material which is found in this class (164). See Subclass References to the Current Class, below, for a subclass reference for mold made of sand or a similar particulate material. A mold which by claim or disclosure can be either sand or metal will be found in Class 249. Combinations of sand and metal molds or cores are provided for in this class (164) as are sand (only) mold adjuncts (such as a metal chill).

Classes 264 and 425 provide for processes and apparatus respectively for metal shaping by liquid or melt comminuting. In this operation no mold is employed by the particles are shaped by the cohesive nature of the material, e.g., solidifying of a molten metal to a round ball while in free fall.

Molding processes and apparatus for metal powders are found in Class 419 (processes with sintering), Class 264 (compacting processes), and Class 425 (particle compositioning apparatus). In these powder metallurgical operations, the particles retain their identity as particles in the product. If they were completely fused, such operations would be provided for in this class (164).

Processes and apparatus for deforming metal are provided for elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

Processes and apparatus for casting metal to form either single type or type-bars that are adapted to be set up as a printing form are provided for elsewhere. This class (164) provides for processes and apparatus for casting stereotype plates. (See References to Other Classes, below)

Processes of casting and molding material wherein a semiconductor junction device or material is produced by claim or disclosure are provided for elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below).

3. Nonmetallic Materials

Class 249, Static Molds, provides for static molds for the general process of molding nonmetallic materials of Class 264, Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes, while Class 425, provides for the dynamic molding apparatus. A claim or, if not claimed, a disclosure of molding either metals or nonmetals will be classified in the nonmetallic class. A combination of a nonmetallic operation followed by an operation of this class (164) will be found in this class (164). An operation of this class (164) followed by an operation of a nonmetallic shaping class will be found in the nonmetallic shaping class, i.e., Classes 264 and 425.

Class 65 provides generally for processes of molding glass. A patent disclosing working of named materials for this class (164) and Class 65 is classified in this class (164) unless the only species claimed is glass or the only specific example relates to glass in which case the patent is classified in Class 65. Combined processes including metal casting and glass working and/or treating are classified in this class (164).

B. COMPOSITION CLASSES

For placement of patents reciting a mold by name only see Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, Molds Without Structure, above.

1. Metallic

Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, provides for a process of refining combined with a Class 164 process (significant or nominal). Class 420, Alloys or Metallic Compositions, provides for a process of alloying followed by casting where the alloying or refining step is either (1) prior to or (2) subsequent to the casting operation, i.e., removed from mold. This class (164) provides for apparatus for alloying or refining combined with casting apparatus where the alloying or refining is performed prior to or during casting. The term metal is utilized throughout the class to encompass free metal alloy or intermetallic compound as designated in Classes 75 and 420.

The order of superiority among various metal, alloy, and metal stock areas and methods of manufacture involving them is as follows:

1. Class 419, Powder Metallurgy Processes.

2. Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 22+, compositions for treatment of solid metal.

3. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 300, 301, and 303+, gaseous, liquid, or solid treating compositions for liquid metal or charges, and subclass 302, welding rod defined by composition.

4. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 228+, consolidated metal powder compositions and subclasses 255+, loose metal particulate mixtures.

5. Class 420, Alloys or Metallic Compositions, claimed as products.

6. Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 95-122, 194-287, and 500-714, in class schedule order, providing for certain processes of treating solid or semi-solid metal by modifying or maintaining internal physical structure (i.e., microstructure) or chemical properties of metal, processes of reactive coating of metal or processes of chemical-heat removing (e.g., flame-cutting, etc.) or burning of metal. However, if metal casting, fusion bonding, machining, or working is involved, there is a requirement of significant heat treatment as described in the Class 148 class definition.

7. Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 33+ barrier layer stock material and subclasses 400+, stock.

8. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclassses 331+, processes of making solid particulate alloys directly from liquid metal and subclasses 343+, processes of producing purifying alloys in powder form.

9. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 10.1+ and 10.67, processes of making alloys by electrothermic, electromagnetic, or electrostatic processes.

10. Class 420, Alloys or Metallic Compositions, processes of manufacture.

11. Class 75, Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures, subclasses 330+, processes of making metal and processes of treating liquid metals and liquid alloys and consolidating metalliferous material.

12. Class 204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, processes.

13. Class 164, Metal Founding, subclasses 1+, processes.

14. Class 266, Metallurgical Apparatus, subclasses 44+, processes of operating metallurgical apparatus.

This list is not complete and may be added to as the proper relationship of other areas is determined.

2. Nonmetallic

This class (164) provides for a process of shaping, per se, of a mold, pattern or core device which is to be utilized in a metal casting operation, where there are significant shaping steps recited. The line with the various chemical composition classes and this class (164) is the same generally as that set forth in Class 264, Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Chemical Composition Classes. Clarification as to some of the technology peculiar to this class and any departures from the line set forth in Class 264 will be set forth below.

These lines are generally applicable where there is a mixing or blending of the mold, pattern or core composition recited to take place prior to the mold-step or a chemical reaction during the molding step. Where there is no claimed disclosure as to a chemical reaction, mixing or blending the patent is classified in this class even when only nominal shaping is recited.

Unless otherwise provided for, the recitation in a claim of a significant molding or shaping step will bring a patent to this class. Significant molding operations include named shaping by compaction, centrifugal force, spraying or slinging material against a shaping surface, or extruding of mold materials to form a shaping surface, and combinations of two or more broad molding or shaping steps and other combinations as set forth in Class 264.

Patents reciting physical or mechanical treatment subsequent to a broad molding step, e.g., shaping or molding broadly plus cutting or removing of excess mold material or heating subsequent to removal of a shaped article from forming surface to complete the cure will be placed in this class. Mere stripping alone or nominal return to ambient temperature is not considered to be an after treatment or a subsequent treatment within the scope outlined above.

C. COMPOSITE ARTICLE FORMING CLASSES

1. Coating

The distinction between coating a metal onto a base for Class 118 or Class 427 and casting a metal onto the base for this class is predicated upon the presence of confining means for the molten metal as it solidifies on the base. If the melt is confined in all directions on the base against the force of gravity it is considered a process or apparatus appropriate for this class. The confining means may be structural dams, previously solidified casting material, or part of the base itself.

Also, if a metal layer is formed in a mold and another layer coated on the initial layer while it is still in a mold the operation is considered molding of plural layers for this class rather than coating since the operation takes place in a mold.

2. Fusion Bonding

This class (164) provides for a process and apparatus for joining two or more preforms or portions of the same preform, where (a) a removable mold member is used and (b) the molten metallic material is confined in all directions against the force of gravity (hole filling is considered a joining of portions). Fusion bonding therefor, not meeting the above limitation, is classified elsewhere. Processes and apparatus for bonding or welding by means of electric heating are also provided for elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

SEARCH NOTES

Only a limited amount of cross-referencing and cross-noting has been done between process and apparatus subclasses where the subject matter provides for is of comparable scope. One is cautioned therefore, to utilize both the process and apparatus sections of the schedule when determining fields of search.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

349+,for mold made of sand or a similar particulate material.
374+,for flasks.
394+,for mold jackets.
397+,for core supporting devices, e.g., chaplets.
401+,for strippers.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for freeing casting of residual sand, especially subclass 94 and 304.
29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 527.1+ for processes involving casting and additional treatment of the casting after it is removed from the mold. This class (164) provides for operation of preparing, e.g., coating, cutting, shaping by deforming, etc., a preform for a casting operation where the preform is the casting metal or a part of a final composite product, or removing a portion of the preform after the casting operation where the removal was to perfect the casting operation, e.g., position preform during compositing. See also Class 29, subclasses 526.2+ for processes of separation or localization of as-cast defects in ingots (e.g., anti-pipe). Also, see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes and C, Composite Article Forming Classes, supra.
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses for, per se, drying of a formed mold, and especially subclass 437 for processes of treating hollow articles or articles held in or on forms.
53Package Making,   subclass 423 for packing operations including the step of confining a fluid material so as to form a closure seal by solidification.
59Chain, Staple, and Horseshoe Making,   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for making chains in which some manufacturing operation more than casting and joining is involved.
65Glass Manufacturing,   provides generally for processes of molding glass. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process And Apparatus Classes, above.)
72Metal Deforming,   for processes and apparatus for deforming metal. The metal is in a self-sustaining conditioning during the formation. It may be "plastic" but it is not liquid (i.e., seeks its own level under the force of gravity). subclasses 253.1+ provides for forming by extruding through an orifice. The metal stock may be supplied to the feed chamber in the form of a liquid as a convenient way of handling a charge, but the charge must be solidified before it is forced through a die for placement in Class 72. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, above.)
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   subclasses 228+ for metal stock, blanks, or indeterminate articles. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, above.)
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   appropriate subclasses depending upon the metal produced for combined processes involving refining operations where not performed in the mold or while teeming into mold. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes and see Metallic, supra.
100Presses,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for pressing particulate material.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 38.2+ for compositions which are (a) specialized for use in making molds, (b) specialized for use in coating molds, or, (c) molds claimed solely in terms of the composition of which they are composed. Also, see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, and B, Composition Classes, supra.
118Coating Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for coating molds where no more of the casting apparatus is claimed than is necessary to present the mold to the coating device or station. Also, see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Composite Article Forming Classes, supra.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses for methods of freeing castings of residual sand only, where the cleaning is effected by contact with a liquid. See subclasses 22.1 through 24for processes of cleaning the internal surfaces of hollow work and subclasses 166+ for corresponding apparatus.
140Wireworking,   for process and apparatus for making wire containing products in which some wireworking operation more than composite casing or joining is involved.
148Metal Treatment,   particularly subclasses 538+ for combined processes of casting and significant heat treatment after removal from the mold or shaping surface to modify or maintain the internal physical structure (i.e., microstructure) or chemical property of metal. See the Class 148 Class Definition to determine what constitutes significant heat treatment. In continuous casting operations, wherein the contiguous product is still connected to the casting surface, a step involving significant heat treatment of the solid or semi-solid metal which occurs outside or away from the molding surface goes to Class 148. However, chemical heat removing (e.g., flame-cutting, etc.) or burning (i.e., oxidation) of a continuously cast metal goes to Class 164, if some of the continuously cast and contiguous product is connected to the shaping surface. Cutting operations, in the mold, goes to Class 164. See, particularly Class 148, subclasses 194+ for processes of chemical-heat removing (e.g., flame cutting) or burning (i.e., oxidizing) of metal; subclasses 100+ for combined processes involving casting followed by intentional alteration of the magnetic properties of the casting after removal from the mold.
163Needle and Pin Making,   for processes and apparatus for making needles and pins in which some manufacturing operation more than metal casting is involved.
199Type Casting,   for processes and apparatus for casting metal to form either single type or type-bars that are adapted to be set up as a printing form. This class (164) provides for processes and apparatus for casting stereotype plates. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, above.)
219Electric Heating,   for processes and apparatus for bonding and welding by means of electric heating.
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses for ladles, crucibles, or other metal containers having dispensing structure such as a pouring lip or spout.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   for fusion bonding.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for disintegrating a mold or core not associated with a flask or casting.
249Static Molds,   see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, supra.
252Compositions,   see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, supra.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses for similar processes of molding and shaping nonmetallic materials especially subclasses 219+ for processes of mold making. See Class Definition, Amplified Statement Of Class Subject Matter, supra., and Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Molding Process and Apparatus, and Composition Classes, supra.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   for process for forming metal by a shot tower. (See Class Definition, Amplified Statement Of Class Subject Matter, supra.)
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus adapted for the treatment of metals particularly subclasses 168+ for apparatus for melting or otherwise treating molten metal and subclasses 275+ for molten metal receptacles.
269Work Holders,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 86+ for a clamp means, per se, even if a mold or flask is named as the article held.
373Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for electric furnaces such as arc, induction and resistance furnaces.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for pumps, per se, for molten metal.
420Alloys or Metallic Compositions,   appropriate subclasses depending upon the metal value utilized for combined processes involving alloying operations where not performed in the mold or while teeming into the mold. Also, see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Molding Process And Apparatus Classes, and Composition Classes, supra.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process and Apparatus, supra.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, above.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   for apparatus for forming metal by a shot tower. (See Class Definition, Amplified Statement Of Class Subject Matter, supra.)
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 133+ for a process of coating a mold.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 411.1+ and 615+ for nonmetallic and metallic composites, respectively, defined in terms of the composition of its components. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process and Apparatus Classes, above.)
433Dentistry,   appropriate subclasses for methods and apparatus which effect specific dental steps (e.g., taking impressions of teeth, trial filling, etc.).
438Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process,   for processes of casting and molding material wherein a semiconductor junction device or material is produced by claim or disclosure. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process And Apparatus Classes, above.)
451Abrading,   for a method or apparatus for disintegrating a sand mold or for cleaning a casting by an abrading operation.
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   (see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, A, Molding Process And Apparatus Classes, above.)

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

ADDITION AGENT

In founding, any material, including principal alloying constituents, densifiers, fluidizers, graphitizers, grain size controllers, etc., added to the molten metal to produce specific effects in the solid metal.

CAPPING

Intentionally stopping the rimming action in steel after completion of teeming.

CARBURIZING (Carbonizing)

Introducing carbon into ferrometals by heating above the transformation temperature range while in contact with carbonaceous material that may be solid, liquid, or gaseous.

CASTING

The formation of an article by pouring or forcing molten metal into a mold or die and permitting it to solidify.

CHAPLET

A device for holding a core in place.

CHEEK

The intermediate part of a flask or mold that has more than two parts.

CHILL

A piece of metal applied to the casting to hasten the solidification in that area.

CONTINUOUS CASTING

Process of forming a product of indeterminate length wherein a portion of the product is removed from a forming mold or surface as a further contiguous portion is cast.

CONTINUOUS CASTING STRAND

Semi-solidified product of a continuous casting process or apparatus comprising a generally molten center contained within a cooler solidified shell.

COPE

The upper or topmost section of a flask, mold, or pattern.

CORE

A separable part of a mold that is used to create openings and various shaped cavities in the casting.

CORE BOX

A box or container in which foundry cores are made.

CORE PRINT

A special projection on a pattern for forming impressions or core seats in the mold into which the core itself is inserted. Also refers to the projection on the core itself which fits into the core seat.

DRAFT

The taper that is provided on otherwise verticle faces of a pattern to facilitate its removal from the sand mold.

DRAG

The lower or bottom section of a flask, mold, or pattern. Also referred to as nowel.

DRAW BAR

A bar used for lifting the pattern from the sand of the mold.

DROSS

The scum that forms on the surface of molten metals.

FLASH

A thin film of metal formed on a casting where the metal has flowed between mating parts of the mold.

FLASK

A box, usually of metal or wood, used to hold sand in which a mold is formed.

FLUX

(1) A substance that, by chemical action, promotes fusion of a solid material.

(2) A material capable of forming with gangue or other earthy matter, a liquid melt having the fusibility and chemical characteristics suitable to a specific furnace process. Also, protective flux to retard undesirable reactions.

GAGGER

A piece of metal used to support sand in deep pockets of sand molds.

GATE

The end of the runner where the molten metal enters the mold.

HOT-TOP

An insulated portion of a mold that retains metal molten in that area so that it can feed into the mold and alleviate shrinkage voids.

INCLUSIONS

Particles of dirt, slag or other impurities occurring in metals that were mechanically entrapped during solidification.

INGOT

An open-mold casting that is intended for remelting and recasting or reworking to form finished products. Also referred to as billet.

INGOT MOLD

A heavy mold, usually of cast iron, into which molten metal is teemed, as in the casting of ingots.

INVESTMENT PATTERN

A pattern of a material having a low melting point for use in processes employing special techniques such as precision casting where pattern withdrawal would be difficult.

MATCH PLATE PATTERN

A pattern plate with several patterns secured thereto or a plate having matching pattern portions mounted on opposite sides.

MELT

Metal that has been melted in preparation for casting.

NOWEL

See Drag.

PATTERN

A replica of an object to be cast and around which the mold is constructed.

PATTERN PLATE

A board to which patterns are to be attached and which extends substantially over the flask opening.

PIPE

A cavity formed in metal during the solidification of the last portion of liquid metal, causing by contraction.

PREFORMED PRODUCT PART

A self-sustaining body which is to be incorporated in the final product as a distinct part of the same (e.g., insert, etc.).

RAMMING

The operation of compacting sand into a sand mold and around a pattern.

RISER

A reservoir of molten metal provided for feeding into a casting as the metal in the mold solidifies thus preventing voids.

SAND MOLD

A mold made of sand and used for the making of sand castings. A green sand mold is a mold used as made without any drying operations and contains the original moisture of the mix.

SAND TEMPERING

Adding moisture to molding sand to make it workable.

SCAVENGER

A chemically active material added to molten metal to remove oxides, gases, or other impurities.

SEGREGATION

The occurrence of impurities, inclusions, and alloying constituents in nonuniform distribution.

SHELL MOLDING

A casting process utilizing a thin shell composed of resin-bonded sand for the cope and drag section of the mold.

SINGLE CRYSTAL

A metallic mass that consists of a single crystallographic grain instead of the usual polycrystalline material.

SLAG

The nonmetallic product of refining metal ores which results from the reaction of the flux with gangue.

SPRUE

Gates and risers of a mold assembly; the hole through which molten metal enters the mold; also, the waste portion attached to the product.

STOOL

The separable base of an ingot mold. The base provides a surface onto which the mold is placed, and also serves as the bottom of the mold.

SWEEP

A small section of a regular pattern which is generally rotated in sand to provide the whole mold cavity.

TEEMING

Pouring metal into a mold.

