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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 361]   CLASS 361,ELECTRICITY: ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND DEVICES
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

STATEMENT OF GENERAL SUBJECT MATTER OF CLASS

This is the residual class for:

A. Systems or devices which provide safety and protection for other systems and devices.

B. Control circuits for electromagnetic devices.

C. Control circuits for nonelectromagnetic-type relays.

D. Systems or devices which discharge, or prevent the accumulation of electrical charge on or in an object or material.

E. Circuits for charging objects or materials.

F. Systems for generating or conducting an electric charge.

G. Systems which process electrical speed signals.

H. Circuits for reversing the polarity of an electric circuit.

I. Systems which cause the ignition of a fuel or an explosive charge.

J. Systems and processes for demagnetizing a magnetic field.

K. Transformers and inductors with integral switch, capacitor or lock.

L. Electrostatic capacitors, per se.

M. Housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components.

N. Electrolytic systems and devices.

O. Miscellaneous electrical systems and devices, which are not generic to any other class and are not provided for in any other subclass of this class.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

Many other electrical and mechanical classes provide for systems or machines which include the electrical systems and devices provided for in this class (361). The combination of the subject matter of this class (361) and an art environment is generally classified with the art environment where that environment is significant, either by virtue of a significant disclosed relationship or by virtue of a claimed relationship. Where the art environment is recited by name only (e.g., motor protective circuit), the combination may be classified, in some instances, with the art environment, and in others, in this class (361).

Whereas housings for electronic devices and components are also provided for elsewhere, Class 361 provides for housings and mounting assemblies having more than one different type of electrical component, the electrical components normally do not recite significant art limitations. (See Subclass References to the Current Class and References to Other Classes, below.)

Housings wherein (1) the housing is for an active solid state device, details of which are positively recited in the claims, or (2) where the recited housing is necessary to make a usable active solid state device whether or not the active solid state device is recited nominally or in detail are provided for elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

However, if a housing with nominally recited active solid state devices recites different types of (active or passive) devices, then original (OR) classification is in Class 361.

Claims that recite housings with only nominal recitation of active solid state devices of only one type should be classified as originals (ORs) in neither Class 257 or Class 361, but rather in Class 174.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

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331+,for housings and mounting assemblies having more than one different type of electrical component; the electrical components normally do not recite significant art limitations. These subclasses also provide for combinations of housings and mounting assembles with different types of art wherein the combination is not provided for where the different art is classified.
335+,for housings and switch gear.
364+,for housings and meter structure.
381+,for housings with cooling means.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous methods of manufacturing or mounting electrical or magnetic devices.
36Boots, Shoes, and Leggings,   for necessary shoe structure.
43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   subclasses 98+ for electrocuting-type animal traps, and subclasses 112 for devices for electrocuting insects.
47Plant Husbandry,   subclass 1.3 for the growing of plants as affected by electricity, as, for example, to stimulate the growth or to kill the plants.
70Locks,   for locking means, per se. Note, especially subclasses 174+ for locking means for control and machine elements; subclasses 237+ for locking means for automobile vehicles.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 304+ for capacitive liquid level gauges; subclasses 718 and 724 for capacitive fluid pressure gauge; subclasses 488+ for speed or accelerating measuring.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 10+ for the combination of a capacitor and a dial shaft operator; subclasses 395+ for systems for synchronizing the rotary motion of a plurality of shafts where adjustable gearing is utilized to control the rotation of at least one of the shafts.
84Music,   subclasses 723+ for electrical musical instruments, such as electric organs and conventional musical instruments with electrical pick-up, amplifying and reproducing means.
89Ordnance,   appropriate subclasses for explosive device projecting or dropping means having igniting means as a part thereof.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclasses and especially subclass 171 for synchronizing plural expansible chamber motors.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 15+ for electrostatic-type precipitators.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   appropriate subclasses for explosive devices having igniting means as a portion thereof.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 1.05+ for metalizing compositions, per se.
114Ships,   subclass 240 for degaussing of ships.
116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 38 for vehicular governors indicating speed and direction; subclasses 241+ and 284+ for miscellaneous indicators for indicating the position of a variable capacitor.
118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 621+ for electrostatic spray devices.
119Animal Husbandry,   subclass 145 for electrified station shields.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 143+ for igniting systems utilized with internal combustion engines; subclasses 319+ for speed regulators.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for solid fuel burners having igniting means.
136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   for electrochemical and electrothermal sources of electricity.
165Heat Exchange,   appropriate subclasses for a heat exchange structure of a general nature.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   for electric conductor and insulator structure, including conduits, boxes and housings.
177Weighing Scales,   subclasses 210+ for capacitor gauges.
178Telegraphy,   for the reproduction of pictures by a scanning procedure, as in television, facsimile and photomechanical engraving and for telegraphy, as in telautograph and teletypewriting.
180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses and see Class 361, subclass 51 , search notes.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   for switches and circuit breakers.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for the producing of chemical change by means of electricity, as in electrosputtering.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   for the producing of chemical change by means of electricity, as in electrolytic coating.
209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   for electrical classifying, separating and assorting of materials and objects.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 41.1+ for frame structure designed to support plates or plate-like articles.
219Electric Heating,   for miscellaneous electrical heating, including welding. Note, subclass 384 for perforating sheet material by means of an electric spark.
221Article Dispensing,   subclasses 143+ for article dispensers having electrical igniting means.
222Dispensing,   for dispensing devices utilizing electromagnetic actuators.
231Whips and Whip Apparatus,   subclass 7 for a device consisting of a handle and an electrified goad for causing an electric shock to be produced in an animal to control the movement or behavior of the animal.
235Registers,   subclasses 61+ for calculators having relay-type counting chains.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   appropriate subclasses for automatic temperature control systems; appropriate subclasses for complete heating systems having igniters as a portion thereof.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 2.1 , 3, and 690+ respectively, for methods and apparatus for projecting a liquid into the air and including a provision for imparting an electrostatic charge to the projected liquid. See the notes to these subclasses for a statement of the line.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 1 for aircraft lightning arresters and static eliminators.
246Railway Switches and Signals,   appropriate subclasses for electrical control of railway switches and signals.
250Radiant Energy,   for radio and microwave absorption meters, the detection of the nuclear or electromagnetic energy, the testing of materials by nuclear or electromagnetic energy, mass spectroscopy, fluorescent and phosphorescent applications, electron or ion beam deflection or focusing ion generation, supports for fluent material or objects, the irradiation of material or objects, nuclear and electromagnetic radiation detectors, radiant energy generators and sources, radiation controlling means, and radiation source and detector supports.
252Compositions,   subclasses 512+ for electrically conductive metal-containing compositions; subclass 567 for a web or sheet impregnated with a defined dielectric liquid; and subclasses 570+ for a fluent dielectric, per se.
256Fences,   subclass 10 for electric fences.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for active solid-state semiconductor devices, per se. Class 257 provides for housings wherein (1) the housing is for an active solid state device, details of which are positively recited in the claims, or (2) where the recited housing is necessary to make a usable active solid state device whether or not the active solid state device is recited nominally or in detail. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above.)
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   for electric generating plants.
303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake System,   subclasses 113.1+ for antiskid systems where brakes are operated.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   for systems of distributing electricity or interconnection. The line between Class 307 and this class (361) can be determined only by consulting the art to be found in these two classes.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 90.5 for magnetic supports.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 294+ for supports and cabinets with movable components.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   for electric lamps, vacuum tubes, gas discharge tubes and spark gaps.
314Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Consumable Electrodes,   for arc lamps.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   for cathode-ray tube circuits, gas tube circuits, electric lamp circuits, and circuits which are integral with a discharge device or lamp.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   for electric motor systems, including servo-motor systems.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   for a method or apparatus for charging or discharging a battery or capacitor.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   for systems for controlling a single generator and its prime mover.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   for systems for controlling the voltage of electricity and the phase of alternating currents.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   for electrical measuring, testing and sensing, such as, for example, the determination of moisture in material by measuring its resistivity and the measuring of power in an electric circuit.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous active device circuits.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 311+ for pulse demodulators which may include radiation reduction.
330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses for amplifier systems.
331Oscillators,   appropriate subclasses for self-sustaining electric wave generators of the nondynamoelectric type.
332Modulators,   for systems for modulating an intelligence upon a repetitious wave.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   appropriate subclasses for the subject matter of that class.
334Tuners,   appropriate subclasses for tuned networks used in wave energy apparatus, tuners with shielding means, and switch operated tuners.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   for electromagnets with armatures, switches or magnetic chuck structure.
336Inductor Devices,   for transformers and inductances.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   appropriate subclasses for thermal-type circuit breakers, per se.
338Electrical Resistors,   appropriate subclasses for electrical resistors both of the linear and nonlinear types.
340Communications: Electrical,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous electrical signalling.
343Communications: Radio Wave,   for radar and directive radio systems and antennas.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   for motion picture apparatus combined with sound recording or reproducing apparatus, including means for synchronizing the two.
362Illumination,   for electric lights and photographic illumination devices including ignition means.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   in which electricity is converted from one form to another as from direct current to alternating.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclass 293 for antimagnetic devices used in horology.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 72+ for storage medium electrostatic charge neutralization; and subclass 126 for information storage by dynamic electrostatic charge.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   for pulse communication equipment.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 100+ for processes and devices for electrically and/or magnetically confining and controlling a plasma to yield nuclear fusion reactions.
378X-Ray or Gamma Ray Systems or Devices,   for X-ray or gamma ray systems or devices.
379Telephonic Communications,   for telephone systems and subcombinations.
396Photography,   subclasses 155+ for photoflash devices combined with camera structure which may include ignition means.
399Electrophotography,   subclass 37 for diagnostics of power supplied to an electrophotographic device, subclasses 88+ for machine operations with power supply, and subclasses 168+ for charging a photoconductive member.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   appropriate subclasses for centrifugal or impeller rotation speed responsive systems.
420Alloys or Metallic Compositions,   for alloys, per se.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 21 , 22+, and 186 for process and apparatus provided by the class using electrical energy.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 458+ for processes of coating, per se, utilizing an electrostatic charge; subclasses 79+ for processes of coating utilized in making capacitors.
431Combustion,   subclass 128 for hand manipulatable electric igniters for igniting fuel.
439Electrical Connectors,   for electrical connectors.
454Ventilation,   appropriate subclasses for ventilating devices.
455Telecommunications,   for receivers, transmitters and miscellaneous apparatus.
463Amusement Devices: Games,   subclass 47.3 for a striking type of weapon for use on a human being which includes an electric shock feature (e.g., an electric prod used by police, etc.).
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 150+ for high temperature (Tc 30 K) superconducting systems or devices, and subclasses 800+ for cross-reference art collections on superconductive systems or devices.
600Surgery,   subclasses 9+ for application of a magnetic field to a body for therapy.
602Surgery: Splint, Brace, or Bandage,   subclass 2, for a bandage including electrical application to a body.
606Surgery,   especially subclasses 32+ , for electrical application to a body for surgical purposes.
607Surgery: Light, Thermal, and Electrical Application,   subclasses 1+ for devices for applying electricity to the human body.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 1]    1SAFETY AND PROTECTION OF SYSTEMS AND DEVICES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to the safety and protection of electrical systems and devices which include either fault sensing means which activate a protective means to remove a fault condition or a protective means which detects and removes the fault condition.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses do not include, as a portion thereof, the protection and safety of human beings in the vicinity of electrical apparatus. Generally, the excluded protection and safety systems are classified in the subclass which relates to the environment in which the protected human being may be found. Thus, for example, electrical conductors having grounded guarding means to protect human personnel are classified as electric conductors.

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600+,for switchboards and analogous devices, such as housings, some of which act as protective means.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 2+ for lightning protection systems consisting only of conductors and insulators, subclass 5 for electric shock hazard protective devices for protecting personnel, subclass 6 for earth ground, per se, and subclass 11 for electric conductor structure having means automatically responsive to the condition of the fluid which is associated with the electric conductors.
178Telegraphy,   subclass 69 for telegraph line clearing and circuit maintenance systems.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 326+ for safety or limit control features.
314Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Consumable Electrodes,   subclasses 10+ for arc lamp systems having an automatic shunt or cutout.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 88+ , especially subclass 91 for lamp and space discharge device systems having means to automatically substitute another lamp, space discharge devices, or electrode for the previous one under certain conditions of operation, subclasses 119+ for lamp and space discharge systems having an automatic shunt or cutout, and subclass 209 for lamp and space discharge device systems having periodic switch means in the supply circuit.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 434 for electric motor systems where the motor is significantly claimed having means to limit the motor load current, torque or force, as for the purpose of limiting an overload.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 267 for condition sensing regulators with protection.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 110 for electric meter protection against electrical hazards and against the hazard of fraud.
330Amplifiers,   subclasses 250+ for semiconductor amplifiers.
331Oscillators,   subclass 62 for oscillators provided with oscillator circuit protective means, and subclass 63 for oscillator systems provided with protection or safety devices for personnel.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 635+ for electrical apparatus condition responsive signalling devices, particularly subclasses 649, 650, and 652 for grounding circuit, undesired circuit ground, and open circuit, condition responsive signalling devices, respectively.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 50+ for conversion systems having protective means.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 437 for telephone systems having protective means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 2]    2Arc suppression at switching point (i.e., includes solid-state switch):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter for preventing or extinguishing arcs at the main switching points of the switching device.

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159,for arc suppression in control circuits for electromagnetic devices.

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218High-Voltage Switches With Arc Preventing and Extinguishing Devices,   subclasses 1+ for switches having arc preventing and extinguishing features.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 19 and 20 for differentiating, integrating and wave shaping networks, some of which can be used to prevent a rapid rise of voltage when a switching contact is opened.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 106+ and 177 for circuit-interrupter-type conversion systems which are usually provided with arc suppression or reducing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 3]    3Synchronized or sequential opening or closing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter with means to open or close the switch at a predetermined time or in a predetermined sequence.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 238 and 321.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 4]    4Counter electromotive force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter with means for inserting an opposing voltage or current across the switching points to effectively cancel the arc producing surge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 5]    5With current sensitive control circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein the opening or closing control circuit is responsive to the in-line current. The in-line current is that which is switched at the main switching point.

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31,and 32, for current responsive control circuitry in motor shunting circuits.
57,for current responsive control circuitry in load shunting circuits.
63+,for current responsive control circuitry in feeder distribution networks.
87,for current responsive control circuitry in quantity comparison circuits.
93.1+,for current responsive fault sensors.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 131 for current responsive switching systems.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 664 for current characteristic actuated (e.g., line fault).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 6]    6With voltage sensitive control circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein the opening or closing control circuit is responsive to the line voltage. The line voltage is that which is switched at the main switching points.

