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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class  72]   CLASS 72,METAL DEFORMING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is a restricted class for the art of metal deforming as defined in this class definition.

For original placement of a patent in this class, its claimed disclosure should meet the minimum requirements of the class definition and should not exceed beyond the boundaries indicated in Scope of the Class and discussed in Lines With Other Classes.

Users of this class are urged to consult the above-noted sections as an aid in placing patents or in locating patented art involving metal deformation, whether in Class 72 or in related classes.

Criteria for Placement of Documents in this class contains useful information for the searcher with regard to location of original patents, cross-references, and nonpatent literature in Class 72.

Terms followed by an asterisk (*) will be found to be defined in the Glossary. Certain very frequently appearing terms, such as Work, Product, and Tool, are accompanied by the asterisk only where the exact meaning of the term is deemed particularly important.

The diagrams appearing in connection with certain defined terms in this class definition and certain subclass definitions are intended as aids in distinguishing among separately classified concepts, and are not to be considered as limitations on the structural embodiments of the defined subject matter. The following reference characters have uniform meanings where they appear in the diagrams.

C = Work-gripping clamp*

C-D = Closed die*

P = Product*

R = Ram or Roller* (as will be evident from the diagram)

T = Actuated tool* (may be a die)

T1, T2 = Tool couple* (at least one actuated tool)

T1, T2, T3 = Tool complex* (at least two actuated tools)

W = Work* or Blank*

(arrow) = Motion of work, tool, etc.

Class 72 is the residual locus for patents directed to a process or apparatus for the mechanical treatment of metal work (elemental metal or mixture of metals) in a self-shape-sustaining state, to change the shape or size of such work, without removal of material therefrom, (a) by the direct application of mechanical force or pressure to the work, or (b) by the application of energy to induce the generation of mechanical stress within the work, which force, pressure, or stress produces a permanent change of shape in some portion of the work (i.e., exceeds the elastic limit of the work).

SCOPE OF THE CLASS

Class 72 is intended to be the locus for patents directed to a process or apparatus for the deformation of metal work by the direct, or indirect, application of mechanical stress thereto while the work is in a self-sustaining state (i.e., not powdered or melted).

Since metal deformation is typically one of a number of differentiated steps in the manufacture of specific commercial products, the preponderance of art discloses metal-deformation methods, or means in combination with other methods, or means of extraneous or nonclass type. It has, accordingly, been found necessary to admit some such combinations while otherwise maintaining Class 72 as a generally restricted class. The sole positive requirement for placement of a patent, as an original copy, in Class 72 is its claimed disclosure of a metal-deforming process or apparatus. A patent claiming metal deformation may, however, be excluded from the class because of claimed extraneous subject matter not expressly covered in the subclass titles and definitions. Claimed subject matter which bars a patent from original placement in Class 72 may be summarized as follows, in Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, below.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

(A) Separately claimed product of manufacture. Class 428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, subclasses 544+ provide for stock material, e.g., of indefinite length, which are all metal or have adjacent metal components; in particular, subclasses 577+ provide for metallic blanks and other intermediate articles.

(B) The presence, either alone or in combination with metal deforming, of a recognized treatment of metal provided for in another existing class and not appearing in a subclass title in this class (e.g., anodizing, assembling of preforms, casting, cathode-sputtering, chemical-machining, electron beam, or laser-machining, use of adhesive, specific heating treatment, melting, welding, etc.).

(C) The combination with a recognized treatment provided for in another existing class and not performed under the conditions, or with the limitations specifically stated in a subclass definition in this class (e.g., coating a final product of metal deformation, cutting solely of a nonmetal, or a nonsystematic cutting of metal).

(D) The combination with other treatment(s) not excluded as such from Class 72, but the combination being directed to the manufacture of a special product which has been recognized in certain other existing classes (e.g., bolt- or nut-making, needle- or pin-making, manufacture of barrier layer devices, etc.). (See RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER CLASSES PERTAINING TO METAL DEFORMING, below).

(E) Deformation of metal wire, as such, and in particular the formation of certain products therefrom (e.g., hairpins), remains subject matter for Class 140, Wireworking. (See RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER CLASSES PERTAINING TO METAL DEFORMING, below).

SUMMARY

Specific questions involving the above-listed exclusory lines may be decided by reference to the following sections of this class. Certain features ancillary to metal deforming are provided for in this class (e.g., work or product handling, heating or cooling, descaling, lubrication, automatic control, etc.), but other treatment elsewhere classified (e.g., assembly, welding) are always a bar to original placement in Class 72.

CRITERIA FOR PLACEMENT OF DOCUMENTS IN THIS CLASS

(A) The schedule of Class 72 was developed with strict adherence to schedule superiority.

Original placement of U. S. patents is determined by their claimed disclosure, with the following exception. Patents granted prior to 1910 are generally, but not necessarily, placed by claimed disclosure. The presence of significant unclaimed subject matter in such an older patent, if of higher schedule superiority than the claimed invention, may determine its original placement in the higher subclass, with such cross-referencing downward as appears helpful and in accordance with established procedure.

(B) Cross-referencing, of U. S. patents only, is intended to account for significant, but unclaimed, disclosure, as well as subordinate, but distinct, inventions related to basic subject matter of the class.

(C) Foreign patents and nonpatent literature are placed solely on the basis of "useful disclosure" without strict regard to schedule superiority or to specific limitations in subclass definitions.

(D) "Claimed disclosure" is defined as the combination of elements recited in the controlling claim of a patent, together with such features of the recited elements as must be imputed from the disclosure to render the claimed combination complete and operative for the functions referred to in the claim. For example, if alternative dies are disclosed in the specification of a machine, but not identifiably recited in the claim, the term "die" is construed broadly for the purpose of original placement. If the claim refers to a die bore, that die which is disclosed as having a bore will be read into the claim. Other features of the so-identified die (e.g., a vent hole) will not be deemed part of the claimed disclosure unless some reference thereto appears in the claim.

(E) "Useful disclosure", for the purpose of this schedule, may be the total disclosure of a document, or in the case of multiple disclosures or of a broad combination, it may be that portion of the total disclosure which, in the opinion of the classifier, is most significantly related to the basic subject of Class 72.

(F) Examples of Placement of U. S. Patents:

(1) A claim to a motor-driven press includes claimed complementary dies to form a faceted reflector unit from sheet tungsten, with automatic angular indexing of work between press strokes and automatic stopping upon completion of 360 degrees of indexing.

Original copy is placed in subclass 30.1, cross-references in subclasses 414 and 422; additional cross-reference in art collection subclass 700 is desirable.

(2) A claim recites the steps of cutting a predetermined length of steel strip from a coil, mechanically gripping the ends of the cut blank, heating the central portion thereof, and wrapping the blank under tension about a contoured forming block.

Original copy is placed in subclass 294, cross-referenced in subclasses 296 and 342.1+. (Additional cross-references in subclass 339, severing a blank from stock; in subclass 364, process, temperature modification; and in subclass 372, process using claimed apparatus; also may be desirable, depending upon apparent novelty in these details.)

(3) A claim recites only a pair of dies with configured faces, one die having a replaceable face portion to alter a dimension of the product:

Original copy is placed in subclass 473. No upward cross-reference is necessary because press features such as drive, guides, etc., are presumed to be conventional.

RELATIONSHIP TO OTHER CLASSES PERTAINING TO METAL DEFORMING, PER SE

The following enumeration and discussion of classes does not purport to be exhaustive, but includes loci of patents relating to, per se, metal deforming wholly or in part.

(A) CLASSES OF ARTICLE MAKING:

A recitation, in a process or apparatus claim, of the article being made will result in original placement of the patent containing such claim in the appropriate article-making class, except that a claim which recites only a step of, or use of an instrumentality for, performing a single metal-deforming operation will be placed in this class (72).

See References to Other Classes, below, for examples of such classes (or portions of classes) directed to the manufacture of particular products.

(B) THE CLASS OF WIREWORKING:

The class of reference (140, Wireworking) includes patents for certain wire-deforming operations (e.g., Barbing, Knotting, Crimping) named in subclass titles of the class. The lines that existed between Class 140 and other metal-deforming classes will (e.g., Metal Bearding, Metal Forging, etc.) continue to be observed, and this class (72) will serve as the repository of patents not provided for in Class 140.

(C) THE CLASSES OF MEASURING AND TESTING:

Class 73 includes patents for structures that deform metal by "stress or strain of material of structure" (see Class 73, subclasses 788+). Class 374 including determining the thermal response of deformation (Class 374, subclasses 46+), and resistance to a thermally induced deformation. The question of patent placement will usually be resolved by the specification"s disclosing, on one hand, deformation to effective destruction (for Classes 73 or 374), or, on the other hand, deformation to form a product (for Class 72).

RELATIONSHIP TO COMBINATION CLASSES

A patent claim directed to a combination of a metal-deforming step or apparatus with other treatment or apparatus, not specifically provided for in Class 72, is excluded from this class and is generally placeable as noted in the following paragraphs.

(A) WITH ASSEMBLING:

(1) "Assembling" denotes the juxtaposing or joining of two or more "preforms" (discrete objects, as distinguished from material applied as coating, filling, or added as alloy, etc.).

(2) Methods of, and means for, assembling preforms are provided for in other classes, and residually in Class 29, Metal Working. More specifically, if a patent claim recites a step of (or apparatus for) metal deformation which, as disclosed, recognizes or requires the presence of two or more discrete members, at least one of which is the subject of the metal-deforming operation, and the deforming operation results in securing at least two of the members together, the claim is excluded from Class 72 and must be placed in another class, such as Class 29. For example, a claim directed to the step of riveting or staking two metal objects together is proper subject matter for Class 29, Metal Working, subclasses 428+ (Assembly and/or Joining).

(3) The following two operations are distinguishable from the above-noted assembling of preforms and are proper subject matter for Class 72: (a) Method of, or apparatus for, joining spaced portions of the same workpiece solely by metal deformation (e.g., lock-seaming a tube). (b) Method of, or apparatus for, extruding a metallic sheath on a core.

(4) References With Other Classes, below, contains citations to classes that illustrate the location of patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.

(B) WITH CUTTING

(1) Class 72 is the locus for patents directed to the combination of metal deforming and cutting* (method or apparatus), provided that the same material is treated, and in a systematic manner. In other words, the combination of metal deforming and cutting is proper subject matter for this class, with only two exceptions:

(a) Disclosure that cutting and metal deforming are performed only on different work. For example: (i) Device to forge a metal part and to punch an attached or associated record card (Class 29). (ii) Combined plier-type insulation stripper and wire end bender (Class 7). (iii) Method of embedding a metal core in plastic material, bending to a desired shape, and trimming off excess plastic (Class 264).

(b) Disclosure fails to teach a systematic, i.e., simultaneous or predetermined, orderly sequential operation of cutter and metal-deforming means on the same work. For example: (i) Hand punch with a turret of manually selectable cutting and embossing dies (Class 7). (ii) Punch press with interchangeable cutting and bending dies or die inserts (Class 29). (iii) Set of hand tools for severing, incising, and stamping metal (Class 7). (iv) Wire-crimping pliers with separately accessible side-cutting dies (Class 7). (v) Press structure having spaced cutting and forging tool stations; no work feed means (Class 29).

(2) In summary, it is further noted that:

(a) A patent otherwise barred from Class 72 will not be originally placed herein because of the inclusion of cutting.

(b) Patents to cutting tools or apparatus, per se, are excluded from Class 72.

(c) "Convertible" cutting and metal-deforming apparatus, i.e., requiring the intervention of an operative to effect the conversion, is generally excluded from the subject matter of this class.

(d) "Combined" apparatus, in the sense of mere side-by-side or jointly driven cutting and metal-deforming devices, independently or alternatively usable at the will of an operative, is generally excluded.

(e) Combinations excluded from Class 72 under the foregoing discussion are generally placeable in Class 7 or Class 29, as illustrated in examples under RELATIONSHIP TO COMBINATION CLASSES, With Cutting, paragraph 1, above.

(C) WITH HEAT TREATMENT:

(1) "Heat Treatment" refers to the establishment or maintenance of a given, relatively permanent, physical or chemical condition in work by heating or cooling it in a prescribed manner.

(2) A patent directed to the combination of metal deformation and heat treatment of work will be placed as follows:

(a) In Class 219, Electric Heating, when electric heating (e.g., resistance, induction) is involved.

(b) In Class 72, when the patent is not otherwise excluded, when the heat treatment is effected by other than electrical means, and the heat treatment is: (i.) unspecified (heating or cooling broadly claimed); (ii) for conditioning work to a suitable temperature for a metal-deforming operation; (iii) process annealing, i.e., for relieving stress due to a prior working or preparatory to a following operation; or (iv) for returning work or product to a desired ambient or handling temperature.

(1) Note. The term "quenching" is sometimes inaccurately used to denote mere cooling to a convenient temperature. Such usage will not bar placement of a patent in Class 72. (c) In Class 148, Metal Treatment, if there is significant heat treatment to modify or maintain the internal physical structure (i.e., microstructure) or chemical property of metal combined with a metal deforming operation of Class 72, see References to Other Classes in the Class 148 definition. Significant heat treatment occurs when the temperature or heating or cooling rate is provided in a nonworking related step or when microstructure description is utilized in the claim to describe the heating or cooling treatment of the metal. Working at a specified temperature without mention of microstructure is not significant heat treatment for Class 148. The mere use of the term "ageing" or "tempering" is considered significant heat treatment for Class 148. Except for "Work-Hardening" which is proper in Class 72, the use of the term "hardening" will be considered significant heat treatment for Class 148. "Quenching" will be considered significant heat treatment lacking an indication that it means simply returning to a convenient working temperature (which belongs in Class 72 as stated above). "Stress-relief-annealing" will remain in Class 72, if combined with a metal deforming operation. Working metal in the "superplastic" state or during "dynamic recrystallization" remains in Class 72 unless a temperature is provided in the working step. If temperature is provided for the superplastic working step, classification will go to Class 148. When combined with metal deforming, "annealing", per se, goes in Class 72. However, annealing at a specified temperature goes in Class 148. Merely heating or cooling a metal to a working temperature is not significant heat treatment for Class 148. The presence of reactive coating in any step of a metal treating process goes to Class 148. Combinations of chemical-heat removing (i.e., flame-cutting) or burning with metal working go to Class 148. (d) In Class 266, Metallurgical Apparatus, if the apparatus is for heat-treating solid metal and see the definitions therein for the line to Class 72. (D) WITH CLEANING, COATING, OR OTHER TREATMENT: The following remarks apply both to apparatus and to process claims. (1) The combination of metal deforming with cleaning, descaling, or application of lubricating material to the work material before, during or after metal deformation is provided for in Class 72. (2) The combination of metal deforming with exposure of the work, before or during deformation, to gas, vapor, mist, or modified atmosphere, is provided for in Class 72. Examples of this combination are: the deformation or work in an evacuated chamber, or in the presence of an inert gas, or the spraying or sputtering of material on work before deformation. For the classification of metal deforming followed by coating, see Class 29, Metal Working, subclasses 527.1+ and associated search notes. (3) The combination of metal deformation with the prior or simultaneous application of fluent material to an existing workpiece, by any such technique as casting, coating, or molding, is provided for in Class 72. The only exception involves electric arc deposition of metal, which combination is placeable in Class 219, Electric Heating. Any claimed casting, coating, or molding of material upon a product subsequent to a final step of metal deforming is proper subject matter for Class 29 as the residual locus, or for Classes 427 and 264 for specific methods, or Class 118 for apparatus. (4) The combination of initially making a metallic workpiece by casting or molding, followed by deformation thereof, is excluded from this class, and is generally proper subject matter for Class 29, Metal Working. Certain perfecting treatments of cast metal while in the mold are classifiable in Class 164, Metal Founding. An apparent exception is the charging of an extrusion container with molten metal; in this instance, the pouring of molten metal is regarded as a convenient technique of handling work for later extrusion, rather than a casting for Class 164, Metal Founding, or a combination involving casting for Class 29. Subclasses 253.1 of this class (72) provide for this combination of charging metal into a container and extruding it therefrom. (E) WITH BODILY TRANSFERRING OF TOOL TO OR FROM TOOL SUPPORT OR STORAGE MEANS: The following remarks apply to either a process or apparatus claim. Metal deforming combined with bodily transfer or exchange of a deforming tool to or from a tool support (i.e., tool driver) or a storage means is proper for Class 483, Tool Changing, with the exception of deforming limited to roller couple tools with means to introduce or remove at least one roller with respect to the couple which is provided for in Class 72, subclasses 238 and subclasses indented thereunder. RELATIONSHIP TO SUBCOMBINATION CLASSES (A) THE WORK-HANDLING OR PRODUCT-HANDLING CLASSES: The placement of patents claiming method of, or apparatus for, the handling of work for, or the product of, a deforming operation and also claiming the deforming method or means will be in this class unless the deforming method or means is not recited significantly. In this connection, a step of deforming (in a method claim) is considered significant even if it only indicates the type of deformation, e.g., "rolling", "bending", "spinning". On the other hand, a claimed step of handling to a named type of deforming instrumentality, e.g., "rolling mill", "bending brake", "spinning station", is not deemed to set forth a significant deforming step and thus is proper for a handling class. If however, such instrumentality is further identified in terms of deforming function such as "three-high rolling mill", "hot metal bending brake", "pattern-controlled spinning station", such claimed terminology will import a significant deforming step and warrant placement of a patent in Class 72. In a claim directed to apparatus, examples of broadly recited and not significant deforming means, which would permit original placement of a patent in an appropriate handling class, include "rolling mill", "working station", "forging press", and similar terms; however, a significant relationship of work-handling and deforming means would be proper for class (72), such as "means to insert the billet into the upper pass of a three-high rolling mill". The quoted phrases should be considered as exemplary, not as all-inclusive. Examples of classes directed to work-handling or product-handling are listed in References to Other Classes, below. (B) THE CLASSES RELATING TO TOOL DRIVING: (1) This class (72) provides for patents claiming means for driving a tool that is restricted, as disclosed, by its shape or its tool-face or its composition to its function of deforming metal. (2) Patents claiming a means for driving a tool which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification), will be placed in a class appropriate to the power source, transmission, or the machine as disclosed. (3) Among the classes directed to such latter driving means are the following: (C) CLASSES (OR PORTIONS OF CLASSES) PROVIDING FOR A TOOL OR TOOLFACE, PER SE: See References to Other Classes, below for examples of classes directed to such subject matter. OTHER CLASS RELATIONSHIPS (A) CLASSES INCLUDING DEFORMING OF NONMETALS: (1) Class 72 is the residual locus for the plastic deformation of metallic work, (a) as simple metal stock or blanks, (b) in combination with nonmetal, as in the case of metal and paper laminates, or (c) as unspecified or unidentified material which appears by disclosure to be metal (e.g., referred to as "ingot", "rail", "axle blank"). The additional deformation of nonmetallic material (e.g., in a laminate or other composite work) will not bar placement of a patent in this class. (2) A claimed disclosure of deformation of a nonmetal only is subject matter for another class. Typical classes are listed in the References To Other Classes, below. (B) CLASS 242, WINDING, TENSIONING, OR GUIDING (1) With respect to winding, Class 72 and Class 242 contain patents wherein work is disclosed as being held to a mandrel or core and wound thereon due to interaction of (a) a force rotating the core and (b) a force restraining the work to movement along a course substantially tangent to the surface of the core or the wound product. Patents disclosing such forces applied to metal and claiming use of a deflector closely adjacent the core will be placed originally in Class 72 unless the specification clearly teaches that the metal is not deformed or stressed beyond its elastic limit. Patents disclosing such forces applied to metal, wherein the restraining force is claimed in terms of means, or the use of means, remote from the core for retarding movement of the work will be placed originally in Class 72 only if the disclosure positively teaches deformation or the metal. (2) With respect to unwinding, a patent wherein metal is unwound from a coil will be placed in Class 72 only if a claimed disclosure teaches deformation or stress beyond the elastic limit, as by use of a deflector* or tensioning means. (C) CLASSES INCLUDING COMPACTING OF PARTICULATE MATERIAL: The deformation of compacted particulate metal is not excluded from Class 72, if the work material is in self-shape-sustaining state. The Class 72 schedule affords eight basic fields of search, as follows: Class 72, subclasses 1-47, and 324 -342.96 for method or apparatus including: (1) All claimed combinations of metal deforming with selected extraneous treatments (e.g., descaling, cutting) which are not, per se, excluded from the class and (2) Metal deforming with selected perfecting features (e.g., indicator, random control of stopping), which featured are deemed generally pertinent to any type of metal deforming. Class 72, subclasses 48-323, and 343-361 for method or apparatus involving selected types of metal-deforming instrumentalities (e.g., by pressurized fluent medium, by plural relatively movable work-gripping clamps).
(1) Note. This group includes some newly defined concepts in the basic subject matter of the class for which there is no presently accepted terminology. See the Art Term Index in Subclass References to the Current Class, below, for additional entries to the schedule. Class 72, subclasses 362-379.6 for residual metal-deforming processes (e.g., coiling or twisting) including purely manipulative steps or steps involving apparatus not provided for in preceding subclasses. Class 72, subclasses 380-416 for essentially complete basic apparatus of the class type. Recitation of tools or tool faces, tool-moving or guiding means, and disclosure of specific work treatment by the tools, is required for original placement in this group.
(1) Note. A basic flat-platen press or flat-faced power hammer and anvil is excluded from this group unless the claimed combination specifically fits a subclass definition (e.g., a simple flat-platen press claimed only as a bender or straightener for specifically shaped work may possibly qualify as offset-tool-face apparatus for subclasses 380+; otherwise it would be found in following group). Class 72, subclasses 417-461 for apparatus subcombinations, such as tool drivers or work handling means, of insufficient scope to constitute complete metal-deforming devices; also, the flat-faced power hammers and presses noted above. Class 72, subclasses 462- 482.94 for tools and/or tool holders.
(1) Note. Some tools, such as a bridge-type extrusion die, are classified in preceding groups, as subcombinations peculiar to specific metal-deforming apparatus. Class 72, subclass 483, for miscellaneous apparatus or nontool element not provided for in preceding subclasses. Class 72, subclasses 700 - 715 for cross-referenced material relating to six concepts or commonly used terms which have not been defined for Class 72. For instance, subclasses 700 and 705 relate to particular kinds of workpieces. For these and other undefined terms, see the Art Term Index in Subclass References to the Current Class, below ART TERM INDEX TO CLASS 72 The index in Subclass References to the Current Class, below, is provided for convenience in locating certain types of metal-deforming methods or apparatus according to key words in common usage. Some keywords (e.g., Rolling) resemble defined Glossary terms, below, but are here used in their popular or broader (often ambiguous) sense. Certain keywords represent subject matter formerly included in abolished classes but excluded from Class 72. Pertinent classes for such subject matter are: Class 100, Press; Class 29, Assembling; Class 228, Welding

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

6.1+,28.1+, AUTOMATIC CONTROL (COMBINED)
31.13,253.1+, DIE-EXPRESSING (EXTRUSION)
39+,DESCALING (COMBINED)
51+,176+, SKELPING
53,SHOT-PEENING
56,ELECTROHYDRAULIC FORMING
56,ELECTROMAGNETIC FORMING
56,EXPLOSIVE FORMING
56,HIGH-ENERGY-RATE FORMING (SEE EXPLOSIVE FORMING, ETC.)
57+,150, 465, CORE, DEFORMABLE, ETC.
59,176+, 184+, 385, 415, CORRUGATING
59,62, TUBE CORRUGATING
64+,299, 371, TWISTING
66,COILING
76,377, 395, PEENING (PEINING)
76,377, 465.1, SNARLING (STIPPLING)
76,402, SWAGING
82+,SPINNING
82+,293+, 350, 417, BLANKHOLDER.
76,402, TUBE.
84+,102+, 367, BEADING
88+,PLATEN-ROLLING
88+,104, THREAD-ROLLING
91+,BY WALKING-FORM, CONCAVE-AND-ROLL
97,256+, 325+, PIERCING
115+,317, AND 393, FLARING, TUBE
115+,317, 393, TUBE FLARING
135+,SPRING COILER.
135+,HELICAL COILING.
146+,SPIRAL COILING.
149,WIPE-FORMING.
151,295+, 305, STRETCH-FORMING
160+,LEVELLING.
184+,FLYING TOOL.
184+,DIE-ROLLING
186,325+, 464, COMPOSITE (WITH CUTTING) TOOL.
189,PILFERING MILL
196,402, 712, CRIMPING
199+,365.2+, ROLLING
217,SWEEP-ARM.
220,WALKING-FORM
223,232 ROLLING, THREE-HIGH MILL
241.2+,ROLLING, FOUR-HIGH MILL
256,325+, BILLET PIERCING
258,700, BIMETALLIC WORK
264+,CORE TUBE, EXTRUSION
264+,462+, MANDREL, EXTRUSION.
267,COLD SQUIRTING (IMPACT EXTRUSION)
267,IMPACT EXTRUSION.
274+,DRAWING, DIE BENCH
274+,302+,378, STRETCHING
274+,DRAWING, WIRE- OR TUBE-
284,343 DRAWING, PUSH-
292,303, 402, SHRINKER, TIRE.
293+,AND NOTES THEREUNDER, CUTTING (COMBINED).
296+,WRAP-FORMING.
298,310, 319+, BENDING (SEE COILING, CORRUGATING, LEVELLER) BRAKE.
301,386+, OFFSETTING.
302+,318, 322+,352+, 377, 407+,416, UPSETTING
318,357, HEADING
334,340, TRIMMING (SEE CUTTING)
336,337, BLANKING (SEE CUTTING)
347+,DRAWING, DEEP- OR SHELL-
358+,414, EMBOSS
359,COINING
360,412+, 437, DROP FORGING
367+,TUBE WORKING
377,FORGING (SEE SPECIFIC TERMS)
377,REDUCING (SEE SPECIFIC TERMS)
377,SWAGING (SEE SPECIFIC TERMS)
389.1+,SHAFT STRAIGHTENING
411,EDGEWISE BENDER
419+,FEED, WORK (COMBINED)
419+,HANDLING (COMBINED)
429+,HAMMER, DRIVE
430,EXPLOSIVELY ACTUATED TOOL
435+,HAMMER, DROP
462+,ANVIL
462+,HAMMER
467+,THROUGH DIE
700,ALLOY
700,RARE METAL
701,702, DISTORTION PREVENTION
703,KNURLING
705,FRAME STRAIGHTENING

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

7Compound Tools,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.
29Metal Working,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members, and subclass 700 under "SEARCH CLASS" (and see reference to other classes in (5) Note).
29Metal Working,   subclasses 284 through 25.42,inclusive; and subclasses 592+ particularly 592.1 through 899.1, inclusive. (directed to the manufacture of particular products, see Classes of Article Making, above).
29Metal Working,   especially subclasses 270+ providing for hand-manipulatable tool means. (class providing for a tool or toolface, per se).
29Metal Working,   (e.g., residual for fibrous material), for claimed disclosure of deformation of a nonmetal only.
57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members, subclasses 9 and 311 involving preforming of wire strands.
59Chain, Staple, and Horseshoe Making,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.
59Chain, Staple, and Horseshoe Making,   (directed to the manufacture of particular products, see Classes of Article Making, above).
60Power Plants,   for patents claiming a means for driving a tool, which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification).
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   for patents claiming a means for driving a tool, which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification).
76Metal Tools and Implements, Making,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.
76Metal Tools and Implements, Making,   (directed to the manufacture of particular products).
79Button Making,   subclass 3 . (directed to the manufacture of particular products, see Classes of Article Making, above).
81Tools,   especially subclasses 300+ providing for plier-type tool structure. (class providing for a tool or toolface, per se).
83Cutting,   especially subclasses 651+ providing for cutting tool or tool-support structure. (class providing for a tool or toolface, per se).
100Presses,   subclasses 214+ having disclosures of reciprocating press construction wherein the tool is a platen. See this class (100) for patents claiming a means for driving a tool which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification).
140Wireworking,   subclasses 71 through 92.2, inclusive; and subclasses 3 through 57, inclusive. (directed to the manufacture of particular products, see Classes of Article Making, above).
144Woodworking,   for claimed disclosure of deformation of a nonmetal only.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   for claimed disclosure of deformation of a nonmetal only.
157Wheelwright Machines,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.
163Needle and Pin Making,   (directed to the manufacture of particular products, see Classes of Article Making, above).
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   having disclosures of a motion converting means and/or hammer for driving a general-purpose tool. See this class (100) for patents claiming a means for driving a tool which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification).
193Conveyors, Chutes, Skids, Guides, and Ways,   except that a chute or other gravity conveyor combined with a power-driven conveyor is found in Class 198, Conveyors: Power-Driven, subclasses 311 , 359+, 523+, and others. (class directed to work-handling or product-handling)
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   particularly subclasses 373+ for a conveyor having means for changing the attitude of the conveyor load relative to the conveying direction. (class directed to work-handling or product-handling).
209Classifying, Separating and Assorting Solids,   (class directed to work-handling or product-handling).
219Electric Heating,   (for combination of metal deforming and electric welding), for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   (class directed to work-handling or product-handling).
227Elongated-Member-Driving Apparatus,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members.
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   (also see the reference to Class 242 in OTHER CLASS RELATIONSHIPS, above). (class directed to work-handling or product-handling).
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   for claimed disclosure of deformation of a nonmetal only.
271Sheet Feeding or Delivering,   (class directed to work-handling or product-handling).
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   (class directed to work-handling or product-handling).
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   for patents claiming a means for driving a tool, which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification).
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 232+ having disclosures of pile-driver means, for patents claiming a means for driving a tool, which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification).
414Material or Article Handling,   in particular subclasses 754+ where billet turnover devices can be found and compare with those devices in Class 198, Conveyors: Power-Driven, subclasses 373+. (class directed to work-handling or product-handling).
419Powder Metallurgy Processes,   appropriate subclasses for processes of forming articles from particulate material including metal particles with or without use of heat.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   for claimed disclosure of deformation of a nonmetal only.
470Threaded, Headed Fastener, or Washer Making: Process and Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for methods and machines for making bolt, screws, nuts, nails, rivets, and washers. (directed to the manufacture of particular products, see Classes of Article Making, above.)
470Threaded, Headed Fastener, or Washer Making: Process and Apparatus,   for patented art involving metal deformation in combination with assembly of plural members, appropriate subclasses for methods and machines for making bolt, screws, nuts, nails, rivets, and washers.
475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   for patents claiming a means for driving a tool, which tool is recited by name only (both in the claim(s) and in the specification).
493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   for claimed disclosure of deformation of a nonmetal only.