VENT

Small opening in a mold to allow trapped air to escape.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 1]    1PROCESS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Methods.
(1) Note. Many of these subclasses have corresponding apparatus subclasses, therefore, a complete search may involve apparatus subclasses, which subclasses start at subclass 139 and continue to end of the class.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 2]    2Printing plate (e.g., stereotype, etc.) forming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process directed to forming a surface capable of conveying intelligence or a design by reproducing in printed form.
(1) Note. Included herein is the combination of forming the mat or matrix and casting of metal thereagainst to form a plate.
(2) Note. The step of applying a backup member to a preformed printing plate is not considered forming a printing plate to be incorporated herein. This operation is found in the composite article forming area, i.e., subclasses 91+.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

91+,for processes of producing composite printing plates by casting backup metal to a preformed printing surface.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclass 21 for processes of finishing (cutting, grooving, etc.) stereotype plates.
199Type Casting,   appropriate subclasses for processes of casting elements or bars of a printing form.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclass 69 for processes of electroforming printing plates.
249Static Molds,   for static stereotype molds, particularly subclass 138 for pivotable type stereotype molds.
409Gear Cutting, Milling, or Planing,   subclass 309 for a planing operation performed on a concave surface such as a stereotype plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 3]    3Utilizing pressure application:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Process wherein a dynamic pressure, e.g., vacuum, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc., is directly applied to a molten metal to shape the same.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

61+,for processes of vacuum forming.
113+,for pressure casting of articles in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 4.1]    4.1With measuring, testing, inspecting, or condition determination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process which includes the step of visually, audibly, or chemically testing, sampling, or inspecting, or otherwise physically or mechanically determining some variable condition in a cast article, molding material, mold structure, or casting surface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

150.1+,for metal casting apparatus provided with inspection means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclasses 407.01+ for processes of testing or indicating in a mechanical manufacturing operation.
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 29.1+ and 29.12+ for processes of testing, inspecting, measuring, or condition determination in a glass forming or molding operation.
73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for measuring or testing operations, per se.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 40.1 for processes of measuring, testing or inspecting in a plastic molding operation.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses, for processes of electrical measuring and testing.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for measuring or testing of a thermal quantity, per se.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   for processes of chemical testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 5]    5Including recycling of process material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process in which excess material in the form of flash, trim, rejected products or used mold materials resulting from an intermittent or continuous process or treating materials therefor, are recycled or reused in the molding operation with or without purification, reclamation or separation of the desired constituents from contaminants.
(1) Note. To be placed herein, a patent must recite a recycling of material employed previously in the mold making or casting process.
(2) Note. The use of scrap or worn materials employed in commerce are not considered to involve a recycling step.

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92.1,for processes of repairing or restoring articles for use.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 37.1+ for processes of recycling of reclaimed or purified process material utilized in a nonmetallic molding operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 6]    6Shaping a forming surface (e.g., mold making, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process which includes the step of producing by shaping (1) a mold, pattern or core device either as a, per se, operation by a method within the definition of this class or (2) in combination with a step of employing said mold or core device in the production of a cast product by a process classifiable in this class in which latter instance the mold or core device may be formed by methods provided elsewhere.
(1) Note. Also included herein is the shaping of a mold to be used in nonmetal molding of fluent or flowable materials if such shaping is performed on fluent metallic material.

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138,for casting processes employing particular shaping surface material.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 38.2+ for particular mold compositions.
144Woodworking,   subclasses 329+ for a method of wood shaping.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclass 70 for processes of electroforming dies.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 219+ for processes of mold forming including sand molds for nonmetallic shaping.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 7.1]    7.1Utilizing a vacuum during shaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process in which a less than ambient pressure is employed.

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61+,for processes of utilizing a vacuum in shaping metallic material.
160.1+,for casting apparatus provided with means to shape a forming surface in the form of a shielding film.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 7.2]    7.2To apply consumable shielding film to shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Process wherein an impervious consumable membrane is adhered onto a particulate shaping surface by a vacuum.

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160.2,for casting apparatus provided with means to apply film or suction directly to mold material with a shielding film.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 8]    8Utilizing a frozen mercury pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process wherein a destructible pattern formed of frozen mercury is utilized in the shaping operation.

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34+,for processes of employing destructible patterns in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 9]    9Final product part or material, utilized in forming or included in shaping member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process directed to (1) shaping the forming surface utilizing the material which is to be ultimately cast as the pattern or preform member, or (2) shaping the forming surface wherein a preform member which is to be integrated in the material to be cast as a final product is embedded in the mold material during the shaping or forming thereof.
(1) Note. The product part in (2) above to be included herein must be one which is individually handled.

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23+,for a process of forming a composite plural part or multi-layered mold.
91+,for, per se, processes of embedding a preform member in the cast metal.
231,for core shaping apparatus with means for positioning a preform part which is to be incorporated in the final cast product.
236,for a pattern member with means for holding a preform part which is to be incorporated in the final cast product.
332+,for apparatus for shaping metallic material including means to position a preform part.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 10]    10Utilizing plural preform bodies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Process wherein plural preform bodies, i.e., final product part or material, are utilized in forming or included in the shaping member.

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108,for process of uniting plural preforms.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 11]    11Preform body embedded in or held by core member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Process wherein the final product parts or materials are embedded in or held by a core member of the mold structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 12]    12Setting or hardening shaping surface by igniting mold surface or by utilizing a forced gaseous medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process directed to fixing or hardening a formed shaping surface by (1) igniting and burning the mold surface prior to pouring the casting or (2) by forcibly directing an inert gaseous medium against the shaping surface.
(1) Note. The gaseous hardening agent to be included herein cannot chemically react with the mold materials.
(2) Note. The gaseous hardening agent must be under a positive pressure application to be included herein.

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16,for process of hardening a shaping surface by treating with a chemically reactive gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 13]    13Shaping plate type pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process directed to shaping pattern which is or is intended to be attached to a pattern, board or plate.
(1) Note. Generally the plate or board upon which the pattern is attached or an integral part thereof substantially covers the open portion of a flask member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 14]    14With subsequent coating of casting surface with cast product treating or release material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process directed to shaping a forming surface combined with the step of coating the so formed surface with a treating material for perfecting a subsequent casting operation.
(1) Note. The primary function of the coating provided for herein is for treating the casting surface to perfect the casting operation, e.g., release agent or lubricant to allow easy withdrawal of cast product, fluxing or wetting agent. If the main purpose of the coating is to retain or shape the work during the casting operation and not merely to perfect the casting operation then the operation will be found in subclasses 23+.

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23+,for process of forming composite plural part or multi-layered mold and especially subclass 33 wherein a mold surface is lined with mold material which functions to shape or retain the molten material during the casting operation.
55.1+,for process of lining or coating a casting surface with a material which is to be alloyed with the molten casting material.
66.1+,for process of coating a casting surface with a material which produces an inert or reducing gaseous atmosphere upon teeming of the metal.
72+,for process of coating-treating a casting surface combined with casting.
91+,for process of lining a casting surface with a material which forms a composite layer or coating with the cast material.
138,for casting processes employing a particular mold coating.
473,for continuous casting processes incorporating an addition or agent in a melt system.
475,for continuous casting processes including an inert or reducing gas atmosphere step.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 38.22+ for compositions for coating and lining molds.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 133+ for processes of mold coating, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 15]    15Shaping fluent material to form mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process directed to shaping from a fluent material the forming surface which confines and controls the ultimate desired shape of the molten metal that is to be formed therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 16]    16Chemically reactive gas hardening of forming material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process directed to perfecting the hardening of the forming surface of a mold structure by contacting the surface with a gaseous medium which is chemically reactive with the mold material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 17]    17Shaping forming surface by mechanically removing material therefrom or subdividing forming surface to provide plural parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process directed to mechanically removing material from the surface of a shaped mold structure.
(1) Note. Included herein is the step of mechanically sub-dividing the mold structure, i.e., dividing a mold structure into component parts.

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161+,for apparatus for cutting the final mold as well as for cutting or sweeping to form the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 18]    18Forming discrete molds sequentially:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process directed to successively shaping a plurality of molds.

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167+,for apparatus for shaping sequential molds combined with casting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 19]    19By spraying or slinging material against shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process directed to applying the mold material, either in bulk, droplet (mist) or particulate form, by propelling the material through space under dynamic pressure against the shaping surface.

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46,for process of spraying liquid metallic material against a shaping surface to form a cast product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 20]    20Particulate solid material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Process directed to applying the solid mold material in particulate form to the shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 21]    21Resin containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Process wherein the particulate mold material that is sprayed against the shaping surface contains a resin material.
(1) Note. This subclass generally includes shell type molding processes where the resin material functions as a binder.
(2) Note. See Class 520, Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers, for a resin or composition containing a resin.

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165+,for shell molding apparatus.
526+,for processes of utilizing resin containing mold materials generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 22]    22Employing compressed air as ram or piston to force sand against shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Process directed to employing compressed air as a ram or piston to force sand from a cartridge or container in which the material is supplied in the shape of a compacted column or the like against the shaping surface.
(1) Note. The compressed air does not come into actual contact with the sand that is being forced against the shaping surface.

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20,for those patents in which a stream of compressed air leaves the machine chamber carrying with it sand which is aerated before and during the blowing process.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 23]    23Composite, plural part or multilayered mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process wherein different parts or layers of mold materials are integrated by a shaping or forming operation.
(1) Note. Included herein is the non treating type coating or lining of the mold structure and also the impregnation of the mold structure.
(2) Note. A lining which functions to retain the casting material is included herein.
(3) Note. The mere insertion of a reinforcing member in the mold material is not sufficient to bring the patent here.
(4) Note. If a flask is a mere container for the mold material and does not affect the final shaping structure, the patent will be provided elsewhere on other features.

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14,for processes of mold forming plus subsequent treating coating.
72+,where the coating merely perfects the casting operation but does not itself shape the material, e.g., lubricate.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 24]    24Sequentially forming mold portions on same shaping member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Process in which the different portions or parts of the mold are successively shaped or formed on the same mold shaping member, e.g., pattern member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 27]    27Shaping plural separable mold parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Process in which at least two different separable portions or parts of the mold structure are shaped or formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 28]    28Including shaping core member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Process directed to shaping plural separable parts which includes shaping a core member.

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228+,for, per se, apparatus for shaping cores.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 29]    29Cope and drag sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Process directed to shaping cope and drag sections of the mold member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 30]    30Positioning or maintaining position of core relative to the mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Process in which a core is placed, disposed or sustained in fixed relation with the forming surface of the mold.

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137,for a process for assembling mold parts.
340,for apparatus, including a mold, with means to position a core.
370,for cores having integral aligning means.
397+,for core centering or supporting means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 31]    31Utilizing plural cores:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.  Process wherein a plurality of cores are utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 32]    32Maintaining cores in spaced relationship within single cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Process directed to process of shaping a mold wherein plural cores are maintained in spaced relationship within the mold cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 33]    33Lining mold surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Process directed to forming a layer on the mold shaping surface which functions to shape or retain the molten material during the casting operation.
(1) Note. Before placing a patent herein a determination must be made that the lining functions to shape or retain the molten cast material. Such guidelines as the thickness of the applied lining, whether or not there are means, i.e., stops or dams, for confining the lining material in the mold, whether or not there are significant shaping steps disclosed, e.g., compacting, permanency of the lining are to be considered in making the determination.
(2) Note. The combination of shaping one layer of a multi-layered mold and separately forming after removal from the initial shaping member a lining on the preformed layer would be placed herein.
(3) Note. Generally the patents found herein are those disclosing lining centrifugal mold flasks with mold materials.

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14,for a process of shaping a forming surface combined with the step of coating the casting surface with a treating material.
55.1+,for a process of lining or coating a casting surface with a material which is to be alloyed with the molten casting material.
66.1+,for a process of coating a casting surface with a material which produces an inert or reducing gaseous atmosphere upon teeming the metal.
72+,for a process of coating-treating a casting surface combined with the step of casting.
91+,for a process of lining a casting surface with a material which forms a composite layer or coating with the cast material.
473,for continuous casting processes incorporating an addition or agent in a melt system.
475,for a continuous casting process with an inert or reducing gas atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 34]    34With destruction of pattern to disassociate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process directed to extracting a destructable pattern from the mold structure by (1) a chemical change, e.g., burning, etc., (2) a physical change of state, e.g., liquefying, etc., or (3) by reducing a solid to a flowable granular material.

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246,for a destructible type pattern.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 423+ , for processes employing transitory or temporary material or parts.
249Static Molds,   subclasses 61+ for a static shaping surface having a destructible feature.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 221 for processes of destroying a pattern to disassociate the same from a plastic shaping mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 35]    35Extracting pattern in liquid state:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Process directed to withdrawing the pattern in the liquid state.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 36]    36Utilizing fluent extracting medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Process wherein a fluid medium is used to effect the liquid extraction of the pattern.
(1) Note. The fluid medium used herein would include any solvent fluid, e.g., steam, hot water, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 37]    37By compacting material against shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process directed to the step of actively pressing or packing the mold materials against a mold shaping surface to form a densified structure.
(1) Note. The pressing or packing force must be greater than the force of gravity.

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100Presses,   subclasses 35+ for process of compressing miscellaneous materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 38]    38Diverse pressure applications:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Process directed to applying two or more pressure forces which are different in kind upon the mold material to densify the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 39]    39Vibrating or jolting during shaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Process wherein the active pressing or packing is effected by jarring the mold structure with a sudden blow or blows or by oscillating the structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 40]    40Utilizing pattern as compacting member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Process directed to shaping a forming surface by compacting the mold material against a shaping member, e.g., pattern, wherein the shaping member is utilized as the primary force applying member.
(1) Note. Patents directed to forming a hollow mold structure by exerting radial pressure to the mold material are included herein.

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187+,for apparatus wherein the pattern member acts as the pressing member and including drawing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 44]    44Including pattern withdrawal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Process directed to the extracting of patterns from a mold by a mechanical process.
(1) Note. Stripping by name alone does not place a patent here.

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34+,for processes of removing a pattern by destruction.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 45]    45Pattern making:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Process directed to forming patterns by shaping plastic mold materials.

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9+,for processes of utilizing the final product material as a pattern.
13,for processes of shaping a plate-type pattern.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 46]    46Disposition of a gaseous or projected particulate molten material on a shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process wherein a shaped body of metallic material is produced by effecting a deposition of a gas, vapor or projected comminuted melted material, e.g., spray, etc., on a shaping surface.

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19,for process of spray-shaping a forming surface from molten material.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 5+ for the process of comminuting a liquid material (including metal) to form discrete solid particles, and subclass 309 for spraying or flinging plastic material against a shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 47]    47Shaping liquid metal against a forming surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Process which includes the step of shaping molten metal by means of a molding surface.
(1) Note. Metallic material to be incorporated herein must be a pure metal alloy, metallic composition, or intermetallic compound. See the class definition of Class 420, Alloys or Metallic Compositions, for the general definition of the terms alloy, or metallic composition as used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 48]    48Direct application of electrical or wave energy to work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein an energy quantity is applied directly to the work material as (1) an electromagnetic wave which is included in the frequency spectrum including and above audio frequency range (i.e., 50 cps), (2) an electric field or force or (3) an explosive force.
(1) Note. Included are such electromagnetic waves as radio, infrared, light, ultraviolet and gamma rays.
(2) Note. Application of sonic and supersonic wave energy are included herein. The mere application of vibratory or oscillatory forces without effecting transmission of wave energy, e.g, subsonic, are provided for below on other features.
(3) Note. For radiant energy to be included herein, it must be specifically claimed.

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39,for process of compacting mold materials by oscillating or vibrating.
71.1,for process of chemically treating cast material by vibrating.
478,for continuous or semi-continuous casting processes wherein the mold is vibrated or reciprocated.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   generally for processes in which a chemical change is effected by means of electrical or wave energy.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   for electrolytic treatment.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 324+ for methods and apparatus devoted to the corona irradiation of material, subclasses 432+ for methods and apparatus for irradiating contained, supported or transferred fluent material, subclasses 453.11+ for methods and apparatus including supports for irradiated objects with or without the irradiating source and subclasses 492.1+ for methods and apparatus to irradiate objects or material.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 405+ for processes involving the use of electrical or wave energy in plastic molding operations; subclass 84 for process of applying an explosive force to make a nonmetallic article.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 53]    53In situ reactive heating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein a chemically reactive material is employed in or on the body of casting material itself to raise or maintain the temperature thereof.
(1) Note. Applying an open flame to the casting material is not considered a chemical reaction for this subclass.
(2) Note. The reactive heating does not have to be in the mold cavity but may be in some portion of the mold body.

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123,for processes of applying an insulation to a melt surface to control solidification.
124,for processes of directly applying a flame or gas to the melt surface to control solidification.

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44Fuel and Related Compositions,   subclasses 250+ , for a fuel composition intended to generate heat without light.
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   subclass 959 for processes of thermite type reduction-treating of metals.
149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   subclasses 37+ , for metal containing thermic compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 54]    54Composite article forming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Process wherein an exothermic chemical reaction in the proximity of a metal body in solid state reduces the metal to a liquid in an area of composition to effect a joining.

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91+,for processes of compositing in general.

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228Metal Fusion Bonding,   appropriate subclasses for formation of a metallic bonded joint between parts or portions of the same part. Molten filler material may be confined or retained by the shape or space between the parts so long as a mold device is not employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 55.1]    55.1Incorporating addition or chemically reactive agent to metal casting material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein a material is directly added to a melt system to (a) either become incorporated therein physically, e.g., alloying, or (b) cause a chemical reaction to affect the metallic system.
(1) Note. The added material may include principal alloying constituent, densifiers, fluidizers, chemical graphitizers scavengers, grain-size controller, etc.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   appropriate subclasses for processes for producing metals.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 1+ for processes of chemically treating mixtures to obtain metal containing compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 56.1]    56.1To scavenge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.1.  Process directed to adding a chemically active, e.g., scavenger, material to the metallic casting material to remove oxides, gases, or other impurities therefrom.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   appropriate subclasses for processes of treating molten metal to remove unwanted components therefrom.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 1+ for processes of chemically treating mixtures to obtain metal-containing compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 57.1]    57.1Adding metal-containing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.1.  Process directed to adding a metal-containing material to the metallic casting material.
(1) Note. The metal material may be in the form of a free metal, alloy, compound, or composition.

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270.1,for apparatus of this class combined with alloying means.

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420Alloys or Metallic Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for alloying processes. In Class 420, an alloying processes is classified with the composition of the specific alloy made. Subclasses drawn to processes of making alloys are: 18+, processes of adding magnesium to cast iron; 29+, processes of making cast iron; 71, processes of making over 9 percent chromium steel, e.g., stainless steel; 84+, processes of adding lead, bismuth, selenium, tellurium or calcium to ferrous alloys, usually to improve machineability; 115+, processes of making low chromium steel; 129, general processes of making ferrous alloys; 590, general processes of making alloys.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 58.1]    58.1To produce casting having nonhomogeneous composition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.1.  Process wherein the addition of the metal-containing material to the metallic-casting material produces a casting having a nonuniform composition.
(1) Note. To be placed herein, the patent must disclose that a nonhomogeneous casting is produced. A casting having a varying alloy composition across a given cross section comes within the scope of this subclass.