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21,for voltage responsive control circuits in generator protective systems.
33+,for voltage responsive control circuits in motor protective systems.
56,for voltage responsive control circuits in load shunting systems.
86,for voltage responsive control circuits in quantity comparison circuits.
88+,for voltage responsive fault sensors.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 130 for voltage responsive switching circuits.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 660+ for voltage responsive signalling means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 7]    7With combined voltage and current sensitive control circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein the opening or closing control circuit is responsive to both the in-line current and the line voltage.

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30,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in motor protection circuits.
65+,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in feeder distribution networks.
79+,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in quantity comparison circuits.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 25 for voltage and current responsive means for generator control circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 8]    8Shunt bypass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter including a circuit in parallel with the main line switching points to drain away the arc causing surge.

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9,for shunt bypass of main switch with sequentially inserted impedance.
13,for nonsynchronized shunt bypass.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 9]    9With sequentially inserted impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Subject matter which includes means to increase the shunt impedance in a predetermined manner.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 10]    10By inserting series impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter with means to place an impedance in-line with the main switching points to suppress the arc causing surge.

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58,for impedance insertion in general.

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218High-Voltage Switches With Arc Preventing and Extinguishing Devices,   subclasses 1+ and 143+ for switches having arc preventing and extinguishing features with resistance insertion.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 11]    11Nonlinear impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter with means to insert a nonlinear impedance (inductors, capacitors, thermistors, etc.) in series with the main switching points to suppress the arc causing surge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 12]    12By arc stretching (e.g., horn gap):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the lengthening of the arc effectively inserts an increasing amount of impedance in series with the switching points.

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137+,for this subject matter in high voltage applications.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 13]    13Shunt bypass of main switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter with a current path around the main line switching points to drain away the arc causing surge.

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8,for synchronized shunt bypass circuits.
54+,for load shunting where the load is not a switch.

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218High-Voltage Switches With Arc Preventing and Extinguishing Devices,   subclasses 8+ for arc preventing and extinguishing with auxiliary shunt.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 14]    14Arc blowout for main breaker contact (e.g., electromagnet, gas, fluid, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter with means to extinguish the arc in a dynamic manner effectively increasing the length of the path of the arc.

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123,133, 134, 135, and 137+, for this subject matter in high voltage applications.

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218High-Voltage Switches With Arc Preventing and Extinguishing Devices,   subclasses 22+ for arc preventing and extinguishing with magnetic blowout.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 15]    15Capacitor protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter for protecting capacitors from damage caused by excess heat and voltage or current surges.
(1) Note. The protective systems and devices included in this subclass are external to the capacitor housing and details to the capacitor structure are not included.

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272+,for capacitors, per se, wherein the protective device is an integral part of the capacitor structure and details to the capacitor structure are included.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 16]    16Series connected capacitors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Subject matter for preventing damage to in-line capacitors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 17]    17Shunt connected capacitors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Subject matter for preventing damage to capacitors connected in parallel with the source or load.

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272+,for electrostatic capacitors with protection or compensating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 18]    18Voltage regulator protective circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensing means for a voltage regulator system activates a protective means which interrupts the power to the load.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 276 for voltage regulator systems wherein the current flow to the load is limited (not interrupted).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 19]    19Superconductor protective circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising means for electrically preventing damage to a superconductor circuit or device.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 366+ for superconductor gating circuits and subclasses 527+ for miscellaneous superconductor circuits.
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   particularly subclasses 150+ for high temperature (Tc 30 K) superconducting systems or devices, subclass 192 for capacitors having high temperature superconducting materials, and cross-reference art collections in subclass 850 for protective circuits for electromagnetic devices that are superconductive.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 20]    20Generator protective circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising means for electrically preventing damage to a generator.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   for generator control circuits when the generator is significantly claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 21]    21Voltage responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 20.  Subject matter wherein a fault sensor responds to an abnormal voltage condition in either the load circuit or the generator field circuit.

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6,for voltage responsive control means in arc suppression circuits.
33,for voltage responsive control circuits in motor protective systems.
56,for voltage responsive control circuits in load shunting systems.
86,for voltage responsive control circuits in quantity comparison circuits.
88+,for voltage responsive fault sensors.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 635+ for electrical apparatus condition responsive signalling device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 22]    22Compressor protective circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising means for electrically preventing damage to a compressor.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   for general control circuits when the compressor is significantly claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 23]    23Motor protective condition responsive circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter including means to sense an abnormal condition or change of condition of a motor or its circuitry and to remove the fault condition.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   for motor control circuits when the motor is significantly claimed.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 648 for a motor condition responsive signalling device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 24]    24Current and temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means is responsive to an abnormal current and temperature condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 25]    25Motor temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means is located in the immediate proximity with the motor and is responsive to an abnormal temperature condition of the motor.

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37,for related subject matter in transformer systems.
103+,for general thermal sensing circuits.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 471+ for related subject matter in motor control systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 26]    26With bimetallic sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein sensing device is bimetallic.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 27]    27With thermistor sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein the sensing device is a resistor whose characteristics vary with temperature in a definite manner.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 28]    28With time delay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein the protective circuit responds to a fault condition only after a predetermined time.

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89,for time delay circuits combined with voltage responsive sensor.
94,for time delay circuits combined with current responsive sensor.
195+,and 202, for time delay circuits in control systems for relays and solenoids.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 141 for time delay circuits in switching circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 29]    29During energization of motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 28.  Subject matter wherein time delay means are provided for maintaining the protective circuit in an off condition during normal start-up.

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110,for transient nonresponsive circuits which ignores the surges on a transmission line.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 30]    30Current and voltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means is responsive to an abnormal current and voltage condition of the protected motor.

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7,for current and voltage sensitive control circuits in arc suppression circuits.
65,for current or voltage sensing means in feeder circuits.
79+,for current or voltage sensing means in quantity comparison circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 31]    31Current:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means is responsive to an abnormal current condition.

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5,for current responsive control circuits in arc suppression circuits.
57,for current sensing means in load shunting circuits.
63+,for current sensing means in feeder circuits.
87,for current sensing means in quantity comparison circuits.
93.1+,for specific current responsive sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 32]    32Bimetallic element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 31.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means consist of bimetallic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 33]    33Voltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means is responsive to an abnormal voltage condition.

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6,for voltage sensitive control means in arc suppression circuits.
21,for voltage sensing means in generator circuits.
56,for voltage sensing means in shunt circuits.
86,for voltage sensing means in quantity comparison circuits.
88+,for specific voltage responsive sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 34]    34Bimetallic element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means consist of bimetallic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 35]    35Transformer protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising means for preventing damage to a transformer.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 215 , 247, 301, 305, 328, and 355 for transformer systems.
336Inductor Devices,   for transformer, per se.
340Communication: Electrical,   subclass 646 for transformer condition responsive indicating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 36]    36With differential sensing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Subject matter including means which compare the electrical quantities entering and leaving the transformer.

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60,for differential voltage comparison across the circuit interrupting means.
78,for specific quantity comparison means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 37]    37With temperature or pressure sensing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Subject matter including means responsive to an abnormal temperature or pressure caused by a fault condition.

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25,for temperature sensing means in motor systems.
103+,for general circuit interruption by thermal sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 38]    38Transformer with structurally combined protective device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Subject matter wherein the protective means is an integral part of the transformer structure or housing.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 39]    39With lightning arrester and fuse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.  Subject matter wherein the protecting device includes means to shunt voltage surges away from a transformer and means to open the circuit to the transformer when the current exceeds the maximum rated value of the protected device.

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117+,for lightning arrester combined with fuse.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 40]    40With lightning arrester (e.g., spark gap):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.  Subject matter which shunts voltage surges away from a transformer.

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117+,for high voltage dissipation (lightning arresters), per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 41]    41With fuse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.  Subject matter which opens the circuit to the transformer when the current exceeds the maximum rated value of the protected device.

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104,for circuit interruption by thermal sensing (fuse).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 42]    42Ground fault protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter with means for sensing ground faults and for preventing damage to a system or device due to the ground fault.
(1) Note. A ground fault is a defect in a wire circuit due to unintentional grounding.

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107+,for specific transmission line with ground conductor.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 650+ for ground detectors with indicator only.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 43]    43Fault suppression (e.g., petersen coil):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein a protective circuit substantially reduces the ground leakage current.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 326+ for safety or limit control features.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 44]    44With differential sensing in a polyphase system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein the current going to and returning from the load in a polyphase system is compared by a sensing means and a sensed difference activates the protective circuit.

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78,for specific quantity comparison means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 45]    45With differential sensing in a single phase system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein the current going to and returning from the load in a single phase system is compared by a sensing means and a sensed difference activates the protective circuit.

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78,for specific quantity comparison means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 46]    46With more than two wires:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Subject matter wherein the current going to and returning from the load in a single phase system with more than two wires is compared by a sensing means and a sensed difference activates the protective circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 47]    47In a polyphase system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein the load in a polyphase system is protected from an unintentional grounding usually by removing the power from the load when a ground fault is detected by a sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 48]    48With more than three wires:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 47.  Subject matter wherein the polyphase system comprises more than three wires (e.g., a grounded wye-polyphase with a neutral conductor).

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108,for related subject matter with specific transmission line.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 49]    49In a single phase system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Subject matter wherein the load in a single phase system is protected from an unintentional grounding, usually by removing the power from the load, when a ground fault is detected by a sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 50]    50With more than two wires:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 49.  Subject matter wherein the load in a single phase system with more than two wires is protected from an unintentional grounding, usually be removing the power from the load when a ground fault is detected by a sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 51]    51Overspeed responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the load is protected from an excessive speed condition by means which detects the abnormal condition and activates a protective circuit.

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236,for electrical speed signal processing systems.

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180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 170+ for a motor vehicle provided with means responsive to the speed of the vehicle for maintaining the speed at or preventing it from exceeding a particular or value.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 52]    52By regulating source or load (e.g., generator field killed):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein means are provided to stabilize the power to the load.
(1) Note. The generator supplying the voltage may, for example, have its field killed when a short circuit develops.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 153 for miscellaneous generator control systems.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 17+ for automatically controlled single generator systems, and subclasses 69+ for circuit interruption type of generator control.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 234 for miscellaneous systems of load control.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 53]    53Prime mover control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein the driving means for the source is controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 54]    54Load shunting by fault responsive means (e.g., crowbar circuit):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the load is protected from an overload condition by a fault sensing means which senses the overload condition and causes the load to be bypassed.

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13,for switch shunting.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 100 for shunting or short circuiting systems.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 119+ for circuits with automatic shunt or cutout.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 55]    55Disconnect after shunting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the circuit to the load is opened after the overload condition is shunted from the load.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 56]    56Voltage responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensing means is sensitive to an abnormal voltage condition.

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6,for voltage sensitive control means in arc suppression circuits.
21,for voltage sensing means in generator circuits.
33+,for voltage responsive control circuits in motor protective circuits.
86,for voltage sensing means in quantity comparison circuits.
88+,for specific voltage responsive sensor.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 635+ for electrical apparatus condition responsive.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 57]    57Current responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensing means is sensitive to an abnormal current condition.

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5,for current responsive control circuits in arc suppression circuits.
31+,for current responsive control circuitry in motor protective circuits.
63+,for current sensing means in feeder circuits.
87,for current responsive control circuitry in quantity comparison circuits.
93.1+,for current responsive fault sensors.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 664 for current characteristic actuated circuits in condition responsive systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 58]    58Impedance insertion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein an impedance is placed in series with the protected device or system to limit the current thereto.

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10+,for impedance insertion in series with switching points.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 276 for limiting current to the load in regulator system.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 59]    59Circuit automatically reconnected only after the fault is cleared:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein fault sensing means activates the circuit disconnect means when a fault occurs and the circuit is caused to remain open until the fault is removed. Once the fault is removed the circuit is automatically reclosed.

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86+,for automatic reclosing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 60]    60With differential voltage comparison across the circuit interrupting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter wherein the voltage across the circuit disconnect means is sensed on both sides of the disconnect means and compared to determine if the fault has been removed.

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86,for voltage quantity comparison circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 61]    61Reclosing of the nonfaulty phases of a polyphase system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter wherein all phases of a polyphase system are opened due to a fault, and the nonfaulty phases are subsequently automatically reconnected.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 62]    62Feeder protection in distribution networks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the system which distributes power from a source (normally a bus) to the load is protected from a fault condition by disconnection.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 26 for plural diverse sources of supply, A.C. and D.C.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 63]    63With current responsive fault sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 62.  Subject matter wherein the protective means senses a current fault in the feeder and activates the disconnect means.

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5,for current responsive control circuits in arc suppression circuits.
31,for current responsive control circuitry in motor protective circuits.
57,for current responsive control circuitry in load shunting circuits.
87,for current responsive control circuitry in quantity comparison circuits.
93.1+,for current responsive fault sensors.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 650+ for circuit fault responsive circuits in condition responsive systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 64]    64With communication between feeder disconnect points:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Subject matter wherein the current sensing means activates a communication means which sends a coded message to adjacent feeder disconnect points indicating the location of the fault.

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68+,for communication circuits in series connected sections.
81,for communication circuits in distance relay systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 65]    65With current and voltage responsive fault sensors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 62.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensing means detects both current and voltage in the feeder and activates the disconnect means when a fault is sensed.

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7,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in arc suppression systems.
30,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in motor protection circuits.
79,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in quantity comparison circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 66]    66With communication between feeder disconnect points:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the sensing means activates a communication means which sends a coded message to adjacent feeder disconnect points indicating the location of the fault.

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68+,for communication circuits in series connected sections.
81,for communication circuits in distance relay systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 67]    67Series connected sections with faulty section disconnect:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the system which distributes power (normally a bus network) has series connected sections and is protected from a fault condition by disconnecting the faulty section.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 68]    68With communication between disconnect points:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein communications means sends a coded message between disconnect points indicating that a fault exists.
(1) Note. Some of the most commonly used communication systems are: Current Carrier Systems; Radio Wave Transmitter-Receiver Systems; and Laser Transmitter-Receiver Systems.

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64,and 66, for communication circuits in feeder networks.
81,for communication circuits in quantity comparison systems (distance relaying).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 69]    69Pilot wire communication:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Subject matter wherein the signal between disconnect points is communicated over pilot wire.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 70]    70Constant current system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein current regulators are used in the system.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 234 for constant current systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 71]    71Automatic reclosing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter in which the system is automatically restored to normal operation subsequent to a disconnect operation caused by a fault condition.