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

ANVIL

An undriven tool which, as disclosed, is designed and intended to react against work with sufficient force to enable an operation of the class type to be effected in some portion of the work.

(1) Note. An undriven flat-faced tool is regarded as an "Anvil", even though work of a specific shape may be deformed into flatness against it.

ASSEMBLY

The act or operation of bringing into juxtaposition or contact a plurality of preforms (self-shape-sustaining objects) and/or joining said preforms, i.e., so treating one or more of them as to restrict their relative mobility.

(1) Note. The mere ordering, stacking, or piling of workpieces prior to a metal-deforming operation thereupon, or the similar handling of products, is not regarded as "Assembly" for the purposes of this class.

AXIS-OF-BEND

That imaginary line used as a center about which the bending of moving work occurs. For convenience in illustrating the application of the term to the deformation of planiform work, three such axes may be considered, all being related to the direction of work movement and to the disposition of a planar nonthickness surface (see Figure III-1). The three axes are defined as follows:

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 0

(A) X-Axis is a line both parallel to the direction of movement of the work and parallel to a nonthickness surface thereof.

(B) Y-Axis is a line both perpendicular to the direction of movement of the work (i.e., length) and perpendicular to a nonthickness surface thereof.

(C) Z-Axis is a line both perpendicular to the direction of movement of the work and parallel to a nonthickness surface thereof.

In the case of strand or rodlike work (i.e., wherein a cross section taken transverse to its length shows substantially equal width and thickness), corresponding or analogous axes are used for convenience.

Figure III-2 shows the product partially bent around a Z-Axis to form a transverse bend or the first convolution of a spiral coil.

Image 2 for class 72 subclass 0

Figure 111-3 shows the product bent around a Z-Axis and additionally deflected along the Z-Axis-of-Bend, to form a helical-coil from rod.

Image 3 for class 72 subclass 0

Figure III-4 shows the operation termed "levelling" wherein each successive work portion is deflected in alternation about a plurality or parallel Z-Axes, whereby each portion travels through an undulating path.

Image 4 for class 72 subclass 0

Figure III-5 shows the side margins of the work bent around the X-Axis to form a trough. Further bending of the side margins obviously form a tube.

Image 5 for class 72 subclass 0

BLANK

A discrete piece of material which is intended to be subjected to an operation of the class type.

BLANK HOLDER

A mechanism, incorporated in a metal-deforming device, intended to grip a blank prior to and during deformation thereof. (Often arranged to permit a desired amount of slippage of said blank in response to the application of deforming force thereto, thereby modifying the effect of the metal-deforming tools). See "Clamp".

CAVITY

(DIE CAVITY) A passageway closed at one end; a chamber or blind hole having at least one work-shape-imposing portion of closed perimeter definable in a plane normal to the direction of relative motion of a co-acting tool or work forcer, or of the disclosed flow of work. See "Orifice" and "Passageway".

CLAMP

(See "Work-Gripping Clamp" and compare "Blank Holder").

CLEAN

To loosen, separate, or remove from the surface of metal a spot or layer of any substance generally distinguishable from the work material without intended redimensioning of said material.

CLOSED DIE

A tool* which comprises a work-shape-imposing orifice*, cavity*, or passageway*. (See diagrams under subclasses 276, 327, 350, and 360 for examples of "Closed Die").

COIL

The product of an operation in which work is bent so that it surrounds an Axis-Of-Bend* through more than 360 degrees of revolution. As used in this class, the operation involves moving the work and progressively deflecting successive portions thereof in the same general direction which is arcuate with respect to the direction of movement of the work.

(1) Note. To produce a SPIRAL-COIL, the work is bent by deflection and wound, one convolution on a successive convolution, to form a scroll of gradually increasing diameter.
(2) Note. To produce a HELICAL-COIL, the work if deflected as described above, but an additional deflection or diversion is imposed on successive convolutions. The additional deflection is directed along the Axis-Of-Bend*. The additional component of bend is measured in terms of pitch, which term is used here in the same sense as applied to a screw or helix.

CONTROL

To start, or to modify the operating condition of, any portion of a work-treating or handling device

(1) Note. "Stopping" is ordinarily regarded as an aspect of "Control", but is separately treated in this class in accordance with the class schedule. See subclasses 1+.

CUT

To separate any portion of a workpiece from any other portion of the same workpiece by a step of machining (e.g., grinding, drilling, boring, milling, planing), severing (e.g., breaking, sawing, slicing, shearing), or by intrusion of a sharp-edged or pointed tool without removal of material (e.g., stabbing, splitting, intrusive punching). See "Sever" and "Pierce".

DEFLECTOR

An element of instrumentality which engages successively presented portions of moving work and forces said portions from a first path of motion into a second and different path of motion.

(1) Note. The "Deflector" may comprise a single deflecting surface forcing all portions of work in a single direction, or a plurality of elements acting differently upon different portions of work.

DIE

A metal-deforming tool* which, as disclosed, has a shaping or reshaping function with regard to the portion(s) of work engaged by it.

(1) Note. For the purposes of this class, a "Die" may be regarded as a tool which leaves or impresses its characteristic mark on the engaged face portion of work. The mark may be a three-dimensional imprint of the die face (see "Tool Face"), or may simply be the trace or track left by passage of the "Die" while in forcible engagement with the work, with or without accompanying deformation in other portions of the work. If the tool-engaged face of the work remains unaltered in shape or position, the tool is regarded as an anvil*; if altered in position only, the tool in question is a work-forcer*. See "Anvil", "Closed Die". "Tool", and "Work- Forcer".

FLYING TOOL

A tool*, other than a roller, having a tool face which, as disclosed, engages and acts upon bodily moving work while itself moving substantially in the same direction and at the same speed as such work.

HOLLOW WORK

Material or article of indeterminate length having exterior and interior surfaces extending in the length dimension; each surface, as viewed in a cross section normal to the length dimension, showing an unbroken periphery; the interior surface of which is intended to be treated by a metal-deforming tool of limited length.

METAL

The material subjected to an operation of the class type; an elemental metal or alloy of mixture thereof in self-shape-sustaining state (i.e., not molten, gaseous, or powdered); metal as the term is employed in Class 29, Metal Working, and Class 148, Metal Treatment.

ORIFICE

A closed perimeter opening or aperture extending directly through the thickness of a plate or wall and constituting (1) the mouth of a chamber, or (2) an interconnection between the regions of space at either side of a plate or wall of substantial lateral extent. A passageway* of such short length that it has only one effective work-shape-imposing portion.

PASSAGEWAY

A conduit or path (especially for guiding and restraining the plastic flow of metal), having at least one shape-imposing portion of closed perimeter definable in a plane normal to the axis of the conduit.

(1) Note. A passageway is usually open at each end; the term may, however be applied to a blind hole which, by disclosure, does not become completely and forcibly filled with work during an operation of the class type.
(2) Note. A passageway is capable of imposing more than one shape on work; it may be regarded as a sequence of orifices, e.g., for drawing or extruding a twisted product of noncircular cross section.

PIERCE

To stab or penetrate by a pointed, conical, or wedgelike tool, as distinguished from punching (shearing) by coacting-edged tools.

PLURAL TOOL SET

Three or more relatively movable tools* which are effective in any combination to perform operations of the class type on one or more discrete pieces of work, of which tools less than the total number are in actual contact with the same piece of work at the same time. For example: (1) tool couples* located at spaced tool stations in a plural tool station machine, if they act on distinct workpieces, or noncurrently on portions of integrally connected work material, and (2) two movable tools alternately engaging a workpiece resting upon an anvil, each tool retracting before the other tool touches the work.

PRODUCT

The object or material after an operation of the class type has been performed thereon.

(1) Note. The "Product" of one operation is properly denoted as "Work" for a subsequent operation.

ROLLER

A deforming instrumentality having a work- engaging, work-deforming peripheral surface which is generated by a line revolving about an axis, said instrumentality being disclosed as revolving about said axis so that successive peripheral portions thereof cyclically move into and out of contact with a work surface during deformation of the work, relative movement occurring, during deformation, between said axis and the work surface along a direction parallel to the work surface, thereby producing a relative rolling motion between the roller surface and the work surface as contrasted with sliding motion (i.e., the surfaces move in the same direction at substantially the same linear speed).

(1) Note. The generating line of the peripheral surface may have any continuous profile (e.g., straight, curved, or irregular), and the line may have any desired inclination, other than at right angles, relative to the axis. Thus, to be considered a "Roller", any and all cross sections taken at right angles to the axis must show a circular work-engaging periphery.
(2) Note. A hollow member wherein the interior surface is generated and used as described is also considered to be a "Roller".
(3) Note. A plurality of tools rotatable about the same axis in the same direction and at the same rotational speed is considered to be a single "Roller" in the environment described herein.

ROLLER CLUSTER

A group of three or more rollers* disposed relatively to one another and to the work* such that the work passes between the rollers with a peripheral surface portion of each roller engaging a surface portion of the work, the engaged surface portions being substantially coextensive in the direction of movement of the work, and the rollers simultaneously deforming the work.

ROLLER COUPLE

A group of two coacting rollers* disposed opposite one another such that work passes therebetween, the adjacent peripheral surfaces of both rollers simultaneously engaging opposite sides, or opposed surfaces portions, of the work passing between the rollers and thus deforming that work.

ROLLER-LIKE TOOL

A deforming instrumentality having a work- engaging, work-deforming tool surface with some, but not all, of the characteristics of a roller*.

(1) Note. Usually (a) the surface is generated by a line revolving about an axis (thus the tool looks like a roller), but the relative movement of the axis and work produces a sliding motion of tool surface relative to work surface; or (b) the relative movement of the tool axis and the work produces a rolling motion of tool surface on work surface (thus the tool acts like a roller), but the surface is not formed as a roller (e.g., the tool surface is rough, or gearlike, or recessed).

SEVER

To forcibly part or separate a discrete portion from a body of material. See "Cut".

STOCK

A piece or an indeterminate length of material from which a plurality of blanks* or products* may be made (usually in linear sequence).

TOOL

A tangible instrumentality having a surface portion which is designed and intended to engage or react against work with sufficient force to effect an operation of the class type.

(1) Note. A core, mandrel, anvil, or the like, which may be "passive" in the sense of supplying only reaction force is included in this definition. The tool may be either transitory or enduring; it may be destroyed in a single use.

TOOL CARRIER

A device for holding a tool* (a) against the force of gravity, and/or (b) in cooperative relationship with another tool(s) or the work, and wherein the tool moves with respect to the device. For example, a stationary axle on which a roller* rotates is a "Tool Carrier" because of the relative movement; however, a shaft to which a roller is keyed so that both rotate together is not a carrier, whereas the bearing in which the shaft rotates is a "Tool Carrier" in this instance.

TOOL COMPLEX

Three or more relatively movable tools* which are in simultaneous contact with the same work at some instant during a metal-deforming operation.

(1) Note. Typically, either all active tools are concurrently actuated, or a tool couple deforms work and remains in contact therewith while a third, fourth, etc., tool advances into deforming contact with the thus restrained work.
(2) Note. The deformation effected by a "Tool Complex" is generally greater in degree and/or more elaborate in detail than can be accomplished by repeated operations of a tool couple*, or the successive strokes of a plural tool set*.
(3) Note. A "Tool Complex" may accomplish two or more seemingly distinct operations (e.g., simultaneously flanging opposite edges of a sheet). In many such instances, some advantage is gained over the use of plural tool sets (e.g., balanced forces on work may permit the use of lighter clamping structure or the elimination of a work-holding device, and the simultaneous tool actions may enable closer control of dimensions).

TOOL COUPLE

Two tools which are so related in position and relative motion that when both are engaged with the same work they cooperate to effect an operation of the class type. See "Tool Complex".

TOOL FACE

The surface portion(s) of a tool body which actually engage work at some time during an operation of the class type.

(1) Note. "Tool Face" is distinguishable from supporting, interconnecting, spacing, or surrounding surface portions which do not engage work during normal or disclosed operation. Disclosure of the tool operation is thus necessary for identification of the "Tool Face" proper, as is consideration for placement in subclasses 380+ (offset tool faces) or subclasses 392+ (relatively receding tool faces). (See diagram under subclass 386 for example of a "Tool Face".)

TOOL HOLDER

A Device rigidly attached to a tool and effective to support and/or to transmit actuating force thereto. See "Tool Carrier".

TUBE

A pipe, hollow cylinder, or hollow rodlike member consisting of a wall shaped in the form of a simple closed curve and extending axially, providing a conduit throughout its length. The wall may vary along its axial length in transverse dimensions and/or shape.

WORK

The object or material which is intended to be subjected to an operation of the class type. See "Blank".

WORK-FORCER

A driven tool which, as disclosed, has the function of forcibly moving work against the resistance of another tool.

(1) Note. If the tool also directly deforms the engaged face of the work, it is specifically a die*.

WORK-GRIPPING CLAMP

An instrumentality having a plurality of opposed solid jaws or surface elements which are made effective, by movement of one or more of said jaws or surface elements, to grip a portion of work frictionally and to hold it fixedly.

(1) Note. Some form of clamp-actuating means is required; a so-called "self-gripping" clamp, which closes upon work in response to initial movement of work, is included.
(2) Note. Blank holders or "clamps", which are intended to allow controlled slippage of work during an operation, are excluded, as constituting "Tools". See "Blank Holder".

WORK TREATMENT

Altering or actively maintaining some property, characteristic, or condition of work. (Orientation or location of work, or juxtaposition of plural pieces, is not considered to be a property, characteristic, or condition for the purpose of this definition in this class).

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 1]    1WITH RANDOMLY ACTUATED STOPPING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising apparatus including, or method employing, means capable of bringing to a halt any or all of the moving parts of a metal-deforming instrumentality, such means acting in response to a condition or signal or impulse whose time of occurrence cannot be predicted.
(1) Note. Disclosure of a machine capable of stopping will not be placed here as an original unless a claim particularly recites such stopping as a result of an unplanned or unpredictable occurrence.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

14.3,and 21.3, for a disclosure wherein a machine, or a part thereof, stops in response to a tool sensor.
30.1+,for a disclosure wherein a machine, or a part thereof, stops when an intended operation has been completed, and see (1) Note above.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclass 58 for stopping means in a cutting machine, wherein the stopping means, per se, is similar to those of this and indented subclasses.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   for stopping means in general; and subclass 134 for stopping of a machine responsive to part of an operative"s body.
234Selective Cutting (e.g., Punching),   subclass 30 for selective cutting means provided with randomly actuated stopping means.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 2]    2Manually controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the halting of instrumentality operation is the direct result of a willful act of an operative.
(1) Note. The term "manual" includes the use of any part of the body of the operative.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 3]    3Responsive to condition of work or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the halting of instrumentality operation results from the sensing of a property or state of the work* or product*.
(1) Note. The term "property or state" includes shape, size of presentation such as feed, presence, absence, or attitude of the work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 4]    4Work feed or faulty work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein the sensed property or state is an abnormality in the work itself or in the presentation of work to the machine, or an exhaustion in the supply of work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 5]    5Termination or tangle of running length work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the work moves along a direction coinciding with its dimension of greatest magnitude, and wherein the sensed property or state is either (a) an interruption in work movement (caused by breakage or exhaustion thereof), or (b) a snarl or kink in the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 6.1]    6.1WITH USE OF CONTROL MEANS ENERGIZED IN RESPONSE TO ACTIVATOR STIMULATED BY CONDITION SENSOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means, or a step of using means, for (a) detecting any of the following characteristics: a state or property, a change in a state or property, or the occurrence of a predetermined event, in any of the following: the work*, the product of a machine, the machine itself, any part of the machine, or the environment of the machine affecting the operation thereof, (b) initiating (as a direct result of such detection) a force or impulse other than that generated or transmitted by the detecting means, and (c) regulating or modifying (as a direct result of such initiation) the operation of said machine.
(1) Note. This definition requires a patent to claim at least four instrumentalities (or the use thereof) for original placement herein. One of these must be a metal-deforming machine or a device (e.g., work feeder, work heater, product handler) necessary to the proximate function of deforming metal. The other three are (a) a sensor (e.g., photocell system, trip lever, pressure diaphragm) to detect a condition as stated in (a) of the definition, (b) an activator (e.g., an element to make or break an electric circuit, a clutch, a valve) to cause a release of energy more than, or different from, that accounted for by mere change in condition (e.g., position or movement) of the sensor while it is functioning, and (c) a controller (e.g., a motor or driver for said machine or device) to change or cause the operation of said machine or device. Therefore, a cam follower (or sensor) directly linked to a controller, whereby follower movement directly effects controller movement, is not proper subject matter for this subclass due to lack of an activator as defined. On the other hand, disclosure of a cam follower that makes and breaks an electrical circuit that energizes a motor, may be placed herein.
(2) Note. A voluntary act of the person operating the machine is not proper subject matter for this subclass. For example, disclosure of an on/off switch on a metal-deforming machine manipulated by an operative to start and/or stop the machine (even though the switch initiates a release of energy), should be considered for subclass 1, but is not classified herein.
(3) Note. The machine that is regulated by the control means is not limited to a work deforming machine of this class. It can be another machine associated with the work deformer if the claim reciting the other machine and work deformer is acceptable for original placement into Class 72.
(4) Note. The control system disclosed in the patents of this and indented subclasses are similar in concept to control systems of other classes, particularly Class 226, Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length, and Class 83, Cutting. The total operations and the claimed combinations are, of course, different, but the control systems, per se, found in Classes 226 and 83 are usually analogous to those herein, and may be applicable to the machines of Class 72. In the "SEARCH CLASS" notes for the subclasses indented hereunder, reference to this (4) Note indicated that the other class and subclass should be considered because the control system, per se, of a patent in the other class may be similar to a control system, per se, of Class 72. The notes to Class 83, subclass 399 (which see), summarize all the subclasses in Class 83 pertaining to "control" subclasses therein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1+,for metal deforming with randomly actuating stopping, and see (2) Note above.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 72+ for a cutting machine with means to monitor and control that machine.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   and see (4) Note above.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 135+ for apparatus to shape or reshape nonmetals combined with control means responsive to, or actuated by, means sensing or detecting a condition; see the search notes thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 6.2]    6.2Metal deforming by use of roller or roller-like tool element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter comprising a machine including, or method employing, a roller* tool or a roller-like tool* to deform work.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

28.2+,and 30.2, for other deforming by a roller or roller-like tool including control of the tool.
67+,for deforming by relative rotation between a workpiece and a tool, particularly subclass 75 for a spherical tool, subclasses 91+ for deforming by a roller or roller-like tool cooperating with an opposing concave surface, subclasses 110+ for a roller cluster, and subclass 124 for a roller cooperating with a work-spaced tool.
127+,for deflecting to deform metal which may include use of a roller or roller-like tool, particularly subclasses 162+ for "levelling" by use of relatively-inclined successive rollers, subclasses 178+ for "troughing" by use of a roller cluster, subclasses 179+ and 182 for use of a roller couple.
184+,for deforming by a "flying tool" that may comprise a roller or roller-like tool.
199+,for deforming by a roller or roller-like tool, generally.
366.2,for a method of deforming by a disclosed (but not claimed) roller.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclass 158 for rolling of metal parts combined with independent fusion bonding of the parts; and subclass 243 for simultaneous rolling and fusion bonding of the parts.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 363+ for a press forming or press reshaping means for nonmetal including an endless (e.g., roll, etc.) forming surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 7.1]    7.1Including use of sensor responsive to information carried by removable auxiliary record (e.g., recording disk, tape, or card):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter including using a separate device inserted into, attached to, or applied to, the machine, and detecting physical characteristics of the device to control the operation of the machine.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

14.8+,for a sensor which regulates a removable auxiliary record to responsively regulate a deforming machine other than one which deforms by a roller or roller-like tool.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

66Textiles: Knitting,   subclasses 215+ for knitting by use of a pattern-responsive control means which may be removable from a knitting device.
83Cutting,   subclasses 76.1+ , for cutting with use of a control means responsive to a replaceable information program. Also, see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
139Textiles: Weaving,   subclasses 317+ for pattern-responsive control means.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 9 , and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 7.2]    7.2Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to comparison between plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.1.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics; in either case, then comparing the characteristics and generating a resultant impulse representing the similarities or differences between the detected characteristics, whereby the regulating means governs the machine in accordance with the resultant impulse to correct incipient errors in the machine or to maintain operation of the machine.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8.1+,14.9+ and 16.1+, for other metal deforming including multiple sensing with comparison of impulses from the sensors.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing but without comparison of impulses from the sensors.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 72+ for "self-regulating" or "feedback" control means, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 7.3]    7.3Sensing "pattern":
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.2.  Subject matter including using a contoured guide engaged by a traversing follower connected to a metal deforming tool such that the tool follows a path identical to the contours of the guide as the tool engages the work for deformation thereof.
(1) Note. The term "pattern" (in the title) refers to a model or prototype insertable into and removable from the machine and having a shape or configuration exactly similar or proportional to the shape or configuration of the desired product. A cam or eccentric or other object which is distorted with respect to the desired product is not considered to be a pattern, and disclosures of such objects may be found in other subclasses appropriate to the deformer.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

15.1,for a removable pattern to be used in a condition responsive control means of metal deforming means, generally.
82,for deforming of a rotating workpiece by use of a "pattern" that causes tool movement without a control means energized in response of an activator.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 7.4]    7.4Sensing work or product (e.g., by X-ray):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.2.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for, or the product* of, the machine.
(1) Note. Sensing a "Blank Holder"* or a work* holder is included herein.
(2) Note. A deforming tool* is not considered to be a "detector"; therefore, detecting a tool* in direct engagement with the work is not considered to be detecting the "work or product" for placement in this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8.3+,11.1+, 15.1+, 16.2+, and 17.3+, for other control by sensing of work or product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 79+ , 211, 286+, 358+, and 360+ for a control system responsive to work for, or product of, a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 10+ for a control system responsive to work for feeding the work, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 7.5]    7.5Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.4.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8.8,11.5, 12.5, 15.4, 16.7, 18.5, and 19.4, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 7.6]    7.6Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.4.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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8.9+,11.6+, 12.7+, 15.5, 16.8+, 18.6+, and 19.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.1]    8.1Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to comparison between plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics; in either case, then comparing the characteristics and generating a resultant impulse representing the similarities or differences between the detected characteristics, whereby the regulating means governs the machine in accordance with the resultant impulse to correct incipient errors in the machine or to maintain operation of the machine.

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7.2+,14.9+ and 16.1+, for other metal deforming including multiple sensing with comparison of impulses from the sensors.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing but without comparison of impulses from the sensors.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 72+ for "self-regulating" or "feedback" control means, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.2]    8.2Sensing "memory" stored on tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.1.  Subject matter including use of structure having an impressible media capable of holding data which is part of the instrumentality for engaging the work for deforming, or is fixedly attached thereto.

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15.1+,for sensing "memory" stored on a tool or tool-linked part to regulate a metal deforming machine that does not use a roller or roller-like tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.3]    8.3Sensing work or product (e.g., by X-ray):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.1.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for, or the product* of, the machine.
(1) Note. Sensing a "Blank Holder"* or a work* holder is included herein.
(2) Note. A deforming tool* is not considered to be a "detector"; therefore, detecting a tool* in direct engagement with the work is not considered to be detecting the "work or product" for placement in this subclass.

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7.4+,11.1+, 15.3+, 16.2+, and 17.3+, for other control by sensing of work or product.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 79+ , 211, 286+, 358+, and 360+ for a control system responsive to work for, or product of, a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 10+ for a control system responsive to work for feeding the work, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.4]    8.4Work and product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.3.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for the machine and detecting a characteristic of the product* of the same machine.

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16.4,and 18.2, for other sensing of both work and product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.5]    8.5Sensing temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.3.  Subject matter including detecting the degree of heat content in the work* or the product*.