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148Metal Treatment,   subclasses 400+ for metallic stock material produced by a method of this subclass (Class 164, subclass 58.1).
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 59.1]    59.1Utilizing preform body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.1.  Process directed to casting upon a preform body which remains a part of the casting product.
(1) Note. To be placed herein, the preform must retain its identity in the cast product.
(2) Note. A mere coating of the mold surface is not considered a preform body.
(3) Note. Plural preform bodies to be encompassed herein must be individually handled.

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75,for coating a preform to provide a bonding-alloying layer with subsequently cast metal.
91+,for composite article formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 61]    61Utilizing a vacuum:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process directed to exhausting or partially exhausting air or other gases from the environment of the casting material, before, during or after casting by applying a pressure differential directly to the material.

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7.1,for processes of applying a vacuum in a mold forming operation.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   appropriate subclasses for vacuum treatment of metals.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 500+ for processes of vacuum forming plastic materials, and subclasses 101+ for processes of vacuum treating work.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 62]    62Applying diverse pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Process directed to applying, in addition to the differential in pressure effected by the vacuum, a dynamic pressure medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 63]    63To transport casting material to mold (e.g., vacuum forming, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Process wherein the pressure differential created by the vacuum effects the transport of the casting material to the mold cavity thus effecting the shaping of the material.
(1) Note. Included herein are those processes of applying a vacuum through a mold to obtain a more perfect reproduction.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 65]    65During introduction to metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Process wherein a vacuum is present in the mold environment during the introduction of the casting material into the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 66.1]    66.1Applying an inert or reducing gaseous atmosphere to work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the work material is subjected to an inert or reducing gaseous environment either before, during, or after charging the casting material to a mold.
(1) Note. An ambient atmosphere which may be inert is not included herein.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   various subclasses for processes for gaseous treating of metal.
148Metal Treatment,   subclasses 633+ or 712+ for combined processes of significant heat treatment of solid or semi-solid metal and treatment with a special gaseous composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 67.1]    67.1Atmosphere effected by chemical reaction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.1.  Process wherein the inert or reducing atmosphere is effected by a chemical reaction involving the casting material or is initiated by the introduction of a reactive material into the mold environment.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 68.1]    68.1While melting casting material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.1.  Process wherein the casting material is rendered molten under the affect of a inert or reducing gaseous ambient.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 69.1]    69.1With step of subdividing or removing material from product or preform (e.g., cutting, mechanically or by heat; sandblasting; chemical milling; etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein (a) a portion of a preformed body or a body formed during the casting operation is removed, or (b) where a body is reduced into two or more parts.
(1) Note. The body portion may be removed to reduce the size thereof or, as in the case of a preform, to perfect the bond between the preform and the metal cast, e.g., as in cutting to form interlocking means.

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101+,for process of picking or cleaning a preform prior to compositing.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 21 and 24 for cutting or finishing printing members; and subclass 527.6 for casting combined with cutting or finishing after removal from the mold.
83Cutting,   subclasses 13+ for processes of metal cutting.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 138+ for process of shaping and subsequent cutting of plastic material.
451Abrading,   subclasses 28+ for a process of abrading metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 70.1]    70.1With product trimming, cutting, or breaking prior to removal from mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.1.  Process which includes the finishing of the casting by trimming, cutting, or breaking before removal from the mold or mold part.
(1) Note. The term "mode" as used herein includes (a) the core or cores, (b) corelike elements associated with gate portions of the casting and used for handling, and (c) conveying means serving to support a continuous casting while said casting is still associated with the mold.

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78,for processes of incorporating a product-dividing member during casting.
140,for apparatus to cast printing plates including means for cutting or trimming the casting.
161+,for apparatus for shaping a forming surface, e.g., mold, including cutting or sweeping means.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 52 for static mold employing a static means to produce a groove or depression in the product to facilitate breaking or cutting.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 161 for flash or sprue removal in a plastic molding operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 71.1]    71.1With vibratory treatment of casting material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process directed to vibrating the casting material to effect an internal change in the structure of the material, e.g., by removing gases, inclusions, or by refining the crystalline structure.

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39,for vibratory treatment of molding materials.
260+,for apparatus which includes a treating or nontreating operation.

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148Metal Treatment,   subclass 558 for processes of treating solid or semi-solid metal outside the mold with high frequency vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 72]    72Coating mold surface with a treating agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process which includes the step of applying a coating to the forming surface before the metal is introduced to the surface.
(1) Note. A coating coming within the scope of this subclass is one which merely perfects the casting operation but does not itself shape the material, e.g., to lubricate.

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33,for process of forming a coating or lining on the mold shaping surface which functions to retain and shape the work during the casting operation.
57.1+,for processes including the coating of a mold surface with alloying material.
138,for particular materials utilized as mold coatings or linings.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 38.22+ , for mold coating compositions.
249Static Molds,   subclass 114.1 for static molds including a coating or adherent layer.
427Coating Processes,   subclass 133 for processes of mold coating, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 74]    74Gas producing coating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Process wherein the coating produces a gas during the casting operation.
(1) Note. The gas may be produced by a chemical reaction, e.g., burning, decomposition, etc., or by vaporization.

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55.1+,for processes of incorporating gaseous constituents in the casting material.
66.1+,for processes of forming an inert or reducing gaseous atmosphere.
473,for continuous casting processes incorporating an addition or agent in a melt system.
475,for continuous casting processes with an inert or reducing gas atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 75]    75With coating of preformed workpiece:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process in which a preformed base member has applied to it a coating to provide a layered product.
(1) Note. The coating must remain as a product part or layer subsequent to the operation of this class to be included herein.

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100+,for preconditioning of a preform by a coating operation where the coating does not remain as part of the final product.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclass 527.3 for processes of casting with a subsequent coating step.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 134+ for processes of coating a workpiece before a nonmetallic molding operation.
427Coating Processes,   appropriate subclasses for coating processes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 76.1]    76.1Combined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process which includes an operation which, by itself, is neither an operation of this class nor a perfecting step of an operation of this class.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 527.1+ for a combined casting and manufacturing process wherein the manufacturing step is performed after removing the cast product from the mold.
148Metal Treatment,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 550-552 for combined casting, working and heat treatment operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 77]    77Slush casting type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein liquid metal is placed into a mold, a layer of metal is solidified on the mold surface, and the excess liquid is removed from the mold.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 302 for slush casting type processes for nonmetallic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 78]    78Incorporating product dividing member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein a unit is incorporated into the product during the metal casting which provides a fracture or division plane to subdivide the product.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 52 for static molds employing a static means to produce a groove or depression in the product to facilitate breaking or cutting. Subclass 84 for static mold providing for a unitable preform which functions as a partition means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 79]    79Employing a pore producing agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein a substance is randomly incorporated into the metallic material to produce a porous product.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   subclass 415 for processes of producing a metal product which has a mass of pores.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 41+ for processes of producing porous nonmetallic bodies.
419Powder Metallurgy Processes,   subclass 2 for processes for making porous articles from metal powders involving pressure and heat.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 613 for metallic stock which is porous.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 80]    80Casting metal introduced into mold as a solid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the metallic material is introduced into the shaping area in solid form.
(1) Note. The solid metallic material may either be introduced initially into the mold or may be added to a molten charge already in the mold.

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57.1+,where an alloying material is added to the melt as a solid.
473,for continuous casting processes incorporating an addition or agent in a melt system.
495+,for processes of using a solid consumable electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 81]    81Utilizing a liquid shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the shaping surfaces is a molten or liquid layer.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 298 for casting nonmetallic material on a liquid surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 90]    90Forming product having interconnected movable parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the product contains at least two distinct parts or portions which are movable relative to each other and which are joined by the shaping operation.

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9+,for process of forming a mold and incorporating a product part therein.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 434+ for processes of assembling with retention of a clearance for motion between assembled parts.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 242 for similar operation when molding nonmetallic material.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 591 for metallic stock material having components capable of limited relative movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 91]    91Composite article forming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process of making multi-layered articles by forming a metal onto a preform or casting two or more metals into contact with one another.
(1) Note. A composite article must have at least two distinctive zones of metal of the same or different materials. If solids of the same metal or different metal are incorporated into cast molten metal and such lose their identity this is not a composite for this and indented subclasses.
(2) Note. Included herein are those operations where two or more metal preforms are united by fusing a portion of the metal to provide a joint between them.

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9+,for process of shaping mold material wherein the product part is embedded in or surrounded by shaped material.
23+,for process of making composite, plural part or multi-layered mold.
55.1+,for processes of producing layer article by incorporating an addition or chemically reactive agent in the casing material.
461,for continuous or semicontinuous casting processes of forming a composite product.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 428 for processes of assembling or joining in mechanical manufacturing operations, and subclass 527.3 for casting and coating manufacturing steps.
65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 36+ for processes for fusion bonding of glass to a formed part.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 241+ for processes of producing composite, plural part or multi-layered articles wherein the molding material is nonmetal; however one or more parts, portions or components of the composite may be metal, e.g., process of uniting two spaced metal preforms is in subclass 261.
419Powder Metallurgy Processes,   subclasses 5+ for powder metallurgical processes with sintering for forming plural metallic layers or parts.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 615+ for a metallic composite defined in terms of the composition of its components.
438Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process,   for producing semiconductor junction material even when using a Class 164 operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 92.1]    92.1Repairing or restoring article for use:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Process wherein a worn, damaged, or used article is restored for reuse in a similar capacity without altering or destroying the overall configuration of said article.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 402.01+ for processes of mechanical repair.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 36.1+ for processes of repairing or restoring nonmetallic articles for reuse by molding operations, especially subclass 36.18 for articles containing inorganic materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 93]    93Co-molding diverse metals utilizing removable or fusible partition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Process of forming a composite article wherein two or more different metals are poured into a mold simultaneously and wherein at least two of said metals are temporarily separated by a barrier means which is removed either physically or by melting same to allow said metals to come into contact.

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91,for processes of co-molding metals into direct contact.
99,for processes of co-molding metals and uniting to a preform.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 260 for co-molding plural fluent nonmetal materials and uniting to preform.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 94]    94Sequential casting to form single product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Process of forming a composite article by sequentially casting molten metal.
(1) Note. The sequentially cast molten metal(s) may be cast onto and in contact with the previously cast metal or may be separated from one another by some preformed portion, part or component of the composite article.
(2) Note. The metals cast may be of the same or different materials; however, if the metals cast are the same material, the prior cast metal must be cooled and solidified, i.e., act as a preform, before the subsequent metal is cast.

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27,for processes of forming mold by separately molding different mold portions.
90,for processes of forming interconnected movable parts, e.g., chain links, universal joints, etc.

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228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 225+ for a process involving at least two applications of filler material to effect a single joint. Successive depositions of filler material may involve deposition of successive strata one upon the other as well as successive depositions on opposite sides of the joint.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 250+ for processes of separately molding different article portions where the material molded is other than metal; subclass 308 for incremental layer molding of nonmetal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 95]    95Different metals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Process of forming composite article by casting two or more metals of different composition sequentially.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 96]    96Metals simultaneously molten:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Process wherein at least two of the cast different metallic materials are maintained stratified although in a liquid condition.

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93,where simultaneously molten materials are also cast simultaneously.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 97]    97Incorporating particulate material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Process wherein the composite is formed by uniting plural nonindividually handled pieces with the molten metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 98]    98Shaping metal and uniting to a preform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Process wherein the composite article is formed by shaping the metal onto a self-sustaining body.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 99]    99Co-molding diverse metals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Process wherein two or more different metals are simultaneously introduced onto a shaping surface.

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93,for co-molding processes wherein a temporary partition is employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 100]    100Including preconditioning preform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Process which includes a step of treating a preform body prior to compositing.
(1) Note. A treatment step involves, e.g., cleaning the surface of the preform of foreign matter such as scale, oil, etc.

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75,for process of coating of a workpiece before compositing.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 458+ for processes of mechanically assembling and/or joining of previously coated parts.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 208+ for metallurgical bonding combined with application of a bond facilitating metal coating.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 265 for process of preconditioning of a preform in nonmetallic compositing operations.
419Powder Metallurgy Processes,   subclasses 30+ for powder metallurgical processes for making products including sintering and also including significant pretreatment of the powder prior to compacting or sintering; and subclasses 62+ for similar processes not utilizing heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 101]    101Chemical treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Process of treating the surface of the preform with some chemically reactive agent.
(1) Note. Although chemical treatment may result in the surface layer of the preform being chemically changed, such treatment does not involve a separate coating which acts as the bonding medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 102]    102By fluxing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Process wherein the chemical treatment involves the application of a layer of flux.

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75,for a process of coating a preformed workpiece where the coating remains as a part of the final product.

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148Metal Treatment,   subclasses 23+ for fluxing compositions.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 223+ for a process utilizing flux materials in a noncasting metallurgical bonding operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 103]    103Preheating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Process of raising the temperature of the preform prior to casting the molten metal thereon.
(1) Note. The preheating may be by open flame contacting the preform surface or by hot fluid.
(2) Note. Preform may be heated directly on the bonding surface or a face opposite the bonding face.

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54,for a process of in situ reactive heating during formation of a composite.
121,for a process of preconditioning of apparatus including preheating.
338.1+,for means to apply heat to a mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 104]    104Utilizing a liquid heat transfer agent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Process wherein the preheating is accomplished by means of a heating material in the liquid state which contacts either the preform or the mold.
(1) Note. Preheating of the preform by means of the cast material which makes up part of the product is included herein only if it is specifically claimed as such.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 105]    105Of preform in mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Process wherein the preform is positioned in a mold when preheated.
(1) Note. Processes are included herein of heating a mold prior to casting wherein the preform is incidentally or purposely heated.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 106]    106Cast metal reshapes preform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Process wherein the cast metal acts upon the preform to reshape it while maintaining the preform"s integrity either by the casting pressure or by the forces set up during cooling.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 266 for simultaneous shaping of nonmetallic material and reshaping a preform body.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 107]    107Preform utilized to affect cast metal (e.g., to chill, to cap, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Process wherein a preform is united to a cast metal to perfect the cast metal by treating rather than to provide a united article as such.
(1) Note. By treating is meant a change in the physical or chemical properties of the cast metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 108]    108Uniting plural preforms or spaced preform portions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Process of making a composite and unitary product by joining together a plurality of preforms or two spaced areas of the same preform with cast metal.

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9+,for mold shaping processes utilizing a final preform part or material as a part thereof.
333,for apparatus to position plural preforms in a mold.

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228Metal Fusion Bonding,   appropriate subclasses for uniting surfaces by a metallic filler without shaping of the filler by a molding surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 109]    109Stacked planar lamina preforms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Process of forming a composite article by joining together a plurality of planar laminar preforms positioned in substantially parallel planes to one another and at least partially coextensive.
(1) Note. The preforms may be spaced from one another or in contact with one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 110]    110Discrete contacting preforms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Process wherein at least two separate preforms are united into contacting relation by the casting.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 111]    111Preform particularly provided with means to provide interlock with cast metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Process where the preform has depressions therein or projection therefrom which cause the molten metal to mechanically lock with the preform.

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30Cutlery,   subclass 343 for cutlery implements in which the handle is cast onto the blade tang.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 274 for processes of embedding a preform provided with means to provide an interlock with nonmetallic molding material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 112]    112Positioning or maintaining position of preform relative to mold surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Process of positioning the preform relative to a forming surface prior to casting.

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9+,for process of shaping a forming surface and embedding a product part therein
231,for core shaping apparatus including means to position preform product part.
236,for patterns having insert supporting means.
332,for apparatus including means to position a preform part in the shaping area.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 113]    113Pressure forming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the material is forced against the shaping surface by a force other than gravity.

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48,for a process of applying explosive pressure directly to casting material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 114]    114By centrifugal force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Process wherein the material is impelled radially outwardly against the forming surface by rotation of the surface.

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175,for apparatus for centrifugally shaping a mold.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 311 for processes of utilizing centrifugal force in shaping nonmetallic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 115]    115Plural constant speeds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Process wherein two or more speeds of rotation are maintained during the centrifugal casting.
(1) Note. Merely increasing or decreasing rotation to a desired speed is not considered plural speeds for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 116]    116Tilting of axis of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Process wherein the angle of inclination of the axis of rotation is varied between the time of charging of the material and ejecting the product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 117]    117Axially progressive casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Process wherein the charge of material is introduced incrementally along the axis of the mold during rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 118]    118Positive heating or cooling of mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Process wherein the centrifugal mold has applied to it a thermal differential source.
(1) Note. The source to be intended for inclusion herein must be other than ambient.

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122+,for processes in general of temperature control during solidification.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 119]    119By direct fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Process wherein the forming pressure is provided by a fluid acting directly on the casting material.
(1) Note. The casting material itself is not included as a fluid within the meaning of this subclass.

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61+,for processes employing a vacuum.
66.1+,for processes utilizing a special inert or reducing gaseous atmosphere.
475,for continuous casting processes including an inert or reducing gas atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 120]    120Pressure applied after introduction of metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 113.  Process wherein a compaction of the material is accomplished after the primary casting material is against the forming surface by a separate and distinct force from that used to introduce the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 121]    121Preconditioning of apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the apparatus is treated or readied for casting.

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14,for processes of forming a mold and coating the surface with treating material.
55.1+,for processes of incorporating an addition or chemically reactive material into casting material.
72+,for processes of coating-treating a mold.
149,for means lubricating apparatus parts.
158,for apparatus cleaning means.
473,for continuous casting processes including a step of incorporating an addition or agent in a melt system.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 122]    122Controlling solidification (other than ambient cooling):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the freezing of the metal is regulated.

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118,for processes of heating or cooling centrifugal molds.
297,for centrifugal casting apparatus having coolant means.
338.1+,for a mold with a heating means.
348,for a mold with a cooling means.
352,for a sand mold having a metal chill.
443+,for apparatus for cooling a continuous casting.
486,for processes of applying liquid to a continuous casting.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 111 for static molds employing a solid heat conductor or insulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 122.1]    122.1Unidirectional solidification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Process wherein an unidirectional temperature gradient is established along a mold to cause progressive solidification of molten metal within the mold.

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117Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor,   for processes for growing therein-defined single-crystal of all types of materials, other than metal single-crystal formed in a mold proper herein, however, metals, intermetallics, and alloys which are semiconductors are excluded herein and are proper for Class 117.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 122.2]    122.2Single crystal formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.1.  Process which includes propagating a single crystallographic grain of metal within the mold.