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59+,for automatic reclosing after clearing of fault.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 6+ for automatic circuit interrupting devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 72]    72With lockout means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the reclosing means (normally a circuit breaker) discontinues to reclose after a predetermined number of reclosings and remains in the open mode.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 73]    73Including timer reset before lockout:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Subject matter wherein timer means is reset if the fault dissipates prior to a predetermined number of reclosings.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 74]    74Continuous:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Subject matter wherein the system is continuously reconnected after each disconnect operation, although the fault has not been cleared.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 75]    75With time delay before reclosing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Subject matter wherein the system is restored to normal operation after a predetermined time following each disconnect operation.

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28,for time delay circuits in motor protection systems.
89,for time delay circuits in voltage responsive systems.
94+,for time delay circuits in current responsive systems.
195+,for time delay circuits in relay and solenoid systems.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 141 for time delay circuits in switching systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 76]    76With phase sequence network analyzer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter relating to systems which are responsive to either one or more of the positive, negative or zero sequence components of electricity in a polyphase system.

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77,for reverse phase responsive sensing.
85,for quantity comparison to determine a phase fault.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 107+ for similar subject matter but not protective.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 77]    77Reverse phase responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter relating to systems responsive to a 180° change of phase and also systems responsive to an improper phase sequence.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to systems responsive to a 180° change of phase and also systems responsive to an improper phase sequence, as for example, when Conductors A, B, and C are connected respectively to phases I, III, II, rather than phases I, II, III.

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76,for phase sequence sensing.
85,for quantity comparison to determine a phase fault.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 127 for polarity, phase sequence or reverse flow responsive switching systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 78]    78With specific quantity comparison means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein a specific electrical quantity (voltage, current, etc.) is sensed in the load circuit and compared with either a reference quantity of the same type or another specific electrical quantity to determine if a fault condition exists. The protective circuitry is activated when a difference in the magnitudes of the compared quantities is found to exist.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 661 for a voltage comparison condition responsive indicating device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 79]    79Voltage and current:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensor is responsive to abnormal voltage and current conditions in the load circuit.

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30,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in motor protection systems.
65,for combined voltage and current sensitive control circuits in feeder distribution networks.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 80]    80Distance relaying:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Subject matter wherein the voltages and currents are sensed at specific points in a system and computed with each other or with reference quantities to determine if a fault condition exists in the protected line section.

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67+,for distance relaying circuits in series connected sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 81]    81With communication means between disconnect points:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein a communication means sends a coded message between disconnect points indicating that a fault condition exists.

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64,and 66, for communication circuits in feeder networks.
68+,for communication circuits in series connected sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 82]    82Reverse energy responsive (e.g., directional):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensing means responds to the flow of energy which is reversed with respect to the normal direction of flow.

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84,for similar subject matter wherein the quantities compared are not specifically voltage and current.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 127 for polarity, phase sequence or reverse flow responsive switching systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 83]    83With time delay protective means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.  Subject matter wherein the protective means is activated at a predetermined time after a fault is sensed.

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28,for time delay circuits in motor protection systems.
75,for time delay means in automatic reclosing systems.
89,for time delay circuits in voltage responsive systems.
94,for time delay circuits in current responsive systems.
195+,for time delay circuits in relay and solenoid systems.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 141 for time delay circuits in switching circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 84]    84Reverse energy responsive (e.g., directional):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensing means responds to the flow of energy which is reversed with respect to the normal direction of flow.

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82,for similar subject matter wherein the quantities compared are specifically voltage and current.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 127 for polarity, phase sequence or reverse flow responsive switching systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 85]    85Phase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein the protective circuitry is activated by a difference in the phases of the compared electrical quantities.

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76,for phase sequence sensing to determine a fault.
77,for reverse phase responsive sensing.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.77+ for phase comparison circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 86]    86Voltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein the protective circuitry is activated by a difference in the compared circuits.

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6,for voltage sensitive control means in arc suppression circuits.
21,for voltage responsive control circuits in generator protective systems.
33+,for voltage responsive control circuits in motor protective systems.
56,for voltage responsive control circuits in load shunting systems.
88+,for voltage responsive fault sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 87]    87Current:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein the protective circuitry is activated by a difference in the compared currents.

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5,for current sensing means in arc suppression circuits.
31+,for current responsive control circuitry in motor protective circuits.
57,for current sensing means in load shunting circuits.
63+,for current sensing means in feeder circuits.
93.1+,for specific current responsive sensors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 88]    88With specific voltage responsive fault sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensor responds to an abnormal voltage condition in the load circuit.

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6,for voltage sensitive control means in arc suppression circuits.
21,for voltage responsive control circuits in generator protective systems.
32,for voltage responsive control circuits in motor protective circuits.
56,for voltage responsive control circuits in load shunting systems.
86,for voltage responsive control circuits in quantity comparison circuits.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 635+ for electrical apparatus condition responsive indicating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 89]    89With time delay protective means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the protective means is activated at a predetermined time after the fault is sensed.

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195+,for time delay circuits in relay and solenoid systems.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 141 for time delay circuits in switching system.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 261+ and 392+ for miscellaneous delay circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 90]    90Overvoltage and undervoltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensor is responsive to a combined overvoltage and undervoltage condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.1]    91.1Overvoltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensor is responsive to an overvoltage condition.
(1) Note. This subclass relates to protection involving overvoltage conditions which are considered to be fault conditions and not otherwise. Fault conditions are defined as those which could result in damage to the load circuit, if ignored, but do not include electrostatic discharge (ESD) event.
(2) Note. For ESD event protection, see Class 361, subclass 56.

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18,for voltage regulation by sensing overvoltage conditions.
33,for sensing abnormal voltage conditions in motor circuits.
56,for load shunting by sensing an abnormal voltage condition.
111,for protection from transient overvoltage conditions.

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257Active Solid-State Devices, (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclass 173 for device protection from overvoltage.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 20 for automatically response to abnormal voltage condition.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 662 for humanly perceptible means responsive to overvoltage.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.2]    91.2With resistor sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Subject matter including a device offering resistance to a flow of electric current and wherein the overvoltage condition is detected across the device.

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5+,switch position dependent upon sensed current across a resistance.
31,for sensing abnormal voltage conditions in motor circuits by sensing across resistance.
57,for load shunting by sensing an abnormal voltage condition across resistance.
63+,for feeder protection with disconnect by sensing an abnormal voltage condition across resistance.
78+,for quantity comparisons including sensing overvoltage conditions across resistance.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 522 for measuring resistance, per se.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclass 21 for a resistor responsive to surge voltage conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.3]    91.3Including time delay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Subject matter wherein the overvoltage condition is detected and/or the fault is removed after a predetermined time period utilizing time delay circuitry.

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28+,for abnormal voltage conditions in motor circuits wherein the protective circuit responds to a fault condition after a predetermined time period.
195,for relay or solenoids safety or protection device including time delay.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Device, Circuits, and Systems,   subclass 392 for circuitry having a fixed or single time delay controlled switch.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 28 , for electromagnetically actuated switches with combined timing or delay means.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclass 81 and subclass 88 for retarded or delayed action thermally actuated switch.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 527 for humanly perceptible means responsive to time delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.4]    91.4Including photo-coupling (e.g., photo-receptors, photo-emitters, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Subject matter including a means responsive to light to produce an electrical signal (i.e., photocouple) and wherein the photocoupler is utilized in the detection and/or removal of the overvoltage condition.

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173,for abnormal voltage conditions in relay circuits wherein a light responsive element is utilized in offering protection

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 420 , 556 for sensing voltage conditions involving photo-coupling, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.5]    91.5Including P-N junction (e.g., a diode, a zener diode, or transistor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Subject matter comprising a P-N junction device and wherein the device is utilized in the detection and/or fault removal of the overvoltage condition (e.g., P-N threshold breakdown or transistor clamping).
(1) Note. P-N junction circuitry protection as found predominantly within the circuitry with less emphasis on substrate configurations are classified here, however, details drawn to substrate technology should be classified in Class 257.

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257Active Solid-State Devices, (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 355+ for P-N junction protection.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.6]    91.6With zener diode sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.5.  Subject matter including a zener diode sensor and wherein the overvoltage condition is detected across a zener junction.

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257Active Solid-State Devices, (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 106 for tunneling P-N junction including zener diode.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.7]    91.7Protection by snubber circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Subject matter wherein fault removal includes auxiliary circuitry which limits the rate-of-rise of voltage or current utilizing circuitry or circuit element such as RC, diode, transistor and/or inductor arrangements, individually or in combination therewith.

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13,for switch protection including alternative current shunting paths.
15+,for capacitor protection via current shunting paths.
18,for voltage regulation wherein upon interruption, excess currents dissipated.
58,for load shunting by sensing an abnormal voltage condition where excess energy is dissipated.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 91.8]    91.8Protection for thyristor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Subject matter including a thyristor and wherein the overvoltage protection is applied to the thyristor or circuitry including the thyristor.

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15+,for capacitor protection including thyristor switching networks having overvoltage protection.
18,for voltage regulation incorporating voltage conversion utilizing controlling thyristors having overvoltage protection.
23+,for motor control circuitry including thyristors.
58,for shunt circuitry including thyristors.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclasses 50+ for thyristor protection.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 92]    92Undervoltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter under subclass wherein in fault sensor is responsive to an undervoltage condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.1]    93.1With specific current responsive fault sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the fault sensor responds to an abnormal current condition in an electrical system and to activate the protective means in response thereto.
(1) Note. This subclass relates to protection involving abnormal current conditions which are considered to be fault conditions and not otherwise.
(2) Note. Fault conditions are defined as those which could result in damage to the electrical system, if ignored. Abnormal current conditions include both overcurrents and undercurrents, unless indicated otherwise.

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5,for current responsive control circuits in arc suppression circuits.
31,for current responsive control circuitry in motor protective circuits.
57,for current responsive control circuitry in load shunting circuits.
63+,for current responsive control circuitry in feeder distribution networks.
87,for current responsive control circuitry in quantity comparison circuits.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 277 for output level responsive to load current sensor.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 509 for ground fault sensing by detecting current leakage to ground, and subclass 522 for fault location determination by current or voltage measuring.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 18 , for electromagnetically actuated switches responsive to predetermined or abnormal current condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.2]    93.2Digital control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter wherein the protective device includes processing circuitry (i.e., micro-controller, micro-processor, memory device) and the processing circuitry is utilized in the fault removal of the sensed abnormal current condition.
(1) Note. Subject matter of this subclass is not drawn to substantial specifics of data processing or formula computing operations by the processing circuitry.

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700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 79 through 82for computer system relating to protection and reliability of control system.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 60 through 63for power parameter measurement and subclasses 64 and 65 for voltage or current parameter measuring in an electrical system or method.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.3]    93.3Rating plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter wherein the protective device includes a removable component and wherein the component allows setting of current ratings and/or trip specifications for the fault removal.
(1) Note. Removable components range from jumper wires and burden resistors to printed circuit boards.

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633,for a plugboard in housing or mounting assemblies with diverse electrical components.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.4]    93.4Automatic reset after trip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter wherein the protective device interrupts the electrical system in response to the sensed abnormal current condition, and thereafter automatically restores the system to its normal operating conditions.

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59+,for a circuit automatically connected only after fault is cleared.
71+,for automatic reclosing.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets and Electromagnets,   subclasses 26+ and 166 for a magnetically operated switch or electromagnet having a latch or trip circuitry including reclosing or resetting features.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclass 130 and subclass 155 for a thermally actuated switch having a latching mechanism including reset or reclosing features.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.5]    93.5Transformer and resistor sensors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter including an inductively coupled device and a resistive device and wherein the abnormal current condition is detected with both the inductively coupled device and the resistive device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.6]    93.6Transformer sensor (i.e., toroidal current sensor):
 Subject matter under 93.1 including an inductively coupled device and wherein the abnormal current condition is detected with the inductively coupled device.

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42+,for ground-fault current condition sensing utilizing toroids or current transformers.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 244 for sensing utilizing saturable core magnetometers and subclass 529 for sensing fault location with magnetic field sensors.
336Inductor Devices,   subclass 175 for details drawn to transformer sensor.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 646 for a transformer utilized in humanly perceptible means in responsive to a predetermined condition.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 152 for temperature measuring including electrical component (e.g., transformer).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.7]    93.7Resistor sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter including a device offering resistance to a flow of electric current and wherein the abnormal current condition is detected with the resistive device.

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338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 2+ for details drawn to a resistor sensor, per se, and subclass 20 for a resistor responsive to current or voltage impressed across the resistor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.8]    93.8Thermal sensing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter including a means responsive to a predetermined amount of heat and wherein the abnormal current condition is determined by the heat responsive means.

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103,for electrical system interruption by thermal sensing.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets and Electromagnets,   subclass 44 for magnetically operated switches including ambient temperature compensating means.
336Inductor Devices,   subclass 179 for coil with temperature compensating means.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for measuring and testing thermal quantities.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 93.9]    93.9Current limiting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter wherein the protective device includes a means for reducing the flow of the sensed overcurrent without interrupting the flow of current in the electrical system.

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58,for load shunting by sensing an abnormal voltage condition.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 276 for limiting current to a load within a regulator system.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 94]    94With time delay protective means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter wherein the protective means is activated at a predetermined time after the fault is sensed.

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195+,for time delay circuits in relay and solenoid systems.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 141 for time delay circuits in switching systems.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 261+ and 392+ for miscellaneous delay circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 95]    95With instantaneous override:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein the protective means is activated at a predetermined time after a first level fault is sensed, or immediately after a fault of a higher predetermined level is sensed.

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111,for general transient responsive circuits (disconnects circuit).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 96]    96With multiple timing characteristics (e.g., short, long):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter wherein the protective means is activated after a short, intermediate, long, etc., time delay depending on the magnitude of the fault sensed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 97]    97With multiple timing characteristics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein the protective means is activated after a short, long, intermediate, etc., time delay depending on the magnitude of the fault sensed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 98]    98Transistorized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein the protective system utilizes solid state components.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 99]    99Combined thermal-electromagnetic relay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Subject matter wherein thermal and electromagnetic means are combined to perform the timing or circuit interrupt functions.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 35+ for electromagnetically operated circuit breakers with combined magnetic and thermal trip means, and subclasses 141+ for switches with combined magnetic and thermal operating means.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   appropriate subclasses for thermal-type circuit breakers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 100]    100With semiconductor circuit interrupter (e.g., SCR, triac, tunnel diode, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter wherein the protective device which causes the current to the load to be discontinued is of the semiconductor type.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 365+ for semiconductor interrupter, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 101]    101With transistor circuit interrupter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein the protective device which causes the current to the load to be discontinued is of the transistor type.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 102]    102With mechanical circuit breaker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Subject matter wherein the protective device which disconnects the load from the source is of the mechanical circuit breaker type.