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11.3,12.2, 16.5, 18.3, and 19.1, for other sensing of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.6]    8.6Sensing slack or tension (e.g., by use of dancer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.3.  Subject matter including (a) detecting the lateral movement of a flexible portion of an elongated workpiece or (b) detecting the degree of tautness in an elongated workpiece.
(1) Note. A typical disclosure found in this subclass comprises a system including two rolling mills through which the work passes sequentially. In the space between the rolling mills, the work is engaged by a detecting means urged against the work along a line substantially at right angles to the direction of work movement. The position of said means along that line indicates the tautness of the work passing between the mills, and this position is used to control the tautness.

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11.4,12.3, 16.6, 18.4, and 19.2, for other sensing of slack or tension in work or product.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 44 for a "dancer" controlling feed of material, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.7]    8.7Measuring tension distribution across width of work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.6.  Subject matter including detecting the degree of tautness in an elongated workpiece at different lateral locations perpendicular to the length of the workpiece.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.8]    8.8Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.3.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

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7.5,11.5, 12.5, 15.4, 16.7, 18.5, and 19.4, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 8.9]    8.9Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.3.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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7.6+,11.6+, 12.7+, 15.5, 16.8+, 18.6+, and 19.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 9.1]    9.1Sensing flatness (e.g., crown):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.9.  Subject matter wherein the work includes a greater and a lesser lateral dimension and wherein the detecting discerns the planar characteristic of one of the greater surfaces.

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11.7,and 18.7, for other sensing of flatness, used to regulate the operation of a metal deforming machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 9.2]    9.2Sensing thickness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.9.  Subject matter wherein the work includes a greater and a lesser lateral dimension and wherein the detecting discerns the extent of the lesser dimension.

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11.8+,16.9 and 18.8, for other sensing of work thickness to control a metal deforming machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 9.3]    9.3Of edge of work or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.2.  Subject matter including detecting to discern the extent of the lesser dimension near the lateral margin of the work.

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11.9,for other sensing of the edge of a workpiece.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 9.4]    9.4Sensor utilizes radiation to detect thickness (e.g., by X-ray):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.2.  Subject matter including use of a source of radiation and a detector responsive to that radiation to determines the extent of the lesser dimension by the amount of radiation reaching the detector.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 9.5]    9.5Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.3.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement therewith.
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this subclass requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

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10.1+,12.1, 13.4+, 17.1, 17.2, 18.9, and 20.1+, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.1]    10.1Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.1.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement therewith.
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this or a subclass indented hereunder requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

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9.5,12.1, 13.4+, 17.1, 17.2, 18.9, and 20.1+, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.2]    10.2Sensing torque:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.1.  Subject matter including used of detecting means which discerns rotational force applied to the tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.3]    10.3Sensing roll rotation (e.g., speed or distance):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.1.  Subject matter including detecting movement of the roll about its axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.4]    10.4Sensing force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.1.  Subject matter including detecting the pressure applied to the tool or tool-linked part.

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14.4+,and 21.4+, for other sensing of force.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.5]    10.5By sensor along roll surface and another sensor along roll axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.4.  Subject matter including use of a first detecting means responsive to a condition of a work engaging portion of the rolling tool and including use of a second detecting means along the rotational axis of the rolling tool.
(1) Note. The second detecting means of this subclass may also be responsive to a work engaging portion of the roll or may be responsive to condition at one of the roll chocks (bearings).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.6]    10.6By sensing hydraulic pressure applied to roll:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.4.  Subject matter wherein force is effected on the rolling tool by hydraulic pressure, and wherein the sensor is responsive to that hydraulic pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.7]    10.7Sensing roll gap:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.1.  Subject matter including detecting the location of the tool with respect to the cooperating tool, to thereby establish the size of the work passage between the tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.8]    10.8Requiring operative intervention (e.g., for safety):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter in which action by a person necessary for the subject matter to operate.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 10.9]    10.9With pause awaiting input from operative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.8.  Subject matter including terminating a portion of the operation until a stimulation is made by a person operating the subject matter.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.1]    11.1Sensing work or product (e.g., by X-ray):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for, or the product* of, the machine.
(1) Note. Sensing a "Blank Holder"* or a work* holder is included herein.
(2) Note. A deforming tool* is not considered to be a "detector"; therefore, detecting a tool* in direct engagement with the work is not considered to be detecting the "work or product" for placement in this subclass.

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7.4+,8.3+, 15.3+, 16.2+, and 17.3+, for other control by sensing of work or product.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 79+ , 211, 286+, 358+, and 360+ for a control system responsive to work for, or product of, a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 10+ for a control system responsive to work for feeding the work, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.2]    11.2Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.1.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics.
(1) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 8.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.

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7.2+,8.1+, 14.9+, and 16.1+, for metal deforming including multiple detecting but with comparing of the impulses received. See (1) Note, above.
13.2,13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing without comparison of impulses from the sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.3]    11.3Sensing temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.2.  Subject matter including detecting the degree of heat content in the work* or the product*.

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8.5,12.2, 16.5, 18.3, and 19.1, for other sensing of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.4]    11.4Sensing slack or tension (e.g., by use of dancer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.2.  Subject matter including (a) detecting the lateral movement of a flexible portion of an elongated workpiece or (b) detecting the degree of tautness in an elongated workpiece.
(1) Note. A typical disclosure found in this subclass comprises a system including two rolling mills through which the work passes sequentially. In the space between the rolling mills, the work is engaged by a detecting means urged against the work along a line substantially at right angles to the direction of work movement. The position of said means along that line indicates the tautness of the work passing between the mills, and this position is used to control the tautness.

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8.6+,12.3, 16.6, 18.4, and 19.2, for other sensing of slack or tension in work or product.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 44 for a "dancer" controlling feed of material, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.5]    11.5Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.2.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

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7.5,8.8, 12.5, 15.4, 16.7, 18.5, and 19.4, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.6]    11.6Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.2.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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7.6+,8.9+, 12.7+, 15.5, 16.8+, 18.6+, and 19.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.7]    11.7Sensing flatness (e.g., crown):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.6.  Subject matter wherein the work includes a greater and a lesser lateral dimension and wherein the detecting discerns the planar characteristic of one of the greater surfaces.

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9.1,and 18.7, for other sensing of flatness, used to regulate the operation of a metal deforming machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.8]    11.8Sensing thickness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.6.  Subject matter wherein the work includes a greater and a lesser lateral dimension and wherein the detecting means discerns the extent of the lesser dimension.

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9.2+,16.9, and 18.8, for other sensing of work thickness to control a metal deforming machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 11.9]    11.9Of edge of work or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.8.  Subject matter including detecting to discern the extent of the lesser dimension near the lateral margin of the work.

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9.3,for other sensing of the edge of a workpiece.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.1]    12.1Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.2.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement therewith.
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this or a subclass indented hereunder requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

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9.5,10.1+, 13.4+, 17.1, 17.2, 18.9, and 20.1+, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.2]    12.2Sensing temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.1.  Subject matter including detecting the degree of heat content in the work* or the product*.

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8.5,11.3, 16.5, 18.3, and 19.1, for other sensing of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.3]    12.3Sensing slack or tension (e.g., by use of dancer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.1.  Subject matter including (a) detecting the lateral movement of a flexible portion of an elongated workpiece or (b) detecting the degree of tautness in an elongated workpiece.
(1) Note. A typical disclosure found in this subclass comprises a system including two rolling mills through which the work passes sequentially. In the space between the rolling mills, the work is engaged by a detecting means urged against the work along a line substantially at right angles to the direction of work movement. The position of said means along that line indicates the tautness of the work passing between the mills, and this position is used to control the tautness.

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8.6+,11.4, 16.6, 18.4, and 19.2, for other sensing of slack or tension in work or product.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 44 for a "dancer" controlling feed of material, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.4]    12.4With deforming of work by sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.3.  Subject matter wherein the detector engages the work with sufficient force to stress the work beyond its elastic limit.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.5]    12.5Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.1.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

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7.5,8.8, 11.5, 15.4, 16.7, 18.5, and 19.4, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.6]    12.6Including sensor responsive to infeeder or outpuller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.1.  Subject matter including sensing the device for causing material to move into or away from the metal deforming device.

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19.5,for metal deforming responsive to an infeeder or outpuller, generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.7]    12.7Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.1.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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7.6+,8.9+, 11.6+, 15.5, 16.8+, 18.6+, and 19.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 12.8]    12.8To control operation of deformer directly by sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.7.  Subject matter including use of a detector means, an initiator, and a regulator which governs or causes the operation of the metal deforming device as the immediate result of detecting the lateral extent of the work.

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19.7,for a metal deforming machine, generally, controlling the cross sectional dimension of the work or product directly by the sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.1]    13.1Including use of sensor responsive to energy input to tool or tool driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter including detecting a variation in the power required to drive a deforming tool*.
(1) Note. Compare the subject matter of this subclass with that of subclasses 28.1+. A patent for these subclasses discloses a detecting means (e.g., a solenoid in this subclass or a pressure-responsive diaphragm in the indented subclass 20) that discerns an overload or change in load of electrical or hydraulic pressure, whereas a patent for subclasses 28.1+ lacks a clearly evident detecting means.

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19.8+,for a metal deforming machine, generally, including use of a sensor responsive to energy input to the tool or tool driver.
28.1+,for a metal deforming machine, generally, and a self regulating control system utilizing electrical or hydraulic energy. See (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.2]    13.2Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.1.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics.
(1) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 8.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.

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7.2+,8.1+, 14.9+, and 16.1+, for metal deforming including multiple detecting but with comparing of the impulses received.
11.2+,13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing without comparison of impulses from the sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.3]    13.3Sensing pressure of tool actuating fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.1.  Subject matter wherein the tool is driven by a pneumatic or hydraulic system including detecting the force per unit of area in that system.
(1) Note. Compare the subject matter of this subclass with that of subclasses 28.2+. A patent for these subclasses discloses a detecting means (e.g., a solenoid in this subclass or a pressure-responsive diaphragm in the indented subclass 20) that discerns an overload or change in load of electrical or hydraulic pressure, whereas a patent for subclasses 28.1+ lacks a clearly evident detecting means.

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28.2+,for a metal deforming machine that uses a roller or roller-like tool and a self regulating control system utilizing electrical or hydraulic energy. See (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.4]    13.4Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement therewith.
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this or a subclass indented hereunder requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

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9.5,10.1+, 12.1, 17.1, 17.2, 18.9, and 20.1+, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.5]    13.5To control predetermined sequence of operating movements (e.g., of one tool operating on work):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.4.  Subject matter including regulating the succession of function or movement of one or more operating assemblages.
(1) Note. The term "operating assemblage", is intended to include a tool, or any element or group of elements, acting together, which performs an action or produces an effect upon the work or product; or which causes a tool movement necessary to deformation of the work; or which is ancillary to a deforming instrumentality.
(2) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents disclosing control of a sequence of operations or movements of a single operating assemblage. For example, a disclosure wherein a tool advances toward and retracts from the work, under control of switches positioned at the limits of travel of the tool, would be placed herein. See subclasses below for control of different mechanisms.

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20.2+,for sensing a tool or tool-linked part to control a predetermined sequence of operating movements in metal deforming, generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.6]    13.6Of different operating assemblages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.5.  Subject matter including regulating the functioning of at least two disparate operating assemblages.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 13.5 for an explanation of "operating assemblage".
(2) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents disclosing control of a sequence of operations performed by different operating assemblages responsive to a tool. For example, a device wherein a metal-deforming tool strikes a limit switch causing a cutter to cut the product of the tool, and/or causing a handler to discharge the product from the machine, would be found in this subclass.

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14.6+,for deforming by rolling wherein the operation of a plurality of operating assemblages is responsive to a device other than a deforming tool.
20.3+,for sequential control of different operational assemblages in a metal deforming machine, generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.7]    13.7Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.6.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics.
(1) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 8.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.

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7.2+,8.1+, 14.9+, and 16.1+, for metal deforming including multiple detecting but with comparing of the impulses received.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing without comparison of impulses from the sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 13.8]    13.8Including work handling or product handling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.6.  Subject matter including regulating an operating assemblage which moves, guides, or affects the motion of work* or product*.

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20.5,for a metal deforming machine, generally, with sensing of a tool or tool-linked part of different operating assemblages including work or product handling.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.1]    14.1Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.4.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics.
(1) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 8.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.

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7.2+,8.1+, 14.9+, and 16.1+, for metal deforming including multiple detecting but with comparing of the impulses received.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing without comparison of impulses from the sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.2]    14.2To control operation of interlock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.4.  Subject matter provided with a mechanism to prevent movement of an element or a portion of a machine, and further provided with a device for disabling the movement-preventing mechanism, comprising regulating the disabling device.

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21.2,for a metal deforming machine, generally, with sensing of a tool or tool-linked part to control operation of an interlock.

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83Cutting,   subclass 366 for interlock means in a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.3]    14.3To stop machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.4.  Subject matter comprising terminating or tending to terminate the operation in response to a predetermined position of a tool.
(1) Note. This subclass (is not intended to include, for original placement, a patent claiming an operation wherein a cam surface (on or linked to a tool) directly causes movement of a clutch element to disengage a tool from its drive. Such patent lacks the teaching of an initiating means, and will be placed on the basis of the deforming structure and found in this subclass (26) only as a cross-reference.

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1+,for a machine, or a part thereof, stops in response to a random signal or impulse.
21.3,for a metal deforming machine, generally, with sensing of a tool or tool-linked part to stop the operation of the machine.
30.2+,for a deforming by a roller wherein a machine, or a part thereof, stops when an intended operation has been completed.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.4]    14.4Sensing force on tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.4.  Subject matter including detecting the pressure applied to the tool or tool-linked part.

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10.4+,and 21.4+, for other sensing of force.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.5]    14.5By sensing hydraulic pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.4.  Subject matter including detecting the pressure on the tool by use of a detector responsive to liquid head.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.6]    14.6To control different operating assemblages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter including regulating the functioning of at least two disparate operating assemblages.
(1) Note. The term "operating assemblage", is intended to include a tool, or any element or group of elements, acting together, which performs an action or produces an effect upon the work or product; or which causes a tool movement necessary to deformation of the work; or which is ancillary to a deforming instrumentality.
(2) Note. This subclass is the locus of rolling to deform including control of a sequence of operations performed by different operating assemblages except those responsive to tool movement (for which see subclasses 13.6+).

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13.6+,for rolling to deform metal including control of a sequence of operations performed by different operating assemblages including those responsive to tool movement; and see (2) Note above.
21.6,for a metal deforming machine, generally, with control of different operating assemblages.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.7]    14.7Controlling deflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.2.  Subject matter including regulating the member that deforms work by diverting a portion thereof as it passes by.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.8]    14.8Including use of sensor responsive to information carried by removable auxiliary record (e.g., recording disk, tape, or card):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter including using a separate device inserted into, attached to, or applied to, the machine, and detecting physical characteristics of the device to control the operation of the machine.

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7.1+,for a sensor which detects a removable auxiliary record to responsively regulate a roller or roller-like metal deforming machine.

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66Textiles: Knitting,   subclasses 215+ for knitting by use of a pattern-responsive control means which may be removable from a knitting device.
83Cutting,   subclasses 76.1+ for cutting with use of a control means responsive to a replaceable information program. Also, see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
139Textiles: Weaving,   subclasses 317+ for pattern-responsive control means.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 9 , and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 14.9]    14.9Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to comparison between plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.8.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics; in either case, then comparing the characteristics and generating a resultant impulse representing the similarities or differences between the detected characteristics, whereby the regulating means governs the machine in accordance with the resultant impulse to correct incipient errors in the machine or to maintain operation of the machine.

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7.2+,8.1+, and 16.1+, for other metal deforming including multiple sensing with comparison of impulses from the sensors.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing but without comparison of impulses from the sensors.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 72+ for "self-regulating" or "feedback" control means, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 15.1]    15.1Sensing "memory" stored on tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.9.  Subject matter including use of structure having an impressible media capable of holding data which is part of the instrumentality for engaging the work for deforming, or is fixedly attached thereto.

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8.2+,for sensing "memory" stored on a tool or tool-linked to regulate a metal deforming machine, generally.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 15.2]    15.2Sensing "pattern":
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.9.  Subject matter including using a contoured guide engaged by a traversing follower connected to a metal deforming tool such that the tool follows a path identical to the contours of the guide as the tool engages the work for deformation thereof.
(1) Note. The term "pattern" (in the title) refers to a model or prototype insertable into and removable from the machine and having a shape or configuration exactly similar or proportional to the shape or configuration of the desired product. A cam or eccentric or other object which is distorted with respect to the desired product is not considered to be a pattern, and control disclosures of such objects may be found in other subclasses appropriate to the deformer.

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7.3,for a removable pattern to be used in a condition responsive control means of a roller or roller-like metal deforming means.
82,for deforming of a rotating workpiece by use of a "pattern" that causes tool movement without a control means energized in response of an activator.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 15.3]    15.3Sensing work or product (e.g., by X-ray):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.9.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for, or the product* of, the machine.
(1) Note. Sensing a "Blank Holder"* or a work* holder is included herein.
(2) Note. A deforming tool* is not considered to be a "detector"; therefore, detecting a tool* in direct engagement with the work is not considered to be detecting the "work or product" for placement in this subclass.

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7.4+,8.3+, 11.1+, 16.2+, and 17.3+, for other control by sensing of work or product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 79+ , 211, 286+, 358+, and 360+ for a control system responsive to work for, or product of, a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 10+ for a control system responsive to work for feeding the work, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 15.4]    15.4Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.3.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

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7.5,8.8, 11.5, 12.5, 16.7, 18.5, and 19.4, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 15.5]    15.5Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.3.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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7.6+,8.9+, 11.6+, 12.7+, 16.8+, 18.6+, and 19.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.1]    16.1Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to comparison between plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics; in either case, then comparing the characteristics and generating a resultant impulse representing the similarities or differences between the detected characteristics, whereby the regulating means governs the machine in accordance with the resultant impulse to correct incipient errors in the machine or to maintain operation of the machine.

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7.2+,8.1+, and 14.9+, for metal deforming including multiple sensing with comparison of impulses from the sensors.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing but without comparison of impulses from the sensors.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 72+ for "self-regulating" or "feedback" control means, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.2]    16.2Sensing work or product (e.g., by X-ray):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.1.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for, or the product* of, the machine.
(1) Note. Sensing a "Blank Holder"* or a work* holder is included herein.
(2) Note. A deforming tool* is not considered to be a "detector"; therefore, detecting a tool* in direct engagement with the work is not considered to be detecting the "work or product" for placement in this subclass.

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7.4+,8.3+, 11.1+, 15.3+, and 17.3+, for other control by sensing of work or product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 79+ , 211, 286+, 358+, and 360+ for a control system responsive to work for, or product of, a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 10+ for a control system responsive to work for feeding the work, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.3]    16.3Sensing performance of work or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.2.  Subject matter comprising use of detecting means responsive to the capability of the work* or product* when subjected to its intended use.
(1) Note. Included herein is a deforming device for shaping an aircraft wing wherein air is passed over the wing to determine turbulence generated thereby, and wherein the deforming device is modified accordingly.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.4]    16.4Work and product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.2.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for the machine and detecting a characteristic of the product* of the same machine.

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8.4,and 18.2, for other sensing of both work and product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.5]    16.5Sensing temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.2.  Subject matter including detecting the degree of heat content in the work* or the product*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8.5,11.3, 12.2, 18.3, and 19.1, for other sensing of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.6]    16.6Sensing slack or tension (e.g., by use of dancer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.2.  Subject matter including (a) detecting the lateral movement of a flexible portion of an elongated workpiece or (b) detecting the degree of tautness in an elongated workpiece.
(1) Note. A typical disclosure found in this subclass comprises a system including two rolling mills through which the work passes sequentially. In the space between the rolling mills, the work is engaged by a detecting means urged against the work along a line substantially at right angles to the direction of work movement. The position of said means along that line indicates the tautness of the work passing between the mills, and this position is used to control the tautness.

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8.6+,11.4, 12.3, 18.4, and 19.2, for other sensing of slack or tension in work or product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 44 for a "dancer" controlling feed of material, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.7]    16.7Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.2.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

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7.5,8.8, 11.5, 12.5, 15.4, 18.5, and 19.4, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.8]    16.8Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.2.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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7.6+,8.9+, 11.6+, 12.7+, 15.5, 18.6+, and 19.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 16.9]    16.9Sensing thickness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.8.  Subject matter wherein the work includes a greater and a lesser lateral dimension and wherein the detecting discerns the extent of the lesser dimension.

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9.2+,11.8+ and 18.8, for other sensing of work thickness to control a metal deforming machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 17.1]    17.1Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.2.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement therewith.
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this or a subclass indented hereunder requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

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9.5,10.1+, 12.1, 13.4+, 17.2, 18.9, and 20.1+, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 17.2]    17.2Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.1.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement therewith.
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this or a subclass indented hereunder requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

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9.5,10.1+, 12.1, 13.4+, 17.1, 18.9, and 20.1+, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 17.3]    17.3Sensing work or product (e.g., by X-ray):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for, or the product* of, the machine.
(1) Note. Sensing a "Blank Holder"* or a work* holder is included herein.
(2) Note. A deforming tool* is not considered to be a "detector"; therefore, detecting a tool* in direct engagement with the work is not considered to be detecting the "work or product" for placement in this subclass.

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7.4+,8.3+, 11.1+, 15.3+, and 16.2+, for other control by sensing of work or product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 79+ , 211, 286+, 358+, and 360+ for a control system responsive to work for, or product of, a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 10+ for a control system responsive to work for feeding the work, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.1]    18.1Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.3.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics.
(1) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 8.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.

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7.2+,8.1+, 14.9+, and 16.1+, for metal deforming including multiple detecting but with comparing of the impulses received.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing without comparison of impulses from the sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.2]    18.2Work and product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.1.  Subject matter including detecting a characteristic of the work* for the machine and detecting a characteristic of the product* of the same machine.

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8.4,and 16.4, for other sensing of both work and product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.3]    18.3Sensing temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.1.  Subject matter including detecting the degree of heat content in the work* or the product*.

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8.5,11.3, 12.2, 16.5, and 19.1, for other sensing of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.4]    18.4Sensing slack or tension (e.g., by use of dancer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.1.  Subject matter including (a) detecting the lateral movement of a flexible portion of an elongated workpiece or (b) detecting the degree of tautness in an elongated workpiece.
(1) Note. A typical disclosure found in this subclass comprises a system including two deforming mills through which the work passes sequentially. In the space between the mills, the work is engaged by a detecting means urged against the work along a line substantially at right angles to the direction of work movement. The position of said means along that line indicates the tautness of the work passing between the mills, and this position is used to control the tautness.

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8.6+,11.4, 12.3, 16.6, and 19.2, for other sensing of slack or tension in work or product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 44 for a "dancer" controlling feed of material, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.5]    18.5Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.1.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

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7.5,8.8, 11.5, 12.5, 15.4, 16.7, and 19.4, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.6]    18.6Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.1.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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7.6+,8.9+, 11.6+, 12.7+, 15.5, 16.8+, and 19.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.7]    18.7Sensing flatness (e.g., crown):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.6.  Subject matter wherein the work includes a greater and a lesser lateral dimension and wherein the detecting discerns the planar characteristic of one of the greater surfaces.

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9.1,and 11.7, for other sensing of flatness, used to regulate the operation of a metal deforming machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.8]    18.8Sensing thickness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.6.  Subject matter wherein the work includes a greater and a lesser lateral dimension and wherein the detecting discerns the extent of the lesser dimension.

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9.2+,11.8+ and 16.9, for other sensing of work thickness to control a metal deforming machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 18.9]    18.9Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.1.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement therewith.
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this or a subclass indented hereunder requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

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9.5,10.1+, 12.1, 13.4+, 17.1, 17.2, and 20.1+, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.1]    19.1Sensing temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.3.  Subject matter including detecting the degree of heat content in the work* or the product*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

8.5,11.3, 12.2, 16.5, and 18.3, for other sensing of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.2]    19.2Sensing slack or tension (e.g., by use of dancer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.3.  Subject matter including (a) detecting the lateral movement of a flexible portion of an elongated workpiece or (b) detecting the degree of tautness in an elongated workpiece.
(1) Note. A typical disclosure found in this subclass comprises a system including two deforming mills through which the work passes sequentially. In the space between the mills, the work is engaged by a detecting means urged against the work along a line substantially at right angles to the direction of work movement. The position of said means along that line indicates the tautness of the work passing between the mills, and this position is used to control the tautness.

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8.6+,11.4, 12.3, 16.6, and 18.4, for other sensing of slack or tension in work or product.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclass 44 for a "dancer" controlling feed of material, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.3]    19.3With deforming of work by sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.2.  Subject matter wherein the detector engages the work with sufficient force to stress the work beyond its elastic limit.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.4]    19.4Sensing lead end or tail end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.3.  Subject matter including detecting the forward edge or the trailing edge of moving work.

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7.5,8.8, 11.5, 12.5, 15.4, 16.7, and 18.5, for other sensing of the lead end or tail end of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.5]    19.5Including sensor responsive to infeeder or outpuller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.3.  Subject matter wherein the detector senses the device for causing material to move into or away from the metal deforming device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

12.6,for metal deforming responsive to an infeeder or outpuller, for use a roller or roller-type tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.6]    19.6Sensing cross sectional dimension:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 17.3.  Subject matter including moving the work in a given direction, and detecting the extent of the work at right angles to such direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the measurement of work thickness by electrostatic, magnetic, or radiant energy (e.g., "X-ray") detecting means.

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7.6+,8.9+, 11.6+, 12.7+, 15.5, 16.8+, and 18.6+, for other sensing of cross sectional dimension of work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.7]    19.7To control operation of deformer directly by sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.6.  Subject matter including use of a detector means, an initiator, and a regulator which governs or causes the operation of the metal deforming device as the immediate result of detecting the lateral extent of the work.

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12.8,for a metal deforming machine that uses a roller or roller-like tool, controlling the cross sectional dimension of the work or product directly by the sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.8]    19.8Including use of sensor responsive to energy input to tool or tool driver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter including detecting a variation in the power required to drive a deforming tool*.
(1) Note. Compare the subject matter of this subclass with that of subclasses 28.1+. A patent for these subclasses discloses a detecting means (e.g., a solenoid in this subclass or a pressure-responsive diaphragm in the indented subclass 20) that discerns an overload or change in load of electrical or hydraulic pressure, whereas a patent for subclasses 28+ lacks a clearly evident detecting means.