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117Single-Crystal, Oriented-Crystal, and Epitaxy Growth Processes; Non-Coating Apparatus Therefor,   for processes for growing therein-defined single-crystal of all types of materials, other than metal single-crystal formed in a mold proper herein, however, metals, intermetallics, and alloys which are semiconductors are excluded herein and are proper for Class 117.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 123]    123By application of insulation to melt surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Process wherein the regulation is effected by the addition of a separate layer of a heat barrier material to the free surface of the melt after casting.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 124]    124By direct application of flame or gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Process wherein the regulation is effected by the application of a gas or flame to the cast material itself.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 125]    125Localized or zone heat dissipation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Process wherein the solidification is varyingly controlled by two or more simultaneous different rates of heat loss.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 126]    126By utilizing a cooling liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Process wherein the heat removal is effected by use of an applied liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 127]    127By utilizing a chill member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Process wherein the differential dissipation of heat is effected by means of an insert or mold section placed at the mold surface or embedded in the mold to provide a zone of greater heat absorption.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 128]    128By utilizing a cooling liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Process wherein the solidification and heat removal is effected by use of an applied liquid.

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126,for utilizing a cooling liquid to obtain a differential dissipation of heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 129]    129Forming plural articles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein two or more separate and distinct articles are produced by the process.

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350,for a sand type mold having plural article forming cavities.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 130]    130Sequentially:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Process wherein the articles are produced one after the other.

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324,for apparatus including plural molds moving in an endless mold circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 131]    131Removing article from forming surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the produced product is separated from the surface of which it was shaped.
(1) Note. Included herein are patents claiming, per se, stripping operation, i.e., not including a forming operation.
(2) Note. Included herein are generally patents which include a unique article removal operation. Numerous patents which are directed to a particular casting operation will also disclose or claim a removal operation. Such patents are cross-referenced here only where the evidence shows the article removal operation to be nonconventional.

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344+,for a shaping apparatus having means to eject product.
401+,for strippers or ejectors, per se.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 334+ for processes of stripping nonmetallic articles from molds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 132]    132Core removal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Process wherein the surface is that of a separate mold part used to form an opening or cavity in the product, i.e., core.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 133]    133Introduction control or manipulation of charge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein the material to be cast is handled with either a regulation or directionalization of the charge or a physical treatment of the charge.
(1) Note. The mere teeming of metal into a mold is not included herein.

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335+,for shaping apparatus including ladle or crucible type receptacle.
362,for a sand mold having means to restrict turbulence of flow during casting.
437+,for continuous casting means having means to distribute the charge.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 134]    134Separation of unwanted component from melt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Process wherein the treatment results in a separation of some material from the charge, e.g., filtering.

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358,for a sand mold with a strainer means.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for solid-liquid separation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 135]    135Charge introduced as a plurality of streams:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Process wherein the charge is brought into the shaping cavity as two or more separate flows.

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93,for a process of simultaneously introducing plural different metal streams into a mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 136]    136By movement of mold, charger, or part thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Process wherein the control or manipulation is accomplished by a changing orientation or position of the shaping surface, introduction means or some portion of these members.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 137]    137Assembling of mold parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein two or more members of a mold are brought into operative casting relationship.
(1) Note. Included herein are generally patents which include a unique mold assembling operation. Numerous patents which are directed to a particular casting operation will also disclose or claim a mold assembling operation. Such patents are cross-referenced here only where the evidence shows the mold assembling operation to be nonconventional.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 138]    138Utilizing particular shaping surface material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein a particular material is used as a coating, lining or mold in the process.

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33+,for process of shaping a forming surface by lining.
72+,for processes of coating the mold before casting.
520+,for process of shaping particular mold materials.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   appropriate subclasses for mold or coating compositions.
249Static Molds,   subclasses 112+ for static molds employing a removable or movable liner. Subclass 114.1 for static molds employing a coating or adherent layer.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 133+ for processes of coating, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 139]    139APPARATUS FOR CASTING PRINTING PLATES (E.G., STEREOTYPE, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for casting a surface capable of conveying intelligence or design by reproducing in printed form, e.g., type and stereotype plates.

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332+,for apparatus specially adapted for casting a backup member to a preformed electrotype shell.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 21 for apparatus for finishing stereotype plates.
199Type Casting,   for apparatus for casting elements or bars of a printing form.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   appropriate subclasses for electrolytic apparatus for forming electrotype plates.
249Static Molds,   for static stereotype molds, particularly subclass 138 for pivotable type stereotype molds.
409Gear Cutting, Milling, or Planing,   subclass 309 for apparatus for planing a concave surface such as the surface of a stereotype plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 140]    140Including means for severing or trimming product while associated with mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus including means combined with the casting means for cutting or trimming the cast plate while said casting is associated with the mold or a portion of the mold.
(1) Note. The term mold as used herein includes (1) the core or cores, (2) core-like elements associated with gate portions of the casting and used for handling, and (3) conveying means serving to support a continuous casting while said casting is still associated with the molding means.

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262+,for forming apparatus including a product cutting or trimming means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 141]    141Including melting chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus which includes a separate container for fluidizing or maintaining fluid for the casting material.

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335+,for forming apparatus combined with a ladle or crucible.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 142]    142Having valved gate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus with means for metering or controlling the flow of molten cast material from the melting chamber to the casting chamber.

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304,for injection shaping apparatus having a valved mold gate.
337,for forming combined with flow control conduit means intermediate the mold and receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 143]    143Having pressure changing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Apparatus which include a means applying pressure to introduce the casting material into the shaping member.

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284+,for pressure forming means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 144]    144Including positive mold heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus including a mold with additional heating or cooling means therefore for treating or conditioning the metal.

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338.1+,for a mold including a heating means.
348,for a means including a means to apply a coolant thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 145]    145Including stripping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Apparatus which includes means for separating or withdrawing the cast printing plate from the shaping surface.

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344+,for a mold including means to eject or separate a product.
401+,for strippers or ejectors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 146]    146INCLUDING MEANS TO DIRECTLY APPLY MAGNETIC FORCE TO WORK OR TO MANIPULATE OR HOLD SHAPING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes means for (1) directly applying magnetic forces to material which is to be a part of the product, e.g., metal charge, insert, etc., or for (2) applying the magnetic forces to move or position the shaping parts.
(1) Note. To be included in (2) supra, the force to move the shaping part has to be generated by a magnetic force although it may be indirectly applied through mechanical linkages.

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492+,for processes of directly applying magnetic energy to work.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 147.1]    147.1By electromagnetic means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Apparatus directed to means for applying electromagnetic energy directly to the apparatus parts or to the work material.
(1) Note. A disclosure or recitation of electromagnetic means whether applied to the shaping member, in a circuit, used as a switch, or as an element for any function in the apparatus is included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 148.1]    148.1For holding or assembling shaping parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.1.  Apparatus wherein the electromagnetic means positions, clamps, or brings into operative relation, portions of a forming structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 149]    149MEANS LUBRICATING RELATIVELY MOVING AND CONTACTING APPARATUS PARTS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with means to apply a lubricant between moving apparatus parts.

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72+,for process of coating-treating a mold.

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184Lubrication,   apparatus subclasses for lubricating apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 150.1]    150.1WITH SIGNAL, INDICATOR OR INSPECTION MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having means for visual, auditory, or tactile annunciation or recording of a condition therein, or means permitting observation of a portion thereof normally hidden from view.
(1) Note. Included herein are the indicia type indicators for imprinting reference symbols in the cast product.
(2) Note. Included herein is an apparatus having a particular condition intended to be interpreted by human intelligence.

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116Signals and Indicators,   for a mechanical signaling device, per se.
249Static Molds,   subclass 53 for static molds including a static gage, level, plumb, or level markings.
340Communications: Electrical,   appropriate subclasses for an electrically powered indicator, per se; see particularly subclasses 815.4+ for a visual indicator, subclasses 384.1+ for an audible indicator, and subclass 407.1 for a tactile indicator; subclasses 500+ for electrical automatic condition responsive indicating systems.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 139+ for a thermometer for molten metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 151]    151Pressure indicating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.1.  Apparatus wherein the means is an indicator to quantitatively show fluid pressure.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 626 for electrical automatic fluid pressure responsive indicating systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 151.1]    151.1Including speed sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.1.  Apparatus having means for detecting the velocity of the product, melt, or any component of the apparatus.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 488+ for a device to measure speed or acceleration.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 151.2]    151.2Including position or spatial dimension sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.1.  Apparatus having means for detecting (a) the location of a component or product therein, (b) the relative placement between any two components or between a component and a product therein, or (c) the lineal extent of a component or product therein.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 483+ for straight edge rules.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 151.3]    151.3Melt level sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 151.2.  Apparatus having means for detecting the height of liquid metal therein.
(1) Note. The liquid metal detected may be in the source (e.g., tundish, etc.), the mold, or any component of the apparatus.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 290+ , particularly subclasses 305+, for a device for measuring liquid level using a float.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 151.4]    151.4Including thermal sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 150.1.  Apparatus having means for detecting a process parameter related to heat (e.g., temperature, heat transfer rate, enthalpy, heat capacity, etc.) of the melt, product, or apparatus, per se.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   particularly subclasses 45+ for a device to determine a non-thermal property from a thermal measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 151.5]    151.5For detecting or predicting breakout of continuous casting strand:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 151.4.  Apparatus having means for detecting a failure or imminent failure of the shell of a continuous casting strand to contain the molten center.
(1) Note. See the GLOSSARY for a definition of "continuous casting strand."
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 152]    152WITH SAFETY CONTROL MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with means to prevent injury to workman or apparatus in event of malfunctioning or in the operation of the apparatus or a portion thereof.
(1) Note. Means which merely function to aid or promote the comfort of the operator are not considered to come within the scope of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 153]    153Apparatus safety means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus wherein the safety means prevent damage to the apparatus in the event of malfunctioning.
(1) Note. Means which are used to allow each cycle of the machine to be completed as scheduled are not considered to be safety means responsive to a malfunctioning since they are actuated in the performance of every complete cycle.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.1]    154.1CONTROL MEANS RESPONSIVE TO OR ACTUATED BY MEANS SENSING OR MEASURING A CONDITION OR VARIABLE (I.E., AUTOMATIC CONTROL):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having means to regulate the operation thereof influenced by means monitoring a process parameter of the apparatus.
(1) Note. A patent need not claim the monitoring means to be classified hereunder, so long as it claims the regulating means.

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151.5,for an apparatus having means to indicate a failure or imminent failure of a continuous casting strand.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   for a servo motor and controller, per se.
700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 1 through 89for computer controlled systems or methods, generally, and subclasses 197-205 and subclasses 207-212 particularly for control systems related to molding and melting, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.2]    154.2Responsive to position or spatial dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is (a) the location of a component or product therein, (b) the relative placement between any two components or between a component and a product therein, or (c) the lineal extent of a component or product therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.3]    154.3Responsive to rate of change:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.2.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is a mathematical derivative (e.g., first, second, third, etc.) of the location or size of the product, melt, or any component of the apparatus with respect to time.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 488+ for a device to measure speed and subclasses 861+ for a device to measure volume or flow rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.4]    154.4Continuous casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.3.  Apparatus which produces a continuously cast product.
(1) Note. See GLOSSARY for a definition of "continuous casting."
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.5]    154.5Continuous casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.2.  Apparatus which produces a continuously cast product.
(1) Note. See GLOSSARY for a definition of "continuous casting."
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.6]    154.6Responsive to thermal condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is related to heat (e.g., temperature, heat transfer rate, enthalpy, heat capacity, etc.) of the melt, product, or apparatus, per se.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   particularly subclasses 45+ for a device to determine a nonthermal property from a thermal measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.7]    154.7Continuous casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.6.  Apparatus which produces a continuously cast product.
(1) Note. See GLOSSARY for a definition of "continuous casting."
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 154.8]    154.8Responsive to pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is force per unit area applied to the melt, the product, or any component of the apparatus.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 700+ for a fluid pressure gauge.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 155.1]    155.1Control of feed material enroute to shaping area:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Apparatus wherein the operation regulated is the delivery of a substance comprising (a) molten metal or additives therefor to a mold or (b) sand, binder, or other additives therefor to a mold forming means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 155.2]    155.2Responsive to material level:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.1.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is the fill height of the substance in a supply (e.g., tundish, etc.), a mold, or any component of the apparatus.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 612+ for condition responsive indicating system responsive to material level.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 155.3]    155.3Responsive to pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.1.  Apparatus wherein the parameter monitored is force per unit area applied to the melt, the product, or any component of the apparatus.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 700+ for a fluid pressure gauge.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 155.4]    155.4Responsive to position or spatial dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.1.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is (a) the location of a component or product therein, (b) the relative placement between any two components or between a component and a product therein, or (c) the lineal extent of a component or product therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 155.5]    155.5Responsive to rate of change:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.4.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is a mathematical derivative (e.g., first, second, third, etc.) of the location or size of the product, melt, or any component of the apparatus with respect to time.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 488+ for a device to measure speed and subclasses 861+ for a device to measure volume or flow rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 155.6]    155.6Responsive to thermal condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.1.  Apparatus wherein the process parameter monitored is related to heat (e.g., temperature, heat transfer rate, etc.) of the melt, product, or apparatus, per se.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   particularly subclasses 45+ for a device to determine a non-thermal property from a thermal measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 155.7]    155.7Responsive to weight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.1.  Apparatus wherein the parameter monitored is the gravitational force on the melt, the product, or any component of the apparatus, per se.

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73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for a device to measure a condition derived from a weight measurement.
177Weighing Scales,   for means to measure weight, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 156.1]    156.1Including electrode or float sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.2.  Apparatus including means for detecting the process parameter comprising either an electrically conductive probe or a buoyant means.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 290+ , particularly subclasses 305+, for a device for measuring liquid level using a float.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 157]    157WITH CONTROL MEANS RESPONSIVE TO INDEPENDENT TIMING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having a means independent of the apparatus work performing parts, which allows a set time period to elapse during an apparatus operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 158]    158WITH POSITIVE CLEANING MEANS FOR APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus including positive means for removing undesirable material from a mold making or metal casting apparatus.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   appropriate subclasses, for apparatus for cleaning of general application.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses, for a liquid contact process or apparatus for cleaning.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 159]    159MEANS TO SHAPE A FORMING SURFACE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for shaping a mold, pattern or core device.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 160.1]    160.1Including means applying vacuum directly to mold material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus including means for directly applying a suction to work material.

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253+,for casting apparatus including vacuum means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 160.2]    160.2And means to apply consumable shielding film to shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.1.  And means to apply consumable shielding film to shaping surface: Apparatus including an impervious consumable membrane adhered onto a particulate shaping surface by the applied suction.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 161]    161Including means for sweeping or cutting forming surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus including mold forming means in which material is removed by the operation of a moving sweep, strickle, profile pattern or cutter.

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40,for mold shaping processes utilizing a pattern as a compaction means, e.g., profile pattern, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 162]    162Means for shaping sprues or risers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Apparatus which includes means specially adapted to remove material for forming a sprue or riser in a mold structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 163]    163Including rotating core bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Apparatus having means for removing surface material from the core as it is being rotated.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 164]    164Rotatable pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Apparatus wherein a revolvable pattern or pattern part is utilized as the sweeping member.
(1) Note. A rotary cutting tool which shapes the mold is not considered a pattern or pattern part to be encompassed herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 165]    165Shell type mold making machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus with means specially adapted for shaping thin mold sections of resin-sand mixtures, i.e., shell molds.
(1) Note. Depending upon the extent of unsupported shell sections and the gravity head of the liquid or molten casting metal, the shell may be externally backed up with steel shot, sand or similar material.

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21,for shell molding processes of spraying mold materials against a shaping surface.
361,for shell molds.
526+,for processes of shaping fluent mold material containing resin.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 166]    166Including plural distinct forming stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Apparatus which includes plural distinct stations, e.g., dispensing, for compacting, curing oven, ejection means, etc., for performing manufacturing operations upon the shell molds being formed.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 167]    167And separate metal casting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus for shaping a mold in combination with means for introducing casting material to the mold.
(1) Note. Found herein are apparatus and plants for molding in which there is an alleged combination between mold making and metal casting.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 168]    168Including means for assembling shaped mold parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.  Apparatus which includes assembling means for operatively positioning formed mold sections or parts.

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339+,for a mold including assembling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 169]    169Including means for compacting particulate fluent mold materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus wherein the mold shaping operation is performed by pressure means which function to ram pack or compress the mold material.

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100Presses,   appropriate subclasses, for presses.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for means for shaping plastic or fluent material, especially subclasses 376.1+ for an extrusion molding machine, subclasses 406+ for a press molding machine, and subclasses 425+ for the combination of a female mold and a tamper or vibrator; see the search notes thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 170]    170Flexible or deformable pressure means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus with resilient pressure exerting means for effecting compaction of the mold forming material.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 65 , for static molds having an inflatable element.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 171]    171Utilizing contiguous or independent diaphragms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Apparatus directed to utilizing plural contiguous or plural independent diaphragms members.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 172]    172Plural rammers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus wherein two or more pressing heads are utilized in shaping the mold material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 173]    173Fluid pressure actuated means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 172.  Apparatus wherein the rammers are powered by fluid pressure means.
(1) Note. The pressure does not have to be directly applied to the rammer but may be transmitted through a mechanical linkage.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 174]    174By die expressing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus for shaping cores by forcing the material through a die orifice.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 175]    175By centrifugal means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus wherein the mold material is impelled radially outwardly against the forming surface by the rotation of the surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 176]    176Pipe mold type forming means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus for forming hollow cylindrical molds which are to be used as pipe molds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 177]    177By moving pattern to effect shaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Apparatus wherein the compacting force is effected by a motive pattern member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 178]    178Rotating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Apparatus wherein the compacting action is effected by (1) rotation of the pattern member or (2) rotation of the flask as the pattern member is progressively advanced therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 179]    179Bead forming type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 178.  Apparatus wherein a rotating former or pattern is utilized to form beads at the end of the pipe mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 180]    180Having means for withdrawing forming surface from shaping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus including means operable for relatively drawing mold parts from the shaping member after compaction.

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213+,for apparatus having withdrawing means without compacting means.
401+,for, per se, withdrawing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 181]    181Withdrawing station downstream of compacting station:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus including a distinct withdrawing station subsequent to the compaction station.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 182]    182Means withdrawing pattern plate intermediate cope and drag member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus directed to means adapted to separate a pattern from cope and drag members where the pattern is situated intermediate said members and wherein said means effects a parallel draw of cope and pattern respectively from each other and the drag.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 183]    183Having means for inverting pattern, flask, or shaping member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus directed to a machine with means for turning the pattern, flask or shaping member.
(1) Note. The inverting means may serve a dual function, i.e., invert the shaping member and also effect the withdrawal operation or may only serve to deliver the shaping member to the withdrawal station.