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115+,for subject matter with specific circuit breaker or circuit breaker control structure.

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200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   for specific mechanical circuit breaker.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 2+ for specific electromagnetic circuit breaker.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 103]    103Circuit interruption by thermal sensing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein a thermally responsive device detects either the excessive heat of the device being protected or the excessive heat generated in the thermally responsive device and activates the circuit interrupter which disconnects the load from the source.

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124+,for thermally responsive high voltage dissipation devices.

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337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   for similar subject matter.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 584+ for electrical thermal alarms and signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 104]    104With fuse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein the thermally responsive device is a fuse.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 105]    105With bimetallic element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein the thermally responsive device is a bimetallic element.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 106]    106With thermistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein the thermally responsive device is a resistor whose characteristics vary with temperature.

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338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 25+ for the thermally responsive resistor, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 107]    107With specific transmission line (e.g., guarded):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the transmission line has significant mechanical or structural features.
(1) Note. The transmission line, for example, may be provided with guarding means, such as ground wires which act as shields.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   for conductors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 108]    108Plural conductors in single sheath (e.g., compound):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Subject matter having plural conductors in a single sheath.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to systems using "compound" cables.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 109]    109Too large fault makes breaker inoperative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter having means for rendering a circuit breaker inoperative in the presence of a fault of such a large size that the circuit breaker cannot handle it.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to circuit breaker systems in which a smaller capacity circuit breaker has associated with it "back up" protection and in which only the "back up" protection operates on very large faults.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 110]    110Transient nonresponsive (e.g., ignores surge on transmission line):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the protective means does not respond to a large transient surge.
(1) Note. During a switching operation a surge is normally induced. The subject matter in this subclass is nonresponsive to that surge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 111]    111Transient responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the protective means responds to a transient surge, normally caused by switching.

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95,for instantaneous override in current responsive systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 112]    112With space discharge means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter having space discharge means.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for space discharge means, per se.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous space discharge systems not otherwise classified.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 113]    113With tuned circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter having a tuned circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 114]    114With manual or automatic opening of breaker and manual reclose:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter which is provided with means to open the circuit breaker either manually or automatically and to reclose the breaker manually.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to systems having both a local manual control and a remote automatic control for a circuit breaker.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 115]    115With specific circuit breaker or control structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the circuit breaker or its control means has significant mechanical features.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   appropriate subclasses for the structure of electromagnetically operated circuit breakers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 116]    116Pneumatically operated circuit breaker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Subject matter wherein the circuit breaker is operated by pneumatic means.

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200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclasses 81+ for fluid pressure operated circuit breakers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 117]    117High voltage dissipation (e.g., lightning arrester):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter comprising means for reducing the voltage of a surge applied to its terminals without disconnecting the load.
(1) Note. The surge normally being applied by lightning.
(2) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to lightning arresters and surge dissipators, where the line wire or some other structure that relates to the conductor is claimed. When the line wire is not claimed, and only the terminals of the dissipator are claimed the dissipator is classified in one of the classes referred to under search class below.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 2+ for lightning protection by means of conductive structure, such as lightning rods; also, consult the search notes to this subclass. Search subclasses 140+ for insulators combined with conductive arcing or stress distributing means.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for lightning arresters of the arc or spark gap type, not having line conductor structure. Also consult the search notes in the class definition for related art.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclass 28 for lightning arresters combined with thermal current type circuit breakers.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 20+ for electric resistors responsive to current and/or voltage changes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 118]    118Surge prevention (e.g., choke coil):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter consisting of means to diminish the effect of transient surges of short duration.

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40,for surge prevention in transformer circuits.
111,for general transient responsive circuits (disconnects circuit).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 119]    119In communication systems:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Subject matter specifically for the protection of communication systems (e.g., radio, T.V., etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 120]    120Vacuum or gas filled space discharge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter having a vacuum chamber or a gas filled or vapor filled chamber through which electricity passes by means of space conduction.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 121]    121Fluid (e.g., mercury, quenching):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter having a fluid filled chamber through which electricity passes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 122]    122Electrolytic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the fluid utilized is an electrolyte.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 123]    123Gas blast:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the fluid may be vaporized by an arc therethrough and as a result, creates a blast of vapor which will blowout the arc, or the fluid may be compressed air which, upon being released, will blowout the arc.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 124]    124Thermal (e.g., fusible, bimetallic):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter wherein the protective device responds to an abnormal temperature created by a surge.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to high voltage dissipators having fusible links, or having bimetallic elements which move when their temperature changes.

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103,for protection circuits which utilize thermal sensors.

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337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclasses 298+ for specific thermal switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 125]    125With cutout (e.g., blowout type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.  Subject matter including a switch containing a material which disintegrates or separates to protect the lightning arrester.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 126]    126Current limiting material in discharge path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter including a current limiting material in the discharge path.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to high voltage dissipators in which an arc takes place through a porous composition when a high voltage must be dissipated to ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 127]    127Nonlinear material (e.g., valve type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Subject matter in which the current limiting material is a conductive nonlinear material.
(1) Note. The material utilized is usually of a negative coefficient type, which allow the initial surge to easily pass to ground and effectively blocks the follow current.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 128]    128With plural gaps in discharge path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter including plural gaps in the discharge path which increase the current handling capabilities of the lightning arrester.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 129]    129Plural gaps with common electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter including plural gaps in the discharge path with a common electrode.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 243+ for plural air gap discharge devices not having line or conductor structure as part thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 130]    130Plural gaps serially connected:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter including plural gaps in the discharge path which are serially connected to increase the current handling capabilities of the lightning arrester.

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315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclass 36 for subcombination of lightning arrester.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 131]    131Combined (e.g., with disconnect switch):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter combined with some other type of subject matter (e.g., disconnect switch).

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40,for high voltage dissipator combined with transformer.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 132]    132With line supporting insulator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Subject matter in combination with a line supporting insulator.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   for line supporting insulators, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 133]    133With magnetic means (e.g., electromagnet):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter including magnetic means associated with the discharge circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 134]    134Arc stretching (e.g., blowout):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Subject matter wherein magnetic means are used to lengthen the arc thereby isolating the load circuit.

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218High-Voltage Switches With Arc Preventing and Extinguishing Devices,   subclasses 22+ for magnetic blowouts used with switches.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 153+ for miscellaneous space discharge devices having magnetic means for influencing the space discharge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 135]    135By separating contacts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 134.  Subject matter wherein magnetic means are used for separating the contacts across which the arc is stretched.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   appropriate subclasses for electromagnetically operated switches in which an electromagnet is used as a source of force to separate two or more contacts.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 136]    136For grounding line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Subject matter wherein the magnetic means is used to ground the lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 137]    137Horn gap:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Subject matter consisting of a horn gap.
(1) Note. A horn gap is defined as being an air gap between two electrodes which have such a configuration that the arc, which takes place between them when the gap breaks down, is located first at a point where the electrodes are closely adjacent to each other, and then, under the action of the resulting electrical or thermal currents, rises and lengthens by shifting to a region where the distance between the electrodes is greater. Eventually, the arc ruptures because of its great length.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 138]    138With resistance insertion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein resistances are inserted in the path of the arc as it lengthens.

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12,for inserting impedance in horn gap in arc suppression systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 139]    139CONTROL CIRCUITS FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC DEVICES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to control circuits for relays and other electromagnetic devices.
(1) Note. When the relay controls a particular device, classification is not in this subclass but is in the class that provides for the art environment. Note that many electrical and nonelectrical classes have disclosures which include, as part thereof, relay and electromagnet control circuits. Therefore, in appropriate instances, the search should extend to the class which relates to the environment in which the relay or electromagnet circuit might be found.

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178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclasses for television and telegraph systems utilizing electromagnets and relays. Note, particularly subclasses 70+ for telegraph code repeaters.
222Dispensing,   for dispensing devices utilizing electromagnetic actuators.
235Registers,   subclasses 61+ for electric calculators having relay type counting chains.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 129.01+ for electromagnetic valve operators.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 101 for miscellaneous remnant and residual magnetism control, subclass 104 for miscellaneous electromagnet and highly inductive systems, and subclasses 112+ for miscellaneous switching systems.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 153+ and 364+ for cathode-ray, lamp and space discharge devices having magnetic means.
314Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Consumable Electrode,   for arc lamps having electromagnet or relay means to control the arc. Notefor example, subclasses 78 , 113+ and 135.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 399+ for cathode-ray tube deflecting circuits utilizing electromagnets.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   appropriate subclasses for electric motor control systems utilizing electromagnets or relays. Note that any electromagnet is an electrothermal transducer and therefore it is an electric motor. Also, see subclass 492 means to dissipate the magnetic energy of the electric motor.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 17+ for generator systems having relay control means.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   appropriate subclasses for voltage control and phase control systems having relays and electromagnets.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous nonlinear active device circuits.
331Oscillators,   appropriate subclasses for self-sustained electric wave generator systems of the nondynamoelectric type.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   appropriate subclasses for electromagnetic relays, per se.
379Telephonic Communications,   appropriate subclasses for telephone systems utilizing electromagnets and relays.
600Surgery,   subclasses 9+ .
607Surgery: Light, Thermal, and Electrical Application,   subclass 1 .
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 140]    140Including compensation for thermal change of electromagnetic device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein circuits or devices are included which compensate for any thermal changes of the electromagnetic device caused by ambient temperature changes or by the heat generated during the operation of the device.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 105 for electric meters having thermal compensating means.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 7+ for electrical resistors whose resistance value is temperature compensated.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 141]    141Including superconductivity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter utilizing electromagnetic devices or control circuit conductors which are superconductive.
(1) Note. Superconductivity is a property possessed by some metals, alloys, and compounds when their temperature is reduced to within a few degrees of absolute zero. There is a steady fall of resistance with temperature in these materials until a critical temperature (transition temperature) is reached, and then the resistance falls suddenly to zero or practically to zero.

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505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   particularly subclasses 150+ for high temperature (Tc 30 K) superconducting systems or devices, subclass 192 for capacitors having high temperature superconducting materials, and cross-reference art collections in subclass 851 for control circuits for electromagnetic devices that are superconductive, or that control superconductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 142]    142Including housing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the control circuit or the electromagnetic device or both are housed or enclosed.
(1) Note. The enclosure is specifically designed to protect the control circuit or device against damage or heat, or to be a plug-in unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 143]    143Systems for magnetizing, demagnetizing or controlling the magnetic field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter including systems and processes for magnetizing, demagnetizing or effecting a magnetic field by means of controlled energization or deenergization of an electromagnetic coil.
(1) Note. This subclass includes, for example, processes for demagnetizing the hair springs of a watch and systems for supplying energy to a demagnetizing coil.
(2) Note. Where the demagnetizing is combined with the specific features of the art environment, the search should extend to the class which relates to the art environment.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 144]    144For lifting or holding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein the electromagnet is used for lifting, suspending, holding or displacing objects by controlling the field of the electromagnet.

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310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 90.5 for magnetic supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 145]    145Magnetic chuck-type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter wherein the work function is performed by a magnetic chuck-type electromagnet.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 291 for magnetic chuck structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 146]    146Systems for magnetic field stabilization or compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter including systems which maintain the value of the force of the magnetic field or compensate for the effects of external magnetic forces on the electromagnet.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 300+ for related subject matter involving nuclear induction.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 147]    147With permanent magnet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter wherein a permanent magnet is combined with the electromagnet.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 148]    148Calibration or permanent magnet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.  Subject matter wherein the strength of the field of the permanent magnet is adjusted to a predetermined value.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 149]    149Demagnetizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter including systems and processes for neutralizing a magnetic field by means of controlled energization or deenergization of an electromagnetic coil.

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267,for demagnetizing systems and processes, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 150]    150Television degaussing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the demagnetizing system or process is peculiar to a television receiver.

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315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclass 8 for cathode-ray tube degaussing systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 151]    151Magnetic tape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the demagnetizing system or process is peculiar to neutralizing magnetic tape.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 152]    152Including particular drive circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Subject matter including a drive circuit specifically designed to meet the required operating parameters of an electromagnetic device.
(1) Note. The drive circuits included satisfy such operating parameters as providing plural distinct operating currents or providing pulses to the device to operate it in a specific manner.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 153]    153Pulse initiated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Subject matter wherein a circuit or device which responds to a voltage pulse signal is used to initiate the operation of the electromagnetic device.

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186,for miscellaneous pulse initiated control circuits for relays and solenoids.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 154]    154Including means to establish plural distinct current levels (e.g., high, low):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Subject matter wherein the drive circuit includes means to establish plural distinct current levels.
(1) Note. The plural distinct current levels may include, for example, a high initial current to quickly operate the relay and subsequent lesser current value to "hold" the relay operated.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 155]    155With capacitor charging or discharging through coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.  Subject matter wherein the plural current levels are obtained by the charging or discharging of a capacitor through the coil of the electromagnetic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 156]    156With capacitor charging or discharging through coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Subject matter wherein the drive circuit includes the charging or discharging of a capacitor through the coil of the device to control the operating current.

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155,for plural distinct current levels.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 157]    157Including instrument (e.g., meter-relay):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein an instrument is included in the control circuit.
(1) Note. The instrument may itself be the combination of a meter with contacts or a relay may be combined with the meter so that the meter movement actuates the relay.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 158]    158Temperature indicating instrument:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Subject matter wherein the instrument of the meter-relay combination gives an indication of temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 159]    159Including means for using, or compensating for the induced EMF of the electromagnetic device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein a circuit or device is included which utilizes the induced electromotive force generated by the operation of the electromagnetic device.
(1) Note. The system may, for example, store the induced EMF and subsequently use this stored EMF to aid in operating the electromagnetic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 160]    160For relays or solenoids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the electromagnetic device is a relay or a solenoid.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 161]    161Including thermal device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein a thermal device is included in the control circuit of the relay or solenoid.

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338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 25+ for electrical resistors responsive to a change in ambient temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 162]    162Thermoelectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Subject matter wherein the thermal device is of the thermo couple type.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 163]    163Bimetallic element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Subject matter wherein the thermal device is a bimetallic element.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 164]    164Including heater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Subject matter which includes a heating element to control the operation of the bimetallic element.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 165]    165Thermistor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Subject matter wherein the thermal device is a thermistor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 166]    166Plural relays or solenoids sequentially operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter having plural relays or solenoids as the controlled devices which are operated in a predetermined sequence.