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13.1+,for a metal deforming machine, which uses a roller or roller-like tool, including use of a sensor responsive to energy input to the tool or tool driver.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 19.9]    19.9Sensing pressure of tool actuating fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.8.  Subject matter wherein the tool is driven by a pneumatic or hydraulic system including detecting the force per unit of area in that system.
(1) Note. Compare the subject matter of this subclass with that of subclasses 28.1+. A patent for these subclasses discloses a detecting means (e.g., a solenoid in this subclass or a pressure-responsive diaphragm in the indented subclass 20) that discerns an overload or change in load of electrical or hydraulic pressure, whereas a patent for subclasses 28.1+ lacks a clearly evident detecting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 20.1]    20.1Sensing tool or tool-linked part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter including detecting a condition of a tool* or of a machine element connected to the tool for movement
(1) Note. Original placement of a patent in this or a subclass indented hereunder requires that the machine element partakes of tool movement, either directly or proportionately, whether the element is fixed to the tool or connected thereto by a linkage.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

9.5,10.1+, 12.1, 13.4+, 17.1, 17.2, and 18.9, for other sensing of a tool or tool-linked part.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 20.2]    20.2To control predetermined sequence of operating movements (e.g., of one tool operating on work):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.1.  Subject matter including regulating the succession of function or movement of one or more operating assemblages.
(1) Note. The term "operating assemblage", is intended to include a tool, or any element or group of elements, acting together, which performs an action or produces an effect upon the work or product; or which causes a tool movement necessary to deformation of the work; or which is ancillary to a deforming instrumentality.
(2) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents disclosing control of a sequence of operations or movements of a single operating assemblage. For example, a disclosure wherein a tool advances toward and retracts from the work, under control of switches positioned at the limits of travel of the tool, would be placed herein. See subclasses below for control of different mechanisms.

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13.5+,for sensing a tool or tool-linked part to control a predetermined sequence of operating movements in metal deforming by use of a roller or roller-like tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 20.3]    20.3Of different operating assemblages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.2.  Subject matter including regulating the functioning of at least two disparate operating assemblages.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 20.2 for an explanation of "operating assemblage".
(2) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents disclosing control of a sequence of operations performed by different operating assemblages responsive to a tool. For example, a device wherein a metal-deforming tool strikes a limit switch causing a cutter to cut the product of the tool, and/or causing a handler to discharge the product from the machine, would be found in this subclass.

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13.6+,for sequential control of different operational assemblages in a metal deforming machine that uses a roller or roller-like tool.
21.6,for deforming generally wherein the operation of a plurality of operating assemblages is responsive to a device other than a deforming tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 20.4]    20.4Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.3.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics.
(1) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 8.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.
(2) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 16.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

7.2+,8.1+, 14.9+, and 16.1+, for metal deforming including multiple detecting but with comparing of the impulses received, and see (1) Note above.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing without comparison of impulses from the sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 20.5]    20.5Including work handling or product handling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.3.  Subject matter including regulating an operating assemblage which moves, guides, or affects the motion of work* or product*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

13.8,for a metal deforming machine, which uses a roller or roller-like tool, with sensing of a tool or tool-linked part of different operating assemblages including work or product handling.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 21.1]    21.1Including plural sensors or sensor responsive to plural conditions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.1.  Subject matter including using (a) multiple detecting means to discern a corresponding number of characteristics, or (b) a single detecting means to discern multiple characteristics.
(1) Note. The detecting means fitting part (a) of this definition differ from those of subclass 8.1 in that those of this subclass are not necessarily related, nor is a comparison made between the impulses generated thereby. The detecting means fitting part (b) of this definition may, for example, detect the leading and the trailing edges of a workplace, or detect the presence of, and the temperature of, a workplace.

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7.2+,8.1+, 14.9+, and 16.1+, for metal deforming including multiple detecting but with comparing of the impulses received.
11.2+,13.2, 13.7, 14.1, 18.1+, 20.4, and 21.1, for metal deforming including multiple sensing without comparison of impulses from the sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 21.2]    21.2To control operation of interlock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.1.  Subject matter provided with a mechanism to prevent movement of an element or a portion of a machine, and further provided with a device for disabling the movement-preventing mechanism, comprising regulating the disabling device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

14.2,for a metal deforming machine having a roller or roller-like tool, with sensing of a tool or tool-linked part to control operation of an interlock.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclass 366 for interlock means in a cutting machine, and see (4) Note under the definition of Class 72, subclass 6.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 21.3]    21.3To stop machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.1.  Subject matter comprising terminating or tending to terminate the operation in response to a predetermined position of a tool.
(1) Note. This subclass (is not intended to include, for original placement, a patent claiming an operation wherein a cam surface (on or linked to a tool) directly causes movement of a clutch element to disengage a tool from its drive. Such patent lacks the teaching of an initiating means, and will be placed on the basis of the deforming structure and found in this subclass (26) only as a cross-reference.

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1+,for a machine, or a part thereof, stops in response to a random signal or impulse.
14.3,for a metal deforming machine having a roller or roller-like tool, with sensing of a tool or tool-linked part to stop the operation of the machine.
30.1,for a deforming generally wherein a machine, or a part thereof, stops when an intended operation has been completed.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 21.4]    21.4Sensing force on tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.1.  Subject matter including detecting the pressure applied to the tool or tool-linked part.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

10.4+,and 14.4+, for other sensing of force.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 21.5]    21.5By sensing hydraulic pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.4.  Subject matter including detecting the pressure on the tool by a detector responsive to liquid head.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 21.6]    21.6To control different operating assemblages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.1.  Subject matter provided with a plurality of diverse operating assemblages wherein the regulating means governs the functioning of the various operating assemblages.
(1) Note. The term "operating assemblage", is intended to include a tool, or any element or group of elements, acting together, which performs an action or produces an effect upon the work or product; or which causes a tool movement necessary to deformation of the work; or which is ancillary to a deforming instrumentality.
(2) Note. This subclass is the locus of deforming including control of a sequence of operations performed by different operating assemblages except those responsive to tool movement (for which see subclass 20.3).

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14.6,for a metal deforming machine having a roller or roller-like tool, with control of different operating assemblages.
20.3,for metal deforming including control of a sequence of operations performed by different operating assemblages including those responsive to tool movement; and see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 28.1]    28.1WITH USE OF SELF REGULATING CONTROL SYSTEM UTILIZING ELECTRICAL OR HYDRAULIC ENERGY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising apparatus including, or method employing, at least two devices that deform work, each device being driven or governed by a motor powered either by fluid under pressure or by electricity, but in either case from a source of power common to all the motors, wherein the operation of one such motor is regulated or modified by a change (including an incipient change) in the power demand or operating condition of another such motor, thereby changing (or tending to change) the ratio of power supplied to each motor.
(1) Note. Compare the subject matter of this and the indented subclasses (28.1+) with that of subclasses 13.1+ and 19.8+. In a device of this subclass, back pressure (in a hydraulic motor) or back electromotive force (in an electrical motor) as the agency to govern the operation of another such motor, whereas a device or subclasses 13.1+ and 19.8+, clearly teaches use of a detecting means to sense a condition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

13.1+,and 19.8+, and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 28.2]    28.2Metal deforming by use of roller or roller-like tool element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.1.  Subject matter comprising apparatus including, or method employing, a roller* tool or a roller-like tool* to deform work.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

6.2+,and 30.2, for other deforming by a roller or roller-like tool including control of the tool.
67+,for deforming by relative rotation between a workpiece and a tool, particularly subclass 75 for a spherical tool, subclasses 91+ for deforming by a roller or roller-like tool cooperating with an opposing concave surface, subclasses 110+ for a roller cluster, and subclass 124 for a roller cooperating with a work-spaced tool.
127+,for deflecting to deform metal which may include use of a roller or roller-like tool, particularly subclasses 162+ for "levelling" by use of relatively-inclined successive rollers, subclasses 178+ for "troughing" by use of a roller cluster, subclasses 179+ and 182 for use of a roller couple.
184+,for deforming by a "flying tool" that may comprise a roller or roller-like tool.
199+,for deforming by a roller or roller-like tool, generally.
366.2,for a method of deforming by a disclosed (but not claimed) rollers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclass 158 for rolling of metal parts combined with independent fusion bonding of the parts; and subclass 243 for simultaneous rolling and fusion bonding of the parts.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 363+ for a press forming or press reshaping means for nonmetal including an endless (e.g., roll, etc.) forming surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 29.1]    29.1Utilizing electrical energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.2.  Subject matter wherein the motive power for a driving motor thereof is electricity.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 29.2]    29.2Utilizing electrical energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.1.  Subject matter wherein the motive power for a driving motor thereof is electricity.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 30.1]    30.1WITH STOPPING UPON COMPLETION OF PRESCRIBED OPERATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising apparatus including, or method employing, one or more parts of a machine that are brought to a halt after the machine or the part has finished its intended action.
(1) Note. This subclass is not intended as the repository for all devices that include cessation of machine operation. Only a patent including a claim which clearly indicates machine stoppage after the completion of an intended operation is included herein as an "original".

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1+,for a machine, or a part thereof, which stops in response to a random signal or impulse.
14.3,21.3, for a machine, or a part thereof, which stops in response to a tool sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 30.2]    30.2Metal deforming by use of roller or roller-like tool element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 30.1.  Subject matter comprising apparatus including, or method employing, a roller* tool or a roller-like tool* to deform work.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

6.2+,and 28.2+, for other deforming by a roller or roller-like tool including control of the tool.
67+,for deforming by relative rotation between a workpiece and a tool, particularly subclass 75 for a spherical tool, subclasses 91+ for deforming by a roller or roller-like tool cooperating with an opposing concave surface, subclasses 110+ for a roller cluster, and subclass 124 for a roller cooperating with a work-spaced tool.
127+,for deflecting to deform metal which may include use of a roller or roller-like tool, particularly subclasses 162+ for "levelling" by use of relatively-inclined successive rollers, subclasses 178+ for "troughing" by use of a roller cluster, subclasses 179+ and 182 for use of a roller couple.
184+,for deforming by a "flying tool" that may comprise a roller or roller-like tool.
199+,for deforming by a roller or roller-like tool, generally.
366.2,for a method of deforming by a disclosed (but not claimed) rollers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclass 158 for rolling of metal parts combined with independent fusion bonding of the parts; and subclass 243 for simultaneous rolling and fusion bonding of the parts.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 363+ for a press forming or press reshaping means for nonmetal including an endless (e.g., roll, etc.) forming surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.01]    31.01WITH INDICATION OF CONDITION OR POSITION OF WORK, PRODUCT, OR MACHINE ELEMENT (E.G., BROKEN TOOL ALARM, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for visibly, audibly, or tacitly signaling information related to a physical state or location of the work, a product, or component of a manufacturing means of this class.
(1) Note. This subclass (31.01) is the locus of patents directed to means for or method of signaling the occurrence of a give condition (e.g., absent or misaligned work, etc.) associated with a device or operation of the class type. The signal is generally of the off or on type; if measurement or counting is involved, the combination should be placed in the subclasses indented hereunder.
(2) Note. The provision of a gauge, mark, or scale on a machine table, against which the work is to be laid for direct measurement, comparison, or placement for an operation of the class type, is not deemed an "indicator" for this subclass; similarly, the step of visual inspection (for length, straightness, etc.) is not deemed detection or indication for this subclass. A patent claiming any of the above-noted features would be placed on the basis of its other claimed subject matter.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1+,for an indicator associated with randomly actuated stopping means in metal-deforming apparatus.
6+,for an indicator associated with automatic control means in metal-deforming apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   subclass 407 for the step of testing or indicating in a process of mechanical manufacture.
73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for quantitative indicator, meter, or gauge associated with measuring or testing apparatus.
83Cutting,   subclasses 522.11+ for a signal, scale, or indicator associated with cutting apparatus.
116Signals and Indicators,   for such a device, per se.
168Farriery,   subclasses 45+ for hand tools related to the installation and maintenance of horse shoes.
235Registers,   subclass 128 for alarm mechanism applicable to devices such as metal-deforming apparatus.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for an indicator in an electrical signaling system applicable to metal-deforming apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.02]    31.02Trueness (e.g., devices for repairing, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01.  Subject matter wherein the information relates to a deviation of deformation of the work from its intended deformation by an operation of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.03]    31.03Elongate member straightening:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.02.  Subject matter wherein the work comprises a member having two ends separated by a distance substantially longer than the girth thereof and the intended deflection between said two ends is zero.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.04]    31.04Tube or rod bending:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01.  Subject matter wherein the work comprises a hollow or solid elongate cylinder having a longitudinal axis and the information relates to the deflection of said cylinder perpendicular to said axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.05]    31.05Deflection angle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.04.  Subject matter wherein the information relates to the degree of deflection of said cylinder.
(1) Note. Conduit benders and offsetters are collected herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.06]    31.06Tube diameter resizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01.  Subject matter wherein the work comprises a hollow elongate cylinder having a cross section perpendicular to the length thereof and the information relates to a change in girth of the cross section without substantially altering the shape thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.07]    31.07Including deformation by roller or roller-like tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01.  Subject matter including a tool having a generally circular cross section which defines a peripheral edge which acts upon the work while simultaneously rotating about an axis passing through the cross section.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.08]    31.08Distance between tools of tool couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.07.  Subject matter including a pair of peripheral edge acting tools which simultaneously act in opposite directions upon the work and wherein the information relates to the relative degree of separation between the tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.09]    31.09Work guide position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.07.  Subject matter including means for orienting or locating the work moveable in relation thereto with respect to the tool and wherein the information relates to the location or orientation of the work with respect to the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.1]    31.1Including deformation by simple bending:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01.  Subject matter including means for creasing or folding the work about an axis without substantially altering dimensions of the work in a direction normal to the axis of the crease or fold.
(1) Note. Simple bending may include the application of plural creases about plural distinct axes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

31.01,for a metal deforming means with a indicator wherein the work is twisted about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.11]    31.11Tool or tool driver travel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.10.  Subject matter wherein the means for creasing or folding the work is moveable in a direction normal to the surface of the work simultaneous with the creasing or folding operation and wherein the information relates to the distance the creasing or folding means is moveable.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.12]    31.12Work stop position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.10.  Subject matter including means for abutting an edge of the work to locate the work with respect to the creasing or folding means and wherein the information relates to the location or orientation of the abutting means with respect to the tool.
(1) Note. The abutting means of this subclass positively engages the work for fixing the position at which the tool will act thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 31.13]    31.13Work drawn or extruded through die:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.01.  Subject matter wherein the work is pulled or pushed through a closed die*.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 37]    37WITH USE OF OPTICAL OR TRANSPARENT (E.G., VIEWING) MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising the step of, or means for, utilizing the production, transmission, reflection, or refraction of visible light rays in combination with a step of, or means for, deforming metal.
(1) Note. A mere opening or recess in a machine housing to permit visual inspection of work or tool condition is not deemed "optical means" within the scope of the subclass definition; a transparent window material, or a lamp, mirror, lens, etc., is regarded as "optical means" for the purposes of this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

31.01+,for the use of optical means in signals, gauges, indicators, etc., in metal-deforming devices.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclass 520 for illuminating or viewing means for work in cutting apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 38]    38WITH EXPOSURE OF WORK TO GAS, VAPOR, MIST, OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, the subjecting of work to the action of a gas or gaseous suspension of material, including air under other than ordinary ambient or atmospheric conditions, or the removal or exclusion of air from contact with work, prior to or during an operation of the class type.
(1) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents directed to (a) passive means, such as air locks, seals, etc., for preventing contact of work with air before or during a metal-deforming operation, or (b) active means such as suction pump, etc., for evacuating a work-containing chamber, or (c) nozzles, ducts, etc., for supplying any gaseous element, mixture, or suspension (including hot, cold, or compressed air).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39,for applying water or any liquid to work material for cleaning or lubricating.
40,for sand-blasting to clean or descale work material in combination with metal deformation.
46,for applying water or any liquid to work, for coating or unspecified purpose.
69,128, 200, 271, 286, 342, and 364, for a disclosure of temperature maintenance or modification which may involve gas or vapor contact.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 39]    39WITH CLEANING, DESCALING, OR LUBRICATION OF WORK OR PRODUCT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, performing one or more of the following operations upon the material which is the subject of metal deformation (i.e., the work material), before, during, or after the deforming operation: (a) separation or removal from the surface of work material of any or all substances which may be present thereon as a spot or film of undesired material generally distinguishable from the work material per se, or (b) application of a substance to work material or to an element of a metal-deforming device, which substance is claimed or disclosed as an agent for reducing friction between forcibly engaged surfaces of work material and said device.
(1) Note. Subject matter involving the application of gas, vapor, mist, or modified atmosphere to work, prior to or during deformation, is placed in preceding subclass 38, regardless of specific effects thereof such as cleaning, lubrication, descaling, etc.
(2) Note. The grinding or machining of scale or oxide from work material is regarded as cleaning or descaling for this subclass, if there is no claimed redimensioning of the work material by the removal of metal.
(3) Note. The term "lubrication" is limited for the purposes of this subclass to the application of a lubricating substance; other arrangements which may be claimed for reducing friction or tool wear (e.g., by joggings, ultrasonic vibration, etc.) are treated as perfecting features of the specific type of deforming process or apparatus concerned.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

38,for exposure of work to gas, vapor, mist, or modified atmosphere for various purposes including cleaning or lubrication, and see (1) Note above.
46+,for "coating" of work (i.e., before or during deformation) which may involve disclosure of cleaning, pickling, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 72+ for apparatus for cleaning and coating of metal.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   for a process of cleaning metal, including pickling.
216Etching a Substrate: Processes,   subclass 6 for the formation of a capacitor using etching in the process.
427Coating Processes,   subclass 299 for processes of pretreating a base, followed by coating.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 40]    40Mechanical cleaning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, effecting engagement of work material with solid substance with sufficient force to remove or facilitate removal of scale, dirt, or other undesired substance from the surface of the work material.
(1) Note. The solid substance may be a specific cleaning tool, such as a scraper or brush, or it may be an abrasive medium as in sandblasting, or contact with other work as in tumbling, or a metal deforming tool (and see (2) Note below).
(2) Note. The claimed removal of scale by deflection or deformation of work material, as in stretching, hammering, or edge rolling, is subject matter for this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

53,for shot-blasting of metal work to deform same.
253.1+,for dross removal associated with method or apparatus for extrusion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   for brushing, scrubbing, and general cleaning apparatus.
29Metal Working,   subclasses 81.01+ , for a scale remover or preventer.
451Abrading,   for cleaning by use of an abradant.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 41]    41Lubricating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, the application to work material of a substance which is claimed or disclosed as an agent for reducing friction or tool wear (i.e., a lubricant).
(1) Note. For placement in this subclass, a patent must be directed to lubrication of work material; this may be accomplished by applying lubricant to a tool before or during its engagement with work. Lubrication of machine parts generally is excluded from this subclass.
(2) Note. In the absence of more definitive terms, the reference to "oil", or to the reduction of friction or wear, is regarded as defining a lubricant for this subclass. The application of water or an aqueous solution, with no reference to lubrication, is proper subject matter for subclass 39 above.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

38,for exposure of work to gas, vapor, mist, or modified atmosphere.
46+,for coating of work (possible value as a lubricant).
69,for lubrication of tool or machine in rotating- or gyrating-tool machine.
236,for lubrication of a roller or roller-like tool-element or the associated machine.
463,for a tool having passageway usable for lubrication.

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425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 90+ for apparatus to shape or reshape non-metals combined with a means to apply a coating (e.g., parting, etc.) material to the work or work contact means.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 42]    42With particular lubricant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter wherein the lubricating substance is particularly specified, as by chemical formulation or by recitation of a name which identifies a single chemical organization, such as "water" or "caustic potash".
(1) Note. Generic terms such as "oil, glass, metal, fluid", etc., are not included here, but a descriptive species thereof is (e.g., "palm oil"). The term "soap" is arbitrarily considered to be specific, and when used as lubricant is classified here.

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508Solid Anti-Friction Devices, Materials Therefor, Lubricant or Separant Compositions for Moving Solid Surfaces, and Miscellaneous Mineral Oil Compositions,   for a lubricating composition, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 43]    43With means to apply lubricant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Apparatus including structural means for causing or allowing the lubricant to contact the work or tool.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

184Lubrication,   for lubricating apparatus in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 44]    44With means to transfer lubricant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.  Device comprising structure effective to cause movement or flow of the lubricating medium (e.g., wick, roller).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 45]    45Force feed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Device comprising means to develop pressure in the lubricant prior to its contact with the work or tool.
(1) Note. This subclass contains all systems for lubricating work material where a force, other than that acting on the work or tool, is required to transfer the lubricant.
(2) Note. The term "force" for the purposes of this subclass excludes the force of gravity.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

44,for structure utilizing gravity feed of lubricant in a metal-deforming device.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 46]    46WITH "COATING" OF WORK:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, the application of plastic or liquid material to work as a coherent film, cover, or spot, prior to or during an operation of the class type, which material or residue thereof is disclosed as remaining on the surface of the work, at least until said operation has been completed.
(1) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents directed to metal deformation preceded by the application of molten, plastic, or liquid substance to all or a portion of the surface of work, provided that the substance or a residual part thereof remains on the work as a distinguishable layer, at least throughout the deforming operation, or as a more or less durable coating. Water may thus constitute a "coating" for this subclass.
(2) Note. The coating may be applied by brushing, spraying, casting, molding, etc., or by any technique other than attachment of a preform (a self-sporting shape), which latter constitutes "assembly" for Class 29, Metal Working.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39+,for cleaning or descaling in connection with metal deforming.
41+,for application of material claimed or disclosed as a lubricant.
271,286, 342, and 364, for a disclosure of temperature maintenance or modification of work material which may involve application of fluent material as a heating or cooling agent.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for process or apparatus for assembly of objects (preforms) not elsewhere classified, particularly subclasses 527.1+ for (a) process of casting and deforming a metal workpiece, (b) a process involving deforming and coating plus additional treatments excluded from this class, and (c) process involving casting or coating subsequent to deformation.
118Coating Apparatus,   subclass 75 for combined coating and noncoating apparatus, generally.
219Electric Heating,   for electric arc deposition of one metal on another followed by metal deformation.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 90+ for apparatus to shape or reshape nonmetals combined with means to apply a coating to the work or work-contacting surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 47]    47Metal coating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Patents in which the applied coating is metal*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

264+,for extruding a metallic sheath on a cable or other core.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 192.12+ for glow discharge sputter deposition (e.g., cathode sputtering to deposit a metal coating, etc.), subclasses 194+ for electrolytic apparatus (e.g., used for electroplating, etc.), and subclasses 298.02+ for sputter coating apparatus (e.g., used to deposit a metal coating, etc.).
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 80+ for electrolytic coating (e.g., electroplating, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 48]    48BY TOOL COUPLE PRESSING TOGETHER ADJACENT SURFACE PORTIONS OF SAME WORK (E.G., TUBE SEAMER):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including a tool couple* for, or a step of using a tool couple for, joining (i.e., securing one to another) two or more juxtaposed margins, parts of the face, or edges of a single piece of work.
(1) Note. A claimed tool couple will be identified with particularity sufficient to meet the requirements of this subclass if a claim recites any of the following: (a) the nature of the workpiece or the product (e.g., two margins or portions of a workpiece are locked or pressed together, or the product formed is a tube or pipe), the characteristics of which product indicate that a tool couple formed the product; or (b) the function of a machine (e.g., seaming rollers, operating as a tool couple, to unite a tube seam by pressure); or (c) the structure of the parts of a tool couple whose sole disclosed use is the uniting of two margins of a single workpiece.
(2) Note. This subclass does not accept patents claiming apparatus for assembling or for welding; see section VI, A of this class for the locus of patents claiming such operations.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclasses 15.1+ for tube-seaming apparatus involving welding; and subclasses 144+ for a process of forming a tube from a one-piece blank and welding the seam.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 49]    49To form helically seamed tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Subject matter wherein a tool couple joins together the margins of a piece of work that has been deformed into a helical coil having adjacent side margins, whereby the product formed is a conduit or pipe having a helical joint.
(1) Note. Usually the helical coil is deflected by structure which, per se, is found in subclasses 135+ (which see) and an additional deformation is imposed on the work (either before, during, or after coiling) to change the cross-sectional shape thereof so that the adjacent margins will associate intimately to form a helical seam. The illustrations below (in the Figure accompanying this note) exemplify only a few of the various forms of seam disclosed in the art.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 49

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 50]    50Using roller conforming to seam contour:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 49.  Subject matter wherein the tool couple includes one or more rollers* to form the joint, and wherein a cross section of the joint at the zone of formation complements (i.e., fits into) the cross-section of the roller(s) at that zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 51]    51To form longitudinally seamed tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Subject matter wherein a tool couple joins together the margins of a piece of work that has been made by deforming metal having thickness, width, and length dimensions, the length being appreciably greater than the thickness of the width, so that side margins parallel to the length contact one another, whereby the product formed is a conduit or pipe having a joint parallel to the length.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 52]    52During longitudinal movement of work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter wherein the work is moved along its length dimensions as the joint is deformed.
(1) Note. Usually the work is a web and is deformed by structure which, per se, is found in subclasses 176+ and an additional deformation is imposed on the adjacent margins, after the troughing or skelping of the work, to form the seam.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 53]    53BY SHOTBLASTING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, the forcible propulsion of discrete particles against a surface portion of work with random timing and trajectories.
(1) Note. The particles may be propelled by any means, including air or water jets.
(2) Note. The operation is usually termed "shotblasting" or more properly "shot peening", but is sometimes named for the desired effect in a particular case, e.g., hardening, sizing, upsetting, enlarging, etc. Any such teaching of metal deformation, whether or not accompanied by abrasion, is proper subject matter for this subclass. Process or apparatus for burnishing a work surface, by shotblasting or other means, is classifiable in Class 29 as indicated below.

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40,for metal deformation combined with mechanical cleaning, descaling, or scouring, which may involve the application of sand or shot.
54+,for metal deformation by pressure transmitted through a coherent mass of fluent material (e.g., sand or shot), as distinguished from shotblasting.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 90.01+ for burnishing a surface by shotblasting and see (2) Note, above.
451Abrading,   subclasses 38+ for a process of sandblasting and subclasses 75+ for a machine for sandblasting.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 54]    54BY APPLICATION OF FLUENT MEDIUM OR ENERGY FIELD:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, effecting mechanical treatment of metal work by (a) the conduction of pressurized fluent material in gaseous, liquid, plastic, or random particulate form into engagement with a portion of the surface or work and/or the development of pressure in fluent material while it is engaged with work, or (b) the direction of electric, magnetic, or radiant energy toward work in such manner as to induce mechanical accelerating force therein.
(1) Note. Fluid or "fluent material" within the scope of the subclass definition comprises compressed air or gas, any liquid, any readily deformable plastic substance (which may be a soft metal), any granular or particulate material which is handled as a fluid during the deforming operation (i.e., is confined and subjected to pressure without regard to the position or motion of any specific particle thereof). A configured tool, on the other hand, such as a roller faced with soft rubber, is regarded as a flexible tool for subclass 465.1+. (Operations with such a tool may be found in subclasses 166+).
(2) Note. The fluent material may be confined in or by a diaphragm or bag of deformable material, or within a hollow workpiece.
(3) Note. The subclass definition, part (b) is intended to embrace the process of, or apparatus for, deforming metal by the application of heat thereto while the workpiece is held under suitable restraint. (Melting or specific heat treatment, is excluded from this class, (72).)

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56,for deformation of metal by shock wave or pulsations of fluid, or by energy field.
57+,for deformation of metal by an actuated tool, the operation being modified, supplemented, or assisted by pressurized fluid (e.g., as a plastic core within hollow work).
465.1+,for a flexible or yieldable tool, per se.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 421.1+ for a process of shaping by direct application of fluid pressure (e.g., expanding a liner in a pipe).
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 586 for workpieces deformable by the application of a fluent medium, e.g., which embody stop-weld material.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 55]    55With cutting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter including a step of, or means for, cutting* the material which is the subject of deformation.
(1) Note. See Relationship to Combination Classes in the Class Definition for a discussion of included and excluded deforming and cutting combinations.