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209,for a press molding machine having an invertible table.
224,for molding apparatus having an inverting means.
402,for, per se, means for inverting a pattern for stripping.
409,for, per se, means for turning a pattern plate or mold around a horizontal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 184]    184Means rotating press head and mold support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Apparatus wherein the inverting means rotates the entire mold machine, i.e., the press head as well as the mold supporting unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 185]    185Rock-over type machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Apparatus characterized by having the frame that inverts the pattern plate oscillatorily supported about an axis located to one side.
(1) Note. The above apparatus is to be distinguished from the roll over type machine characterized by having a frame that carries the pattern plate, oscillatorily supported about a substantially central axis.

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205,for vibrating compaction machine of the roll or rockover type.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 186]    186Core making machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus wherein the shaped forming surface is a core member.

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228+,for core shaping means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 187]    187Pattern member acting as compressing member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus wherein the pattern member acts as the primary compressing member in shaping the forming surface, i.e., the shaping or compacting force is transmitted through or by the pattern member.
(1) Note. The pattern surface acts as the parting surface during the withdrawal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 188]    188Including stripping plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Apparatus having a plate that fits accurately around the pattern and through which the patterns are drawn either by moving the pattern supports down or by raising the plate and the mold half upwardly free from the pattern.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 189]    189Utilizing vibrating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus which includes a vibrator for facilitating the withdrawal or separation.
(1) Note. The vibrating means found herein generally perfect the drawing operation and usually are combined with another withdrawing means.

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223,for molding apparatus including vibrating or rapping separation means.
260+,for general apparatus with vibrator means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 190]    190Stripping plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus having a plate member that fits accurately around the pattern and supports the sand of the shaped member during withdrawal of the pattern.

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217+,for molding apparatus including stripping plate separation means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 191]    191Drop pattern plate or support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus having means for vertically downwardly displacing the pattern member from the shaped surface.

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225,for molding apparatus having a drop pattern support separating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 192]    192Including means for feeding material by gravity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus which includes means for dispensing discrete charges or portions of mold forming materials into a flask or receptacle under the influence of gravity.

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141Fluent Material Handling, With Receiver or Receiver Coacting Means,   appropriate subclasses, for apparatus for handling fluent material.
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses for fluent material dispensing apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 193]    193Means for delivering measured charge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Apparatus which includes means for discharging a predetermined quantity of mold forming material into a flask or receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 194]    194Distinct feeding and compacting stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Apparatus including separate and distinct means for charging a mold forming means with molding material and means for compacting the mold material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 195]    195Diverse means for applying pressure forces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus having two or more dynamic mold compaction means identifiable as separate units each doing a complete operation of a different kind, e.g., mold pressing means combined with mold vibrating means, blow molding means combined with mold vibrating means, etc.

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38,for processes of compacting mold materials utilizing diverse pressure applications.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 196]    196Vibrating and squeeze type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Apparatus comprising press forming means combined with means to shape by vibration.

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203+,for a vibrating compaction.
207+,for a press molding means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 197]    197Integral vibrator and squeeze head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Apparatus wherein the compacting means includes a pressure member which exerts a vibratory force in addition to a pressing type force.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 198]    198Sand slinger type compactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus having means operable for mechanically slinging wads of sand at high velocity onto the shaping surface.

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19,for processes of shaping a forming surface by spraying or slinging mold material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 199]    199With boom-mounted slinging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Apparatus with a swinging arm including the slinging means which can be positioned above any portion of the flask or receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 200]    200Blow type compactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus comprising means utilizing a gaseous pressure discharge assistant for projecting mold forming material against a shaping surface.

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19+,for blow type molding processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 201]    201Including means for relatively moving blow means into engagement with shaping member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Apparatus including means for relatively positioning the blow chamber and shaping member for operational engagement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 202]    202Including foraminous blow discharge means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Apparatus combined with a perforated element to (1) distribute the gaseous pressure medium or (2) distribute the mold forming material just prior to contact with the shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 203]    203By vibrating means (e.g., jarring, jolting, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus wherein the compacting operation on the mold forming material is performed by means effecting a vibrating, jarring or jolting action upon the mold forming material.

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195+,for plural compacting means including vibrating, jarring or jolting means.
260+,for subject matter of this class combined with vibrator means.

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366Agitating,   subclasses 108+ for agitation by vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 204]    204Including cooperating static rammer means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Apparatus including a static rammer means which cooperates in the compaction of the mold forming material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 205]    205Roll or rock-over type machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Apparatus wherein a pattern supporting frame is either oscillatorily supported about an axis located to one side of the machine, i.e., rock over type, or oscillatorily supported about a substantially central axis of the machine, i.e., roll over type.

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183+,for rock-over and roll-over type compacting machines which include a pattern withdrawal means.
209,for a press molding machine with an invertible table.
224,for shaping apparatus having inverting means.
375,for a rock or roll-over flask.
402,for stripping means including pattern inverting means.
409,for, per se, means of inverting a pattern member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 206]    206By fluid actuated vibrator means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Apparatus having fluid pressure actuator means for effecting the vibrating, jarring or jolting operation.

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261,for apparatus of this class including fluid pressure actuated vibrator means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 207]    207Press type compactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.  Apparatus employing a dynamic pressure member for shaping the mold material.
(1) Note. Apparatus included herein is either a press machine or press members to be employed therein. A machine is an apparatus which follows a mechanical law defined by its structure.

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169,for hand held pressure applying mold shaping members.

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100Presses,   appropriate subclasses for residual processes and apparatus for subjecting material to compressive forces.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 208]    208Roller compacting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Apparatus wherein the press member has an annular compacting surface which is rotated.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 209]    209Having invertible table:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Apparatus in which a planar surface which holds the work is capable of being turned over.

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183+,for mold shaping apparatus having means to invert the pattern, flask or shaping member.
409,for means for turning over a pattern member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 210]    210Plunger coacting with successively presented molds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Apparatus comprising a single plunger co-acting with individual molds of a group successively presented by movable mold shaping member support means.

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18,for processes of shaping molds sequentially.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 211]    211Including a swinging press head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Apparatus wherein the pressure platen is pivoted for displacement transversely of the compressing direction to a nonuse direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 212]    212Fluid pressure means reciprocating or oscillating mold shaping member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Apparatus including fluid pressure means moving a mold shaping member in an oscillatory or reciprocatory movement, generally to provide engagement with a substantially stationary rammer member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 213]    213Including means for separating forming surface from shaping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus having means to effect a withdrawal of the shaped mold part from the mold shaping member or vice versa.

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180+,for compacting means including withdrawal means.
401+,for stripper or ejectors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 214]    214Means effecting parallel draw of cope and pattern plate respectively from each other and the drag:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus which includes means for withdrawing the cope from the pattern and the pattern from the drag in parallel relation by a true rectilinear movement.

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182,for compacting means including means for withdrawing pattern member intermediate the cope and drag.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 215]    215Means rotatably withdrawing pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus having means which effect withdrawal of the pattern by a rotational movement.

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240,for a rotatable or pivotal pattern plate associated with a flask member.
247,for a rotatable or pivotal pattern, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 216]    216Screw thread pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Apparatus wherein the pattern member has a helical thread or groove.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 59 for nonsand type static molds which produce a helical or threaded type product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 217]    217Utilizing a stripping plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus including a plate member surrounding the pattern which functions to maintain the mold material during withdrawal of the pattern.

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190,for apparatus for compacting mold materials including a stripping plate for facilitating withdrawal of the pattern.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 218]    218Pattern withdrawn vertically downwardly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Apparatus directed to means for withdrawing the pattern vertically downwardly from the shaped member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 219]    219Means effecting parallel motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Apparatus directed to means for withdrawing a pattern which effect an equal and parallel draw motion to the pattern with reference to at least two points.
(1) Note. The withdrawing force must be applied to at least two points and does not include those means in which the force is applied at a single point and the pattern merely guided along parallel lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 220]    220Including a mold material supporting stool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Apparatus wherein a stool is utilized to support a section of the mold inside the stripping plate during the withdrawal of the pattern member.
(1) Note. The stool generally supports a green sand core during the withdrawing of the pattern member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 221]    221By lever and link:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Apparatus directed to utilizing lever and link means to effect a withdrawal of the pattern member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 222]    222Including pattern having relatively moving parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus wherein a plural movable part pattern is utilized as the shaping member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 223]    223By vibrating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus with means for drawing a mold shaping member from a mold with or without lifting the mold or stripping the pattern in which the operation is facilitated by means vibrating or rapping the shaping member or work piece either before or after the drawing operation commences.
(1) Note. Included herein are apparatus having devices adapted to be vibrated and to communicate vibrations to the shaping member, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 224]    224Having means to invert flask or pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus including means for inverting or turning the mold shaping member upside down or vice versa to facilitate the withdrawal operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 225]    225By drop pattern plate or support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus which includes means for holding the flask and pattern while the mold is being formed and which will be capable of drawing the pattern downwardly from the mold.
(1) Note. Generally the pattern is mounted on reciprocal pattern head means for positioning and stripping the pattern.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 226]    226By pin lifting arrangement for contacting mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus with ejector pin means for contacting the mold part to effect a lifting of the mold part from the shaping member or vice versa.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 227]    227Means for displacing mold part from stationary shaping member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus with means for separating the mold shaping member from the mold by lifting the latter off the shaping member, in which the shaping member has no movement during the mold lifting operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 228]    228Means for shaping core (e.g., core boxes, core molds, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus comprising means defining a forming surface in which cores are shaped.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 229]    229Including character forming member (indicia):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus wherein the core shaping means includes an indicia or character forming member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 230]    230Including means positioning preform part for forming composite core member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus with a preform part, located therein, which is to become integrated with the core member during the shaping of the said member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 231]    231Preform part to be incorporated in cast product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Apparatus wherein the preform part is to be incorporated into the final cast product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 232]    232Detachable or movable member for producing a recess or cavity in core member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus wherein the core shaping means is comprised of plural movable parts which are adapted to produce a cavity or undercut portion in the core member.
(1) Note. Mere vent forming means are not considered means for forming a recess or cavity within the scope of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 233]    233Hinged core box sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus directed to a split core mold or box which is hinged on one side.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 234]    234Including vent or vent forming means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus which includes means defining venting passages in the core box or means for forming vents in the shaped core member.

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410,for vents or vent forming apparatus, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 235]    235Pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 159.  Apparatus comprising a forming element, i.e., pattern or part of pattern, for shaping a mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 236]    236Insert or chill supporting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus wherein the pattern is adapted to support an insert or chill.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 237]    237Including flask member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus in combination with a container or box without top and without fixed bottom for confining mold material in which the same is being shaped.
(1) Note. The flask may either consist of (1) the cope, (2) the drag or (3) the cope and drag.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 238]    238Pattern or pattern holding member supported by aperture in flask or flask member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Apparatus wherein the pattern or pattern holding member is supported by apertures in the flask wall or flask supporting member, e.g., follow board, etc.
(1) Note. The flask supporting member may be a plate or follow board upon which the flask walls and pattern rest, e.g., a flask supported on a follow board having an aperture in which the pattern rests would be encompassed herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 239]    239Pattern plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Apparatus wherein the pattern is (1) a match pattern plate or (2) the pattern is temporarily or permanently supported by the plate or board during the mold shaping operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 240]    240Rotatable or pivotal pattern plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 239.  Apparatus wherein the pattern is rotatable or pivotable with respect to the flask.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 241]    241Pattern plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus including plate means for temporarily or permanently supporting patterns and parts of patterns during molding combined solely with the patterns themselves.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 242]    242Gated pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Apparatus which include gate former means attached to the pattern - match plate proper.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 243]    243Pattern mounted on both sides of plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Apparatus with a cope pattern located on one side of the pattern plate and a drag pattern located opposite said cope pattern on the other side of the plate, said apparatus being an integral unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 244]    244Sprue, gate or runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus which includes means for forming a sprue, gate or runner in the mold.
(1) Note. The means for forming the sprue, gate or runner is generally attached to the pattern.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 245]    245To produce undercut:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus wherein the pattern means is particularly adapted for producing undercut parts in the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 246]    246Destructible type pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus wherein the pattern is formed of destructible material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 247]    247Rotatable or pivotal pattern or pattern section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus wherein the pattern is adapted to be withdrawn solely by nonlinear movement, e.g., screw type pattern.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 248]    248Loose piece type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus wherein the pattern is composed of at least two parts which are relatively separable.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 249]    249Composite or plural part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus for patterns defined in terms of a series of materials whether or not other structural features of the pattern are recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 250.1]    250.1MEANS TO DIRECTLY APPLY ELECTRICAL OR WAVE ENERGY TO WORK:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes means to apply an energy quantity directly to work material either as (a) wave energy in the frequency spectrum above the lower audio frequency range, (i.e., fifty cycles per second), or (b) an electric field or force.
(1) Note. In order for radiant energy to be placed herein, the radiant heat must be specifically claimed.

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48+,for processes of direct application of electrical or wave energy to work.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 253]    253MEANS TO APPLY VACUUM DIRECTLY TO WORK OR TO HOLD OR MANIPULATE SHAPING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with means for (1) exhausting or partially exhausting air or other gas from the work material, (2) directly applying a vacuum or suction to work material either in a melting furnace, material receptacle, or before, during or after charging of the work material into a shaping member, or (3) applying vacuum or suction to the apparatus or portions thereof for positioning, retaining or aligning of parts.
(1) Note. The application of the vacuum or suction may perform a dual function, e.g., exhaust air or other gases from the mold or work material and also effect movement of the work material.

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16+,for process of utilizing a vacuum.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 254]    254Means applying vacuum or suction directly to molten casting material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Apparatus wherein the vacuum or suction is directly applied to molten casting material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 255]    255Through porous mold body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Apparatus wherein the vacuum is applied to the casting material through a vent or minute openings in a mold wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 256]    256Enclosed system including a receptacle and mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Apparatus which includes means for directly applying a vacuum or suction in a closed system encompassing a receptacle and a casting mold.
(1) Note. The closed system may include a melting furnace, an intermediate charging chamber and a casting chamber and the vacuum or suction may be applied in all or any one of them.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 257]    257Vacuum or suction means for feeding molten metal into charging chamber receptacle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus with vacuum or suction means for feeding the molten metal into the charging chamber receptacle.
(1) Note. The vacuum or suction effect may be created by a pressure cylinder which operates to force the molten metal from the charging receptacle to the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 258]    258Including melting chamber receptacle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus wherein the closed system includes a melting chamber receptacle.
(1) Note. The recitation of a melting furnace without claimed heating means is sufficient for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 259]    259MEANS PROVIDING INERT OR REDUCING ATMOSPHERE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with means for providing a special inert or deoxidizing atmosphere.
(1) Note. To be within the scope of this subclass, the inert or deoxidizing atmosphere must be claimed as such.

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66.1+,for processes of applying an inert or reducing gaseous atmosphere to work.
475,for continuous casting processes including a reducing gas or inert atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 260]    260INCLUDING VIBRATOR MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus combined with means for effecting a vibratory motion.
(1) Note. "Vibratory" includes any form of reciprocating or oscillating jarring motion.

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478,for processes of vibrating while continuously casting.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 261]    261Fluid pressure type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 260.  Apparatus wherein the vibrator means is actuated by fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 262]    262WITH PRODUCT SEVERING OR TRIMMING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes casting means combined with means for cutting or trimming the casting while it is associated with the mold or a portion of the mold.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 52 for static molds employing a static means to produce a groove or depression in the product to facilitate breaking or cutting.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 263]    263Associated with continuous casting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Apparatus which includes continuous casting means combined with severing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 264]    264Gate member acting as severing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Apparatus wherein a gate forming member severs a gate from the cast product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 265]    265Punch out type gate severing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Apparatus directed to rod or punch means which are actuatable to sever the casting from the gate portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 266]    266WITH METAL REFINING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes a means to chemically purify an ore or combined metal to produce a metal value.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   appropriate subclasses for processes for producing metals.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for refining apparatus.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 1+ for chemical processes of obtaining metal containing compounds from mixtures.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 267]    267WITH COATING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes a means to apply a layer to a base by a coating operation which base and layer are to be a composite product.

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118Coating Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for coating apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 268]    268Associated with a continuous or semicontinuous casting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Apparatus wherein the base is a continuously cast product.

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419,for apparatus for casting metal onto a running indefinite length base.
472,for processes of lubricating continuous casting molds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 269]    269WITH MEANS FOR HANDLING EXPELLED CAST PRODUCT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes a means for placing, conveying or otherwise moving in a nonmanufacturing manner the product or product portion of a casting operation after the product or product portion has been separated for the shaping surface.
(1) Note. Merely ejecting or removing the product from a mold will not bring the patent to this subclass. The manipulation must be more than a mere perfecting of the casting operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 270.1]    270.1COMBINED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes a means to perform an operation which is, per se, not of this class and is not a perfecting means for an operation of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 271]    271MEANS TO SHAPE METALLIC MATERIAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus wherein such apparatus provides a surface to impart a shape to molten metal as it freezes.

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425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for molding apparatus for shaping or reshaping fluent or plastic material not elsewhere provided for; especially see subclasses 78+ for means for molding powdered metal.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 544+ for stock materials, e.g., of indefinite length, which are all metal or have adjacent metal components.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 272]    272Metal revolving or tumbling type shaping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus wherein a means is employed to shape molten metallic material by peripherally confining, or engaging with a surface only a relatively small portion of the body of molten material, but shaping the entire body by moving it across the surface.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 21.1+ and 142+ for processes and apparatus respectively for particulate bead or ball making.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 5+ for molten metal comminuting and solidifying processes.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 332+ for a ball former comprising means imparting a rolling action to a discrete charge of nonmetallic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 284]    284Pressure shaping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus wherein the means shapes by a force other than gravity.
(1) Note. The term pressure shaping includes all force type operations of bringing the metal into contact with a shaping surface, e.g., centrifugal force, kinetic force, fluid pressure force, etc., except those operations where the only force is the static head of the casting material acting through a riser or gate, i.e., gravity force.

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120,for processes of applying pressure to material in a mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 285]    285Including a pressure gas or pressure vapor generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Apparatus which includes a means for generating a gaseous product to provide the pressure shaping force.
(1) Note. The gas is generally produced by a chemical reaction or by volatilization.