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171,for this subject matter with code responsive control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 167]    167Alternately operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the plural relays or solenoids are operated in an alternate sequence.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 168.1]    168.1Pulse responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 166.  Subject matter wherein the predetermined sequence of operation of the relays or solenoids are controlled by a drive circuit or device which responds to a voltage pulse circuit.

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186,for pulse responsive control circuits.

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329Demodulators,   subclasses 311+ for pulse demodulators.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 12.19 for selective circuits using relay counting chains.
377Electrical Pulse Counters, Pulse Dividers, or Shift Registers: Circuits and Systems,   subclass 65 for shift registers using electromechanical relays and subclass 83 for counting chains using relays.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 169.1]    169.1Including electronic element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 168.1.  Subject matter wherein electronic devices are utilized.

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172,for this subject matter in pulse responsive control circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 170]    170Condition responsive (e.g., external circuit condition):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter including circuits or devices which respond to external circuit conditions to initiate the operation of the relay or solenoid.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 116+ for condition responsive circuits in switching systems.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 509+ for miscellaneous external effect circuits.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for condition responsive circuits in communication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 171]    171Code responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein the external circuit condition required to operate the relay or solenoid is the application of the proper code pulses to the control circuit.

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70Locks,   subclass 278 .1 for this subject matter utilized in locks.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 1.1 through 16.1for this subject matter in miscellaneous selective systems such as remote control systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 172]    172Including electronic element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 171.  Subject matter wherein electronic devices are utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 173]    173Light:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein a light responsive element is used to initiate the operation of the relay or solenoid.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photoelectric cell circuits not having a relay or solenoid as the last element controlled.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 117 for miscellaneous light responsive switching systems.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 149+ for electric lamp and discharge devices with radiant energy sensitive control means.
330Amplifiers,   subclass 59 for amplifier systems including light controlled or activated devices.
331Oscillators,   subclass 66 for light responsive devices combined with oscillators.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 174]    174Light sensor controls its light path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Subject matter wherein the light sensor controls its own optical system, by which it is illuminated.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 175]    175Including electronic element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Subject matter wherein electronic devices are utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 176]    176Plural light sensors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Subject matter wherein more than one light sensor is included in the control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 177]    177Plural light sensors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.  Subject matter wherein more than one light sensor is included in the control circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 178]    178Fluid (e.g., liquid level, humidity):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein the initiating device or circuit is responsive to the condition of a fluid (liquid or gas).
(1) Note. The system may, for example, respond to precipitation, fluid level or flow, humidity of fluid pressure.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 602 for moisture or humidity; subclass 604 for wetness; and subclasses 618+ for liquid level alarm systems, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 179]    179Proximity or contact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein the device or circuit which initiates the operation of the relay or solenoid is responsive to an object coming very close to or touching the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 180]    180Metal presence or absence responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein the initiating device or circuit responds to the presence or absence of metal in proximity to or contact with the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 181]    181Capacitance change-type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein the initiating device or circuit responds to a change in capacitance at the detecting electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 182]    182Frequency (e.g., audio, radio):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein circuits or devices which respond to audio or radio frequencies are used to initiate the operation of the relay or solenoid.

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178Telegraphy,   subclasses 47+ for this subject matter in telegraph systems.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 1.1 through 16.1for this subject matter in miscellaneous communication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 183]    183Plural relays or solenoids as loads:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Subject matter wherein two or more relays or solenoids are controlled by one or more frequency signals.

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191+,for plural relay solenoid loads selectively operated.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 184]    184Specific Frequency Responsive Relay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Subject matter which includes a relay which only operates when excited with a supply of a predetermined frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 185]    185Phase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein a circuit or device which responds to a particular phase of a current or voltage signal is used to initiate the operation of the relay.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 186]    186Pulse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein a circuit or device which responds to a pulse signal is used to initiate the operation of the relay.

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153,for pulse responsive circuits in drive circuits which are peculiar to electromagnetic devices.

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329Demodulators,   subclasses 311+ for pulse demodulators.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 12.1 through 13.38for this subject matter, especially in miscellaneous communication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 187]    187Voltage or current level discriminators:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein the initiating device or circuit responds only to a specific voltage or current level applied to it.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 188]    188Variable impedance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Subject matter wherein the initiating circuit or device is responsive to variable impedance values.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 189]    189Plural switches in control circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein more than one switch is included in the control circuit, all of which must be operated to initiate the operation of the relay.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 190]    190Including electronic switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the switches in the control circuit is of the electronic type.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 191]    191Plural relay or solenoid loads selectively operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter including plural relay load circuits which are selectively operated.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to selective systems for selecting any one of plural relays.

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171,for this subject matter in code responsive control circuits.
183,for subject matter wherein two or more relays or solenoids are controlled by plural frequency signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 192]    192Including interlock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the relays or solenoids are interconnected either electrically or mechanically so that only the selected one or ones can be maintained in an actuated condition at any given moment.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 193]    193Electronic interlock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Subject matter wherein the interlocking of the relays or solenoids is controlled by electronic circuits or devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 194]    194Holding means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter having holding means to hold the relay or solenoid in the operated state, despite the lapsing of the original control signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 195]    195Time delay:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein circuits or devices are included which initiate the operation of the relay a predetermined interval of time after the initiation of a control function.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 261+ and 392+ for miscellaneous timing and delay circuits, per se.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 527+ for a condition responsive signalling system having a time delay circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 196]    196Including semiconductor device connected to timing element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the control circuit includes a semiconductor device connected between the timing circuit and the relay.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for active solid-state semiconductor devices, per se.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous semiconductor circuits and devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 197]    197Threshold device (e.g., zener, schockley diode):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein a semiconductor device conducts current when the potential applied across it reaches a specific value.

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200,and 205, for threshold devices in other control circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 198]    198Including three or more electrodes (e.g., unijunction):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor device has three or more electrodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 199]    199Including electric discharge device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the control circuit includes an electric discharge device connected between the timing circuit and the relay.

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327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous space discharge tube circuits. Also, consult the main class search notes and the search notes to the subclasses for a compilation of other classes having related art.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 200]    200Threshold device (neon tube):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Subject matter wherein the electric discharge device conducts current when the potential applied across it reaches a specific value.

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197,and 205, for threshold devices in other control circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 201]    201Including thyratron:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Subject matter wherein the threshold device is a thyratron.

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256,and 354, for other control circuits utilizing a thyratron as a threshold device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 202]    202Electromechanical delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Subject matter wherein the predetermined interval of time required is controlled by an electromechanical device.
(1) Note. Electromechanical device may be an electric motor or solenoid with a cam operated switch, or a mechanical device connected to the relay or solenoid to delay operation (e.g., a dashpot, escapement mechanism, etc.).

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 59+ for electro-magnetically operated switches with time delay, and subclasses 239+ for electromagnetic relays with time delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 203]    203With oscillator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter which includes an oscillator in the control circuit.

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331Oscillators,   appropriate subclass for electric oscillation generators, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 204]    204With magnetic amplifier or saturable reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter having a magnetic amplifier or saturable reactor in the control circuit.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 401+ for nonlinear reactor systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 205]    205Threshold device (e.g., SCR, thyratron):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein a threshold device, which conducts current when the potential applied across it reaches a specific value, is connected to the coil of the electromagnetic device.

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197+,and 200+, for threshold devices in time delay control circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 206]    206Particular relay or solenoid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the electromagnetic device is distinctive structurally or in its operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 207]    207Electrostatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter having electrostatic means.
(1) Note. The electrostatic means may, for example, be a piezoelectric crystal which is an integral part of a relay and which is utilized to operate the relay contacts or the electrostatic means may be in the circuit which actuates the relay or electromagnet as, for example, an electrostatic dry clutch which is utilized in a control apparatus in the input circuit to the relay electromagnet.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 208]    208Polarized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein the movement of the armature depends upon the direction of the current in the control circuit.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 230+ for polarized electromagnets with armatures, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 209]    209Alternating current type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein the device is responsive to alternating current energization.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 210]    210Plural coils:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein more than one coil is required in its operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 211]    211CONTROL CIRCUITS FOR NONELECTROMAGNETIC TYPE RELAY (E.G., THERMAL RELAYS):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to control circuits for relays which utilize means other than electromechanical means to open or close electrical contacts.
(1) Note. For example, a bimetallic device may be used as the relay contact making means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 212]    212DISCHARGING OR PREVENTING ACCUMULATION OF ELECTRIC CHARGE (E.G., STATIC ELECTRICITY):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to the dissipation of any residual electric charge present on or in an object or material.
(1) Note. Where the discharge of the static electricity is combined with the specific features of the art environment, the search should extend to the class which relates to the art environment.

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117+,for high voltage dissipation devices.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclass 2 for lightning protection devices such as lightning rods, subclasses 5+ for electric shock hazard protection devices, such as guards, and subclasses 6+ for grounding devices.
216Etching a Substrate: Processes,   subclass 6 for etching in the manufacturing of a capacitor.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   subclasses 127+ for discharging a battery and subclasses 166+ for discharging a capacitor, per se.
343Communications: Radio Wave,   subclass 885 for antennas with a support for the antenna, reflector or director and having stress distributing or static discharging means for the support.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 213]    213By charged gas irradiation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter relating to the dissipation of a residual electric charge on or in an object or material using a charged gas.
(1) Note. Radioactive type ionization for dissipating a residual electric charge is also found in this subclass.

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229,for this subject matter used in charging an object or material.
230+,for ion generators, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 214]    214Of paper or paper handling machine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter relating to the dissipation of electric charge on paper or paper handling machines.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 215]    215Of storage or hazardous area of fluid handling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter relating to the dissipation of the electric charge from storage or hazardous area or fluid handling.
(1) Note. The electric charge may be eliminated from a liquid or gas by the provision of a grounding circuit to the liquid or gas carrying device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 216]    216Structurally combined with building or vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the dissipating means is attached to or an integral part of a building or vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 217]    217With external structure of vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.  Subject matter wherein the dissipating means is attached to or an integral part of the external structure of a vehicle.

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220+,for specific dissipating devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 218]    218Aircraft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter wherein the vehicle is an air travel vehicle, e.g., airplanes, rockets, balloons, helicopters, etc.
(1) Note. The typical type of dissipator used is the rod type found in subclass 222.

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220+,for specific dissipating means.

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244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 1 for aircraft lightning arresters and static eliminators.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 219]    219Chain-type grounding means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter wherein the electric charge is discharged from the vehicle by a flexible electroconductive chain-type member which is connected at one end to the vehicle and at the other end contacts a ground.
(1) Note. "Chain" in this subclass includes such devices as chains, cables, flexible rods with attached wheels, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 220]    220Specific conduction means or dissipator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter relating to the specific device, material or circuit means used to effect discharge or prevent the accumulation of electric charge.
(1) Note. Devices adapted to be held by, attached to, or touched by a human being are classifiable herein or the indents hereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 221]    221Brush or roller-type structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein the electric charge dissipator is a brush or roller means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 222]    222Rod-type structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein the electric charge dissipator is an elongated rod-type structure having at least one point type end.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 223]    223Shoe type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein the electric charge is dissipated by an electrical path through the shoes, an attachment to the shoes, or a covering over the shoes.

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36Boots, Shoes, and Leggings,   for necessary shoe structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 224]    224Integral with shoe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the electric charge is dissipated by electrically conductive means forming a permanent part of the shoes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 225]    225ELECTRIC CHARGING OF OBJECTS OR MATERIALS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a means or method is provided for imparting an electrical charge to a material or object.
(1) Note. Where the charging of objects or materials is combined with the specific features of an art environment, the search should be made in the class which relates to the art environment.

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29Metal Working,   see cross-reference art collection 900 for a method or apparatus for assembly by electrostatic attraction, which may include a step or mechanism for imposing an electrostatic charge.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   especially subclasses 164+ for preparation of a compound or element through a chemical reaction brought about by an electrostatic field or electrical discharge.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for this subject matter when used in electrolysis.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 324+ for subject matter which provides for impacting an object with gas ions resulting from an incomplete electrical discharge from an electrode.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 316.03 for a piezoelectric element having both mechanical and electric output having specific circuitry (e.g., capacitor, coil, combination etc.) to source electrons flowing to or sink electrons flowing from the piezoelectric element.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclass for charging a battery or capacitor.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 106+ for processes and devices for producing plasma utilized in thermonuclear reactions.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 21 , 22+, and 186 for process and apparatus provided by the class using electrical energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 226]    226Particulate matter (e.g., liquids with suspended particles):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Subject matter relating to imparting an electrical charge to minute separate particles of matter.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include gas charging, however, included in this subclass is a mixture or solution of powders which are suspended or entrained in a gas or liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 227]    227For spray production:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.  Subject matter wherein the electrical charges are imparted to a spray material.
(1) Note. Subject matter in which a particular recitation of a nozzle or spray pattern is emphasized, even though the spray is electrostatically charged, is beyond this subclass and should be placed in Class 239, subclass 15.
(2) Note. Subject matter wherein a particular relationship exists between the spray device and work sprayed upon, particular movement of the work with respect to the spray device, or vice versa, are not included in this subclass; such subject matter can be found in Class 427, subclasses 13+ and Class 118, subclasses 621+.

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118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 621+ for electrostatic spray devices with a specific relationship with respect to the work.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 690+ for electrostatically charged spray in a particular nozzle or spray pattern.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 458+ for processes of coating per se utilizing an electrostatic charge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 228]    228Liquid type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein an electrical charge is imparted to a liquid spray material or powder supported in a stream of liquid material.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 229]    229By charged gas irradiation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Subject matter relating to imparting an electrical charge to a material or object using a charged gas.

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213,for this subject matter used in discharging a material or object.
230+,for ion generators, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 230]    230ELECTRIC CHARGE GENERATING OR CONDUCTING MEANS (E.G., CHARGING OF GASES):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to corona or ion generators which utilize air or other gases as the charge generating medium to be placed in contact with the charge generating electrodes or with the specific electrodes which project the electric field generated.
(1) Note. This subclass also provides for other electric charge generating or conducting means not elsewhere provided for.

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213,for discharging of a material or object using a charged gas.
229,for charging of a material or object using a charged gas.

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250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 423+ for ion generation methods and apparatus in which a material is treated or irradiated.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 54 , 62, and 359.1+ for space discharge device per se for production of ionized atomic particles. Also, consult the search notes to these subclasses for related subject matter.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 231]    231Modification of environmental electrical charge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter relating to devices or processes for altering or changing the ambient charge in a definable area or atmosphere.