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324+,for cutting or cutter associated with metal-deforming method or apparatus not specifically provided for in preceding subclasses.

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83Cutting,   subclass 177 , for cutting (punching, etc.) by fluid blast or suction.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 56]    56By kinetic energy or fluid or field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter utilizing (a) a pressure surge or repeated pulsations of pressure in the fluent material to develop a localized, transient, or traveling force sufficient to deform work, or (b) an electric, magnetic, or radiant energy field effective to accelerate work sufficiently to accomplish deformation thereof.
(1) Note. For placement in this subclass, the combination must include means for, or method of, generating and/or releasing the energy required to produce deformation.
(2) Note. This subclass is the locus for placement of patents directed to the use of explosives or pulsating devices to energize work-contacting fluid, or the use of a transient, high-intensity electromagnetic field for inducing accelerating currents in work; or to the application of heat for buckling or bending suitably restrained work, etc.

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430,for explosive means to drive a tool.
453.01+,for fluid pressure means to drive a tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 57]    57With actuated tool-engaging work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein a rigid instrumentality is moved against the work with deforming force.
(1) Note. For placement in this subclass, a patent must relate to the deformation of metal by means of a driven rigid tool or work-mover, which operation is modified by, supplemented by, or is in addition to, metal deformation by direct engagement of work with fluent material.
(2) Note. Examples of combinations for this or indented subclasses are:
(a) An actuated die forces work against a thick, soft, rubber cushion.
(b) A bending press deforms pipe which has been filled or packed with sand or plastic material to prevent collapse of the pipe wall.
(c) A multi-tool-station machine has fluent tool means at one station.
(d) Plural method steps comprise at least one deformation of work by actuated tool and one by fluent material.
(e) A punch-and-die set includes one tool face having a rubber insert engageable with the work and yieldable with respect to adjacent tool face portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 58]    58Expanding hollow work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, the forcible engagement of pressurized fluent material with the interior surface of work, at least a portion of which has a closed periphery cross-section so that upon deformation of the work the interior area of said cross-section is enlarged.
(1) Note. In many instances, the actuated tool engages an end of a tubular workpiece to upset to work while simultaneously trapping and imparting pressure to fluid within the work. See Fig. B in appended diagram.

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54,for constricting or collapsing hollow work by fluid pressure on the exterior thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 59]    59Corrugating tubular work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, the formation of two or more axially spaced, substantially identical, annular enlargements in cylindrical work.
(1) Note. For placement in this subclass, a patent should be directed to the combination of actuated tool means and internal fluid pressure means so disposed as to produce a series of substantially similar annular ridges and grooves in tubular work; at least two spaced enlargements of similar form and size distinguishes "corrugating" from the more general inflating or expanding operations of the preceding subclass.

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61+,for expanding hollow work against an external die by fluid pressure within the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 60]    60Using fixed die:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, limiting or restraining the movement of work subjected to deforming force by passive or stationary work-shape-imposing structure.
(1) Note. Compare Die* in the Glossary; for this subclass the die should be undriven and should have a definite shaping or reshaping effect on the engaged work.

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57+,for an actuated tool or die in combination with fluid pressure acting on work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 61]    61Expanding hollow work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Subject matter wherein pressurized fluent material engages the interior surface of work at least a portion of which has a closed periphery cross-section.

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58+,for expanding hollow work by a combination of fluent pressure and actuated rigid tool(s).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 62]    62In circular section die:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the passive or stationary work-shape-imposing structure has an interior wall surface which corresponds throughout its extent to a surface of revolution.
(1) Note. A die for this subclass may be skeletonized or made up of spaced segments, but its interior wall surface, wherever present, should conform to the subclass definition. See Fig. A in diagram appended to subclass 58.
(2) Note. Some examples of tube corrugating are found here.

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58,for an actuated tool or die in combination with fluid pressure internally of the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 63]    63Utilizing diaphragm between fluid and work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, utilizing a membrane or wall of solid, yieldable material, one surface thereof being intended to engage work and to transmit thereto force which is developed by fluent material under pressure engaging the opposite surface thereof during an operation of the class type.
(1) Note. The usual purpose of such a diaphragm is to retain the fluent material in the device for reuse, and/or to facilitate rapid repetition of operations.
(2) Note. For placement in this subclass, the flexible wall or sealing layer should be distinguishable from the pressurized fluent material.

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100Presses,   subclass 211 for a press, not elsewhere classified, having a yieldable or bendable jaw surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 64]    64By twisting axially moving work:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising steps of, or means for, (a) advancing work* in its entirety in a longitudinal direction so as to pass longitudinally consecutive cross sections of work (the cross sections being taken at right angles to the longitudinal direction) through a metal-deforming zone, and (b) turning each consecutive cross section in its entirety, with respect to other cross sections, about a line parallel to, or coincident with, the longitudinal direction, whereby the angular orientation of successive cross sections are modified with respect to each other.
(1) Note. Although the title of this subclass refers to moving work, this and the indented subclasses will accept cross-reference patents disclosing a tool moving along a stationary workpiece and having the work-twisting action described above.

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299,for a disclosure wherein a workpiece is clamped at two zones spaced along the work by clamps which are then rotated to twist the work lying between the clamps.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 65]    65With adjustment of machine or variation in effect of tool on product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Subject matter wherein the turning is accomplished by a metal deforming instrumentality or a tool therein, or the degree of twist in the product* can be changed or modified.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 66]    66COILING BY WORK GUIDE MEMBER ORBITING ABOUT LONGITUDINAL CENTERLINE OR FORMED COIL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, wrapping work* about an axis-of-bend* through more than 360° of wrap by an element that engages the work with sliding contact and revolves about, and is radially spaced from said axis-of-bend.
(1) Note. Any point of the work traces an involute curve as the work is wrapped about the axis-of-bend. The operation usually includes movement of the wrapped work relatively along the axis-of-bend simultaneously with the wrapping thereof. By this relative movement, the product formed is a helical-coil rather than a spiral-coil. The pitch of the formed helical-coil depends on the speed of the relative axial movement during the period of time needed for one convolution of 360° of wrap. (See the definition of coil* in the Glossary of this class for discussion and illustrations of the terms used).

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29Metal Working,   subclass 728 for apparatus similar to that of this subclass for making of armored cable; and subclass 435, for a process similar to that described herein, but assembling two (or more) workpieces.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 67]    67BY USE OF TOOL ACTING DURING RELATIVE ROTATION BETWEEN TOOL AND WORK ABOUT INTERNAL CENTER (E.G., GYRATING OR ROTATING TOOL):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a tool, or a step of using a tool, that turns with respect to work, or with respect to which tool the work turns, about an axis (or effective axis) that extends through the work, which tool engages the work for deformation while the turning occurs.
(1) Note. For the purposes of this and indented subclasses, the following movements are defined:
(a) "Gyration" is turning of each point on the surface of a body about an axis specific to each point while the body as a whole remains oriented in the same compass direction. Since all the axes are parallel to each other, they form effectively the equivalent of one axis to fit the definition of the subclass. The movement can be illustrated by the movement of a pencil during the formation of the letter "O". Many of the patents in this subclass (67) disclose the use of a gyrating tool.
(b) "Rotation" is turning of each point on the surface of a body about a single axis common to all such points. In general usage, rotation is the term often used to describe movement of the moon around the earth or of the earth around the sun, as well as movement of the earth about its own axis; however, in the subclasses indented below, the term "orbit" (and its variants) has been used to describe the former two types of movement, and the term "rotation" has been used to describe turning of a body about its own axis.
(c) "Oscillation" is swinging to-and-fro of each point on the surface of a body about a single axis common to all such points. Disclosure of such movement, occurring during deformation of work, is particularly provided for in subclasses 73 and 74.
(2) Note. The term "turns" is intended to include only that movement wherein all the work turns, or wherein the tool-face turns relatively to all of the work. Disclosures wherein a portion of the work turns and another portion does not turn will be found in other subclasses of this schedule. An exemplary locus of such disclosures is subclasses 64+.
(3) Note. The phrase "relative rotation" is intended to include a clear disclosure of turning about an axis wherein the axis passes through, or extends within, the confines of work as the work exists before deformation. It is not intended that this group of subclasses be the locus of disclosures wherein a product* rotates about a centerline unless the product centerline is also the work centerline. Thus, a device which deforms metal about a centerline or axis-of-bend*, wherein either the tool rotates about the centerline of the product (not the work centerline), or the product rotates about its centerline (not the work centerline), will be found in other subclasses of Class 72. Exemplary loci of such disclosures include subclasses 135+, 146+, and 212+.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 68]    68With metal deformation of different type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter including use of at least two separate instrumentalities to deform work, and wherein one such instrumentality deforms the work in a manner other than that peculiar to subclasses 67+.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 69]    69With modification or control of temperature of work, tool, or machine, or with lubrication thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein a friction-reducing medium is applied to the tool or another portion of the deforming structure, or wherein thermal characteristics of the work, the tool, or any part of the deforming structure in which the tool functions are changed.

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38,for exposure of work to gas, vapor, mist, or modified atmosphere while the work is being deformed.
39+,for cleaning, descaling, or lubrication of work for, or product of, a deforming operation.
46+,for coating of work prior to deformation thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 70]    70With cutting of work or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein the tool is combined with a cutter.
(1) Note. Patents disclosing cutting placed originally in this subclass are limited to that cutting acceptable into this class (72) in accordance with Relationship to Combination Classes, With Cutting, of the Class Definitionof this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 71]    71By composite cutting, deforming tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter wherein a deforming tool and a cutter are rigidly connected together such that movement of the tool is always accompanied by movement of the cutter and the operation of the cutter and of the tool result from the same movement.
(1) Note. See search notes under subclass 464 for listing of other subclasses providing for composite-deforming cutting tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 72]    72With actuation of cutter in timed relation to movement of deformer or work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter wherein the cutter operates in synchronism with the tool or with the rotating work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 73]    73With oscillation of work about work axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein the work moves to-and-fro about an axis within the confines thereof during deformation of the work.
(1) Note. For a discussion of basic types of movement for the purposes of this group of subclasses, see (1) Note under the definition of subclass 67.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 74]    74With oscillation of work-engaging tool surface about work surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein the tool moves bodily to-and-fro about an axis within the confines of the work.
(1) Note. For a discussion of basic types of movement for the purposes of this group of subclasses, see (1) Note under the definition of subclass 67.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 75]    75Spherical tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein the tool is an element that is circular in all cross sections.
(1) Note. Many disclosures in this subclass show a ball (or a plurality of balls) forced along the inside of a tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 76]    76Work-hammering tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein a tool engages the work with a sudden blow or impact.
(1) Note. Many of the disclosures in this subclass show a plurality of tools surrounding (or surrounded by) work and delivering a quick succession of impacts to the work during the relative rotation of the tool and work. For similar structure wherein relative rotation does not occur, see subclass 402, wherein the tools surround the work, and subclass 393, wherein the work surrounds the tools.

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393,for similar structure including a tool that is surrounded by the work but does not involve relative rotation between the tool and work.
402,for similar structure including a tool that surrounds the work but does not involve relative rotation between the tool and work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 77]    77With tool surface orbiting around axis parallel to direction of travel of longitudinally moving work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein the work moves in the direction of its greatest dimension (i.e., lengthwise), and the tool* turns about a center of rotation that is parallel to the direction of work movement, whereby any specific portion of the tool face* travels helically relative to the surface of the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 78]    78Including orbiting roller mounted on rotating carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein the tool is a roller* turning on an internal axis and is supported in a tool carrier* such that the roller axis revolves about said center of rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 79]    79Including deflectors arranged to provide undulating path for work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein the tool comprises a plurality of deflectors* positioned along the path of moving work in offset relationship, each of which deflectors forces each successively presented portion of the work from one direction into another direction in an arc extending partially around an axis-of-bend* that is disposed transversely of the path of work movement.
(1) Note. See (1) and (2) Notes under the definition of subclass 160 for discussion of an undulating path "leveller".
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 80]    80During rotation of work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein the work* clearly turns about its axis while deformation occurs.
(1) Note. The expression "while deformation occurs" is intended to restrict this subclasses (80+) to disclosures wherein the work rotates at the time that deformation takes place. It is not intended to include disclosures wherein the work is rotated before or after deformation (e.g., indexing), which disclosures have been placed elsewhere, based on tool or work-handling structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 81]    81With "pattern" causing movement of presser member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein a contoured guide member (e.g., "templet") is engaged by a traversing follower connected to a tool such that the tool follows a path identical with the contours of the guide member as the tool engages the work for deformation thereof.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under the definition of subclass 7.3 for further discussion of the term "pattern".

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7.3,for disclosure of a "pattern" that stimulates an activator to energize a control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 82]    82Caused by work-holding, shape-imparting form (e.g., for "spinning"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein a member turns about an axis concentric (i.e., coincidental) with the work axis, which member has a profile, taken in cross section through the axis, corresponding to a cross-sectional profile of the product to be made, and the work* is disclosed as fixed to the member by a positively acting clamp to turn therewith at the same velocity, so that a tool can engage the work and deform successively presented portions thereof into contact with the profile of the member during turning of the work.
(1) Note. The operation described is generally known in the art as "spinning". See the Figure accompanying this note for an illustration of the operation. However, the term "spinning" in a patent is not sufficient basis for placing such a patent in this subclass (82).

The blank 1, an intermediate stage 2, and the product,3, of a 'Spinning' operation

The blank 1, an intermediate stage 2, and the product,3, of a "Spinning" operation

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115,for a disclosure wherein the member is stationary and cooperates with an orbiting or rotating tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 83]    83With means causing cooperating presser member to traverse form surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Subject matter wherein the tool co-acts at any particular instant of time with a portion of the face of the turnable member and said tool is moved (a) relative to a point on the axis of said member and (b) along the face of the member.
(1) Note. This subclass (83) and subclass (85) below are the loci of patents disclosing generally similar concepts, but specifically different structure. In both subclasses a workpiece rotates together with a form or member, and a cooperating presser or tool deforms a continuous succession of circumferential portions of the work. As the tool traverses the work, it deforms a different succession of work portions during each 360° rotation of the work. However, in this subclass (83) the claimed disclosure includes means for, or a step of, holding of the work to the form, whereas in subclass 85 the traversing of the tool is emphasized.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 84]    84Using tool having rotating surface moving along its axis of rotation during deformation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein a tool rotates on its axis of symmetry and simultaneously travels in a direction parallel to its axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 85]    85And means causing tool to traverse surface of cooperating rotatable member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Subject matter having a turnable member in addition to the tool, wherein the tool co-acts at any particular instant of time with a portion of the face of the turnable member and said tool is moved (a) relative to a point on the axis of said member and (b) along the face of the member.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under the definition of subclass 83 for a statement of the similarities and differences between this subclass (85) and subclass 83 structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 86]    86Using angularly related roller couple acting parallel to axis of work rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter including a roller couple* wherein the axes of the rollers of the roller couple are not parallel to each other, and wherein the roller couple is particularly adapted to opposingly engage the radial surfaces of a rotating disklike workpiece such that during metal deformation, the deforming forces of the rollers on the work are opposed to each other and are parallel to the work axis.
(1) Note. The term "disklike" used in this definition is intended to include an annular workpiece having radial surfaces opposingly engaged by the roller-couple. The product formed is usually the wheel of a railroad car, the wheel having a relatively thick, flanged rim connected to a hub by a relatively thin disc.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 87]    87And additional work-engaging tool, circumferentially spaced about axis of work rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter including at least one additional tool engaging the work for deformation thereof at an area angularly spaced about the work-axis from the area engaged (at any one instant) by the rollers of the roller-couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 88]    88Caused by tools (e.g., "platens") relatively moving parallel to their surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the work lies between two tools, each of which tools has a generally planar work-engaging surface, and wherein the work is rotated and deformed by moving one of the tools relative to the other so that the work-engaging surface of each tool moves relative to the other tool in a plane that is substantially equidistant from the generally planar work-engaging surface of the other tool during operation.
(1) Note. The term "generally planar" is intended to describe a tool comprising a plate having a plurality of ribs and grooves therein, the tops of the ribs and the bottom of the grooves lying within or between substantially parallel planes.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 89]    89Including rotating tool (e.g., "disk-platen"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the tools rotates about an axis perpendicular to its planar surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 90]    90Including stationary tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein one of the tools is fixed against movement during metal deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 91]    91Causes by rotating tool and opposing concave surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the work lies between two tools, a first of which is a roller-like tool*, and a second of which tools has a non-planar work-engaging face that is curved about one or more centerlines adjacent and parallel to the axis of the first tool, so as to form a space of varying magnitude between the two tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 92]    92Nonrotating concave surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter wherein the work-engaging face of the second tool is fixed against arcuate movement during deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 93]    93With means to adjust concave surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter including use of means to alter the position of the second tool relative to the roller-like tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 94]    94And movement of work laterally of rotational axis during deformation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the work moves bodily in a direction substantially at right angles to the axis of rotation of work during its rotation and deformation.

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88+,for two tools relatively moving parallel to their surfaces that may move work laterally of its rotational axis during deformation.
91+,for rotating tool and opposing concave surface that may move work laterally during deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 95]    95And longitudinal movement of work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the work rotates about an axis, and travels along said axis, which axis coincides with the direction of the greatest dimension of the work during its rotation and deformation.
(1) Note. In the operation of forming a screw-threaded element, the element may move along its length as a result of its rotation about its length dimension. Such lengthwise movements, caused solely by the element being screwed into a deformer, is specifically excluded from the limitations of these subclasses (95+). Disclosure of such movement may be found in subclasses 88+, 91+, and 103+.

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77+,for disclosure of a tool orbiting about longitudinally moving work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 96]    96Using external rotating tool and internal core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter including a first tool adapted to engage the inside of hollow material being deformed while substantially filling a cross-section of the cavity within such material, and also including at least one other tool adapted to turn about its axis and engage the outside of the material.
(1) Note. The term "hollow material" used in the definition of this subclass is intended to include work that is made hollow during the deforming operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 97]    97Including work-piercing or work-expanding plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 96.  Subject matter wherein the first tool is provided with a portion that is, according to the total disclosure, particularly adapted to create an opening in the material (i.e., make the material hollow) or to enlarge an existing opening in the material during operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 98]    98Using tool surfaces spaced along axis of work rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter including a plurality of tools placed at intervals along the direction of work travel.
(1) Note. Many of the devices described in the patents of this subclass function to "straighten" rod-like work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 99]    99Using hyperboloidal roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter including a roller*, the work-engaging surface of which describes a symmetric concave curve approximating a hyberbola when the roller is viewed as a cross-section taken along the axis of the roller.
(1) Note. An arc of a circle or ellipse, a parabola, or a similar symmetrical curved line is considered to approximate a hyperbola. The Figure accompanying this note illustrates a typical hyperboloidal roller.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 99

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 100]    100Using tool cluster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter involving a group of three or more tools disposed relative to the work and to each other in such manner that the tools engage the work in substantially a common plane.

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107,110, 178, 194, and 224+, for other disclosures involving a roller-cluster or other-tool cluster.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 101]    101Using rotating tool couple relatively adjustable about pivot normal to tool axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter including a tool-couple* comprising two tools, each of which turns on its axis, and a tool-carrier* for supporting one of the tools, which tool-carrier is mounted to pivot about an axis extending in a direction substantially perpendicular to the axis of the tool supported thereby to position one tool relative to the other.
(1) Note. The function of the structure described is usually (a) to permit work to be placed within the "bite" of the tool-couple prior to deformation, or (b) to vary the effect of the tool couple on the work during deformation thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 102]    102Using noncylindrical rotating tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter including a tool mounted to turn about an axis during metal deformation, the work-engaging surface of said tool being of a configuration that is other than a right circular cylinder.
(1) Note. For the purpose of this definition, a right circular cylinder is formed by rotating a straight line about an axis that is parallel to the line. For placement in this or indented subclasses, a patent must claim a rotating tool having a surface that is significantly not a right circular cylinder. Examples of such configuration include: a cone, a helical (i.e., screwlike) groove, a barrel, and an hour-glass, among others.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 103]    103Having helical groove:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein the work-engaging surface of the tool is provided with a receding irregularity that could be traced by a point that runs continuously round and round the tool axis while constantly moving in one direction along the axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 104]    104With cooperating tool rotating in same direction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of tools*, at least one of which is helically grooved, coact to deform the same work, and wherein either (a) all the tools turn clockwise, or (b) all the tools turn counterclockwise.
(1) Note. As disclosed in the patents of this subclass, the tools surround the work and, as a result of the tools" rotation, cause the work to rotate in an opposite direction to that of the tools.

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108,for a similar arrangement of tools, but wherein the tools are shaped differently from those found herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 105]    105And cooperating, complementary tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter including a second tool having surface portions that interfit with, or tend to interfit with, surface portions of the noncylindrical rotating tool, and wherein the tools coact on the same work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 106]    106And circumferentially spaced, work-engaging elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Subject matter including an additional member touching the work at a point on the work periphery that is angularly spaced about the work-axis from the cooperating tools, which additional member deforms or supports the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 107]    107Included in roller cluster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein the tool is a roller*, including at least two additional rollers that cooperate with the first to form a roller-cluster*.
(1) Note. See the search note under the definition of subclass 100 for the loci of other disclosures that include use of a roller-cluster or a tool-cluster.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 108]    108With cooperating tool rotating in same direction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of tools* coact to deform the same work, and wherein either (a) all the tools turn clockwise, or (b) all the tools turn counterclockwise.

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104,for a similar arrangement of tools, and see (1) Note under the definition of subclass 104.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 109]    109Including in tool couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 102.  Subject matter including a second tool cooperating with the first to form a tool-couple*.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 110]    110Using roller cluster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter including a roller-cluster*.
(1) Note. See the search note under the definition of subclass 100 for the loci of disclosures involving use of a roller cluster or a tool cluster.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 111]    111Using tool couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter including a tool couple*.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 112]    112Tool orbiting or rotating about an axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter including (a) a tool* that turns about an axis internal to both itself and the work, or (b) a tool that turns about a first axis internal to itself, and is mounted on a tool-carrier*, which tool-carrier turns about a second axis extending through the work.
(1) Note. The notes to subclass 67 define various movements disclosed in the patents of these subclasses (67+). Disclosure of a rotating tool (defined in (a) above) or an orbiting tool (defined in (b) above) will be placed in subclasses 112+. Disclosure of a gyrating tool (defined in subclass 67, (1) Note) will be placed in subclass 67.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 113]    113Comprising transverse axis roller inside hollow work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the tool is a roller* rotatable about its axis and is brought into engagement with the interior surface of hollow work* during deformation of the work, and wherein the roller axis lies across the length dimension of the hollow work.
(1) Note. Patents placed herein disclose the work to be, for example, a tube or pipe and the deforming tool to be a roller therein, the roller and the work being moved relative to each other in a direction having a component simultaneously parallel to the centerline of the work and perpendicular to the roller axis. The deforming action is similar to that found in subclasses 199+, below, but the patents are placed here because the axis of rotation of the roller passes through the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 114]    114Helically grooved tool threadedly engaging work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the tool turns about an axis extending through the work, which tool is provided with an irregularity that could be traced by a point that runs continuously round and round the axis extending through the work while constantly moving along that axis, and which tool is adapted to slidably engage a portion of the work to rotate and move axially relative to that portion of the work.
(1) Note. Most of the disclosures of this subclass show a device for applying a "blind rivet", that is, a fastener applied to an object from only one side, the operation not requiring a pressure device applied to the opposite side of the object or the fastener.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 115]    115Comprising movable tool cooperating with fixes, work-spaced tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter including a stationary member about which the tool orbits or rotates to cooperate with the member in such manner that only work is located between the tool in motion and the stationary member during operation.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are patents disclosing a fixed tool which supports the work and imparts all or part of its shape to the work as it coacts with the rotating or orbiting tool.
(2) Note. The disclosures herein are similar to those in subclass 82 above with the difference that the movements of the parts are reversed, that is, whereas the work rotates in subclass 82 as it is "spun", in this subclass (115) the tool orbits around stationary work.
(3) Note. The phrase "only work is located between" is intended to include disclosures wherein directly opposite surface portions of work are engaged by the tools. Thus, a disclosure wherein one tool engages an interior surface portion of a tube and the other tool engages the opposing exterior surface portion of that tube, would be placed herein. On the other hand, a disclosure wherein the tools contact chordally or diametrically opposite exterior surface portions of a tube would not fit this definition, since in the zone of deformation, a body of air occupies the space between the interior surface portions of the tube. This disclosure would be found in other subclasses, based upon the structure of the tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 116]    116Plural, selectively usable fixed tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Subject matter wherein the stationary tool is one of a multiplicity of such tools alternately usable to cooperate with the tool that is in motion.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are patents disclosing a plurality of stationary tools of various sizes or shapes to accommodate variously sized or shaped workpieces and/or to produce products of varied size or shape.
(2) Note. Usually the work is a tube which is to be flared or flanged at an end by diametrically outward pressure of an orbiting or rotating tool inserted into the tube end. The stationary tool coacts with the rotating or orbiting tool by clamping the tube around the exterior circumference, thereof, in generally opposed relation to the interiorly positioned orbiting or rotating tool, whereby at least a part of the shape of the stationary tool is imparted to the flared or flanged tube end.

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317,for similar apparatus wherein the inserted tool does not rotate.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 117]    117Outwardly acting movable tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Subject matter wherein the tool in motion is at least partially encompassed by the work so that the movable tool acts on work tending to force a portion of the work radially outwardly from the axis of tool rotation extending through the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 118]    118Including tool surface spaced along orbital axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter including a rotating tool (or tools) having a plurality of faces engaging the work for deformation thereof, wherein the work-engaging faces are separated by an interval measured parallel to the orbital or rotational axis.
(1) Note. Included, for example, in this and indented subclasses are patents disclosing a first tool face which exerts an outward pressure on a portion of the interior surface of a tube to produce a circumferentially expanded area (i.e., rib or bead), and a second tool face which forms a flange or flared area at the end of the tube. In most cases, the two tool faces are mounted at different positions on a rotating tool carrier*, which positions are longitudinally separated with respect to the orbit axis. The first and second faces may be longitudinally separated portions of the same tool.
(2) Note. In many of the patents in this and the indented subclass, a pipe is disclosed as being joined to an apertured plate by passing the pipe through the plate aperture and the deformations described in (1) Note are positioned on opposite surfaces of the plate whereby the pipe is prevented from shifting axially relative to the plate. However, patents wherein the most comprehensive claim recites structure that, by disclosure, recognizes the pipe and structure that, by disclosure, recognizes the plate (i.e., "assembly") will be found in Class 29, subclasses 243.517+ and 726.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 243.517+ and 726, and see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 119]    119Including plural tools rotating on angularly related axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Subject matter including a plurality of rotating tools turning about separate nonparallel axes.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 120]    120With actuation of tool radially:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the tool is moved toward or away from the axis of turning during deformation.
(1) Note. The phrase "during deformation" is intended to include disclosures wherein a means to actuate the tool is operative at the same time that the tool is deforming the work. Disclosures wherein a tool moving means is operative before or after the deformation (e.g., adjusting means) would not fit this definition and would be found in other subclasses based upon the structure of the tools.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 726 , and see (2) Note under the definition of subclass 118 above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 121]    121Wherein tool is actuated inwardly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter wherein the tool is pressed toward the axis during deformation.
(1) Note. The term "pressed" is intended to include structure for forcing the tool against the work, towards the axis, even though the tool may itself move away from the axis to conform to the shape of the desired product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 122]    122Including rotating tool mounted on rotating carriers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Subject matter wherein the tool* turns about its own rotational axis in a tool carrier*, which tool carrier turns about a second axis extending through the work.