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48,for processes of shaping liquid metal against a forming surface utilizing an explosive force.
307,for manually operated pressure generating means for charging molten metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 286]    286Centrifugal casting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Apparatus where the means shapes by centrifugal force.

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114+,for processes of centrifugally casting metal.
451,for continuous or semi-continuous casting processes utilizing centrifugal force.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 360.1+ for liquid centrifugal extractors.
249Static Molds,   subclasses 137+ for a centrifugal mold.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclass 425 , for molding apparatus utilizing mold motion (e.g., centrifugal molding, etc.), to shape a nonmetal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 287]    287Having balancing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus which includes means to compensate or correct a weight differential across the axis at rotation.
(1) Note. To be included herein, a balancing means does not have to be adjustable, e.g., it may be a permanent mass diametrically opposite a mold.

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289,for molds which may disclose the counterweight.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 573.1 for flywheels with fluid balancing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 288]    288Including means to hold or position preformed product part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus which includes means to present a preformed article part for compositing by centrifugal force.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 289]    289Having mold radially disposed from axis of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus wherein a forming cavity is positioned so that the axis of rotation for centrifugal formation does not extend through it.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 290]    290Plural mold cavities:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 289.  Apparatus wherein two or more separate product forming cavities are employed.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 291]    291Having mold expansion or warpage compensator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus having means to accommodate or neutralize deformations in the dimensions of the apparatus during the casting operation.
(1) Note. Included herein are apparatus constructions which are specifically determined to prevent warpage or expansion deformations from being detrimental even though a separate member or compensator is not provided.

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435,for molds having expansible walls in continuous casting apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 292]    292Having mold or mold part clamping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus having means to detachably force fasten either (1) mold parts together or (2) a mold in the rotating device.

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269Work Holders,   for clamping work holders, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 293]    293Centrifugally actuatable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Apparatus wherein a clamp is actuated by the centrifugal force.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 294]    294Including brake means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus which includes means to stop or slow the rotating mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 295]    295Including means to remove product from mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus which includes means to strip the casting from the forming surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 296]    296Having plural mold cavities:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus having plural cavities extending around the axis of rotation, each of said cavities forming a separate product.

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290,for centrifugal molds having plural radially disposed molds.
322,for plural independent molds.
350+,for sand molds having plural article forming cavities.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 297]    297Having coolant applying means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus which includes means to apply to a mold or product a material to extract heat therefrom.

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348,for means to apply coolant to a mold or casting.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 298]    298Horizontal or near horizontal axis of mold rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus wherein a mold is adapted to be centrifugally turned around a generally horizontal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 299]    299Including axial feeding trough:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Apparatus which includes a feeding channel extending along at least a portion of the axis of rotation inside the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 300]    300Rotatable around axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.  Apparatus wherein the trough is enabled to turn around the axis of the horizontal mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 301]    301Movable along axis during feeding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.  Apparatus wherein the trough is enabled to change its position along the horizontal axis of the mold during the filling of the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 302]    302Including core means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Apparatus which include a separate shaping member which forms an aperture in the product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 303]    303Injection type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Apparatus wherein the pressure acts upon a body of the charge to force it into a confined shaping area to be shaped by said pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 304]    304Including valved mold gate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Apparatus wherein a stopper or cutoff means is present in the feed port of a mold for closing the opening.

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133+,for a process of controlling the introduction of liquid metal against a forming surface.
142,for apparatus for casting printing plates including a melting chamber having a valved gate.
337,for means to shape metallic material including a ladle or crucible type melt receptacle having flow control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 305]    305Including means to vent die cavity or gate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Apparatus which includes means specifically provided for facilitating the removal of gas in the article forming cavity proper or the introduction port thereto.

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61+,for processes of shaping liquid metal against a forming surface utilizing a vacuum.
254+,for casting apparatus of this class having means to apply vacuum or suction directly to the molten casting material.
410,for vent or vent forming apparatus, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 306]    306Direct pneumatic charging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Apparatus wherein the injection means includes means to apply a gas pressure directly to the casting material.

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119,for processes of shaping liquid metal against a forming surface by direct fluid pressure.
285,for pressure shaping apparatus including a pressure gas or pressure vapor generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 307]    307Manually operated pressure generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Apparatus which includes a hand manipulated producer for the pneumatic charging pressure.
(1) Note. Included herein are those patents wherein muscle power is utilized in generating the pneumatic pressure force.

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284,for manually operated pneumatic pressure generating means for applying secondary pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 308]    308Flask sealing cap contains a pressure conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Apparatus which includes a cover member for a mold holding means which makes a gas tight closure and contains a port through which the pneumatic charging pressure is introduced.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 309]    309Hot chamber type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Apparatus wherein the pneumatic pressure means forces the metal directly from a melting unit or part thereof to the casting cavity.
(1) Note. Apparatus is included herein where a nozzle acceptor or charge form the melting unit but remains at least partially submerged in the molten metal of the unit.

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316+,for casting apparatus of the hot chamber type which utilizes a piston-cylinder charger.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 310]    310Including means to segregate a charge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 309.  Apparatus which includes means to accept and separate a charging portion from the bulk source.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 311]    311Front loading nozzle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Apparatus which includes a charging chamber and spout having provision for introduction of the charge through the ejection end of the spout, i.e., through the spout port that contacts the mold gate.

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336,for means to shape metallic material which includes a rotatable or dipper type dispenser.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 312]    312Piston-cylinder charger:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Apparatus wherein the injection means comprises a piston operating through a cylinder directly on the fluid casting material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 313]    313Opposed piston injector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Apparatus which include at least two pistons which have opposed pressure faces which act to inject the casting material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 314]    314Hydraulic piston pressure means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Apparatus wherein the piston is operated by liquid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 315]    315Having multi-way valve control unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Apparatus wherein the hydraulic piston is controlled by a single valve having three or more flow lines with an actuator arranged so as to determine the relative order, duration or flow through each of the several flow lines.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 625+ for fluid handling systems employing a multi-way valve.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 316]    316Hot chamber type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Apparatus wherein the piston means forces the metal directly from a melting unit or charge chamber to the casting cavity.
(1) Note. Apparatus is included herein where the charge is first segregated into a charging chamber while in the melting area.

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309,for apparatus wherein direct pneumatic charging means forces the metal directly from a melting unit to the casting cavity.
335,for means to shape metallic material including a ladle or crucible type melt receptacle.

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222Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses for dispensing means in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 317]    317Piston contains injection conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 316.  Apparatus wherein the pressure piston has an opening through which to convey pressurized metal towards the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 318]    318Fluid actuated piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 316.  Apparatus which includes a fluid pressure operated piston-charger.
(1) Note. The piston may be directly operated by the fluid pressure or the operating force may be generated by fluid pressure and transmitted by mechanical linkages.

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312,for a cold chamber type fluid actuated piston charger.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 319]    319Inelastic compression means for confined metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Apparatus wherein the pressure shaping means is a solid member which is applied to the metal after it is in the mold or otherwise confined.

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119,for a process of applying direct fluid secondary pressure to confined metal.
120,for a process of applying pressure after the introduction of metal into a confining means.
284,for means to apply a pneumatic secondary pressure force to confined metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 320]    320Core or internal compression member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Apparatus wherein the pressure means is an element which applies a pressure acting in a radially outward direction from a cavity in the product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 321]    321Fluid pressure actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Apparatus which includes a fluid pressure actuated piston compression means.
(1) Note. The inelastic compression member may either be directly or indirectly actuated by fluid force.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 322]    322Plural independent molds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus which includes two or more molds which do not rely upon each other for shaping a complete product and are not filled by the same sprue, gate or runner.

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18,for process of shaping fluent material to sequentially form discrete molds.
129+,for a process of casting plural articles.
167,for mold shaping including metal casting means.
296,for centrifugal casting means having plural mold cavities.
350+,for sand type molds having individual mold cavities for forming plural products which are filled by a common sprue, gate or riser.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 81 and 119+ for static type molds having a community feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 323]    323Including mold translocating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Apparatus which includes means to change the loci of the molds.
(1) Note. To be included herein the mold must leave one locus for another. Mere movement at one locus is insufficient, e.g., moving mold parts together, tilting of a mold, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 324]    324Endless serial mold circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 323.  Apparatus wherein the molds are moved, one after the other, in a circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 325]    325Rotating table or wheel type translocating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Apparatus wherein the moving means is a rigid structure carrying the molds in a generally circular circuit around its axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 326]    326Having a vertical axis of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus wherein the table or wheel is mounted to turn around a vertical axis.

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108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 20+ , for horizontal power driven tables.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 327]    327Mold have separable part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Apparatus wherein the molds have two or more shaping parts which are moved relative to each other.

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137,for a mold assembling processes of this class.
168,for mold shaping and assembling means including metal casting means.
339+,for means to shape metallic material including means to assemble mold parts.
364+,for a sand type shaping surface comprised of separable parts.
377+,for a flask or flask section having size adjustable features.
384+,for plural part flask or flask sections.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 155+ , for a static container type mold having a size adjustable feature, subclasses 160+ for a static container type mold having plural mold sections and subclasses 184+ for a plural section static core member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 328]    328Including cam means to control assembly or disassembly of parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Apparatus which includes a cam surface which effects the relative movement of the separable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 329]    329Chain conveyor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Apparatus wherein the molds are moved in their circuit by a flexible, endlessly linked carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 330]    330Molds having separable parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus in which the serial molds each are made of two or more parts which are relatively movable.

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137,for mold assembling processes of this class.
168,for mold shaping and assembling means including metal casting means.
339+,for means to shape metallic material including means to assemble mold parts.
364+,for a sand type shaping surface comprised of separate parts.
377+,for a flask or flask section having size adjustable features.
384+,for plural part flask or flask sections.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 155+ for a static container type mold having a size adjustable feature, subclasses 160+ for a static container type mold having plural mold sections and subclasses 184+ for a plural section static core member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 331]    331Including mechanical ejector for product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus which includes a mechanical member which contacts the mold or product to separate the cast product from the mold.

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344+,for means to shape metallic material including product ejection means; and the search notes thereto for apparatus of this class including ejector means.
404+,for, per se, means to separate a cast product from a shaping member.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 66.1 , for static type molds including product ejecting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 332]    332Including means to hold or position preformed product part in shaping area:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus which includes means for holding or positioning a preformed part, which is to become a part of the final cast product, in a mold during the casting operation.
(1) Note. To be included in this and indented subclasses the preform must be disclosed as a desired element of the product.

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9+,for process of shaping a forming surface within which is embedded a preform which is to become part of the final product.
98+,for processes of forming a composite article wherein a preform is incorporated into the metal cast, particularly see subclass 112 for methods of positioning a preform relative to the shaping surface.
228,for means of pressure casting including means to hold or position a preformed product part.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 83+ for static molds means providing for uniting a preform with the metal being cast.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 259+ , for processes of shaping and uniting material other than metal to a performed product part. See subclasses 275+ for processes of positioning or maintaining position of preform relative to mold surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 333]    333Means for positioning plural preforms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Apparatus having means for positioning plural preform bodies in a mold cavity.
(1) Note. The plural preforms may be in contact or may be in spaced relationship.

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10+,for process of shaping a forming surface within which is embedded plural preform bodies which are to become an integral part of the final product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 334]    334Means other than mold surface supports preform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Apparatus having means other than the mold (core) surface for supporting or holding the preform body.
(1) Note. A mere clamp, e.g., a device integral with or abutting a molding surface which also aids in supporting the preform, is not considered to be "other" support means.
(2) Note. A separate and distinct means employed to support a preform in a particular location within the mold cavity where said means becomes a part of the cast product is considered to be within the scope of "other" support means and is included herein.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 91+ for static type molds including means other than the mold surface for supporting a preform body in the mold cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 335]    335Including ladle or crucible type melt receptacle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus including a receptacle or container for holding and/or dispensing the molten material into a shaping member.

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256,for vacuum systems including a melt receptacle.
437+,for continuous casting means having means to dispense or distribute a metal charge.
311,for front loading nozzle type pneumatic injection machines.

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222Dispensing,   for dispensing type metal ladles.
249Static Molds,   subclasses 105+ , for permanent-type shaping surface having static filling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 336]    336Rotatable with mold or dipper type dispenser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Apparatus wherein either (1) the melt receptacle is rotatable together with the mold to fill same or (2) a ladle, which removes a portion by dipping from a larger melt receptacle, turns over to dispense the charge into a mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 337]    337Having flow control or conduit means intermediate the receptacle and mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Apparatus with either a flow controller or conduit means located intermediate the mold and the molten metal dispenser for effecting discharge of the material into the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 338.1]    338.1Including means to heat mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Including means to heat mold:Apparatus including means to heat the mold.
(1) Note. The heating means may be integrated within the metal-shaping surface or external thereto.

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103+,for processes of preconditioning a preform by preheating said preform to perfect the bonding between it and the metal cast.
121,for processes of preconditioning apparatus by heating.
122+,for processes of controlling solidification by heating.
144,for heating means combined with means for casting printing plates.
250.1+,for means to directly apply electrical or wave energy to work including for heating purposes.
492,for processes of heating molten metal by electrical or wave energy while forming said metal against a shaping surface.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 79 for a static metal mold having electric heating means; and subclass 80 for static metal mold having means within mold body to confine heat exchange medium.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 402+ for processes of heating nonmetal cast material by direct application of electrical or wave energy; and subclasses 319+ for processes of applying heat to a nonmetal cast material which is shaped against a forming surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 338.2]    338.2In situ chemical reactive heating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 338.1.  Apparatus wherein the means to heat the mold includes chemically reactive material contained in some portion of the mold body.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 339]    339Including means to assemble mold parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus which includes means for positioning or maintaining mold parts in operational relationship before or during casting.
(1) Note. The assembling means may encompass machine elements for effecting and maintaining mating mold parts in working engagement or may merely encompass means for positioning a cope and drag assembly.

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137,for processes of assembling mold parts.
168,for mold shaping and assembling means combined with a metal casting station.
292,for centrifugal casting means having mold or mold part clamping means.
374+,for mold flasks, per se.
377+,for size adjustable flasks.
385+,for plural part flasks having alignment means.
394+,for mold jackets or slip boxes, per se.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 106+ , for plural part metal molds having assembly means.
269Work Holders,   appropriate subclasses for a "clamp" means, per se, to grasp or draw portions of a mold or flask either together or onto a base or support.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 340]    340Core positioning means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 339.  Apparatus wherein the assembly means are for effecting placement of a core section into operational engagement with a mold cavity.

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30+,for process of shaping a composite mold structure wherein the position of the core is maintained relative to the mold.
370,for a sand type shaping surface including a core with integral aligning means.
397+,for core centering or supporting means, per se.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 177 for a core element of that class including means to attach the core to a support.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 341]    341Having auxiliary means for locking assembled parts in place:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 339.  Apparatus having additional means for locking the assembled mold parts in operational engagement.
(1) Note. The locking means may cooperate with the assembly means but must be in addition thereto.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 167 for plural mold sections having removable means to maintain assembly including a clamp means and subclasses 168+ for plural mold sections having fastening means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 342]    342Permanent mold parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 339.  Apparatus wherein the mold parts assembled consist of permanent members.
(1) Note. A permanent mold is one which is reusable several times and is generally constructed of metal.
(2) Note. Sand resin mold structures, e.g., shell molds are not considered permanent mold structures to be placed herein.

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303+,for injection pressure shaping means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 343]    343Fluid pressure means actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 342.  Apparatus wherein fluid pressure actuated means effects the positioning of the permanent mold parts into assembled relationship.
(1) Note. The fluid pressure may act either directly or indirectly upon the mold parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 344]    344Including means to eject or separate product from shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus including means to remove or withdraw a cast product from a forming surface or vice versa.
(1) Note. The removal or withdrawal may be with respect to a mold or core or both.

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131+,for processes of removing a product from a forming surface.
145,for means of stripping cast printing plates.
180,for means to withdraw mold parts after shaping a forming surface.
213,for means for separating mold from shaping member subsequent to its formation.
295,for means to remove product from centrifugal casting means.
401+,for means, per se, to eject or strip product from shaping surface.
441+,for apparatus means for continuous or semi-continuous casting including a product withdrawal means.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 66.1 , for metal shaping surface including means to remove or release product from said surface; subclass 136, for static mold with a bottom movable through upstanding mold walls to aid product removal; subclasses 178+, for internal mold means (core) including means to contract core thereby aiding its removal from a product and subclass 183, for flexural shaping surface means which characteristic aids in product removal.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 334+ , for processes of separating non-metal molded article from shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 345]    345Means to remove core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 344.  Apparatus having means for separating a core from the cast product.
(1) Note. The apparatus found herein may also effect removal of the cast product from the mold in addition to performing a core removal operation.

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132,for processes of core removal.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 63+ for a static mold including a core and means to remove the core.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 346]    346Sectional or plural part core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Apparatus wherein the core means utilized is constructed of sectional or plural parts to facilitate removal from the cast product.
(1) Note. The plural parts of the core may be movably attached and thusly collapsible or may be composed of loose pieces.

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369,for a sand type shaping surface including a core member.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 178+ for expansible and/or contractible metal cores and subclass 184 for plural section cores.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 347]    347Utilizing ejector pin means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 344.  Apparatus wherein push element means, e.g., ejector pins, are utilized for contacting the cast product and affecting separation from the forming surface.
(1) Note. The ejector pins may or may not be an integral part of the forming surface.

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406,for ingot stripping pin means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 348]    348Including means to apply coolant to mold or casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus including means to apply coolant to mold or casting or means within its surface to confine a heat exchange medium.
(1) Note. Coolant means may be integrated within the mold body or external thereto.

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122+,for processes of controlling solidification, particularly subclasses 126 and 128 for processes of utilizing a cooling liquid.
144,for printing plate casting means having auxiliary cooling means.
297,for means to apply coolant to centrifugal casting means.
443+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting means having a casting material cooling means.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 79+ , for permanent type static metal mold having means within its surface to confine heat exchange medium; and subclass 111 for static mold including solid heat conductor, e.g, chill.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 349]    349United particle type shaping surface (e.g., sand, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus wherein the shape imparting surface is composed of particles which retain their individual identity and are bonded or adhered to one another.
(1) Note. The shaping surface in this and indented subclasses are static, i.e., the shaping surface does not move in any way, once they are assembled, in order to effect shaping of the cast metal.
(2) Note. By the term "sand" is meant granular particles resulting from the breakdown of rocks. Sand particles have refractory characteristics. The term includes "silica sand" from quartz and other siliceous rocks which comprises 50 to 95 per cent of the total material in any molding sand; specially sands such as zirconite and olivine. Also included are other particular material such as carbon, clays, etc.