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96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 15+ for electrostatic-type precipitators.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 2.1 for processes of weather control utilizing electric charge generating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 232]    232For application to living beings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein an electric charge or voltage is produced on a material or device which will discharge to living beings causing an electrical shock to be produced in the living being when it comes into contact with or in close proximity with the charged or voltage carrying material.

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119Animal Husbandry,   subclasses 712+ , for application of electricity to an animal to control it, especially subclasses 822 and 908, and subclass 859 for a collar having a device to apply electricity to an animal.
231Whips and Whip Apparatus,   subclass 7 for an electrified goad for controlling the behavior or movement of an animal.
256Fences,   subclass 10 for electric fences.
463Amusement Devices: Games,   subclass 47.3 for a striking type of weapon for use on a human being which includes an electric shock feature (e.g., an electric prod used by police, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 233]    233Use of forces of electric charge or field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter relating to the utilization of the forces of the electric the utilization of the forces of the electric charge, or the forces of the electric field generated to perform a mechanical work function.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 234]    234Pinning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter relating to the utilization of the forces generated to effect the holding or pinning of an object or material on a surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 235]    235With specific power supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein electrical circuitry and means are provided for the production of a current or voltage which is utilized specifically for electric charge generation.
(1) Note. To be proper for this subclass, the subject matter claimed must recite processes or means which are not provided for in any of the above subclasses. The subject matter must clearly recite circuitry for use in generating an electrical charge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 236]    236ELECTRICAL SPEED SIGNAL PROCESSING SYSTEMS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein electrical circuitry is provided for detection of the speed or acceleration of a member, either angular or linear, and means included in the circuitry responsive to a change in speed or acceleration to generate a desired speed or acceleration control signal.
(1) Note. This subclass relates to, for example, miscellaneous speed sensing and speed responsive systems having no output which is specific to any particular art. This subclass relates only to speed controlled subcombinations; not speed controlled combinations.
(2) Note. Subject matter in which a combination of speed control circuitry and the device being controlled is claimed, proper classification is with the device and should not be placed in this or indented subclasses.

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51,for protection of electrical systems against overspeed.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 488+ for speed or accelerating measuring.
178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclasses for telegraph and television systems having speed responsive means as a part thereof.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 170+ as explained in the reference thereto appearing in Class 361, subclass 51.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclass 40 for prime-mover dynamo plants having means to control the speed of the engine.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   appropriate subclasses for speed controlled electric motor systems. Note particularly subclasses 806 and 461+.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 160+ for electrical speed measuring processes and mechanisms.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 441 for vehicle alarms or indicators which are responsive to the speed of the vehicle, and subclasses 670+ for speed responsive alarms, per se.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 354+ for synchronization.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclasses 44+ for an impeller having control means responsive to the rotation speed thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 237]    237With centrifugal weight means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the electrical circuitry includes a centrifugal means for regulation of the speed of acceleration of a member under consideration.

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116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 38 for vehicular governors indication speed and direction.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 319+ for speed regulators especially subclasses 350+, 378+, and 402+.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclasses 80+ for centrifugally operated speed responsive switches.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 799 and 462 for centrifugal type automatic speed or rate-of-movement detectors.
416Fluid Reaction Surface (i.e., Impellers),   subclasses 31+ , especially subclass 35 for electrical means comparing or reducing an error responsive to centrifugal action.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 238]    238Antislip detection and circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the electrical circuit contains means for determination of a loss of traction or loss of rotation condition.
(1) Note. The property usually measured is acceleration but is not limited thereto.
(2) Note. The acceleration may be a negative or position acceleration.

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290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclasses 9+ for electric control traction devices.
303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake System,   subclasses 113.1+ for antiskid systems where brakes are operated.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 162 for acceleration measuring means in an electrical speed measuring device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 239]    239With speed analog electrical signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the speed change determining means includes circuitry for producing an analog signal which has a magnitude representative of the speed of the member.

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318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 830 and 463+ for tachometer type automatic speed or rate-of-movement de-detectors.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 163+ for speed measuring means with speed analog electrical signal generators.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 240]    240Including frequency generators:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the electrical circuit includes circuitry in which the frequency of an A.C. current or the frequency of a D.C. pulse is representative of the speed of the member.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclasses 29+ for generator systems which are responsive to the speed or frequency of the generator.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 166+ for speed related frequency generators used to measure speed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 241]    241Two position (e.g., on-off):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the circuitry for generating the control signal includes a switch which is either on or off.

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242,for speed control which includes comparison means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 242]    242With speed comparison:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the electrical circuit contains means for comparing the generated signal with a reference signal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 820 for control of the speed of a motor or driven device, with respect to a master or reference device.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclass 161 for electrical speed measuring with speed comparing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 243]    243Synchronization of shafts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the speed control means includes means for simultaneously controlling the rotation of two or more shafts in the same or different mechanisms.

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242,for speed comparison means which do not require synchronization means but may disclose such.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 395+ for systems for synchronizing the rotary motion of a plurality of shafts where adjustable gearing is utilized to control the rotation of at least one of the shafts.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclasses, and especially subclass 171 for synchronizing plural expansible chamber motors.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 41 for plural electric motor systems having electrical synchronizing interconnections for maintaining synchronization between the motors, subclasses 68+ for plural electric motor systems with means for controlling the running speed of one motor relative to the speed of another motor including such systems for maintaining the motors in synchronism, and subclass 85 for the miscellaneous plural electric motor systems with synchronizing or phasing control for the motors.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 681 for a machine synchronization responsive indicating device; subclass 318 for miscellaneous signalling systems having synchronized distributors at the transmitter and receiver.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 12+ for motion picture apparatus combined with sound recording or reproducing apparatus and including means for synchronizing the two.
370Multiplex Communications,   subclasses 303+ for multiplexing systems having a rotary distributor.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 354+ for synchronization systems.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclass 34 for plural impeller having synchronizing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 244]    244Phase comparison:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 243.  Subject matter wherein the simultaneous rotation of the shaft is controlled by a phase measuring and comparing means with one of the shafts or a given phase acting as a reference phase.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 245]    245POLARITY REVERSING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to the reversing of the polarity of an electric circuit.
(1) Note. This subclass relates to, for example, the reversing of polarity under the control of an external operator, or the reversing of polarity in a continuous pulsating manner.

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178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclasses particularly subclass 16 for telegraph systems utilizing polarity reversing as an indication of the intelligence to be transmitted.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 19.06+ for electric switches which can be utilized to reverse polarity.
246Railway Switches and Signals,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 228 , 232 and 242 for railway signalling systems utilizing polarity reversing as an indication of the intelligence to be transmitted.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 151 for this subject matter, and subclasses 112+ for miscellaneous switching systems, some of which reverse polarity.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclass 87 for electromagnetically operated switches which may be utilized to reverse polarity.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for conversion systems. Note subclass 109 for conversion systems in which direct current is converted into alternating current by the action of a switch which reverses the polarity of the output circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 246]    246Automatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Subject matter in which the polarity is reversed in accordance with an automatic control.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 247]    247IGNITING SYSTEMS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to electrical systems which cause the rapid combustion of a fuel or the detonation of an explosive charge.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass does not include the fuel being ignited or the explosive being detonated.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 143+ for igniting systems utilized with internal-combustion engines.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for solid fuel burners having igniting means.
221Article dispensing,   subclasses 143+ for article dispensers having electrical igniting means.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   appropriate subclasses for complete heating systems having igniters as a portion thereof.
431Combustion,   subclasses 258+ for a fuel burner having an electrical igniter or heater.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 248]    248For explosive devices:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Subject matter for detonating an explosive device.
(1) Note. Explosive devices include, for example, rockets, dynamite charges and photoflash devices.

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89Ordnance,   appropriate subclasses for explosive device projecting or dropping means having igniting means as a part thereof.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   appropriate subclasses for explosive devices having igniting means as a portion thereof.
362Illumination,   subclasses 3+ for photographic illumination devices including ignition means.
396Photography,   subclasses 155+ for photoflash devices combined with camera structure which may include ignition means.
431Combustion,   subclasses 357+ for photo-flash devices including ignition means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 249]    249With sequential firing by electronic switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein plural explosive devices are ignited in a particular sequence by electronic switch means.
(1) Note. The electronic switch means includes nonmechanical devices such as vacuum tubes, transistors, SCR"s, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 250]    250With sequential firing by mechanical switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein plural explosive devices are ignited in a particular sequence by mechanical switch means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 251]    251With capacitor discharging into explosive device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein an explosive device is ignited by switching a charge capacitor to discharge into the device.

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256,and 257, for electric spark ignition by capacitor discharge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 252]    252With electromechanical power source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the energy for ignition of the explosive device is provided by an electromechanical generator.
(1) Note. The electromechanical generator includes dynamos, magnetos, piezoelectric devices, and other devices wherein electric power is produced through a mechanical agency.

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258,for particular electromechanical power source combined with electrical spark igniter.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   appropriate subclasses for a particular electromechanical power source.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 253]    253For electric spark ignition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Subject matter wherein the energy for ignition is provided by a system which generates an electric spark.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for air gap discharge devices. See subclasses 118+ for spark plugs, per se, of the type used in internal combustion engines. See subclass 53 for flame type discharge devices in which conduction of electricity takes place through a flame.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   appropriate subclasses for lamp and gas discharge device systems. Note, that some of these systems can be used to energize electric igniters.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 254]    254With electromagnet control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Subject matter having electromagnetic means to control the igniter.
(1) Note. The electromagnet might also control the flow of gas to the igniter.

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265,for electromagnet control with incandescent ignition.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 220+ for electromagnets with armatures.
336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for the structure of inductive devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 255]    255Including spark-electrode make-break:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter wherein an electromagnet causes the spark electrodes to move either together or apart so as to produce a spark.

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261,for particular mechanical arrangements allowing for electrode movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 256]    256With capacitor discharging into sparking transformer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Subject matter wherein a charged capacitor is switched into circuit with and discharges into the primary of a transformer thereby inducing a voltage of sufficient magnitude in the secondary of the transformer to produce an ignition spark between two spaced electrodes in the secondary circuit.

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251,for capacitor discharge firing or explosive devices.
257,for capacitor discharge directly into a spark gap to produce an ignition spark.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 257]    257With capacitor discharge into spark gap:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Subject matter wherein a capacitor is in circuit with spark gap electrodes such that when the capacitor is sufficiently charged, an ignition spark will be produced between the electrodes.

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251,for capacitor discharge firing of explosive devices.
256,for capacitor discharge into spark transformer to produce an ignition spark.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 258]    258With electromechanical generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Subject matter wherein the energy for electric spark ignition is provided by an electromechanical generator which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

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252,for electromechanical generator when used to ignite explosive devices.

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322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   appropriate subclasses for particular electromechanical generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 259]    259With permanent magnet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter wherein a magnetic field through a coil or transformer due to a permanent magnet is modulated by the action of mechanical means so as to induce a sparking voltage across electrodes connected to the coil or transformer.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 260]    260With piezoelectric element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter wherein a piezoelectric crystal is mechanically stressed so as to produce a sparking voltage across electrodes appropriately connected to the crystal.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 261]    261With mechanical arrangement for spark-electrode make-break:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Subject matter including spark electrodes which are part of a mechanism which can be mechanically actuated to cause the electrodes to move into and out of contact with each other thereby producing a spark.

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313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 146+ for discharge devices having moveable electrodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 262]    262With one spark electrode which is hand held:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Subject matter wherein one of two sparking electrodes is arranged to be hand manipulated and manually brought into contact with the other electrode to thereby produce a spark.
(1) Note. Included, for example, an energized electrode with an insulated handle which can be brought into contact with a grounded gas burner to produce a spark igniting the burner.

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431Combustion,   subclass 128 for hand manipulatable electric igniters for igniting fuel.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 263]    263With spark coil or transformer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Subject matter wherein the energy for the ignition spark is provided by a spark coil or transformer connected to the spark electrodes.
(1) Note. "Spark coil" includes induction coils having make-break contacts in the primary circuit.

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336Inductor Devices,   appropriate subclasses for structure of coil or transformer.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 264]    264For incandescent ignition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Subject matter wherein a current is passed through an ignition element so as to heat the element to incandescence thereby causing ignition.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 145+ for an incandescent igniter combined with an internal-combustion engine.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 260+ for incandescent igniting elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 265]    265With electromagnet control means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter having electromagnetic means to control the igniter.
(1) Note. The electromagnet may also control the flow of gas to the igniter.

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254,for electromagnet control of electric spark ignition.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   appropriate subclasses for electromagnet structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 266]    266With helical heating element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter wherein the incandescent igniter is in the form of a helix or coil.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 267]    267DEMAGNETIZING SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including systems and process for neutralizing a magnetic field.
(1) Note. This subclass includes, for example, processes for demagnetizing the hair springs of a watch, etc.
(2) Note. Where the demagnetizing is combined with the specific features of the art environment, the search should extend to the class which relates to the art environment.

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149+,for systems and processes for neutralizing the magnetic field by means of an electromagnetic coil.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 602.1+ for processes of making permanent magnets consisting of more than merely demagnetizing and processes of making electromagnets; also consult the extensive search notes to this subclass for a compilation of related subject matter.
114Ships,   subclass 240 for degaussing of ships.
209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   subclass 8 for demagnetizing as a step preliminary to classifying, separating or assorting.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 101 for the control of remnant or residual magnetism, and subclass 104 for electromagnet and highly inductive systems.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 492 for electric motor systems having means to dissipate the magnetic energy of the electric motor.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclass 284 .
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclass for magnetic storage systems including means to demagnetize the storage medium, subclasses 185.01+ for floating gate memory storage (e.g., flash memory).
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclass 293 for antimagnetic devices utilized in horology.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 268]    268TRANSFORMERS AND INDUCTORS WITH INTEGRAL SWITCH, CAPACITOR, OR LOCK (E.G., IGNITION COIL):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising a structural combination of a transformer or inductor with a switch, capacitor or a lock.
(1) Note. If the switch is solely for the purpose of tap changing on the transformer or inductor device, classification is not herein but rather in the appropriate subclass of Class 336.
(2) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to ignition coils having integral vibrating switches.

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35+,for transformer protection circuits.