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126,for disclosure similar to that herein (122), but not provided with means for moving the tool radially of the second (i.e., "orbital") axis during deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 123]    123Including roller having noncylindrical work-engaging surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.  Subject matter wherein the work-engaging face of the rotating tool* is a peripheral surface generated by a line revolving about an axis wherein the line is either not straight or not parallel to the axis.
(1) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents disclosing a roller tool which is not a right circular cylinder.

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102,for disclosure of similarly shaped tool structure in which disclosure the work rotates.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 124]    124Comprising roller cooperating with work- spaced tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the orbiting or rotating tool is a roller* and including a second tool* cooperating with the roller such that only work is located between the tools during deformation.
(1) Note. See (3) Note under the definition of subclass 115 for discussion of the phrase "only work is located between".
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 125]    125With work or tool locator or work clamp:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter including means for positioning the work relative to the tool* and/or for holding the work relative to the tool.
(1) Note. See "Work-Gripping Clamp" in the Glossary of Terms.
(2) Note. Included herein are patents disclosing a means to measure (i.e., gage) the positions of the tool and the work with respect to each other.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 281.1+ for structure wherein the device positions one part of a subassembly relative to another part prior to, or during, the securing of the parts by deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 126]    126Tool both orbits and rotates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the tool turns about an internal axis and said axis revolves about a second axis that extends through the work.

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122,for a disclosure wherein the tool is moved toward or away from the second (i.e., "orbital") axis during deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 127]    127BY DEFLECTING SUCCESSIVELY PRESENTED PORTIONS OF WORK DURING BODILY MOVEMENT THEREOF (E.G., FOR COILING, LEVELLING, CURVING, OR TROUGHING MATERIAL IN MOVEMENT):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including an instrumentality, or step of using an instrumentality, into which work is serially introduced in an original direction along a path, and which instrumentality functions to divert the work away from such path in conformance to either of the following limitations:
(a) longitudinally consecutive quanta of work are totally diverted from the original path to a new path about an axis-of-bend* transversely disposed with respect to the original direction; or
(b) longitudinally consecutive cross sections of work (the cross sections being taken at right angles to the original direction and each cross section having width and breadth dimensions) pass through the instrumentality, and one of the dimensions of the consecutive cross sections is diverted about at least one longitudinally extending axis-of-bend with substantially no change in the magnitude of either dimension.
(1) Note. The "original direction" is established by considering the movement of the work portions that are at the entrance to the work-deforming instrumentality. Having established an "original direction" with respect to the work at the entrance, the longitudinal dimension of work is deemed to be that which is moving in such direction regardless of the extent of that dimension or of the course of movement of any portion of undeformed material (i.e., work portions moving in that direction are "longitudinally consecutive"). Thus, if a piece of work having a short width and a long length moves into the instrumentality along its width dimension "longitudinally consecutive" portions of that workpiece extend along the width dimension. As another example, if the metal is coiled or curved and successive portions thereof move in a spiral or helical path into a straightening device, the "original direction" (established at the device) extends spirally or helically upstream of the device and the portions are deflected from the spiral or helical path into a straight path.
(2) Note. The definition of axis-of-bend in the Glossary of this class is accompanied by drawings, Figures III-1 to III-5, illustrating the products of the devices discussed in (3) Note which follows. The term "quanta of work" (used in part (a) of the definition) refers to portions or masses of work, each portion having dimensions that are (a) infinitesimal in the longitudinal direction, (b) equal to work thickness, and (c) equal to or less than work width.
(3) Note. The following types of patent disclosures are exemplary of those placed as original copies in this and indented subclasses (all patents have in common a disclosure that work is moved along an original course of movement):
(a) a device for deflecting a strand (or strip) entirely around an axis-of-bend to form; a helical tube (illustrated in the Figure accompanying (1) Note in subclass 49), or a helical coil (illustrated in Figure III-3 in the definition of axis-of-bend*), or a spiral coil (illustrated in Figure III-2 in the definition of axis-of-bend), the product retaining the shape imparted thereto by the deflector;
(b) a device for "levelling" (i.e., straightening) work by moving it along a general course but deflecting each successive portion first in one direction (partially around a first axis-of-bend) and then in another direction (partially around another axis-of-bend) through an undulating or tortuous path along the general course (illustrated in Figure III-4 in the definition of axis-of-bend), wherein the work moves in its entirety past a group of deflectors and each successive work portion moves in the same undulating path;
(c) a device wherein the cross-sectional configuration of the work is reshaped by bending about a longitudinal axis-of-bend so as to form a trough (illustrated in Figure III-5, see the definition of axis-of-bend*) or a longitudinally corrugated product (illustrated in Figure 2 accompanying (1) Note of subclass 180); or
(d) a device wherein a coil is rotated about its central axis and the convolutions thereof are unwound and straightened by deflecting successive work portions partially around an axis-of-bend that is parallel to the coil axis and outside the coil (this operation being the converse of the coiling described in paragraph (a) herein above).
(4) Note. A full discussion of the differences between the structure and function of patents for this class (72) and the patents for Class 242, Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding will be found in Lines With Other Classes, Other Class Relationships, and References to Other Classes, of this class definition (72)
(5) Note. With respect to paragraph (b) of the definition of this subclass (127), the term "deflecting" is limited to bending without change in the cross-sectional area of the material as the work is deformed. If the product of a deforming operation has a cross-sectional area greater than or less than that of the work entering the deforming instrumentality, the deformation is not considered to be a deflecting operation. Such deformation may be found in subclasses pertaining to the reduction of size, as for example, subclasses 199+ wherein a roller-couple reduces the cross-sectional area of the work; subclasses 274+ wherein the area of work is reduced by "drawing" through a die, and subclasses 343+ wherein a sheet is "drawn" into a shell or cup.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 603 for metallic stock of nonplanar uniform thickness or nonlinear uniform diameter.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 128]    128With modification or control of temperature or work, tool or machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter including a step of, or means for, changing or regulating the degree of heat content of the work*, the deflector* or any part of the deforming instrumentality wherein the deflector functions.
(1) Note. Included within the concept of "regulating" is preventing the temperature from changing. For example, a cooled bearing in the machine, or a heated deflector operating on hot work, will warrant original placement of a metal deflecting patent having such claimed structure into this subclass (128).
(2) Note. The schedule of this class (72) contains other subclasses pertaining to temperature modification or control in other deforming operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 129]    129With cutting of work or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter including a step of, or means for cutting the work* for, or product* of, or deflecting operation.
(1) Note. Patents disclosing cutting placed originally in this subclass (129) and indented subclasses are limited to that cutting described in Lines With Other Classes, Relationship to Combination Classes, With Cutting, of this class.
(2) Note. The schedule of this class (72) contains other subclasses pertaining to cutting with other types of deforming operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 130]    130And deforming of work or product (other than by deflecting):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter including a step of, or means for, additionally deforming metal in some manner differentiated from deflecting.
(1) Note. This subclass will take a disclosure of deflecting plus cutting plus deforming wherein the deforming is, per se, classified below subclass 184.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 131]    131And stopping of work movement during cutting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein the cutting of the work is done only while the work is stationary.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 132]    132And actuation of cutter in timed relation to deflector or work movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein the cutting is done in synchronism with the deflecting or feeding of the work.
(1) Note. Included within the concept of the term "in synchronism" is a device wherein the cutter is driven from the same power source that also drives the deflector or the work feeder such that the operation of the elements is clearly interrelated.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 133]    133With feeding of discrete articles or orienting of work relative to deflector (other than by deflector):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter relative to deflector including means for presenting work having a determinate length to a deflector*, or for positioning work laterally with respect to the deflector, which means does not itself work.
(1) Note. An instrumentality of the type which characterizes the patents of subclasses 127+ is usually "self-feeding", that is, it pulls the work through or within the deforming instrumentality as it deforms the work. A patent disclosing or claiming a self-feeding deflector will not be placed as original in this subclass (133) but will be placed in accordance with the deflector structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 134]    134With use of means to remove product from deflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter including use of means for positively moving product* away from a deforming instrumentality.

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169,for structure which may be removed or partially disassembled to permit product removal from deflecting instrumentality.
250,257, 328, 361, and 426+, for other product handling.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 135]    135To form helical coil or tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality accomplishes, or is provided with additional means that accomplishes, a further diversion of the successively presented portions along the transversely disposed axis-of-bend*, thereby adding a helical pitch to the produced coil*.
(1) Note. It will be noted that the "transversely disposed axis-of-bend" is referred to in paragraph (a) of the definition of subclass 127.
(2) Note. The diversion of the work around the axis-of-bend, and the diversion along said axis can be accomplished by separate devices or by a single mechanism that combines the functions of both devices.
(3) Note. For illustrations of a tube and a coil, see the Figure accompanying (1) Note of subclass 49, and Figure III-3 (in the definition of axis-of-bend*), respectively.

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49,for the manufacture of a helically- seamed tube.
371,for a method of coiling not involving the use of any particular structure.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 592 for a metallic stock which is helical or has a helical component.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 136]    136Including thinning of helical portion of work section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality comprises two elements: (a) having work-engaging surfaces extending transversely across the direction of movement of the work, and (b) engaging opposite faces of the work, and in which as claimed or disclosed, the distance between the work-engaging surfaces is less at one side margin of the work than at the other side margin thereof, and also less than the original work thickness.
(1) Note. Usually a deflector* of this class (72) includes a member inclined to the direction of travel of moving work, which member engages a side to divert the work into a coil. In this subclass (136) the coiling is the result of the work being squeezed between two pressure surfaces (e.g., rollers, hammers, etc.), between which the work passes. The squeezing of one side margin elongates the squeezed margin with respect to the other margin, thereby effectively causing a deflection out of the course of work movement. See the Figure accompanying this note for illustration of pressure surfaces comprising rollers*.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 136

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167,for similar structure wherein the work is merely curved as distinguished from coiled.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 592 for metallic stock which is helical or has a helical component.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 137]    137With deforming of work or product (other than by coiler):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter further provided with means for deforming work, which means functions in a manner different from the instrumentality defined in subclass 135.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 138]    138By use of means acting by and during machine operation to form coil of irregular pitch and/or diameter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter including use of means to produce a coil that is not uniform as to its helix angle (i.e., pitch) or its radius of arc (i.e., diameter) or both, which means is driven from the same power source that causes deflection of the work into a coil, and operates while the deformation occurs.
(1) Note. The structure defined facilitates the production of a helical coil in other than regular cylindrical form. The coil shown in the Figure accompanying this note is the result of changing the radius of bending during manufacture.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 138

(2) Note. Also placed in this or indented subclasses would be a disclosure of a machine for producing a coil of nonuniform pitch or nonuniform diameter (e.g., an "hour-glass" configured bed spring), or a machine for varying the radius of the coil convolutions as the coil is being produced.

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140,and 143, for means for adjusting an instrumentality to produce coils of different pitch and/or diameter.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 139]    139Including noncyclindrical core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.  Subject matter wherein the coil-changing means includes an arbor that has a configuration other than that of a right circular cylinder.
(1) Note. Patents placed herein include those disclosing a mandrel having (for example) a conical shape or a noncircular cross section onto which the work is deflected, and from which the coil acquires its shape during deformation of the work into a coil.
(2) Note. For a discussion of "right circular cylinder", and examples of structure that is not a right circular cylinder, see (1) Note under the definition of subclass 102.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 140]    140By interchangeable or selectable tool portion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter including means on or within the instrumentality permitting (a) substitution of another diverting means therein, or (b) use of another work-engaging portion of the diverting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 141]    141By multiconvolutional tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality that engages and diverts successively presented portions of the moving work continues to engage and guide the produced coil through more than 360° of movement of said portions around the axis-of-bend*.
(1) Note. Patents placed in this subclass disclose a deflector, pitch-adder tool having a helically-shaped path that confines the produced coil to movement within that path.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 142]    142By work guide and rotatable work-holding core:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality comprises: (a) an arbor having claimed or disclosed means thereon, or cooperating therewith, for temporarily securing the work relatively thereto; and (b) means adjacent to, and cooperating with, the arbor and directing the work to or towards the peripheral surface of the arbor in which the arbor turns about its central axis.
(1) Note. Patents in this and indented subclasses disclose the pitch adder as an arrangement wherein the core (i.e., the arbor of (a) above) and the work-guide (i.e., the work-directing means of (b) above) are relatively movable. Pitch is added to the product by moving the core along its axis or by traversing the work-guide along a line parallel to the axis; see subclass 144 indented hereunder for the traversable work-guide.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 143]    143Add means to change pitch of coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Subject matter including means for altering the effect of the pitch adder on the successive work portions, whereby the pitch of the produced coil is altered.
(1) Note. For discussion of "pitch" see the definition of coil* in the Glossary of this class.
(2) Note. Included in this subclass are patents disclosing means for moving the core and/or the work guide relatively along, or parallel to, the core axis, and means for changing the relative movement. The change is made while the instrumentality is not operating.

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138,for a disclosure of adjustment of pitch and/or diameter during machine operation, and see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 144]    144And means to traverse work guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Subject matter including mechanism for moving the work guide uniformly along a line parallel to the core axis.
(1) Note. The work guide and the core are discussed in (b) and (a) respectively, in the definition of subclass 142, above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 145]    145By movable periphery tool external of coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality includes a work-engaging surface (or group of surfaces) facing the axis-of-bend*, wherein the surface(s) moves relatively to said axis and also moves with the deflected product portions during coiling.
(1) Note. The surface may be driven, or may be moved solely by frictional contact with the moving work.

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49+,for disclosure of tube-seaming apparatus showing use of one or more rollers outside of the tube that is being produced.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 146]    146To form spiral coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality diverts work around a transverse axis-of-bend* to produce a coil* having a plurality of radially superimposed convolutions or whorls.
(1) Note. See Lines With Other Classes, Other Class Relationships, Class 242, of this class (72) for the differences between the subject matter of this subclass (146) and the subject matter of Class 242.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 147]    147With interposes of space adjacent coil convolutions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Subject matter wherein a member (or plurality of members) is (or are) moved with the work or product into contact with a whorl of deflected product to separate each whorl from the previously deflected whorl and the next deflected whorl.
(1) Note. This subclass (147) will serve as a locus of cross-reference patents disclosing the making of a metal open spiral coil (i.e., a coil, similar to a balance spring, having spiral convolutions wherein successive convolutions do not contact one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 148]    148With core inside coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Subject matter wherein the work is deflected onto an arbor to form the convolutions of the coil.
(1) Note. The Figures below illustrate two exemplary forms of "blocker and core" used to start the winding of a strip around a core or arbor. In one form a belt (backed by rollers) surrounds the core; in the other, rollers (without the belt) urge the first convolutions of a strip around the core.

Belt Blocker and Core

Belt Blocker and Core

Roller Blocker and Core

Roller Blocker and Core

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 149]    149By use of work-contacting wiper and moving, work-holding form:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality comprises: (1) a first member adjacent the work and engaging a surface thereof, to confine the work to movement along its original direction, and cooperating with (2) a second member movable in an arc about an axis-of-bend*, which axis-of-bend is disposed transversely of the direction of work movement, said second member having: (a) a peripheral surface tangent to said course and along which surface the work is to be laid thus imparting the shape of the surface to the product, and (b) means for temporarily securing a portion of said work to said surface so that the secured portion partakes of all movement of said second member, while trailing portions are constrained by the first member and the work is deformed by and between the two members.
(1) Note. The first (i.e., work-engaging) member is usually referred to in the art, and will hereinafter be referred to in these definitions, as a "wiper". The second (i.e., work-holding) member is usually referred to in the art, and will hereafter be referred to in these definitions, as a "former".
(2) Note. In operation, the work is held to the form tangent to the surface thereof and the form is rotated, usually through less than 360°. In the absence of a wiper the work would revolve around the form with its lead end tangent thereto; however, the wiper is used to confine the underformed work portions to their original direction of movement. The work-gripping form thus pulls the work with the form surface as the form rotates, deflecting the gripped work portion and successive portions away from the course and partially around the axis-of-bend, and the wiper acts on successively presented work portions to urge the work into contact with successive portions of the form surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 150]    150With core inside hollow workpiece:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter including a member that substantially contacts all of the interior periphery of that section of hollow work* that is engaged by the deforming instrumentality.
(1) Note. The core disclosed in the patents in this subclass usually functions to prevent undesired distortions in tubular work during the bending thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 151]    151With tensioning or work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter including use of means for applying a tensile stress to the work during the deflecting thereof.
(1) Note. The tensioning is usually by a structure, additional to the wiper and former, that would tend to pull the work rearwardly except for the greater effect of the former that pulls the work to itself. However, this subclass (151) is also a locus of patents disclosing a wiper and former plus a "drag" or "brake" on the work that tends to retard work movement, thereby applying a tension to the work.
(2) Note. As work is bent by deflection, that side of the material facing the axis-of-bend* is placed under compression whereas the opposite side is placed under tension. The "tension" described in this (2) Note is not sufficient to warrant placement of a patent into this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 152]    152With deforming or work or product (other than by wiper and former):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter further including a deforming means other than that peculiar to subclass 149.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 153]    153And means to impart compound motion to form:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter including means for moving the form simultaneously (a) in its rotation about the axis-of-bend*, and (b) in its translation in a direction at right angles to said axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 154]    154Including back-up travelling wiper (e.g., follow bar):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the wiper comprises a first element engaging the surface of the work and moving therewith either along or parallel to the course of movement thereof, and a second element applying force at right angles to both the course and the axis-of-bend*, the second element thereby urging the first element into engagement with the workpiece.
(1) Note. The purpose of this structure is to prevent sliding contact between the wiper and the work. Since the travelling wiper moves with the work, the surface of the work is thus not marred by the wiper.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 155]    155And means to urge wiper toward form surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter including means for biasing the wiper toward the form.
(1) Note. The terms "wiper" and "form" are defined in the definition and notes of subclass 149.
(2) Note. A patent disclosing a wiper, the position of which is adjusted before deflection, but unchanged during deflection, will not be placed in this or indented subclasses. See subclass 158 for such adjustable wiper.
(3) Note. Included in this subclass (155) are patents disclosing, for example, lever means, hydraulic means, or spring means as the blasting force.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 156]    156And interrelated means to move form and gripper element thereon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein (a) the work-holding means and the form includes a part movable with respect to the form, for securing the work to the form, and includes mechanism to move the part, and (b) there is also included a mechanism for moving the form, and wherein the part moving mechanism and the form-moving mechanism are connected together or are moved in synchronous relationship one to the other.
(1) Note. In usual operation the mechanisms are actuated by a drive means common to both, such that first the work is gripped and then the form is moved.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 157]    157Including interchangeable or adjustable wiper or form:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter including means permitting either: (a) by substitution of another wiper or another form, or a portion of either member, or (b) by variation in the position of the wiper relative to the form of the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 158]    158Comprising adjustable wiper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Subject matter wherein the position of the wiper is alterable at will.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass (158) are patents wherein the wiper is adjusted closer or further from the form to accommodate work of different size, or wherein the wiper is repositioned to change the direction of bending of the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 159]    159And work-complementing gripper faces (e.g., contoured):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter including work-holding elements on the form, said element having surfaces which are nonplanar and match or fit corresponding surfaces of the gripped portion of the workpiece.
(1) Note. The "work-holding elements" were described in the definition of subclass 149 in part (2) section (b) as means for temporarily securing the work to the form. In this subclass (159) are found disclosures of gripper elements for gripping threaded pipe, flared tubing, I-beams, or other objects having a contoured cross section.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 160]    160By use of deflected arranged to provide longitudinally undulating path for work (e.g., "levelling"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality includes a plurality of deflectors* positioned along the path of moving work in offset relationship, each of which deflectors forces each successively presented portion of work from one direction into another direction in an arc extending partially around an axis-of-bend* that is disposed transversely of the path of work movement.
(1) Note. Included in this and indented subclasses are patents disclosing operations known in the art as "straightening" and "levelling". These patents have a plurality of deflectors located adjacent a course of work movement along a straight line from entrance end to exit end of the instrumentality. At least one of the deflectors is intruded into the line from one side and another deflector is adjacent to, or intruded into, the line from another side.
As the work passes along the successive deflectors, any specific work portion will move along the course, be deflected in one direction by a first deflector, and that specific portion will be deflected in another direction by another deflector. The work within the instrumentality is engaged by a plurality of deflectors simultaneously, so that at any instant of time the work has formed therein a plurality of deflected portions similar in shape to a "roller coaster" track extended into a single compass direction. However, each specific portion passes through a sinuous path. In many disclosures it is clear that the amplitude of the deflections is greatest at the entrance end of the device and least (or zero) at the exit end thereof, so that at the exit end the product is straight or planiform. An illustration of a typical "leveller" appears in Figure III-4 under the definition of axis-of-bend* in the Glossary of this class.
(2) Note. Patents placed originally in this and indented subclasses disclose an operation wherein a stress is applied to work because of, and during, its passage through an undulant path. See the disclosures of subclass 205 for an undulant path "tension bridle" as a retarding means in a roller couple system.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

205+,and see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 161]    161With deforming of work or product (other than levelling):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter, further provided with means for deforming work, which means functions in a manner different from the instrumentality defined in subclass 160.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 162]    162Including relatively inclined successively rollers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter including a first-acting roller* and a second-acting roller positioned so that, even viewed along the direction of work movement, the axes of the rollers overlie in crossing relationship (i.e., their projections intersect on a plane perpendicular to the line of sight).
(1) Note. Some patents in this subclass (162) disclosure rollers arranged in two (or more) groups including a first group having rollers on vertical axes and another group having rollers on horizontal axes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

235,for similar structure including successive roller couples angularly related, but not providing an undulant path.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 163]    163And back-up means for roller deflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality has a plurality of rollers* for deflecting work, and the rollers are supported against movement at right angles to the axes thereof by means located between the ends of the work-engaging surfaces of the rollers and in contact therewith.
(1) Note. The deflecting rollers engage the work and are between the work and the back-up means. The pressure exerted by the work in resisting deformation is transmitted through the rollers to the back-up means, rather than being absorbed by the rollers along.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

241.2+,for disclosure of similar back-up means in a roller couple carrier and not providing or causing an undulant path.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 164]    164And adjustable carrier for deflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein one or more of the deflector(s)* is (are) supported in a tool carrier* and the tool carrier is mounted so that its position within the instrumentality may be altered.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 165]    165Including tier or roller deflectors on carriers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 164.  Subject matter wherein a tool carrier* is located on one side of the course of work movement and supports a plurality of rollers* therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 166]    166By use of deflectors arranged to bend work longitudinally of direction of work movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality diverts successively presented work portions from their original direction into an arcuate second direction at least partially about an axis-of-bend* that is disposed transversely of said original direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 167]    167Including thinning portion of work section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality comprises elements (a) having work-engaging surfaces extending transversely across the direction of movement of the work, and (b) engaging opposite faces of the work, and in which, as claimed or disclosed, the distance between the work-engaging surfaces is less at one side margin of the work than at the other side margin thereof, and also less than the original work thickness.
(1) Note. See subclass 136 and the Figure accompanying (1) Note therein for further discussion of the apparatus and an illustration of an exemplary form thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

136,for similar structure plus a pitch adder wherein a helical coil is formed, and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 168]    168With deforming of work or product (other than bending longitudinally):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter further provided with means for deforming work, which means functions in a manner different from the instrumentality defined in subclass 166.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 169]    169With handling of curved product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter including means, additional to the instrumentality, for manipulating the product* within the instrumentality; or including means disclosed as permitting the product to be manipulated within, or removed from, the instrumentality.
(1) Note. In many patents, there is a teaching that the product is wrapped around a core which is supported at both ends and is mounted so that the instrumentality may be partially disassembled to permit removal of the product.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

134,for means to remove the product from the instrumentality.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 170]    170Including three concurrently acting delta-arranged deflector elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality comprises an integrated assemblage of three (or more) members acting at the same time on the moving work, wherein two members are located so as to be spaced along one side of the course of work movement and a third member is located on another side of said course.
(1) Note. Included in this and indented subclasses are patents disclosing such exemplary roller arrangements as those known in the art as "pyramid" rollers, illustrated in Figure 1 accompanying this note, and those known in the art as "pinch" rollers, illustrated in Figure 2 accompanying this note. The difference between the two exemplary arrangements is, as illustrated, the spacing between rollers. In view of the fact that few patents claim this different spacing no subclasses based upon this difference have been established. In either of these arrangements the "downstream" roller may be replaced by a plate, block, or other similar member which the work engages and on which it slides, as illustrated in Figure 3 accompany this note. Patents disclosing structure similar to this illustration (Figure 3) will be found in subclass 172 below.

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 3

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 171]    171And additional work-deflecting or working- constraining element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter including use of a member additional to such three members (defined in and required by subclass 170) which additional member engages the work and guides, or deflects, or supports the work as it is acted upon by the three members.
(1) Note. Include herein subclass (171) are patents disclosing the fourth member as constraining the work by preventing its re-entry into contact with the three members.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 172]    172Comprising two rollers and guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein the three members consist of two rollers* and a third, passive member, which is not a roller, engaging and acting on the work, while remaining stationary.
(1) Note. Excluded from this subclass are patents disclosing the third member to be a roller* rotatable about its axis. Such patents will be found elsewhere, for example, in subclass 170.
(2) Note. For an illustration of the type of structure found in this subclass, see Figure 3 accompanying (1) Note of subclass 170.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 173]    173Including adjustable element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein the position of at least one of the members relative to the other member(s) may be altered.
(1) Note. The deflecting member is usually held in an adjustable tool carrier*.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 174]    174And interrelated means to adjust plural elements simultaneously:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Subject matter including two or more adjustable members, and further including means for altering the position of all of the adjustable members by a drive means common to all.
(1) Note. In accordance with the definitions of subclass 173 and this subclass (174), a disclosure of a single adjustable tool carrier* holding two or more deflectors would be placed herein subclass (174) since all the deflectors are adjusted at the same time.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 175]    175Comprising rectilinearly reciprocable carrier for element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Subject matter wherein the adjustable member is held in a tool carrier* which is movable to and from the work along a straight line.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 176]    176By use of deflector arranged to bend work transversely of direction of work movement (e.g., troughing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter comprising an instrumentality which functions to divert work in conformance with the limitations expressed in paragraph (b) of the definition of subclass 127.
(1) Note. See the definition of axis-of-bend, and Figure III-5 therein, for further discussion and illustration of one of the products formed by the structure of this and indented subclasses.
(2) Note. In accordance with (5) Note under the definition of subclass 127, bending caused by, or accompanied by a reduction in the cross-sectional area of a workpiece is not to be found in this or indented subclasses.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclass 147 for a method of making a tube by skelping it and welding the tube seam.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 177]    177With deforming of work or product (other than bending transversely):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter further provided with means for deforming work, which means functions in a manner different from the instrumentality defined in subclass 176.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 178]    178Including roller cluster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality includes three or more cooperating rollers* that form a roller cluster*.
(1) Note. See the search note under the definition of subclass 100 for the loci of disclosures involving use of a roller cluster or a tool cluster.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 179]    179Including complementary roller couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality includes two noncylindrical rollers disposed so that their axes lie in a common plane and work passes through (intersects) said plane between work-engaging surfaces of the rollers, and wherein, at that plane, the surface of one roller interfits (or tends to interfit) with the surface of the other roller.
(1) Note. The Figure accompanying this note illustrates one example of a complementary roller couple.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 179

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 180]    180Including plural axially spaced circumferential ribs and grooves:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein the profile of each roller (i.e., the outline of the roller"s work-engaging surface at the plane) is an undulant line (i.e., is alternately convex and concave relative to the roller axis) and wherein the convexities and concavities of one roller profile interfit (or tend to interfit) with the concavities and convexities respectively of the other roller profile.
(1) Note. Figure 1 accompanying this note illustrates one example of a ribbed and grooved complementary roller-couple. An example of the product of this roller-couple is illustrated in Figure 2 accompanying this note.