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165+,for means to make shell type molds.
169+,for means to shape molds from particulate materials.
348,for sand mold including cooling means.

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249Static Molds,   for metal molds having a sand coated shaping surface. The sand coating takes the shape of the metal mold and does no shaping, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 350]    350Mold having individual mold cavities for forming plural products:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus wherein the sand type shaping surface has more than one cavity for forming a separate and distinct product.
(1) Note. The plural cavities are filled through a common sprue.
(2) Note. The products produced may be totally different in design.

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322+,for plural independent molds not filled through a common sprue.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 119+ , for plural article forming static nonsand type molds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 351]    351Including core in at least one cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Apparatus having an inner removable core in at least one of the mold cavities.
(1) Note. The combination of a mold and internal core is found in this class so long as one of the elements is composed of sand.

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30+,for process of forming plural part shaping surface and positioning core relative to a forming surface.
98+,for process of forming a composite article by embedding a preform in or surrounding it with cast metal, e.g., a metal tubular core of one composition could be positioned in a sand mold and metal of a different composition cast therearound so as to form a tubular product.
302,for centrifugal casting means including a core means.
340,for apparatus means to position core within a mold.
345+,for means to eject core from mold after casting has solidified.
348,for core member having coolant means therein.
365+,for plural separable part molds, e.g., sand molds comprising a cope and drag and numerous cores, in which intricate shapes are cast such as radiators and crankshafts.
369,for sand cores, per se.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 63 , for metal mold including core; subclasses 142+, for metal mold having inner removable core for forming recess or opening in the material cast; subclasses 175+, for metal cores (internal molds), per se.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 271.1 process of shaping plastic material and embedding preform therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 352]    352Including metal chill:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus comprising a shaping surface and metal chill combination.
(1) Note. A metal chill may be embedded within the sand-type shaping surface or on the surface thereof. In the latter case, the chill aids in shaping the cast metal. In the prior case the chill acts merely as a heat conductor.

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80,material introduced into mold as a solid where, e.g., the purpose is to avoid shrinkage.
98+,process of casting metal into contact with preform within the mold cavity and embedding the preform within the shaped material.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 111 , for nonsand type static mold having solid heat conductor or insulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 353]    353As part of shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Apparatus where the metal chill is a part of the sand-type shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 354]    354Chill is a core or core part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 353.  Apparatus wherein the shaping surface of which the chill is a part is a surface which shapes an internal portion of a product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 355]    355Plural spaced chill sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 353.  Apparatus wherein two or more spaced chill sections act as part of the shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 356]    356Hollow annular center section chill (i.e., ring):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 353.  Apparatus wherein the shaping surface comprises a metal chill which is annular and has a hole which shapes a portion of a product intermediate its ends.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 57 for static molds which produce a ring type product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 357]    357Consumable chill:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Apparatus wherein the chill is incorporated within the cast metal product.

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9,for process of making sand mold wherein product part is embedded in the mold material.
80,for process of molding metal wherein material, e.g., a consumable chill, is introduced into the mold as a solid.
107,for process of making a composite article wherein a preform is a chill member.
127,for processes of casting wherein a chill member is utilized to effect localized or zone heat dissipation.
236,for chill supporting pattern members.
371,for chills, per se, if the chills are used as a means to shape metallic material.
412,consumable chills, per se.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 111 for a static nonsand mold including a chill member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 358]    358Including apertured strainer means for separating unwanted component from casting material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus having apertured filter means for preventing the inclusion of unwanted components, e.g., dross, dirt, oxides, etc., in the cast product.
(1) Note. The strainer element to be included herein must have three or more apertures or openings.
(2) Note. The apertured strainer element may be located in the gate, runner, sprue or riser portions of the mold.

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61+,for processes of casting utilizing a vacuum.
134,for processes of casting including the step of separating an unwanted component from the melt.
254+,for casting apparatus having means for applying vacuum directly to the molten casting material.
337,for casting apparatus including a melt receptacle having flow control means intermediate the receptacle and mold.
362,for a sand type shaping surface having nonapertured segregating means for separating unwanted components from the molten cast metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 359]    359Including means to compensate for shrinkage (e.g., shrink head, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus having means to provide a reservoir of molten metal for feeding into the mold cavity proper as the metal in the mold solidifies to compensate for liquid shrinkage.
(1) Note. The reservoir, e.g., riser, hot top sink head, etc., must be designed to furnish additional metal to the mold cavity proper after the teeming has ceased.
(2) Note. In a top pouring mold the sprue, gate and riser are often integrated.

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45,for processes of making patterns which may have a riser shaping portion.
80,for processes of controlling pipe by insertion of solid metal into the mold as the cast metal solidifies.
120,for processes of pressure casting involving a secondary pressure application to densify the cast metal.
122+,for methods of controlling solidification of the cast metal.
162,for apparatus means for shaping risers.
244,for pattern means to shape sprue.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 82 metal mold having means to adjust mold volume during molding, subclasses 105+ for static filling means in contact with mold cavity, and subclasses 197+ for sink head or hot top, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 360]    360Blind riser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 359.  Apparatus wherein the feeding reservoir, i.e., riser, does not extend to the mold surface.
(1) Note. Generally the blind risers are closed to the atmosphere by a cap or plug, however, the blind riser may be vented.
(2) Note. The blind riser may be positioned intermediate the mold cavity proper and the sprue.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 361]    361Shell type mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus wherein the shaping surface is a thin shell-like mold formed from thermosetting resin-bonded sand mixtures.
(1) Note. Generally the shell mold consists of two or more parts, i.e., cope and drag.
(2) Note. The shell mold may be externally backed up with steel shot, sand, or similar material.

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21,for processes of shaping shell type molds by spraying resin containing particulate material against a shaping surface.
165+,for shell type molding machine to shape a forming surface.
520+,for processes of shaping shell type molds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 362]    362Having means to restrict turbulence of flow during casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus having runner or gate splash and swirl control means, e.g., runner bushes, runner traps, etc., for providing laminar flow of the molten metal into the mold cavity proper.
(1) Note. Included herein are molds with gates and runners having specific geometrical shape for reducing flow turbulence.

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133+,for processes of introduction control or manipulation of charge.
244,for combination pattern means including means to shape a sprue, gate or runner.
337,for metallic shaping means combined with a melt receptacle having flow control or conduit means intermediate the receptacle and mold.
358,for a sand type shaping surface including an apertured strainer means.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 105+ for metal mold including static filling means, e.g., see subclass 107 for inlet communicating with plural feeding passages; and subclass 206, for a splash control for a static nonsand type mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 363]    363Bottom gate or side pouring mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus wherein the runner for feeding the molten metal into the mold cavity proper is located at or near the bottom of the cavity or is constructed so as to feed the metal in a substantially horizontal flow path into the cavity.

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242,for gated patterns match plates.
244,for pattern means including means to shape gate.
304,for injection casting apparatus having a valved gate.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 109 for nonsand static molds having material inlet to cavity at or near the bottom of cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 364]    364Comprised of separable parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus comprising a multipart shaping surface which parts are relatively movable.
(1) Note. A shaping surface having merely a cope and a drag is subject matter for these subclasses.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 64 for metal mold having plural cores; subclasses 142+ for permanent container type molding apparatus having an inner removable core; and subclasses 160+ for container type molding device having plural mold sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 365]    365Including a core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Apparatus wherein one of the separate parts is a member to be positioned in a mold to provide a product cavity.

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302,for centrifugal casting means including core means.
351,for a mold having a core within each of a plurality of molding cavities.
369+,for sand cores, per se.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 63 for nonsand type static mold including core and means to remove the core; and subclasses 142+ for nonsand type static mold including a removable core.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 366]    366Having embedded sand reinforcing, aligning, or supporting component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 365.  Apparatus wherein the core contains and at least partially surrounds an element which aids in strengthening or holding the core, sand or aids in positioning the core relative to a mold.

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379+,for flasks having means to reinforce or retain mold sand.
397+,for core centering or supporting means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 367]    367Hollow component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Apparatus wherein the embedded component is hollow.
(1) Note. The component must be hollow when the core member is functioning as a core in a molding operation to be included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 368]    368Plural cores or core having plural parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 365.  Apparatus wherein there is included either (1) two or more individual cores or (2) a core which has two or more separable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 369]    369Core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus wherein the shaping surface is a member which is to be positioned in a mold to provide a product cavity.

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30+,for processes of maintaining position of core while shaping a composite, plural part or multilayered mold from fluent mold material.
228+,for means to form sand cores.
302,for centrifugal casting means including core means.
340,for means to position core within an assemble of mold parts.
345+,for means to shape metal material having in combination means to eject the core from the product.
351,for sand mold having a core within each of a plurality of molding cavities.
365+,for separable part shaping surface (including plural part cores) where one element is a core.

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249Static Molds,   subclasses 63+ for metal molding including metal core means; subclasses 122+ for container-type metal molds for forming plural articles including a core; subclasses 142+ for container-type molding device having inner removable core; and subclasses 175+ for static, nonsand type cores.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 370]    370Having integral alignment means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus having means integral with the core so that it can by those means be positioned in a certain way within a mold cavity.

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366+,for a core having embedded sand reinforcing or supporting component in a shaping surface assembly.
397+,for core centering or supporting means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 371]    371Chill, shaping type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus directed to a, per se, member which forms a part of the mold shaping surface and which has a heat conductivity much greater than that of the remaining parts of the mold.
(1) Note. A chill for this subclass must be disclosed for use in a sand-type shaping surface and must aid in the actual shaping of the cast material.
(2) Note. The chills found herein generally comprise a formed metal shaping surface.

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107,for process of compositing by shaping metal and uniting to a preform which is utilized to chill the cast metal.
127,for a casting process employing a chill member to control solidification.
138,for a casting process utilizing a particular shaping surface material.
348,for metal shaping apparatus including particular means to apply coolant.
352+,for sand-type shaping surface in combination with a metal chill.
412,for a, per se, chill member which does not form a part of the mold shaping surface.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 111 for static nonsand molds including a chill.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 372]    372Vented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 371.  Apparatus wherein the chill has openings in its surface to allow gas to escape.

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410,for vent or vent forming apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 373]    373Circular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 371.  Apparatus wherein the chill surface is in continuous arcuate form.

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356,for a sand type shaping surface including an annular chill member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 374]    374FLASK OR FLASK SECTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus directed to a container or box for confining mold material while the same is being shaped.

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237+,for patterns combined with flasks.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 375]    375Including roll or rock-over means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Apparatus which includes a means facilitating oscillatory movement of the flask about an axis through the flask or at one side of the flask.
(1) Note. Hinged superposed flasks are not considered subject matter for this subclass, see subclasses 392+ below.

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183+,for rock-over and roll-over type compacting machines which include a pattern withdrawal means.
205,for a vibrating molding machine with roll or rock-over feature.
209,for a press molding machine with an invertible table.
224,for shaping apparatus having inverting means.
402,for stripping means including pattern inverting means.
409,for, per se, means for inverting a pattern or mold member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 376]    376Investment type (e.g., dental, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Apparatus wherein the flask is one in which material for making a precision-casting (last-wax or investment casting) mold is to be contained therein.
(1) Note. An investment mold, which to be contained in the type of flask of this subclass, is characterized by the mold being formed around and embedding a destructible pattern.

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34+,for processes of forming molds wherein the pattern is destroyed to remove it.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 54 for static dental type molds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 377]    377Size adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Apparatus wherein the flask includes means to change the dimensions of the flask.

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392+,for flasks having separable sides with various means to join the sides.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 378]    378Height adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Apparatus wherein the adjustable feature of the flask part is for varying the size of the vertical dimension.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 379]    379Including means to retain or reinforce mold sand or to position reinforcement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Apparatus which includes means to (1) help maintain the sand in the flask (2) held strengthen the sand or (3) provide for locating strengthening members.

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411,for reinforcement, per se, for mold material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 380]    380Sand strip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Apparatus where the sand mold retaining means is a strip at the base of the flask section which overlies a portion of the mold periphery.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 381]    381Mechanically retractable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 380.  Apparatus wherein the sand strip is removable from the flask by a structural element actuating the strip.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 382]    382Depending reinforcement (e.g., gagger, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Apparatus wherein the reinforcement is suspended and extends downwardly in the flask.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 383]    383Flask wall surface construction retains sand:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Apparatus wherein the retention of the mold sand is facilitated by contiguous formations on or in the flask at the general parting line between the sand mold proper and the flask.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 384]    384Plural part flask or flask section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Apparatus wherein the flask or flask section is composed of more than one separable part.

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364+,for plural separable part sand type shaping surface.
377,for plural part flask wherein parts are assembled to vary size of the flask.
379+,for flask including means to retain or reinforce mold sand or to position reinforcement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 385]    385Including guide means to align superposed flask sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.  Apparatus having means to aid in precise adjustment or correct relative positioning of superposed flask section.

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137,for processes of assembling mold parts.
168,for means to shape a forming surface combined with metal casting means including means for assembling shaped mold parts.
339+,for means to shape metallic material including means to assemble mold parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 386]    386Including locking means to prevent vertical displacement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Apparatus which includes an actuatable means operable during or after assembly to fasten the superposed sections and prevent their relative vertical movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 387]    387Within and surrounded by flask wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Apparatus wherein the guide means is contained in the flask walls.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 388]    388Guide means is adjustable or elastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Apparatus wherein the guide means are capable of ready change or easy expansion to bring the flask or contraction part to a true or more effective relative positioning.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 389]    389Resilient or flexible guide means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 388.  Apparatus wherein the guide means is composed of expansible or contractable material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 390]    390By bolt movable in a slot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 388.  Apparatus wherein the adjustability by means of a threaded fastening member is variably positioned in a slotted member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 391]    391Hinged type superposed sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Apparatus wherein the superposed flask sections are provided at a common meeting edge with a pivot means to allow relative swinging movement at the edge.

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375,for flask having turn over means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 392]    392Having separable sides (e.g., snap-type, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.  Apparatus in which a flask section has a joint where the side parts are not permanently attached to one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 393]    393At least one side joint hinged:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 392.  Apparatus having a joint permitting motion in one plane between the adjacent panel section.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 394]    394MOLD JACKET OR SLIP BOX:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus directed to a container or enclosure for positioning around a sand mold to prevent the mold from spreading or breaking down when molten metal is poured into the cavity therein.
(1) Note. The mold jacket or slip box may function to align portions of plural part molds.

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374+,for mold shaping flasks or flask sections.
411+,for internal mold reinforcement members.

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269Work Holders,   appropriate subclasses for a "clamp" means, per se, to grasp or draw portions of a mold or flask together.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 395]    395Having size adjustment feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 394.  Apparatus having means by which the size of the jacket can be altered.
(1) Note. The mold jackets and slip boxes found herein are of the flexible or nonfixed type.
(2) Note. The size of the jacket or slip box may be altered to adapt the same to molds having different taper or to different size molds.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 396]    396Self adjusting type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.  Apparatus having panel walls thereof so joined together that they individually adapt themselves to the surface on which they are placed.
(1) Note. The panel walls to be self-adjustable must act independent of the will of the operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 397]    397CORE CENTERING OR SUPPORTING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus adapted for insertion in a mold to support or position a core body relative to the mold.

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230+,for means for shaping a composite core which includes means for positioning a preformed part.
366+,for separable part sand molds with a core having reinforcement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 398]    398Chaplet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 397.  Apparatus wherein the supporting or positioning means consists of a member which extends from a core surface to a support surface to space the surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 399]    399Having anchor means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 398.  Apparatus wherein the chaplet is positioned by a portion extending through the core surface or the supporting surface or by means associated with the core and supporting surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 400]    400Collapsible or knock down type core bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 397.  Apparatus wherein the core supporting means is intended to extend inside the core and is constructed to allow a break down or reduction in volume of the means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 401]    401STRIPPER OR EJECTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which has means to disassociate a shaping surface from the shaped product.
(1) Note. Included herein are patents directed to apparatus for stripping sand from flasks.
(2) Note. The shaped produce can either be a cast product or a shaped mold structure.
(3) Note. Included herein is, per se, apparatus utilized to disassociate a pattern or core member from a mold structure by fluidizing or liquifying.

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34+,for processes of destroying a pattern to disassociate the same from a shaped mold.
44,for mechanical pattern withdrawal processes.
180+,for mold material compacting apparatus having means for withdrawing the forming surface from the shaping means.
213+,for mold shaping apparatus including means for separating the forming surface from the shaping means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 402]    402Including means for inverting pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Apparatus including means for inverting a pattern or pattern plate member.

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183+,for mold material compacting apparatus including an invertible pattern and having pattern withdrawal means.
205,for vibratory mold material compacting apparatus of the roll or rock-over type.
209,for a press type compactor having an invertible table.
224,for mold shaping apparatus having pattern inverting means.
409,for, per se, means to invert a pattern plate or mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 403]    403Fluid actuated pattern stripping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Apparatus directed to fluid pressure means for stripping or ejecting a pattern member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 404]    404Means to separate cast product from shaping surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Apparatus directed to per se means for stripping or withdrawing a cast product part from a mold or core member.

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131,for a process of removing a cast article from a forming surface.
344,for shaping apparatus including means to eject or separate product from shaping surface.

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209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   appropriate subclasses for method and apparatus involving the use of an agitating screen as the sole means for disintegrating a sand mold or core, regardless of whether the mold or core is in molding association with a casting or flask.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for disintegrating a mold or core, not associated with a flask or casting and not involving abrading or a sifting or other assorting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 405]    405Ingot strippers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.  Apparatus directed to means for stripping or withdrawing cast ingots from their molds.
(1) Note. Means for stripping a cast ingot from an ingot stool is included herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 406]    406By stripping pin projecting through bottom of mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Apparatus wherein pin or rod plunger means projecting through or adapted to be projected through an opening in the mold bottom are utilized to contact the cast ingot and to dislodge or strip the said ingot from its mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 407]    407Means moving mold vertically upwardly during stripping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Apparatus directed to means which strip the mold from the ingot by raising or lifting the mold vertically upwardly away from engagement with the cast ingot.
(1) Note. The molds stripped herein are generally of the big and down type.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 408]    408Fluid pressure type stripper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Apparatus wherein fluid pressure actuated means effects the stripping of the mold from the ingot.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 409]    409MEANS TO INVERT A PATTERN PLATE OR A MOLD (E.G., TURN-OVER DEVICE, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus directed to means actuatable for inverting a pattern plate shaping member or flask about a horizontal axis.