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216Etching a Substrate: Processes,   subclass 6 for etching in the manufacturing of a capacitor.
334Tuners,   appropriate subclasses for tuned networks for use in wave energy apparatus and comprising an inductor connected to or combined with a capacitor, either the inductor or capacitor, or both, being variable. The inductor may also be combined with a switch and for such arrangements, not especially subclasses 56+ .
336Inductor Devices,   subclasses 105+ and the notes thereto, for structural combinations of a transformer or inductive reactor with other elements such as a connector; see also (1) Note, above.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   subclasses 13+ for conversion systems which convert direct current into alternating current. Some of these conversion systems are analogous to spark coils.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 269]    269With lock for preventing unauthorized use:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter provided with locking means to prevent unauthorized use.
(1) Note. Generally the locking means is part of a conduit or housing means in which the electromagnetic device is enclosed.

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70Locks,   for locking means, per se. Note, especially subclasses 174+ for locking means for control and machine elements, and subclasses 237+ for locking means for automobile vehicles.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclass, particularly subclasses 17+ and 50+ for miscellaneous housings for single piece of electrical apparatus, some of which housings may be equipped with locking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 270]    270With capacitor element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter comprising a transformer or inductive reactor structurally combined with a capacitor.
(1) Note. If the combined capacitor constitutes an electric or magnetic shield, classification is not herein but rather in Class 336, Inductor Devices, subclasses 87+.
(2) Note. The capacitor may be provided to protect the switch contacts of an ignition coil.

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271+,and 433+, for capacitors, per se.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 32 through 397for anti-inductive structures utilized with electrical conductors, particularly subclasses 350-397 for screened or shielded conductors.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   appropriate subclasses for electric filter devices comprising the combination of a transformer or inductive reactor and a capacitor.
334Tuners,   subclasses 59+ for a switch operated tuner which is of the tuned transformer type, the transformer usually being combined with a lumped capacitor, and subclasses 61+ for tuners having mutual inductance variable means which may be a transformer circuit.
336Inductor Devices,   and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 271]    271ELECTROSTATIC CAPACITORS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter relating to an electrostatic capacitor which is an electrical device having the property that permits energy storage as a result of electron displacement, usually consisting of at least two conducting surfaces separated by a nonconducting medium (i.e., dielectric) such as a gas, liquid or solid or some combinations thereof.
(1) Note. The term condenser generally used in older patents is an old term synonymous with the term capacitor. The same comment applies to armature and electrode.
(2) Note. This subclass includes electrostatic capacitors, per se. Electrostatic capacitors combined with another art device or system are classified with the particular art device or system.

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433+,for electrolytic capacitors.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 25.41+ for miscellaneous methods of manufacturing capacitors. Also consult the extensive search notes to subclass 25.41 for a compilation of related art.
216Etching a Substrate: Processes,   subclass 6 for etching in the manufacturing of a capacitor.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 400 for electrets, per se, and electret systems. An electret is a permanently polarized dielectric, and therefore related to a capacitor, which has a transiently polarized dielectric.
314Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Consumable Electrodes,   subclass 132 for arc lamps combined with any capacitor.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 3+ and 32+ for cathode-ray tubes, electric lamps or gas discharge devices combined with as an integral part of their structure, a capacitor.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous communication type electrical networks having capacitors as part thereof.
334Tuners,   appropriate subclasses for a variable tuner comprising an inductor and a capacitor, with the inductor or capacitor being variable for changing the mean resonant frequency of the circuit.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversation,   subclass 15 for capacitive pattern reading type analog to digital converters.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 272]    272With protection or compensating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter having means to safeguard against breakdowns or to counteract undesired operating characteristics.
(1) Note. The protective or compensative means is an integral part of the capacitor structure and significant details of the capacitor structure must be disclosed.
(2) Note. The protective or compensative means must be within or a part of the capacitor housing.

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15+,for capacitors combined with systems for protecting them, as for example, against lightning surges.
600+,for miscellaneous housings, switchboards and analogous devices for housing or holding two different types of electrical components, one of which, for example, may be, an electrical capacitor.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 8+ and 50+ for miscellaneous electrical housings for a single electrical component, which may be, for example, a capacitor, and subclasses 140+ for capacitors combined with insulators for the purpose of distributing the electrostatic stress uniformly along the insulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 273]    273Self-healing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter having means to automatically restore to working order, a malfunctioning capacitor.
(1) Note. This subclass includes, for example, a thin, metal film electrode which burns or evaporates away around the point of a puncture without damage to the capacitor.

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304,for nonself-supporting electrodes (e.g., metallized).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 274.1]    274.1Temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter including means which shield against or make allowance for variations in the internal heat of the capacitor.
(1) Note. These indented subclasses relate, for example, to cooling of the capacitor.

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676+,for housings and mounting assemblies with plural diverse electrical components for electrical power distribution systems and devices with means for cooling the same.
688+,for electronic systems and devices with cooling means.

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165Heat Exchange,   appropriate subclasses for a heat exchange structure of a general nature.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 15.1+ for miscellaneous boxes and housings for a single piece of electrical apparatus having means to cool the same.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   appropriate subclasses for automatic temperature control systems.
454Ventilation,   appropriate subclasses for ventilating devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 274.2]    274.2With fluid cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.1.  Subject matter including air or liquid to reduce the temperature of a capacitor below a specific level.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 274.3]    274.3With heat sink:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.1.  Subject matter including means for the absorption or transfer of heat away from the inner capacitor.

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514,for liquid electrolytic capacitor with heat sink.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 275.1]    275.1For electrical irregularities:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein the undesired operating characteristics are unexpected electrical discharge, corona, or short circuiting.
(1) Note. Excluded are capacitors combined with other electronic devices unless the sole purpose of the other electronic device is to protect the capacitor and the device is an integral part of the capacitor. For example, a resistor shunt integral with the capacitor structure is found here.

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15+,for capacitor protection for preventing current and voltage surges that are external to the capacitor housing; details to the capacitor structure are not included.

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257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 379 through 381and 528-543 for passive components (e.g., capacitor and resistor) in integrated chips.
323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 370 for plural impedance control systems; in particular, for capacitor or capacitor combined with a resistor or inductor control system.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 167+ for wave filters; in particular, for capacitors and resistors for filtering.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 275.2]    275.2With over-pressure breakaway fuse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.1.  Subject matter comprising means composed of an electrical current conductor having a rated break point in conjunction with a capacitor winding so that the rated break point breaks due to mechanical stresses in the conductor caused by over heating of the capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 275.3]    275.3With resistance element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.1.  Subject matter comprising means including an element having a property of a conductor which determines the current produced by a given difference of potential.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 370 for thermistor or resistor with a capacitor.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 296+ for helical or wound resistance element.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 275.4]    275.4With thermal fuse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.1.  Subject matter comprising a fusible alloy strip which melts upon the overheating of the capacitor thus breaking the electrical connection between the two ends of the capacitor electrodes.

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337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclasses 142+ for fusible element actuated.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 276]    276Cryogenic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter which is intended to function at temperatures near absolute zero.

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19,for superconductive protective circuits.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 277]    277Variable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter wherein the capacitance of the capacitor can be altered.

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216Etching a Substrate: Processes,   subclass 6 for etching in the manufacturing of a capacitor.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for active solid-state semiconductor devices, per se, especially subclass 480 for variable capacitance diodes and subclasses 595-602 for active voltage variable capacitance devices.
334Tuners,   subclasses 78+ for tuners having variable capacitors.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 102 and 149+ for memory storage capacitors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 278]    278With significant electrode or terminal feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter having either a distinctive electrode or terminal component.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 279]    279Gas or vacuum dielectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter utilizing a gas or a vacuum as the dielectric within a sealed housing.

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326,for gas or vacuum fixed capacitors.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 8+ , especially 9 and 17+ for miscellaneous boxes and housings for a single electrical component in which the housing holds either a vacuum or a gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 280]    280Responsive to external condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter in which the capacitance varies in reaction to an external condition.
(1) Note. The capacitor is designed specifically to be responsive to external conditions, for example, a diaphragm plate sensitive to pressure changes.

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311+,for particular materials that may be specifically disclosed as being responsive to conditions.

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307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 116+ for condition responsive circuits in switching systems.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 658+ for systems measuring the capacity of a capacitor, and subclasses 109 and 111+ for electric meters having capacitors.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 509+ for miscellaneous external effect circuits.
332Modulators,   particularly subclasses 136 and 175 for variable capacitors used in a modulator.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for condition responsive circuits in communication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 281]    281Electrical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which the external condition is electrical, as for example, changes in the signal frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 282]    282Thermal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which the external condition is a thermic condition.

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374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 184 for an electric thermometer having a capacitive sensor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 283.1]    283.1Pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which the external condition is a force per unit area.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 715 , 718, and 724 for capacitive fluid pressure gauge.
177Weighing Scales,   subclasses 210+ for capacitor gauges.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclass 174 for capacitive microphone.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 283.2]    283.2By displacement of stylus or lever:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Subject matter in which the pressure condition is sensed by the change of position of a mechanical element or linkage which transmits force to the capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 283.3]    283.3By differential capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Subject matter in which the pressure condition is sensed by two similar sets of fixed plates and one set of movable plates so arranged that when the movable plate is moved, the capacitance of one section is increased while the capacitance of the other section is decreased.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 283.4]    283.4By diaphragm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.1.  Subject matter in which the pressure condition is sensed by a flexible wall or plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 284]    284Liquid level:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter wherein the capacitance varies in reaction to the height or level of a liquid.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 304+ for capacitive liquid level gauge.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 285]    285Fluid flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which the exterior condition is the flow of a fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 286]    286Humidity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter in which the exterior condition is the moisture content of the surrounding medium.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 664+ for variable capacitors utilizing sensing elements responsive to moisture.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 287]    287Mechanically variable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter in which the capacitance of the capacitor is mechanically variable through the application of tangible physical means.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 10+ for the combination of a capacitor and a dial shaft operator, such as an operator which can quickly set the capacitor into any one of a plurality of preselected positions.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 288]    288Push button:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which the mechanical movement is initiated by depressing a button.

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200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclass 600 for a capacitive switch, absent circuitry.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 116+ for a capacitive device controlled switching circuit.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclass 33 for a capacitive keyboard controlled code transmitter.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 289]    289Motor driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter in which the mechanical motion is generated by means for converting electromagnetic energy to mechanical energy.

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363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclass 140 for this subject matter utilized in electricity conversion systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 290]    290By varying distance between electrodes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter having means to change the interval between the electrode plates.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 291]    291Compression type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Subject matter which is varied by means to squeeze at least a portion of the electrode plates closer together.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 292]    292By varying effective area of electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter having means to change the capacitance of the capacitor by changing the effective area of either the electrode plates or the dielectric with respect to one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 293]    293Disk trimmer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Subject matter having flat, disk or segment shaped, adjoining electrode plates.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 294]    294Direct travel piston type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Subject matter having a conductive piston-like electrode in a slidable engagement with a dielectric cylinder, said cylinder being banded by at least one other electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 295]    295Piston trimmer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Subject matter having a conductive piston-like electrode in a rotary screw engagement with a dielectric for capacitance adjustment, also said dielectric being banded by at least one other electrode.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 296]    296Sliding plates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Subject matter having electrode plates which variably interleaf in a rectilinear manner.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 297]    297Spiral or helical plates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Subject matter in which the electrode plates are made in the forms or helixes or spirals which variably interleaf.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 298.1]    298.1Rotary plates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Subject matter having electrode plates which turn and variably interleaf in a circular or orbital path about a fixed axis.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 658+ for using capacitive type measurement.
334Tuners,   subclasses 78+ for variable capacitor tuner.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 298.2]    298.2Details of plate feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.1.  Subject matter wherein structural details of an electrode plate are included.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 298.3]    298.3Details of dielectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.1.  Subject matter wherein details of the insulating medium are included.

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311+,for electrostatic capacitor.
524,for solid electrolytic capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 298.4]    298.4Details of electrical connecting means (e.g., terminal or lead):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.1.  Subject matter wherein structural details of an electrical connector which facilitates connection with another conductor such as a terminal or lead are included.

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299.2,for plural capacitor.
306.1+,for fixed capacitor.
520,for liquid electrolytic capacitor.
538,for solid electrolytic capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 298.5]    298.5With adjustment means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.1.  Subject matter including means such as a knob or lever to vary the effective area of electrodes.

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299.4,for rotary plates.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 299.1]    299.1Plural capacitors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.1.  Subject matter consisting of more than one capacitor.
(1) Note. The plural capacitors may, for example, be ganged on a single shaft.

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328+,for multiple capacitor.
522,for multiple liquid electrolytic capacitor.
541,for multiple solid electrolytic capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 299.2]    299.2Details of electrical connecting means (e.g., terminal or lead):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.1.  Subject matter wherein structural details of an electrical connector which facilitates connection with another conductor such as a terminal or lead are included.

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298.4,for rotary plate.
306.1+,for fixed capacitor.
520,for liquid electrolytic capacitor.
538,for solid electrolytic capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 299.3]    299.3Details of mounting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.1.  Subject matter including details of means that serve as a support, mount, or setting.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 299.4]    299.4With adjustment means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.1.  Subject matter including means such as a knob or lever to vary the effective area of electrodes.

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298.5,for rotary plate adjustment means.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 299.5]    299.5Details of insulator feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.1.  Subject matter wherein details of a structure made of a material of low electrical conductivity designed for supporting a conductor, while physically and electrically separating it from another conductor, are included.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 300]    300With controlling or indicating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Subject matter combined with means for regulating or visibly registering the changes of capacitance.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 10+ for dial shaft operators, such as, for example, an operator for setting a capacitor into any one of plural preselected positions.
116Signals, and Indicators,   subclasses 241+ and 284+ for miscellaneous indicators for indicating the position of a variable capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 301.1]    301.1Fixed capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter wherein the capacitor has a fixed value of capacitance (i.e., invariable).
(1) Note. While all fixed capacitors may vary to some extent because of operating conditions or the ambient atmosphere, they are still fixed capacitors.

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277+,for variable capacitors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 301.2]    301.2Special shape (e.g., "bypass" type):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.1.  Subject matter wherein the physical shape of the capacitor is designed to conform to or fit the physical shape of another electronic element or device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 301.3]    301.3Encapsulated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.1.  Subject matter wherein the capacitor is embedded, potted, or molded in a material.

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539,for potted casing of solid electrolytic capacitor.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclass 521 for potted or encapsulated housing.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 301.4]    301.4Stack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.1.  Subject matter consisting of alternate conducting and insulating planar sheets.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 301.5]    301.5Wound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.1.  Subject matter wherein the capacitor is a spiral of alternate conducting and dielectric sheets.

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321.6,for tubular capacitor.
511+,for liquid electrolytic capacitor.
530+,for solid electrolytic capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 302]    302Feed through:
 Subject matter under subclasses 301.1+ wherein the capacitor is of tube or disc type and has a lead through wire.