Figure 1. Direction of Work-piece Movement.

Figure 1. Direction of Work-piece Movement.

Figure 2. Direction of Work-Piece Movement.

Figure 2. Direction of Work-Piece Movement.

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 181]    181Including plural successively acting roller couples:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein two or more roller couples*, at least one of which is a complementary roller-couple, are positioned so that serially consecutive work portions are sequentially engaged by said roller-couples.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

234+,for a similar arrangement of plural roller-couples.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 182]    182Including roller couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the deflector* includes two rollers that form a roller-couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 183]    183By tension applied to work or product (e.g., uncoiling):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality comprises means for applying a tensile stress to the work during deformation.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents disclosing the straightening of coiled metal by pulling on the free end thereof with a force sufficient to uncoil and deform the metal.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

205,for a disclosure wherein metal passes through a roller-couple that reduces the thickness of the metal while it is under tension.
274+,for a disclosure wherein metal passes through a closed-periphery die that is smaller in area than the cross-sectional area of the metal while it is under tension.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 184]    184BY USE OF "FLYING TOOL" ENGAGING MOVING WORK:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including apparatus, or method employing apparatus, wherein work* moves in its entirety along a predetermined path, both to said apparatus and during deformation by said apparatus, which apparatus comprises a tool face* having two components of movement, one being toward the work into deforming engagement therewith and the other being in the direction of work movement during deformation.
(1) Note. A roller* that rotates about an axis, which axis is fixed relative to a deforming instrumentality or is movable only towards (but not with) the moving work, is not considered to be a flying tool for this and indented subclasses. However, a roller mounted on an axis that moves with and parallel to the work surface during deformation is considered to be a flying tool, and a roller-like-tool* comprising a noncircular surface rotating about an axis is also considered to be a flying tool.
(2) Note. The definition is intended to include a patent disclosing introduction of work into an apparatus along a predetermined compass direction and deformation of such work by a tool-face as the work and tool-face move along the opposite compass direction. Examples of such disclosure are found in subclass 189. The definition is not intended to include a patent disclosing introduction of work into an apparatus along a first direction and deformation by a tool as the work and tool move along a direction substantially at right angles to the first direction. Examples of such disclosure are found in subclasses 343+.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

343+,for disclosure of "push-drawing" and see (2) Note above.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclasses 284+ for disclosure of a "flying tool" wherein the tool is a cutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 185]    185With cutting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Subject matter wherein the tool is combined with a cutter.
(1) Note. Patents disclosing cutting means or method placed as originals in this subclass are limited to that cutting acceptable into this class (72) in accordance with Lines With Other Classes, Relationship to Combination Classes, With Cutting, of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 186]    186By composite cutting, deforming tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein the deforming tool and the cutter are rigidly connected together such that movement of the tool is always accompanied by movement of the cutter, and the operation of the cutter and of the tool results from the same movement.
(1) Note. See the search notes under subclass 464 for a listing of other subclasses providing for composite cutting, deforming tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 187]    187Included in plural deforming stations or passes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Subject matter including at least two groups of cooperating tool-faces*, one of which groups comprises a flying tool operating upon work moving sequentially between the tool-faces of each group.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

226+,for disclosure of plural roller-couples successively used.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 188]    188Passes spaced along axis of rotating tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 187.  Subject matter wherein one of the tool faces of each of a plurality of such groups constitutes part of the same roller-like tool*, each tool-face being set apart from the other(s) at intervals occurring lengthwise of the axis of the tool.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

221+,for disclosure of axially spaced passes in a roller-couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 189]    189Including accurately oscillating tool face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Subject matter wherein the tool-face* moves in a curved path through less than 360° of movement during the deforming operation, and returns in the same curved path.
(1) Note. The return motion of the tool face may be either an idle (nondeforming) movement or a deforming movement.
(2) Note. See (2) Note under the definition of subclass 184.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 190]    190Including orbitally moving tool-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Subject matter wherein the tool face travels in a closed loop path.
(1) Note. If a tool face travels along a path during deformation and returns along the same path during an "idle" (nondeforming) movement, the path is not a "loop" therefore a patent disclosing such an operation would be placed in another subclass within this group of subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 191]    191Moving in circular orbit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Subject matter wherein all parts of the tool"s face are fixed to each other and turn about a common center, whereby the closed loop path is a circle.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 192]    192With cooperating rectilinearly moving tool (e.g., "anvil"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter whose tool-face* co-acts with a second tool having a tool-face that moves to and from in a straight line.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

207,for disclosure of a rectilinearly moving tool cooperating with a roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 193]    193Comprising tool inside hollow work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Subject matter wherein the second tool-face acts on the inside surface of hollow work.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

208+,for disclosure of a tool inside hollow work cooperating with a roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 194]    194Included in tool cluster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter including a group of three or more tools disposed relative to the work and to each other such that the tools simultaneously engage the work in substantially common plane.
(1) Note. See the search note under the definition of subclass 100 for the loci of other disclosures involving use of a roller cluster or a tool cluster.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 195]    195Circumferentially adjustable relative to work-spaced cooperating surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter whose tool face* coacts with a second rotatable tool, and wherein the tool-face of one of the tools may be repositioned about its center relative to the cooperating tool-face.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 196]    196With cooperating complementary (e.g., conjugated) tool face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter whose tool face* coacts with another tool-face, wherein one tool-face has a protuberance extending from said one tool toward the work, and the other tool-face has an indentation receding from the work into said other tool, and the protuberance of one tool interfits (or tends to interfit) with the indentation of the other tool.
(1) Note. Many of the patents in this subclass disclose gear-like tools that transversely corrugate work passing therebetween, see Figures accompanying this note, in which Figure 1 illustrates such structure and Figure 2 illustrates a typical transversely-corrugated product.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 196

Image 2 for class 72 subclass 196

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 197]    197With cooperating roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter whose tool-face co-acts with a roller*.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 198]    198With cooperating allochiral tool-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter whose tool-face* coacts with another tool-face, wherein the tool-faces are reversely congruent (i.e., mirror image-like) in their entirety.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 199]    199BY USE OF ROLLER OR ROLLERLIKE TOOL ELEMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising apparatus including, or method employing, a roller* tool or a roller-like tool* to deform work.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

228Metal Fusion Bonding,   subclass 158 for rolling of metal parts combined with independent fusion bonding of the parts; and subclasses 235.2+ for simultaneous rolling and fusion bonding of the parts.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclasses 363+ for a press forming or press reshaping means for nonmetal including an endless (e.g., roll, etc.) forming surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 200]    200With modification or control of temperature of work, tool, or machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including a step of, or means for, changing or regulating the degree of heat content of the work, the tool or any part of the deforming instrumentality wherein the tool functions.
(1) Note. See Notes (1) and (2) under the definition of subclass 128.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 201]    201Including cooling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the degree of heat content is lowered.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 202]    202By means (other than a tool) modifying temperature of work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the changing or regulating of the degree heat content is performed by something that is not a deforming tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 203]    203With cutting of work or product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the tool is combined with a cutter.
(1) Note. Patents disclosing cutting placed as originals in this subclass are limited to that cutting acceptable into this class (72) in accordance with section VI B of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 204]    204By composite cutting-deforming tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter wherein the deforming tool and the cutter are rigidly connected together such that movement of the tool is always accompanied by movement of the cutter.
(1) Note. See search notes under subclass 464 of this class for listing of other subclasses providing for composite cutting-deforming tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 205]    205Including tautening of work during deformation (e.g., "tension bridle"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including means specifically disclosed as applying a force tending to elongate the work.
(1) Note. To be included herein, a patent must specifically disclose that the work is placed under tension; for example, by pulling the work through a deforming station, or by retarding the movement of work to a deforming station, or by exerting force sufficient to stretch or elongate the work.
(2) Note. Included herein are disclosures known as "bridling apparatus" or "tension bridle" means, wherein the work passes over one roll and under another roll in an undulant path similar to that found in the disclosures of subclasses 160+ and then passes to the bite of a roller couple. In this subclass, however, the metal is not stressed by such rolls acting alone; instead, the movement of the work is retarded by reason of the flexing produced thereby (and other factors), whereby that portion of the work lying between the bridle and a "downstream" roller-couple is tautened and deformed.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 206]    206With nonroller metal-deforming station:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including at least two separate deforming instrumentalities, wherein one such instrumentality does not include a "roller*".
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 207]    207Including rectilinearly moving tool cooperating with single roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the work is deformed by a first tool-face that moves to-and-fro in a straight line, and a second tool-face that is the surface of a roller*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

192,for a similar arrangement of tools wherein the roller is replaced by a "flying tool".
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 208]    208With tool inside hollow work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including an additional tool means that acts on an inside surface of hollow work*.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 209]    209Comprising plug acting on longitudinally moving work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Subject matter wherein the work* moves in the direction of its major dimension (i.e., extending along the longitudinal centerline of the hollow work*) and wherein the tool comprises a core that substantially fills the interior of the hollow work.
(1) Note. Patents in this subclass disclose structure similar to that of subclass 97 except that in this subclass (208) the work does not rotate about its centerline, nor does the tool.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

97,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 210]    210Mounted on travelling, work-supported carriage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the tool element and all the structure on which the tool is mounted are held against gravity by, and guided for movement relative to, stationery work.
(1) Note. Included herein is a disclosure of a device that deforms a rail as it rides along that rail.
(2) Note. The disclosure of a patent placed in this subclass clearly indicates that the deforming instrumentality is supported by the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 211]    211Mounted on manually maneuverable carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the tool is supported by a tool carrier* that is adapted to be moved relative to the work by the hand of an operative.
(1) Note. This subclass is the locus of patents disclosing a "hand-tool" used for restoring the original curvature of an automobile body or fender by manipulating the tool over dents and irregularities of the automobile.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 212]    212With work forcer offset from, and relatively movable between, spaced rollers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including a group of two rollers separated from each other, and a third tool, between which group and tool the work is placed, and provided with means for moving the roller group and/or the third tool with respect to the other toward the work and into a position wherein the third tool lies in the space separating the rollers, thus deforming the work.
(1) Note. The axes of the rollers of the device disclosed in this and the indented subclass are either fixed with respect to each other or they are so connected that movement of one roller axis causes a corresponding movement of the other roller axis so that a plane through the roller axes at any given time is parallel to or coincident with the original plane.
(2) Note. The patents of this subclass (212) disclose the rollers moving toward the other tool and/or toward each other on both sides of the other tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 213]    213With use of means to move work forcer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter including driver means to effect movement of the third tool toward and into the space separating the roller tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 214]    214Comprising tool movable relatively to stationary work portion during deformation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter whose tool moves bodily (i.e., its axis moves) to deform one part of the work while another part thereof remains immobile as disclosed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

293+,for disclosure of work-gripping clamp and work forcer wherein the work forcer is not a roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 215]    215Along a curved path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.  Subject matter wherein the movement of the tool axis follows a continuously bending line.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 216]    216About a fixed pivot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein the path of the axis of the tool is confined to movement in an arc having a single center of curvature.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 217]    217Work between movable tool and pivot (e.g., sweep-arm bender):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.  Subject matter wherein the center of curvature is positioned so that work to be deformed is situated intermediate the center and the tool.
(1) Note. The devices of this subclass are commonly referred to as "sweep-arm benders".
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 218]    218With means to apply torque to movable tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter including means to turn the tool about its axis of rotation, wherein the turning force is exerted on the tool directly rather than through rolling engagement of the tool on the work.
(1) Note. In the typical disclosure of this subclass a roller is mounted on a pivotable arm or lever, and torque is applied to the axle of the roller in addition to, or in substitution for, a force applied to the arm or lever.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 219]    219Including adjustable tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter wherein the distance from either the tool or the work to the center of curvature (i.e., center of the arc that the tool follows) may be modified.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 220]    220Along a straight path relative to stationary-cooperating tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.  Subject matter wherein the work is deformed by two coacting tools, one of which tools is immobile and serves as a support or back-up for the immobile part of the work, and the other of which tools moves in a rectilinear course during deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 221]    221Plural passes spaced along axes of one roller of tool couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including at least two groups of cooperating tool faces, each of which groups operates upon work moving sequentially between the tool-faces of each group, wherein one of the tool-faces of a plurality of such groups constitutes part of the same roller, each tool-face being apart from the other(s) lengthwise of the axis of the roller.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

188,for disclosure of axially spaced passes in a flying-tool-couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 222]    222With use of means to displace work laterally into next pass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Subject matter including means for moving or guiding the work side wise of its direction of movement (i.e., parallel to the axis of said roller) after the work has been deformed by one group of tool-faces so that said work will then move between the tool-faces of a succeeding group.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

227+,for disclosure of structure wherein work is handled between successively acting plural roller-couples.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 223]    223Roller common to two tool couples:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Subject matter involving use of at least three tools*, forming at least two tool-couples, wherein one of the tools is a roller* which (a) cooperates with one of the other tools to comprise one tool couple*, or (b) cooperates with another of the other tools to form another tool-couple.

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232+,for disclosure of a similar "three-high" structure having generally cylindrical rollers.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 224]    224Included in roller cluster:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including three or more cooperating rollers that form a roller-cluster*.
(1) Note. See the search note under the definition of subclass 100 for a locus of disclosures involving use of a roller cluster or a tool cluster.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 225]    225Comprising diverse roller pairs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.  Subject matter wherein the rollers are arranged in groups of two, each of the two rollers of a group being alike, with the rollers of one group being different from the rollers of the other group(s); and the axes of all the rollers lie in a common plane through which the work moves.
(1) Note. The Figure accompanying this note illustrates a typical arrangement of rollers used in the disclosures of this subclass, and also shows a cross section of the shape produced thereby.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 225

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 226]    226Plural roller couples (e.g., successively or optionally usable):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including more than one roller-couple* to deform work.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are disclosures wherein one roller couple is used to deform a particular workpiece and another roller couple is used, at the option of the operative, to deform the same workpiece again or to deform another workpiece. Subclasses indented hereunder, especially subclasses 234+, are the loci of disclosures wherein the same workpiece is deformed by two or more roller couples acting successively.
(2) Note. A disclosure of a single roller couple used repeatedly on the same workpiece will not be placed in this subclass as an original patent, but will be placed on the basis of claimed structure. For example, in some disclosures such repeated use is accompanied by a "screw down" adjustment between passes, for which adjustment subclass 248 is the locus. Other such disclosures may be accompanied by work-handling means, for which means subclasses 250+ is proper.
(3) Note. In the definitions and notes of subclasses indented hereunder, the word "material" wherever used refers only to that metal which has emerged as product from a first-acting roller couple, and is to be entered as work into a second-acting roller couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 227]    227With material-handling between successive couples:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.  Subject matter wherein material is conveyed or guided from a first-acting roller couple to a second-acting roller couple.
(1) Note. For a definition of the word "material", see (3) Note under the definition of subclass 226.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

222,for disclosure of structure wherein work is moved side wise of its original direction between passes.
250+,for disclosure of material-handling to or from a tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 228]    228Including optionally selectable work paths:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein the material may be directed along one of a plurality of routes at the choice of a machine operative.
(1) Note. For a definition of the word "material" see (3) Note under the definition of subclass 226.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 229]    229To reverse roll the workpiece:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein during conveying or guiding, the material retains its original compass orientation but approaches the second-acting roller couple in a direction opposite to that in which it left the first-acting roller couple, whereby the trailing edge of product becomes the leading edge of work.
(1) Note. For a definition of the word "material", see (3) Note under the definition of subclass 226.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 230]    230By curved guide (e.g., "loop return"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter including a passive means to limit or define the path of movement of the material to a route that is continuously bending without angles, whereby the direction of movement of the work into the second-acting roller couple is different from the direction of movement of the product of the first-acting roller couple.
(1) Note. For a definition of the word "material", see (3) Note under the definition of subclass 226.
(2) Note. In the disclosures of this subclass, the successive work portions usually travel through an arc of 180° extent, such that a workpiece of indeterminate length is looped, that is, one "upstream", work portion is moving in a first direction along a first path, while simultaneously another "downstream" work portion is moving in the opposite direction along a path parallel to the first path.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 231]    231Changing orientation or direction of work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein the part of the material which is first presented to the second-acting couple differs from that which was first presented to the first-acting couple, or the same portion is presented in a different manner (e.g., inverted), or any part of the path of the material between the roller couples is altered.
(1) Note. For a definition of the word "material", see (3) Note under the definition of subclass 226.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 232]    232Including one roller, common to two roller couples (e.g., three-high mill):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.  Subject matter wherein a particular roller cooperates with one roller to comprise one roller couple and/or cooperates with another roller to comprise another roller couple.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are patents generally referred to as "three-high mills".

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223,for similar structure wherein a first-acting work-engaging area is axially spaced from a second-acting area along one of the roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 233]    233Including roller shiftable between successive passes of work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Subject matter including means to move, or to permit movement of, said particular roller adjacent to the one roller or to the other roller to form first the one roller couple and then the other roller couple alternatively.
(1) Note. A disclosure wherein the particular roller is shifted from one roller to the other roller at the election of the operative will fit the definition above since, regardless of the frequency or infrequency or shifting, each such shift forms first one and then another roller couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 234]    234Including successively acting roller couples:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.  Subject matter wherein a plurality of roller couples are positioned so that product emerges from the bite (i.e., between the rollers) of a first roller couple* and is entered as work into the bite of a second roller couple.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

227,for disclosure of structure for handling material between successive roller couples.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 235]    235Comprising relatively inclined successive couples:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Subject matter including a first-acting roller couple and a second-acting roller couple positioned so that, when viewed along the direction of work movement, the axes of the roller couples overlie in crossing relationship (i.e., their projections intersect on a plane perpendicular to the line of sight).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

162,for disclosure of similar structure used to deflect bodily moving work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 236]    236With cleaning or conditioning of tool, or lubrication of tool or machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including a step of, or means for, removing foreign matter from the tool*, or preparing (e.g., by changing or maintaining the characteristics of) the tool for deformation, or for applying a friction-reducing medium to the work-engaging surface of the tool or to an instrumentality in which the tool operates.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 237]    237With carrier for roller couple or tool couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including means to hold the rollers* of a roller couple* or the roller-like tools* of a tool couple* in position to engage and deform work passing therebetween.
(1) Note. A patent claiming merely a named housing for a named roller-couple, and also claiming a guide for handling work or product will be placed as an original in subclasses 250+.
(2) Note. For the purpose of this and indented subclasses, the term "roller cluster" should be considered as equivalent to "roller couple". Thus, a carrier for, or roller of, a roller cluster should be understood to be proper for these subclasses on the same basis as similar structures of a roller couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 238]    238With replacement of tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including structure clearly disclosed as being for the purpose of facilitating or accomplishing removal and/or introduction of one or both the tools of a tool couple.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

483Tool Changing,   subclasses 30+ for a rotary spindle machine tool combined with a tool transfer means.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 239]    239By means to replace tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.  Subject matter wherein the structure performs the removal and/or introduction of a tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 240]    240With variation of bite of roller couple during deformation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including a roller-couple* and means to move the axis of one of the rollers with respect to the axis of the other roller to change the spacing between the rollers while work is being deformed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

11.8,for metal deforming by rolling, including sensing of work thickness and variation in roller couple spacing responsive to such sensing.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 241.2]    241.2Including back-up for roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the rollers of a roller-couple is supported against movement at right angles to the axis thereof by means located between the ends of the work-engaging surfaces of the rollers in contact therewith.
(1) Note. The roller engages the work and lies between the work and the back-up means. Pressure exerted by the work in resisting deformation is transmitted through the roller to the back-up means, rather than being wholly absorbed by the bearings of the roller.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

163,for disclosure of similar back-up means in deflecting roller structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 241.4]    241.4With means to relatively vary back-up force along roller axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.2.  Subject matter wherein the roller support between the ends of the roller includes provision to vary the force transmitted to the deforming roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 241.6]    241.6Hydraulic or pneumatic force appliers spaced along roller axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.4.  Subject matter wherein the provision of the back-up means to vary force transmitted thereby comprises a relatively movable cylinder and piston in which fluid or gas under pressure is placed.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 241.8]    241.8Means to apply bending moment to roller or back-up roll:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.4.  Subject matter wherein the back-up is also a roller, and including means to apply to either the deforming roller or the back-up roll or a torque about an axis intersecting that roller at a right angle.
(1) Note. The purpose of torque application herein is generally to maintain the straightness of the deforming roller, rather than to stress the roller to which torque is applied.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 242.2]    242.2Load bearing, equal size pair of back-up rolls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.2.  Subject matter wherein the back-up comprises first and second rollers of approximately the same diameter, positioned such that their axes are parallel to each other and to the axis of the deforming roller and such that they are close to, but not touching each other, so that the supported deforming roller fits between them and they receive equal shares of the reactive force of the deforming load.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 242.4]    242.4And second stage, equal size pair of back-up rolls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.2.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the back-up rollers is in turn supported by first and second rollers of approximately the same diameter (which may be different from the diameter of the primary back-up rolls) positioned such that their axes are parallel to each other and to the axis of the deforming roller and such that they are close to but not touching each other, such that the supported back-up roll fits between them and they receive equal shares of the force of the supported back-up roll.
(1) Note. One of the second stage back-up rolls may also serve to receive force from a second back-up roll.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 243.2]    243.2Including reaction roll:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.2.  Subject matter wherein the deforming roller supporting means includes a roller for engaging the deforming roller and preventing the deforming roller from moving in a direction normal to the roller axis and parallel to the surface of the workpiece being deformed thereby.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 243.4]    243.4Equal size pair of reaction rolls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.2.  Subject matter including a first roller for engaging the deforming roller to prevent the roller from moving forwardly and a second roller for engaging the deforming roller to prevent the roller from moving rearwardly, wherein the first and second rollers are approximately equal in diameter.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 243.6]    243.6Irregular, convex, or hollow back-up roll:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.2.  Subject matter wherein the back-up comprises a roller wherein (1) the work engaging surface is of distinct, different diameters along its length, (2) the work engaging surface is of a first diameter at its axial center and gradually tapers to lesser diameters at its axial work engaging extents, or (3) wherein the interior thereof is void.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 244]    244With interposer (e.g., wedge or gag) between tool and pressure applier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including means urging the tools of a tool couple toward each other, wherein said means includes an element lying intermediate a portion on the axis of a rotating tool and a portion of the tool urging means, which element moves parallel to the tool axis or parallel to the direction of work movement to reposition one roller relative to the other.
(1) Note. This definition is intended to exclude a "screw down" adjustment, per se, for which "screw down" subclass 248 is provided.
(2) Note. The structure described permits a quick or a fine adjustment of the spacing between rollers.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 245]    245Including fluent-driven tool support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including means to reposition one of the tools of a tool couple with respect to the other, wherein said repositioning means is moved by a fluid motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 246]    246Including resiliently urged tool support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including means to reposition one of the tools of a tool couple with respect to the other, wherein said repositioning means is elastically biased.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 247]    247Including means to position tool along axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including means to reposition one of the tools of a tool couple with respect to the other by moving it lengthwise of its axis of rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 248]    248With "screw down" to adjust bite of tool couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter including means to reposition one of the tools of a tool couple with respect to the other, wherein the axes of rotation of the tools lie in substantially the same plane, and the means includes a threaded member rotatable about a line substantially perpendicular to the axis of at least one tool and lying in, or parallel to, said plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 249]    249With means to drive tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter which, as claimed, includes means to apply driving force (i.e., torque) to the roller(s) tending to turn the roller(s) about the axis (or axes) thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 250]    250With handling of, or guiding of work or product relative to tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter including structure to move or position either (a) work to be presented to a tool couple* or (b) the product of a tool couple.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass is disclosure of means for moving the same work repeatedly through the zone of operation of a tool couple.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

227+,for disclosure of work-handling between successive tool couples.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 251]    251By endless belt or conveyor roll:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Subject matter wherein the work-handling means includes a material-engaging surface that is on, or part of, either an integral or concatenated band which band moves in a closed loop about a plurality of separated, noncoaxial pulleys or sprockets, or wherein the work-handling means includes a work-engaging element of a configuration similar to that of a roller*, which element does not deform the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 252]    252By reciprocating or oscillating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Subject matter wherein the work-handling means moves to-and-fro along a single path, at least one of which movements occurs during handling of the work to cause a corresponding movement of work.
(1) Note. Disclosures in this subclass are not limited to means for moving work directly into the bite of a roller couple, but also include means for lifting and/or lowering the work laterally of the direction of movement into the roller couple.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 252.5]    252.5Roller or roller-like tool-element of particular configuration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the tool-element is of a specified or irregular physical shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 253.1]    253.1BY EXTRUDING THROUGH ORIFICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising means for, or a step of using means for, squeezing metal by applied pressure through and out of a continuous periphery shape-imparting orifice* in an otherwise closed chamber (generally called a "container"), or past the most constricted section of a constricted passageway* leading from the otherwise closed chamber.
(1) Note. See Lines With Other Classes, Relationship to Combination Classes, With Assembling, of this class regarding assembly. The present subject matter is, as there pointed out, an exception to the general rule that assembly is excluded from this class. For instance, sheathing a cable by extruding metal around it is classified here, as in subclass 268.
(2) Note. Extruding through an orifice, as here defined, is also known as "die expressing" or "spurting".
(3) Note. Extrusion is one of the "closed die" operations (i.e., those employing a closed perimeter shape-imparting orifice, passageway, or closed cavity into and/or through which work is forced). Wire-drawing through a closed die is found in subclasses 274+. Residual closed die combinations such as "push-drawing", "shell-drawing", and "closed die forging" are in subclasses 343+.
(4) Note. Tool structures which are unique to extruding are classified in this and indented subclasses, e.g., bridge-mandrel-die means in subclass 269, containers in subclass 272, and rams in subclass 273. On the other hand, dies and mandrels, which by their nature are considered to be usable otherwise in metal deforming practice, are found with the residual tools in subclasses 462+.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

54+,for extrusion in which a fluent medium serves as the pressure tool means.
274+,and 343+, for operations other than extruding for forcing metal through an orifice or into a passageway.
467+,for an extrusion die, per se.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclass 183 for apparatus to shape molten glass by extruding.
99Foods and Beverages: Apparatus,   subclass 450.1 for apparatus for edible laminated product making, including an extrusion former and downstream laminating means.
100Presses,   for a press structure of general utility which is not provided for here or in some other class.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclass 47 for a residual method of making (including sheathing) an electrical conductor of indefinite length; and subclasses 244.11+ for a process of extruding combined with laminating downstream of the shaping zone.
164Metal Founding,   subclasses 451+ and 459+ processes of continuously casting metal; and subclasses 418+ for corresponding apparatus.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 50+ and 602+ for electric heating of metal combined with its working.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 176.1+ for a process of extruding nonmetallic plastic material not otherwise provided for.
419Powder Metallurgy Processes,   especially subclass 41 for processes of forming articles from particulate material including metal particles, including forming a body of powder before sintering by extrusion followed by a heating step of effect sintering; and subclass 67 for similar processes where heat is not applied after the extrusion step.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 254]    254With cutting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means including a step of, or means for cutting* which is not excluded by Lines With Other Classes, Relationship to Combination Classes, With Cutting, of this class.
(1) Note. Splitting a workstream on a bridge mandrel or a multiapertured extrusion die is considered to be part of the extrusion process and not cutting, and is found in disclosures of subclasses below, particularly subclasses 261 and 269.
(2) Note. If it is evident that a slug is punched out during a piercing operation the patent is placed here.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

256,for extrusion combined with billet piercing by plastic deformation and without removal of material, when the piercing occurs as a distinct and separate metal deforming operation.
264+,for extrusion combined with billet piercing by plastic deformation and without removal of material when the piercing occurs as a distinct and separate metal deforming operation and when the piercing is accomplished by a mandrel as a part of or in connection with extrusion.
324+,for other types of metal deformation combined with cutting.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclass 308 for extrusion apparatus for nonmetals combined with means to sever the product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 255]    255Severing product from stock or residue:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Method or means including a step of, or means for, cutting which detaches a product of extrusion from a remaining coherent parent body of material left behind the said product by the extrusion operation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

324+,and particularly subclasses 331, 334, and 338, for severing a product of another type of MD from stock or residue.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 256]    256With metal-deforming other than by extrusion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means for effecting a metal-deforming operation of a type other than and in addition to an extrusion operation.
(1) Note. Forging to a particular shape, whether intentional or not, as the result of incomplete extrusion, is considered to be part of the extrusion process and not another metal-deforming operation. Leaving unexpressed in the extrusion chamber a compacted residue having the shape of the occupied portion of the chamber (even when for the purpose of heading or bottoming extrusion product, for instance) is not a separate forging operation, and consequently is not considered proper subject matter for this subclass.
(2) Note. Search this class, any appropriate area above, e.g., subclasses 68, 130, or 206, for the metal shaping operation provided for there, combined with extrusion.