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183+,for molding machines including withdrawal means having means for inverting pattern, flask, or shaping member.
205,for roll or rock-over vibrator type molding machine.
209,for press type molding machines having an invertible table.
375,for roll or rock-over flasks.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 410]    410VENT OR VENT FORMING APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes or consists of either (1) a means for allowing otherwise trapped gases to escape from the apparatus or (2) means to form such escape means.

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234,for core shaping means including a vent or vent forming means.
372,for vented chills.
397+,particularly subclass 400 for vented core supporting means.

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249Static Molds,   subclass 141 for a static mold which includes an auxiliary part for transmission of fluid, i.e., vent or drain.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 411]    411REINFORCEMENT FOR MOLD MATERIAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus which includes or consists of a member which is to internally support or strengthen the fluent material making up a mold or core.

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366,for core reinforcement in a sand mold.
379+,for a flask having means to reinforce the sand.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 412]    412MISCELLANEOUS, APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus not provided for above.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass among other apparatus are, consumable chills, mold weights, rapping plates and wear inserts.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclass 403 for a paper weight and 404 for miscellaneous weights.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 413]    413Control or product withdrawal means in continuous casting apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Apparatus wherein the means controlled includes means for removing a continuously cast product from the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 414]    414Control of coolant applied to continuously cast product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Apparatus wherein the means controlled applies an agent to remove heat from a continuously cast product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 415]    415In continuous casting apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Apparatus wherein the inert or deoxidizing atmosphere is provided in conjunction with a mold means which forms a portion of a product as a previously formed contiguous portion of the product is removed from the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 416]    416In continuous casting mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 260.  Apparatus wherein the vibratory motion is transmitted to a mold means employed to form a portion of a product as a previously formed contiguous portion of the product is removed from the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 417]    417Including continuous casting apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.1.  Apparatus including a mold means employed to form a portion of a product as a contiguous portion of the product is removed from the mold.

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413,414 and 449.1+, for continuous casting apparatus with condition-responsive control means.
415,for continuous casting apparatus including means to provide an inert or reducing atmosphere.
416,for continuous casting apparatus with means to vibrate the mold.
417,for continuous casting apparatus combined with means to perform an operation which is, per se, not of this class and is not a perfecting means for an operation of this class.
452+,and 460+, for continuous casting methods.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 418]    418Continuous or semicontinuous casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Apparatus wherein a mold means is employed to form a portion of a product as a previously formed contiguous portion of the product is removed from the mold.

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413,414 and 449.1+, for continuous casting apparatus with condition-responsive control means.
415,for continuous casting apparatus including means to provide an inert or reducing atmosphere.
416,for continuous casting apparatus with means to vibrate the mold.
417,for continuous casting apparatus combined with means to perform an operation which is, per se, not of this class and is not a perfecting means for an operation of this class.
459+,for continuous casting methods.

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425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 67+ for plastic filament-forming or film-casting means comprising a shaping orifice discharging into a liquid bath, and subclasses 224+ for means casting fluent stock on a shaping surface with means to provide a continuous length product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 419]    419Including means to convey preformed product part to mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus which includes a means to relatively advance a preformed article part of the mold area.
(1) Note. Also included herein are those patents wherein a means is included to convey a mold past a preform while continuously forming a metal layer on the preform.

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268,for coating a continuously cast product outside of the mold area.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 171.1+ for process of continuously forming composite nonmetallic products.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 420]    420Plural distinct shaping outlets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus including either (1) plural mold means, or (2) means for simultaneously forming a plurality of products.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 421]    421Hollow casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus wherein the product formed contains a central cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 422]    422Rotary mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 421.  Apparatus wherein the mold includes means enabling rotation about its axis to thus form the central cavity by centrifugal force upon the molten metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 423]    423Filament or wire casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus wherein the product formed is a strand-like member.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 424]    424Including shape-perfecting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus including means subsequent to the mold means for refining the shape of a partially solidified product.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 425]    425Including starter bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus including means to initially close the mold exit.

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445,for a starter bar, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 426]    426Disconnectable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.  Apparatus wherein means are provided to enable the starter bar to be separated from the product during the casting operation.
(1) Note. A starter bar is considered to be "separated from the product" even though a part of the bar, or "head", remains with the casting.
(2) Note. The separation must be performed prior to any severing operation.

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446,for a disconnectable starter bar, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 427]    427Continuously advancing mold part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus wherein the mold means includes a shaping surface which moves through, and out of, the casting zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 428]    428Roll couple mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 427.  Apparatus wherein a pair of similar revolvable cylinders provides the moving shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 429]    429Endless shaping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 427.  Apparatus wherein the moving shaping surface is carried on or comprises the outer peripheral surface of either (1) an annular or cylindrical member, or (2) an endless belt or band.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 430]    430Articulated segments (e.g., caterpillar type, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Apparatus wherein the moving shaping surface comprises a plurality of flexibly connected rigid elements, which, when in abutting relationship, define the shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 431]    431With plural belts of flexible material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 430.  Apparatus including a plurality of endless bands, each of which comprises a continuous strip of pliant material cooperating with the flexibly connected rigid elements to define the mold means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 432]    432Plural belts of flexible material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Apparatus including a plurality of endless bands, each formed of a continuous strip of pliant material.

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431,for plural belts of flexible material which employ caterpillar-type shaping means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 433]    433Casting wheel and flexible band:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 429.  Apparatus wherein the endless shaping means includes an annular or cylindrical member with a circumferential casting groove and an adjacent endless band formed of a pliant material, wherein the shaping area is defined by the groove and band.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 434]    434With dispensing feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Apparatus wherein significance is attributed to means for supplying molten metal to the shaping area (e.g., adjustable tundish, specific pour tube structure, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 435]    435Having deformable mold wall or thermal expansion compensating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus wherein the mold wall, or a portion thereof, either (1) yields to accommodate casting operation forces, or (2) includes means specifically provided to accommodate temperature reactive forces during the casting operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 436]    436Adjustable mold size:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus wherein the cross-sectional area of the mold cavity may be selectively varied.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 437]    437Including means to dispense or distribute metal charge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus including means to control or direct the supply of molten metal to the mold.

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449.1+,for supply means controlled in response to a variable condition.

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222Dispensing,   subclasses 591+ for molten dispensers, per se.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   subclasses 236+ for discharging vessels for molten metal which include means for treating the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 438]    438Movable dispenser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 437.  Apparatus wherein the supply means is mounted for some form of movement (e.g., ladle car, tilting tundish, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 439]    439Mold contiguous with or within dispenser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 437.  Apparatus wherein the mold is mounted inside or in contact with the supply means during the casting operation.
(1) Note. "Supply means" includes funnels or molten metal reservoirs fixed to, or integral with, the mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 440]    440Dispensing into horizontal mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Apparatus wherein the molten metal enters and flows through the mold means in a substantially horizontal direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 441]    441Including product supporting or withdrawal means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus including means subsequent to the mold means to remove or hold the product.

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413,for product withdrawal means controlled in response to a variable condition.
447,for product-supporting or withdrawal means, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 442]    442Roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 441.  Apparatus wherein the means to remove or support the product includes an annular or cylindrical member which rotates and contacts the product at points on its periphery.

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448,for product supporting or withdrawing rollers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 443]    443Having casting material cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Apparatus including means to positively apply an agent to remove heat from the casting material.

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384,for means to apply coolant to a mold or casting generally.
414,for means to apply coolant to a casting with control means responsive to a variable condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 444]    444Direct cooling of material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Apparatus wherein the casting material is directly contacted by the cooling agent.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 445]    445STARTER BAR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising means to initially close the exit of a continuous casting mold.

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425,for a starter bar in combination with a mold means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 446]    446Disconnectable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus wherein means are provided to enable the starter bar to be separated from the product during the casting operation.

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426,for a disconnectable starter bar in combination with mold means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 447]    447PRODUCT SUPPORTING OR WITHDRAWAL MEANS FOR CONTINUOUS CASTING APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising means to remove or hold a product subsequent to its formation in and while still connected to a continuous casting mold.

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441,for withdrawal means claimed in combination with mold means.
(1) Note. For original placement in this subclass, a patent claim must recite a structural limitation (e.g., cooling jacket, surface coating, etc.) which renders the support or withdrawal means peculiar to the subject matter of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 448]    448Roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 447.  Apparatus wherein the means to remove or hold the product includes an annular or cylindrical member which rotates about its axis and contacts the product at points on its periphery.

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442,for roller means claimed in combination with mold means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 449.1]    449.1In continuous casting apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.2.  Apparatus which produces a continuously cast product.
(1) Note. See GLOSSARY for a definition of "continuous casting.""
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 450.1]    450.1Including sensor comprising electrode or float:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.1.  Apparatus including means for detecting the process parameter comprising either an electrically conductive probe or a buoyant means.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 290+ , particularly subclasses 305+, for a device for measuring liquid level using a float.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 450.2]    450.2Including radioactive sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.1.  Apparatus including means for detecting the level of molten metal in the supply, mold, or a component of the apparatus comprising means responsive to alpha, beta, or gamma particle emission.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclass 308 for apparatus to inspect solids or liquids including a radioactive source and subclasses 336.1+ for invisible radiant energy responsive electric signaling devices, per se.
252Compositions,   subclasses 625+ for radioactive compositions, per se.
976Nuclear Technology,   digests 410+ for devices to convert radioactive energy into electrical energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 450.3]    450.3Including thermal sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.1.  Apparatus having means for detecting a process parameter related to heat (e.g., temperature, heat transfer rate, etc.) of the melt, product, or apparatus, per se.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 295 for a thermal device to measure liquid level.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 54 for a device to determine fluid volume from a thermal measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 450.4]    450.4Including optical sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.1.  Apparatus having means for detecting the level of molten metal in the supply or mold comprising light detection means.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents directed to the detection of both endophotonic (i.e., light generated by the melt or mold itself) and exophotonic (i.e., light generated by an external source) energy.
(2) Note. A patent claiming control of feed material in response to detection or recognition of an image related to the melt or mold is classified here.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 293 and 323+ for a device to measure liquid level using illumination or sight glass.
382Image Analysis,   appropriate subclasses for image recognition or processing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 450.5]    450.5Including magnetic sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.1.  Apparatus including means for detecting the level of the substance in the supply, mold, or component of the apparatus comprising means for detecting variation in a local magnetic field.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 290 for a device to measure liquid level.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 200+ for a device, or subcombination thereof, to sense or indicate the sensing of a magnetic field.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 451]    451Of continuous or semicontinuous casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.1.  Process wherein the testing, sampling, or inspecting or condition determination is performed in conjunction with casting a product removed from a molding surface as a further contiguous portion is cast.

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415,for continuous casting apparatus provided with inert or reducing gas atmosphere means.
416,for a continuous casting mold provided with vibrator means.
417,for a continuous casting apparatus combined with other structure not provided for in this class.
418+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting apparatus, per se.
447+,for product supporting or withdrawal means utilized for continuous casting apparatus.
459+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting processes without measuring, testing, inspecting, or controlling steps.
502+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting apparatus including means to apply magnetic forces.
505+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting apparatus utilizing means to apply electrical or wave energy to work material.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 452]    452And regulating an operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 451.  Process wherein a detected variation in a casting parameter is utilized to affect an operation or effect a change to an operation in response to the variation.

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122+,for casting processes controlling solidification.
144,for apparatus for casting printing plates including positive mold cooling means.
154.1+,for casting apparatus provided with responsive control means.
157,for casting apparatus provided with control means responsive to an independent timer.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 864.01+ for measuring and testing samplers or tollers for measuring liquid in a receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 453]    453Pouring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Process wherein the effected operation or change includes the delivery of molten metal to a shaping or casting area.

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133+,for processes of casting including an introduction control or manipulation of charge step.
488+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting processes provided with a specific molten metal pouring step.

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222Dispensing,   subclass 590 for processes of dispensing molten metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 454]    454Product withdrawing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Process wherein the effected operation or change includes removing a continuously cast product from a molding surface.

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441+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting means including a product supporting or withdrawal means.
447+,for a product supporting or withdrawal means for a continuous casting apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 455]    455Cooling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Process wherein the effected operation or change includes an application of an agent to remove heat from a shaping surface or a continuously cast product.

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443+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting means having casting material cooling means.
458,for casting processes provided with measuring, testing, or inspecting steps including a cooling step.
485+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting processes provided with specific mold or product cooling steps.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 456]    456During foundry sand treating or mold making:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.1.  Process wherein the testing, sampling, or inspecting or condition determination is performed while foundry mold material is in the process of being either (a) shaped, or (b) treated (e.g., recycled).

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6,for processes of shaping a forming surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 457]    457During feeding of metal to mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.1.  Process wherein the testing, sampling, or inspecting or condition determination is performed in conjunction with the introduction of solid or liquid metal into a mold cavity.

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133+,for casting processes provided with a charge introduction or manipulation step.
437+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting means provided with means to dispense or distribute a metal charge.
449.1+,for casting apparatus provided with control means responsive to material level in a continuous casting apparatus.

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373Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces,   subclass 42 for processes of charging or discharging devices in electric furnaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 458]    458During cooling of mold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.1.  Process wherein the testing, sampling, or inspecting or condition determination is associated with the removal of heat from a shaping surface.

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443+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting means provided with casting material cooling means.
485+,for continuous or semicontinuous processes provided with a specific mold or product cooling step.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 459]    459Continuous or semicontinuous casting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Process wherein a portion of a cast product is removed from a forming mold or surface as a further contiguous portion is cast.

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413,for continuous casting apparatus provided with product withdrawal control means.
414,for continuous casting product coolant control means.
415,for continuous casting apparatus provided with inert or reducing gas atmosphere means.
416,for a continuous casting mold provided with a vibrator means.
417,for a continuous casting apparatus provided for means other than a perfecting feature or specifically provided for in a class other than 164.
418+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting apparatus.
447+,for a product supporting or withdrawal means in a continuous casting apparatus.
449.1+,for a continuous casting apparatus provided with responsive control means responsive to material level.
502+,for continuous casting apparatus including means to directly apply magnetic forces.
505+,for continuous casting apparatus provided with means to directly apply electrical or wave energy to work.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 460]    460Including product cutting or breaking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Processes which includes the step of finishing the cast product by mechanically cutting or breaking the cast product while a contiguous portion thereof is still associated with the forming mold.
(1) Note. Refer to Class 164, class definition, References to Other Classes, in the reference to Class 29 for the line between Class 29 and Class 164.
(2) Note. Flame cutting is considered mechanically cutting for purposes of this subclass.
(3) Note. The term "mold" as used herein includes (a) the core or cores, (b) corelike elements associated with gate portions of the casting and used for handling, and (c) conveying means serving to support a continuous casting while said casting is still associated with the mold.

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70.1,for a casting step provided with a product trimming, cutting, or breaking step.
78,for processes of incorporating a product dividing member during casting.
140,for apparatus to cast printing plates including means for cutting or trimming the casting.
161+,for apparatus for shaping a forming surface, e.g., mold, including cutting or sweeping means.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 527.6 for processes of metal casting followed by a cutting or removing step.
249Static Molds,   subclass 52 for static molds employing a static means to produce a groove or depression in the product to facilitate breaking or cutting.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclass 161 for flash or sprue removal in a plastic molding operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 461]    461Forming a composite article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Process wherein the product is multipart or multilayered with at least two distinctive zones of metal.

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91+,for processes of producing composite article.
496,for casting processes directly applying electrical or wave energy to work by electrical discharge forming composite articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 462]    462Forming filament, wire, or ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Process wherein the cast product formed is a thin rod, rodlike or striplike member.
(1) Note. Included herein are patents unique by the nature of the product produced. Such patents will not generally be cross-referenced into following process subclasses unless a feature is disclosed or appears to have general utility in other continuous casting processes.

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423,for continuous or semicontinuous casting means used to form filaments or wires.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 463]    463Utilizing continuously advancing surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 462.  Process wherein the member is formed by a forming mold or surface which constantly moves into, through, and out of the molding area.

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427,for continuous casting apparatus provided with means to continuously advance a mold part.
479+,for other continuous casting processes utilizing a continuously shaping surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 464]    464Forming a hollow article:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Process wherein the cast product formed contains a central cavity.

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421+,for continuous or semicontinuous casting means utilized to form hollow castings.
451,for processes of continuously forming hollow products by centrifugal force.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 465]    465Using a core or mandrel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Process wherein the central cavity is shaped by applying molten metal to an external surface of a forming mold.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 466]    466Utilizing magnetic force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Process wherein a magnetic field is applied to work material or to the cast product.
(1) Note. The term work material implies solid or molten metal, a thixotropic state thereof, i.e., solid-liquid mixture, or a slurrry of such metal.

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147.1+,for casting apparatus utilizing electromagnetic means.
498+,for casting processes utilizing magnetic energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 467]    467Molten metal shaped by electromagnetic field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Process wherein molten metal is contained and formed into a desired shape by the application of an electromagnetic field.

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503,for electromagnetic mold means in casting continuous casting apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 468]    468Applying electromagnetic stirring force to molten metal within mold or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Process wherein molten metal within a mold or entrained by the outer skin of a cast product is circulated by an electromagnetic field.

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499,for casting processes utilizing magnetic energy to stir molten metal.
504,for continuous casting apparatus utilizing electromagnetic stirring means.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 469]    469Utilizing electric arc or electron beam melting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Process including raising the temperature of work material to its molten state through either (a) electric arc discharge between an electrode and the work material, or (b) electron beam bombardment upon the work material.
(1) Note. Included herein is the use of two electrically charged metal rods adapted to form an electric arc wherein both are melted to supply casting material and also the use of a single charged rod in a consumable electrode of suitable material.

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494,for casting processes utilizing electron beams to heat the work material.
495,for casting processes using electrical arc discharges to heat the work material.
506,for continuous casting apparatus utilizing electron beam melting means to melt the work material.
508,for continuous casting apparatus utilizing arc electrodes to apply heat to work material.
514,for casting apparatus utilizing arc electrodes to apply electrical energy to work material.

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373Industrial Electric Heating Furnaces,   subclass 42 for electric arc furnace structures, per se; and subclass 68 for electron beam type electric furnaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 164 subclass 470]    470