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254+,for billet piercing accomplished or accompanied by cutting, as by punching out a slug.
264+,for billet piercing accomplished by an extrusion mandrel as part of or in connection with extrusion.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 257]    257With product handling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means which comprehends stripping, ejecting, or otherwise transporting or receiving the die-formed product of the extrusion operation (not the stump or other residue) from the deforming apparatus.

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361,for product handling associated with another type of closed die apparatus.
419+,for another type of metal-deforming apparatus combined with means to handle work or product, and see the notes thereunder for handling devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 258]    258Expressing polymetallic-layered product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means for producing solely by the process of extrusion of an article or material consisting of layers composed of different elemental metals or alloys.

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47,for coating of metal followed by metal deformation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 259]    259By plural impellers operating into one extrusion chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means in which the squeezing means comprises a plurality of distinct force applying instrumentalities, (e.g., plungers) working cooperatively into a common work confining chamber for extrusion of material therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 260]    260Expressing nonuniform cross section or nonlinear product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Methods and means for extruding a product which (a) varies longitudinally, with respect to its flow through the orifice, in cross-sectional size, shape, or axial orientation (without regard to a closed bottom on an otherwise tubular extruded article or a shaped head remaining as a residue in the chamber), or (b) is curved in its longitudinal extent, that is, the produce deviates from straight.

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64+,for twisting preformed axially moving work.
259,for a plural impeller device for extruding this type of product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 261]    261Expressing plural products:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Methods and means utilizing or including (a) a plurality of coupled machines each capable of independently extruding at least one formed product, or (b) a single machine which is adapted to produce mutually distinct extruded products from a common work-confining chamber simultaneously through a multiorificed die.

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262,and 268, for production of a multicored extrusion, e.g., a plurality of separate wires embodied within a single lead sheath.
468,for a multiorifice die arrangement, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 262]    262By rotating impeller means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means wherein the work is forced toward an extrusion orifice by means which comprises work-contacting spirally (e.g., helically) arranged ribs and/or grooves, rotatable relative to the container wall about the spiral"s axis, or by an equivalent rotatably progressive surface.

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467+,for a die, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 263]    263Nonaxial movement of die, ram, mandrel, or container:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.1.  Method or means in which any one of an orifice-containing die*, a pressure-applying plunger, an internal-forming means (as defined in subclass 264), or a container, is movable in a transverse direction (relative to normal material flow), with regard to its static operative position or to its operative movement during normal material flow.
(1) Note. The side movement may be for any operative purposed, e.g., charging or loading the apparatus, stripping or ejecting the product, or assembling, adjusting, or lining up parts of the apparatus, such as the die and/or container. See the search note below.
(2) Note. The mere closing of split dies is not included; in the concept of nonaxial movement, the entire die assembly must be laterally movable. Also, mere rotation about a central axis is not included; however, eccentric rotation having a side wise component is.

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257,for a method or means including stripping or otherwise handling, a product, where such is positively claimed; this operation may frequently include use of a laterally movable element as here indicated.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 264]    264Utilizing internal-forming means (e.g., mandrel) or core tube (e.g., wire guide):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means utilizing or including a member which projects axially into or adjacent to, but in either case is spaced from the wall of, the extrusion orifice or passageway and cooperates therewith to provide a cored annular orifice through which a generally tubular product may be extruded, the interior configuration of the product corresponding to the outer configuration of the member.
(1) Note. The member is generally known in the extrusion art as a "mandrel". If it constitutes a tubular core guide means, as defined under subclass 268 below, it is generally called a "core tube".

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462+,for a mandrel structure, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 265]    265Movable longitudinally in ram:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Method or means utilizing or including apparatus in which a plunger constitutes pressure-applying means and the internal-forming means is a mandrel, and both the plunger and mandrel point in the direction of the extrusion flow and in line therewith, the mandrel being slidable within and relative to the plunger during some portion of the operational cycle of the machine.

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266,for a mandrel which is merely longitudinally adjustable in the plunger, the relation between the two being otherwise fixed during operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 266]    266Integral with ram:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Method or means in which a plunger constitutes pressure-applying means and is integrally formed with or rigidly joined to the internal-forming means for simultaneous operational movement therewith.
(1) Note. Patents involving longitudinal adjustment between the plunger and mandrel where the relation between the two is fixed during operation are included.

Extrusion by ram with internal mandrel (subclass 266).

Extrusion by ram with internal mandrel (subclass 266).

  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 267]    267Single element ("impact extrusion" type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Method or means wherein the extrusion chamber comprises a cavity in a cuplike member, into which cavity a deforming element constituting a combined plunger and internal-forming means is movable, the cavitated member being closed to work material flow except for an annular orifice formed between the cavity wall and the element periphery when in operative position so that upon movement of said element further into said cavity the work flows backward around the element as a tubular product corresponding in shape to the internal configuration of the cavitated member and the external configuration of the element.
(1) Note. The element (usually a plunger), the chamber means, the bottom, per se, of the chamber means, or any combination of these parts may move to perform the pressing operation.
(2) Note. The operation here performed is known by several names, among which are: Impact extrusion, Backward extrusion, and Cold Squirting.

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257,for a device of this type in combination with a stripper or ejector.
362+,for forging into a closed die which may result in backward flow but without extrusion.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 268]    268Core tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Method or means in which the member is a tubular guide means, other than the extrusion orifice or passageway, which extends from outside the closed chamber means into the chamber at a point remote from the orifice and then from the chamber axially into or adjacent the orifice or passageway and is adapted to allow an elongated core means, such as a wire, to be passed therethrough, around which a sheath like extruded product may be formed.
(1) Note. An extrusion device including a core tube is found in many of the subclasses above indented under subclass 253.1, and see also subclass 270 below for a disclosure of the same when the claimed invention lies in a work supply feature.

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156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclass 51 for extruding a nonmetallic sheath around an electric conductor of indeterminate length.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 269]    269Bridge mandrel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Method or means in which the member is a mandrel which is supported by bridge pieces extending from the mandrel across the rear (i.e., the chamber end) of the orifice or passageway.
(1) Note. The bridges split the work stream, which is then reunited autogenously by pressure prior to extrusion through the orifice.
(2) Note. This subclass includes a bridge mandrel die unit, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 270]    270Work supplying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means which utilizes or includes means for storing work material and/or feeding or transporting work material to the deformation chamber.
(1) Note. This subclass includes "charging" an extrusion container by pouring in molten metal which autogenously welds to an earlier residue and then solidifies in situ.

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262,for a rotatable impeller extruder with work supply.
263,for side wise movement of a specified portion of the apparatus, which movement may be for the purpose of permitting or facilitating charging.
419+,as well as appropriate other subclasses under the several types of metal deformation in this class or other work handling.

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193Conveyors, Chutes, Skids, Guides, and Ways,   for conveyors, per se.
198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   for conveyors, per se.
221Article Dispensing,   for an article dispenser, per se.
414Material or Article Handling,   in particular subclasses 754+ where billet turnover devices can be found and compare with those devices in Class 198, Conveyors: Power-Driven, subclasses 373+.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 271]    271Pressure or velocity conditioning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Method or means wherein the extrusion through the orifice occurs under a particular absolute or relative pressure or velocity of, or for the apparatus, the work or the product during deformational operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 272]    272Container and/or support therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Apparatus comprising closed chamber means, or cover or closure means therefor, or structure for supporting or axially moving the closed chamber means.

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263,for the same plus a nonaxial component of container movement.

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220Receptacles,   appropriate subclasses for a receptacle not specially adapted to use in extrusion apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 273]    273Ram or ram element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Apparatus comprising a reciprocatable plunger or equivalent structure for applying extrusion pressure directly on work located and confined within the container, or a detail or element of such structure (e.g., a dummy block).
(1) Note. Because of the peculiar nature of extrusion, extrusion rams, and elements thereof are classified here. For metal-deforming tools generally, including plunger means otherwise usable, see subclasses 462+.

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100Presses,   subclasses 214+ for a reciprocating press construction; and subclasses 295+ as the residual locus for pressure surface elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 273.5]    273.5Indirect extrusions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.1.  Subject matter in which the orifice or constricted passageway is formed through a member which, during and for the squeezing operation, extends within the container and is telescopically movable relative thereto.

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264+,for a member provided with an extrusion orifice or restricted passageway and another member, generally a mandrel (or a core tube in indented subclasses 268) spaced from the wall of the first member to cooperate therewith to define an annular space through which tubular (generally) product may be extruded; and in which member may be telescopically movable within the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 274]    274BY PULLING WORKPIECE THROUGH CLOSED PERIPHERY DIE (E.G., ROD-, TUBE-, OR WIRE-DRAWING):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising means including, or a step of using means including, an orifice* and/or passageway*, through which work is drawn by the application of external tensile force.
(1) Note. Apparatus of this subclass, and the indented subclasses, is usually intended to operate upon work having an initial dimension that is only slightly larger than the opening in the closed die to reduce the cross-sectional area of the work, with or without altering the basic cross-sectional shape thereof.
(2) Note. In regard to the underlined portions of (1) Note, immediately above, note that subclasses 127+ provides for alteration of cross-sectional shape of travelling work (e.g., troughing subclasses 176+) which may also be accomplished by pulling through a closed die.
(3) Note. For the purpose of patent placement in subclass 274, and the subclasses indented thereunder, a work gripping and/or moving means will be treated in accordance with the criteria set forth in (1) Note under the definition of subclass 276.

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64,for subject matter in the "twisting" area which may also utilize a closed periphery die.
127,for "skelping", or longitudinally troughing, a bodily moving workpiece by using a closed periphery die without reducing the cross-sectional area of the strip or "skelp".
293,for metal deformation by a stationary nondeforming work-gripping claim and movable closed periphery die.
343+,for metal deformation by a closed die(s) moved along a stationary workpiece, and/or for push-drawing, i.e., altering the cross-sectional area of a rod or tube by pushing it through a closed die.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 275]    275With cutting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for cutting which meets the requirements stated in the class definition. (See Lines With Other Classes, Relationship to Combination Classes, With Cutting, of this section).
(1) Note. For inclusion in this class, the cutter in every instance must be associated with metal-deforming apparatus, and must cut (sever, incise, punch, shape, grind, etc.) material which is the subject of the metal-deforming operations performed by the associated apparatus.

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324+,for the combination of cutting and metal-deforming means associated with conventional apparatus or operations (e.g., punch press, bending, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 276]    276Producing a nonuniform product:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter which functions to form a relatively rigid elongated product* having at least one of the following characteristics: (a) the central longitudinal axis of the product does not constitute a straight line; or (b) at two spaced points along the central longitudinal axis, the transverse cross sections of the product (whether solid or hollow) are not identical in one of the following respects: (i) size, (ii) shape, (iii) wall thickness, or (iv) orientation about the centerline.
(1) Note. Many products are either (a) intentionally left "pitted", "scored", etc., for purposes such as esthetics effect or lubrication, or (b) intentionally, or unintentionally, partially deformed (usually at the leading end) when they are gripped, pulled, or otherwise handled. If such deformations are claimed, then placement herein is proper, even though such deformation will later become "waste" if placement is otherwise appropriate for subclasses 274+. If, however, such deformation is unintentional, and/or disclosed but not claimed, then such patents will be found in subclasses further indented under subclass 274.
(2) Note. In the figures below, the tubular workpiece illustrates items (ii), (iii), and (iv) under part (B) of the definition of this subclass.

Image 1 for class 72 subclass 276

Drawing a nonuniform product, (e.g., from pre-twisted eccentrictubbing) (subclass 276)

Drawing a nonuniform product, (e.g., from pre-twisted eccentrictubbing) (subclass 276)

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59,for a method of or means for corrugating tubular work utilizing fluent material as a "tool".
136,for deflecting to form a helical coil or tube including the thinning of a portion of the work.
240,for varying the bite of a roller couple during deformation.
260,for method or means for forming a non-uniform product by extruding.
318,for die-forging the end of indeterminate length work.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 277]    277With movement of discrete workpiece angularly, laterally, or in a reverse direction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter including active means operative either before or after the work* has engaged the closed die element to direct said work (a) back through the same closed die, (b) to a second closed die, or, (c) to a metal-deforming tool that is not a closed die.
(1) Note. The notes under the definition of subclass 419 contain a comprehensive listing of search areas related to work and/or product handling.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 278]    278Utilizing plural metal-deforming tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter comprising two or more metal-deforming instrumentalities, or the steps of using the same.
(1) Note. The second or subsequent metal-deforming tool may, or may not, be of the type peculiar to subclass 274.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 33+ , 592+, 650, and 700+ for method or apparatus appropriate to Class 29, which may include tension drawing as one of the steps or means in an assembling or similar operation.
83Cutting,   subclasses 120 , 213+, 255+, 301+, 357, 404+, 549+, 598+, and 618+ for a cutting device having plural cutting stations.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 279]    279Varying speed or continuous workpiece through successive tool stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter which functions to move one portion of a workpiece through one of the instrumentalities at a speed which is different from that at which another portion is moved through another of the instrumentalities.
(1) Note. Typical patents in this subclass include wire-drawing disclosures which provide for successively smaller closed dies, with rotating drums therebetween, and drive means to pull the wire (by rotating the successive drums) at increasing speeds as the wire is reduced and elongated at each smaller closed die.

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288,and 289, for a metal-deforming device having a single drum driven at a varying or uniform speed, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 280]    280Accumulating work between successive tool stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter including means providing slack in moving work, or temporarily storing work, after it has passed one instrumentality and before it is deformed by an additional instrumentality.

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288,and 289, for a metal-deforming device having a single drum driven at a varying or uniform speed, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 281]    281Including noncoaxial closed dies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter wherein the longitudinal axis of the orifice or passageway of one die is other than a straight-line continuation of the longitudinal axis of at least one other orifice or passageway.
(1) Note. The provision of one closed die that is pivotally mounted with respect to a second closed die is sufficient for placement in this subclass.

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277,for a metal-deforming device which may include closed dies.
285,for a metal-deforming device having a single closed die that may be pivoted with respect to other elements of the metal-deforming device.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 282]    282All closed dies coaxially aligned:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter wherein a line forming the longitudinal axis through one orifice or passageway is coincident with the line forming the longitudinal axis through each and every other claimed orifice or passageway.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 283]    283Including a mandrel inserted within a hollow workpiece:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Subject matter including an internal die (male die, punch, push-rod, etc.) which is positioned inside a generally-tubular workpiece, at least a portion of said internal die entering a portion of the orifice or passageway, so that said internal die determines at least some internal dimension of the tubular workpiece.

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253.1+,and 343+, for a combination including die and mandrel units in the extruding and in the residual closed die operations, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 284]    284And applying a "pushing" force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter which functions to assist the "drawing" of the work by propelling the work, or the die, relative to the pulling means.
(1) Note. The additional means of this subclass may (a) "push" the work into the closed die, or (b) move the closed die over the work (both of these operations being frequently described in the art as "threading" the die) before, during, or after the action of the pulling means.

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343+,and 418, for a metal-deforming device which may include means to "push" work toward a closed die, or a cooperating tool, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 285]    285Movable die:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter including means to move or permit movement of the die with respect to a fixed point.
(1) Note. The active or permissive movement of the closed die may occur continuously or intermittently during the drawing of the workpiece.

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281,for a metal-deforming device including plural closed dies, one of which may be movable, and see (1) Note thereunder.
293,for combination including nondeforming work gripper and a relatively movable die.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 286]    286With heating or cooling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter including means which, directly or indirectly, raise or lower the temperature of all or part of the work.

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342.1+,for heating or cooling of other metal- deforming devices, and see the search notes under that subclasses (342.1+).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 287]    287Utilizing specific work-moving means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter including a definitely described seizing and tensioning means which is effective to draw work through the die.

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419+,and the search notes thereunder, for work or product handling means in a metal-deforming device.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   in general, for work-handling or product-handling method or apparatus.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 14+ for stock pulling and/or pushing devices, and see the search notes thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 288]    288Varying speed of moving work:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter including means operative to increase or decrease the rate of movement of the workpiece, at will or cyclically, during drawing.

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425,for a metal-deforming device including means to vary the speed of either work or product.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 289]    289Rotating a drum, roll, sheave, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter including a driven rotating element which engages the workpiece and moves it by winding it around the rotating element.

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278+,for plural metal-deforming tools, one of which may include a drum die combination.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 290]    290Interrelated work gripper and carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter including a movable member which supports either or both the work and a gripper (a nondeforming work-gripping clamp), and including additional means which interconnects and may move said movable member and said work or said gripper.
(1) Note. Engagement of the gripper(s) with the work may start the additional means, movement of the carrier may cause the gripper to engage or disengage the work, cessation of movement of the carrier may cause the gripper to engage or disengage the work, or any combination of the above may characterize the device.

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422,for a combination that does not claim the gripper and moving means in combination with a closed periphery die.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 291]    291Maintaining a "straight-line draw":
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter including structure which prevents the work seizing and tensioning means, or the work itself, from canting, rotating, tilting, or otherwise moving out of the desired path of movement.
(1) Note. The above described structure may be positioned on either side, or both sides, of a die; and, it may restrain the path of movement of the work, the gripper, the carrier, the elements of the motive means, or any combination of the above.

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428,for work-handling means including a work guide in combination with conventional apparatus (e.g., a metal-deforming press).

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269Work Holders,   subclasses 35 and 256 for a workholder having interrelated parts which are restricted to "straight-line" movements.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 292]    292BY TIGHTENING FLEXIBLE BAND OR CHAIN ABOUT WORK:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising means, or a method of using means, which includes a cable, a strap, or series of articulated links which engages and surrounds the major portion of the so-engaged periphery of work and, when placed under tension, applies deforming force to the work.
(1) Note. For placement in this subclass, the band or chain must encircle more than half the periphery of the workpiece (the remainder may be engaged by a fixed die or support); if the flexible tool means engages less than half the periphery of the work, it is regarded as a "yieldable-face" tool, for subclasses 396+, such tools requiring an opposed face coacting tool to effect compression or crushing of work.

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54+,for a compression of work by surrounding fluent medium.
396+,for a tool having a flexible or yieldable face portion opposed by another tool, and see (1) Note above.
402,for a plurality of tools concurrently movable radially inwardly against work.
465.1+,for a flexible or yieldable tool, per se.

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100Presses,   subclasses 1+ for process or apparatus for tautening a binder about material to compress it.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 293]    293BY USE OF NONDEFORMING WORK-GRIPPING CLAIM AND RELATIVELY MOVABLE CLAMP, TOOL OR WORK FORCER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising means, or the step of using means, which includes a plurality of coacting distinct work-engaging instrumentalities, and means to move or guide at least one such instrumentality with respect to another such instrumentality along a predetermined path; one of said instrumentalities having a plurality of opposed solid jaws or surface elements which are made effective, by movement of one or more of said jaws or surface elements, to grip a portion of work fictionally and to hold it securely during an operation of the class type.
(1) Note. The work-gripping clamp in subclasses 293+ may be an ordinary clamp; some form of actuating means is required to distinguish a clamp from a mere work-stop or work-supporting socket. Self-gripping clamps are included, (i.e., those which close in response to slight and initial movement of the work).
(2) Note. For placement in subclasses 293+, it must be clear that at least one work clamp has solely a clamping function (i.e., any disclosure of work deformation by closure of the clamp jaws, or of work slippage with respect to the jaws, or of work slippage with respect to the jaws during deformation, indicates that the "clamp" actually constitutes a tool couple or a tool element for original placement elsewhere in this schedule). A nondeforming (per se) clamp may, however, be provided with deforming or die surface elements or portions distinct from the clamp jaws proper, such arrangements being found in subclasses 320+ and 322+ indented hereunder. For placement in subclasses 293+, the clamp must be claimed, but it need not be recited as a deforming instrumentality (e.g., it may have an auxiliary function as a steadying element). If deformation is effected by relative motion between two or more clamps, placement is in subclasses 295+; If a clamp moves work relative to a tool, placement is in subclasses 308+; if the clamp holds work against the force of an actuated tool, placement is in subclasses 316+.
(3) Note. For placement of a process patent in subclasses 293+, the claim should recite "clamping" of work or an equivalent expression (such as "holding", if based upon a disclosure of clamping or refer to clamped, etc., work in addition to reciting the operative deforming step.
(4) Note. A work gripper or clamp may be found in many combinations placed in preceding subclasses, e.g., subclasses 274+ (wire-, rod-, or tube-drawing). These subclasses (293+) are the residual loci for a metal-deforming combination comprising, per se, nondeforming work clamp or gripping work mover. Any work clamp or gripper found in claimed combinations below subclasses 293+ is not solely a clamp but has another function, such as crushing or otherwise directly deforming work.

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80+,for a rotatable work-holding form which may comprise clamp structure.
127+,for a work gripper used to pull work through deflecting apparatus.
274+,for a work gripper used to pull work through a closed die.
350+,for a blank holder in deep-drawing apparatus (which generally allows controlled slippage of work).
419+,for a work or product handling device, generally.
457+,for a work constrainer in metal-deforming apparatus.
459,and 460, for a work clamp without a co-acting metal-deforming tool.

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269Work Holders,   appropriate subclasses for a work holder of clamping type; and subclasses 87+ for the combination with a tool couple element (such as a tool guide).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 294]    294With cutting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter comprising a step of, or means for, a systematic cutting* of the material which is the subject of metal deformation.
(1) Note. See Lines With Other Classes, Relationship to Combination Classes, With Cutting, of this class for the relationship between Class 72 and other classes involving cutting for a statement of the subject matter included in this class, and for examples of included and excluded combinations.

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40,for mechanical cleaning or descaling which may involve cutting (e.g., grindings, scrapping, machining).
324+,for cutting associated with residual metal-deforming operation or apparatus, and see the notes thereto for references to all pertinent cutting subclasses in the Class 72 schedule.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 295]    295By individually nondeforming clamps:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter wherein at least two of said relatively movable work-engaging instrumentalities each have a plurality of opposed solid jaws or surface elements which are made effective, by movement of one or more of said jaws or surface elements, to grip a portion of work frictionally and to hold it securely.
(1) Note. The function of each individual clamp is to immobilize a portion of work; their relative motion, however, induces internal stresses of deforming magnitude in intervening portions of work, to effect bending, twisting, stretching, etc. The relatively movable clamps are thus equivalent to a tool couple. Such tool couples, because of their unique effect, are collected in this subclass area, ahead of "clamp and tool" and "clamp and work forcer" combinations.
(2) Note. The combination of individually nondeforming, relatively movable work clamps and a tool of more conventional type (i.e., which deform work at its point of contact therewith) is found below in subclasses 296+; the usual operation of such a combination is "stretch forming" (see also subclass 305).

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305,for plural relatively stationary work clamps and a relatively movable tool.
308,for a work clamp employed as an active tool (i.e., as a work forcer).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 296]    296With co-acting relatively movable tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Subject matter comprising a third instrumentality or the use of an instrumentality designed and intended to engage work with deforming force, and means effective to change the location of said third instrumentality with respect to two or more of said work-gripping instrumentalities, during an operation of the class type.
(1) Note. The third instrumentality may consist of a more conventional tool, e.g., a die or forming block against which work is drawn or wrapped while being maintained under tension by the clamps. Many such stretch-forming devices are included in this subclass.

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305,for spaced (e.g., fixed) clamps and relatively movable tool.
309,for a movable work clamp and coacting, relatively movable tool.
323,for a work clamp and plural coacting tools.

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269Work Holders,   subclasses 87+ , for a work clamp combined with a tool couple element (such as a tool guide).
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 297]    297With means to actuate tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 296.  Subject matter utilizing a power-transmitting element effective to drive said further instrumentality during an operation of the class type.
(1) Note. When the coacting tool is an actuated member, as in this subclass, the work-gripping clamps may be either driven or passive members, but in any case they must be capable of relative motion with respect to each other (e.g., they may be independently pivotally mounted).

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305,for spaced (e.g., fixed) work clamps and relatively movable tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 72 subclass 298]    298