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307,for lead extending into body of capacitor.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclass 143 for bushing condensers combined.
333Waves Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 167+ for filters of RC type.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 303]    303Significant electrode feature:
 Subject matter under subclasses 301.1+ with significant details of the capacitor electrodes.

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427Coating Processes,   subclasses 79+ for processes of coating electrodes, utilized in making capacitors.
438Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process,   particularly subclasses 386+ for methods of making a trench capacitor, subclasses 393+ for methods of making a planar capacitor, and subclasses 396+ for methods of making a stacked capacitor utilizing a semiconductor substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 304]    304Non-self-supporting electrodes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Subject matter wherein the electrode is non-self-supporting (e.g., metallized on a base or liquid electrode).

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273,for metallized electrodes in self-healing capacitors.
305,for metallized materials.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclass 1.05 for metallizing compositions, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 305]    305Material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Subject matter where significant details of the electrode materials are involved.
(1) Note. The details of the materials can be alloys, mixtures or layers of conductive materials. The mere inclusion of a single conventional electrode material such as aluminum, tin or copper alone is not a significant detail.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   subclasses 122.1+ for alloys, per se.
252Compositions,   subclasses 512+ for electrically conductive metal compositions.
420Alloys or Metallic Compositions,   alloys, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 306.1]    306.1Details of electrical connection means (e.g., terminal or lead):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.1.  Subject matter wherein structural details of an electrical connector which facilitates connection with another conductor such as a terminal or lead are included.
(1) Note. In some cases, the words terminal and lead are synonymous words meaning the same structure.

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298.4,for rotary plates capacitor.
299.2,for plural capacitor.
306.1+,for fixed capacitor.
520,for liquid electrolytic capacitor.
538,for solid electrolytic capacitor.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50+ for housing or box terminals.
336Inductor Devices,   subclass 192 for inductor terminals.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclass 322 for resistor terminals.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 79+ for processes of coating electrodes utilized in making capacitors.
439Electrical Connectors,   appropriate subclasses for connectors, per se; subclasses 607.01 through 607.05for condenser connector having capacitive shield; and subclasses 620.01-620.34 for filter connectors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 306.2]    306.2For decoupling type capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.1.  Subject matter wherein the electrical connection means is placed inside the capacitor to prevent unwanted, harmful interference from an external source.

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403,for printed circuit board mounting pad.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclass 50 for flat housing for electronic devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 306.3]    306.3For multilayer capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.1.  Subject matter wherein the electrical connection means is associated with the capacitor consisting of a plurality of laminae with each of the laminae including a conductive plate portion and a nonconductive sheet portion.

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321.2,for multilayer ceramic capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 307]    307Lead extends into body of capacitor:
 Subject matter under subclasses 306.1+ wherein the lead extends into the body of the capacitor (e.g., tab type).
(1) Note. For classification in this subclass, the lead must extend into the electrical portion of the capacitor. Extension of the lead into the case or housing alone is not structure proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 308.1]    308.1Lead attached to edge of capacitor:
 Subject matter under subclasses 306.1+ wherein the lead is physically attached to the edge or end portion of the capacitor electrode of an extended foil-type capacitor.
(1) Note. An extended foil capacitor is a capacitor where the electrodes extend beyond the dielectric for lead connection.

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310,for the lead may be wrapped or extended around the edge of the capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 308.2]    308.2Cap:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.1.  Subject matter wherein the lead comprises a cup-shaped element.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 308.3]    308.3Wire:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.1.  Subject matter wherein the lead comprises a slender, stringlike piece or filament of metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 309]    309Metallized terminal:
 Subject matter under subclasses 308.1+ wherein the terminal is a layer or layers formed by spraying, dipping, etc., conductive material to form the terminal.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 310]    310Lead extends around at least a portion of capacitor:
 Subject matter under subclasses 306.1+ wherein the lead is wrapped or extends around the capacitor (e.g., the metal case of the capacitor is a lead).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 311]    311Solid dielectric:
 Subject matter under subclasses 301.1+ wherein the capacitor has at least one solid dielectric.
(1) Note. The inclusion of an impregnant in fluid form combined with the solid dielectric is not excluded here.

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106Compositions: Coating and Plastic,   appropriate subclasses for nonresinous electric insulating material.
252Compositions,   subclass 567 for a web or sheet impregnated with a designated dielectric liquid.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 79+ for processes of coating utilized in making capacitors.
438Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process,   particularly subclasses 386+ for methods of making a trench capacitor, subclasses 393+ for methods of making a planar capacitor, and subclasses 396+ for methods of making a stacked capacitor utilizing a semiconductor substrate.
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   for a solid dielectric composition containing a synthetic resin or natural rubber.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 312]    312Plural dielectrics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter where the solid dielectric is combined with another separate and distinct dielectric either liquid, solid, or gas.
(1) Note. The separate dielectric may be a distinct portion of the same dielectric (e.g., plural layers of the same material).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 313]    313Layered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the plural dielectrics are layered one upon the other.
(1) Note. Excluded are impregnated capacitors even though the impregnant is claimed coated on the solid dielectric. Impregnated capacitors are in subclasses 314+.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 314]    314Impregnated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the additional dielectric is an impregnant.
(1) Note. An impregnant is a gas, liquid, or solid that is placed into a capacitor to fill air voids.

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327,for liquid dielectrics.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 315]    315With specific impregnant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter with a specific named impregnant.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 316]    316Including wax:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein the specific impregnant includes a wax.

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317,for wax containing halogen (e.g., halowax).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 317]    317Including halogen (e.g., chlorinated):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein the impregnant is halogen containing (e.g., chlorinated diphenyl).

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252Compositions,   subclasses 570 and 581 for halogen containing dielectrics.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 318]    318With stabilizer or modifying substance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter wherein a stabilizer or modifier is added to the dielectric to improve operating properties of the capacitor.
(1) Note. A stabilizer is used, for example, to prevent oxidation or to scavenge extraneous products produced during operation (e.g., hydrogen chloride).
(2) Note. The stabilizer or modifying substance may be added to the impregnant or the solid dielectric.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 319]    319With stabilizer or modifying substance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter wherein a stabilizer or modifier is added to the dielectric to improve the operating properties of the capacitor.
(1) Note. The stabilizer or modifier may be, for example, antioxidant or scavenger and be added to the impregnant or the solid dielectric.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 320]    320Ceramic and glass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the plural dielectric is a ceramic and glass.
(1) Note. The ceramic is usually combined in a glass matrix or the glass is used as a bonding agent for the ceramic.

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501Compositions: Ceramic,   appropriate subclasses for ceramic and glass compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 321.1]    321.1Ceramic, glass, or oxide particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein the solid dielectric is made of clay, frit, or a compound containing oxygen.
(1) Note. The terms glass, ceramic, or oxide, at times, are used synonymously in the art.
(2) Note. Also included are vitreous enamels.

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501Compositions: Ceramic,   appropriate subclasses for ceramic and glass compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 321.2]    321.2With multilayer ceramic capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.1.  Subject matter wherein the capacitor has several thin, parallel layers of ceramic, glass, or oxide particles each separating an opposing pair of electrode surfaces.

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306.3,for multilayer capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 321.3]    321.3Including metallization coating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.2.  Subject matter including a thin film pattern of conductive material on the dielectric to provide interconnection of the capacitor components or to provide conductive contacts for interconnections.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 321.4]    321.4Composition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.2.  Subject matter wherein the material of the constituents of the dielectric is specified.

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321.5,for ceramic, glass, or oxide particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 321.5]    321.5Composition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.1.  Subject matter wherein the material of the constituents of the dielectric is specified.

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321.4,for multilayer capacitor"s ceramic, glass, or oxide particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 321.6]    321.6With tubular capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.1.  Subject matter wherein the capacitor is shaped like a hollow, elongated cylinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 322]    322Oxide film:
 Subject matter under subclasses 321.1+ wherein the dielectric is an oxide film on the capacitor electrode.
(1) Note. The oxide film may have been formed by oxidizing or anodizing the electrode.

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205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   subclasses 80+ for anodized products and processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 323]    323Plastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein the solid dielectric is a synthetic polymer (i.e., plastic), (e.g., polyethylene, silicone, polypropylene).
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 324]    324Fibrous or fabric (e.g., paper, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein the solid dielectric is a fibrous or fabric material (e.g., cellulose paper).

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323,for papers made of synthetic materials (e.g., plastic).

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162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclass 138 for electrical insulating paper.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 325]    325Mica:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 311.  Subject matter wherein the solid dielectric is mica.
(1) Note. The mica may be a synthetic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 326]    326Vacuum or gas dielectric:
 Subject matter under subclasses 301.1+ wherein the dielectric is a vacuum, or gas (e.g., compressed air).
(1) Note. Excluded here are gas impregnants which are found in subclasses 314+.
(2) Note. This subclass is exclusively for fixed capacitors as defined in subclasses 301.1+ with gas dielectric. Usually the gas capacitor is in a sealed housing.
(3) Note. Gas by definition includes mixtures of gas including the ambient air.

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279,for variable capacitors with gas or vacuum dielectrics.

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216Etching a Substrate: Processes,   subclass 6 for etching in the manufacturing of a capacitor.
252Compositions,   subclass 571 for gaseous dielectric compositions, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 327]    327Liquid dielectric:
 Subject matter under subclasses 301.1+ wherein the dielectric is a liquid.
(1) Note. Excluded are impregnated capacitors which are found in subclass 314.

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252Compositions,   subclasses 570+ for liquid dielectric and insulating compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 328]    328Multiple capacitors:
 Subject matter under subclasses 301.1+ wherein there are a plurality of capacitors.
(1) Note. The plurality of capacitors may be in a single package (e.g., roll).
(2) Note. Details of the capacitor must be included.

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271,for a fixed capacitor combined with a variable capacitor.
299.1+,for plural rotary capacitor.
331,for mounted plural capacitors with no significant capacitor structure.

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323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   subclass 364 for plural impedance systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 329]    329Distinct physically:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 328.  Subject matter wherein the capacitors are separate fixed capacitors.
(1) Note. The capacitors may be of the same type.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 330]    330Shared Electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 328.  Subject matter wherein the multiple capacitors are formed with at least one shared electrode common to two other electrodes.
(1) Note. Also included in this class are float electrodes. A float electrode is an electrode that is not connected to a lead but is common to two other electrodes.

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272,and 275.1+, for complete search of float electrodes.

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333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 24 for capacitive coupling networks.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 434]    434Systems (e.g., plural cells, standby exciting voltage):
 Subject matter under subclasses 500+ comprising an electrolytic system not otherwise classified.
(1) Note. This subclass includes, for example, systems of plural cells arranged in series or in parallel, or to cells having plural electrodes, some of which are connected to a source of standby voltage while others of which are connected to the operating voltage.
(2) Note. The search should extend to the class which relates to the environment in which the system might be found.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 435]    435Current interruption type (e.g., circuit breaker, D.C.-to-pulse converters):
 Subject matter under subclasses 500+ of the type which is utilized for interrupting a circuit.
(1) Note. This subclass relates, for example, to electrolytic cells which interrupt the current flow through them when it exceeds a predetermined maximum and to electrolytic cells which rapidly chop a current that passes through them.

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200Electricity: Circuit makers and Breakers,   subclasses 196+ , 200+, and 205+ for fluid type periodic electric switches.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclass 132 for repetitive make or break type of switching systems, some of which may utilize an electrolytic interrupter.
363Electric Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for conversion systems utilizing electrolytic type interrupters.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 436]    436Rectifiers:
 Subject matter under subclasses 500+ for use as rectifiers.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 437]    437MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which is not provided for in any of the preceding subclasses of this class.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 500]    500ELECTROLYTIC SYSTEMS OR DEVICES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the conduction of electricity is accompanied by chemical action.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses include for example, electrolytic condensers, interrupters or rectifiers.

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122,for this subject matter when used as a high voltage dissipator or lightening arrester.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 25.01+ for the manufacture of the devices in this and indented subclasses. Also, consult the search notes to subclasses 25.01+ of Class 29 for a compilation of the classes that have related art.
136Batteries: Thermoelectric and Photoelectric,   appropriate subclasses for this subject matter utilized to produce electricity by electrochemical action.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50+ for boxes and housings useful to encase the electrolytic devices of this and indented subclasses, and subclasses 140+ for this subject matter combined with insulators so as to distribute the voltage stress on the insulator.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclasses 194+ for electrolytic devices utilized to produce chemical change, (e.g., electroplating cells, etc.) and subclasses 400+ for electrolytic analysis and testing devices (e.g., pH cells, etc.).
216Etching a Substrate: Processes,   subclass 6 for etching in the manufacturing of a capacitor.
252Compositions,   subclass 62.2 for electrolytic compositions for electrical devices, and subclass 62.3 for barrier layer device compositions.
314Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Consumable Electrodes,   subclass 132 for arc lamps having electrolytic resistance.
320Electricity: Battery or Capacitor Charging or Discharging,   appropriate subclass for charging or discharging an electrolytic capacitor or an electrolytic cell.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 79 for the control of the generator circuit by the use of electrolytic impedances.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 425+ for electrolytic testing systems, (e.g., PH measuring systems).
329Demodulators and Detectors,   subclass 347 for electrolytic type demodulators or detectors.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclasses 80+ for mechanically variable liquid resistors and subclass 222 for fixed value liquid resistors.
363Electricity Power Conversion Systems,   appropriate subclasses for rectifying systems utilizing electrolytic rectifiers.
429Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process,   appropriate subclasses for battery electrolytic compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 501]    501Coulometer (i.e., electrochemical timer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including an electrolytic cell for measuring a quantity of electricity by the chemical action produced.

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324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 76.11+ for electricity meter, particularly subclass 94 for electrolytic device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 502]    502Double layer electrolytic capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including: 1. a pair of paste electrodes, 2. a separator which functions both as an electronic insulator and a conductor, and 3. an electrolyte disposed within the pores of the separator.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 503]    503Liquid electrolytic capacitor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including: 1. an anode, 2. a cathode, 3. a separator or an insulator which separates the anode and the cathode, and 4. a liquid electrolyte.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 25.03 for the method of making electrolytic-type device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 504]    504With significant electrolyte:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter including significant chemical compositions.

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252Compositions,   subclasses 62.2+ for the composition of electrolytes for electrical condensers and rectifiers.
429Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process,   subclasses 188+ for battery electrolytes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 505]    505Salt solute:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 504.  Subject matter including a salt material which mixes with or dissolves in a solvent.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 506]    506Ethylene glycol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 504.  Subject matter including an ethylene glycol material which mixes with or dissolves in a solvent.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 507]    507With depolarizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 504.  Subject matter including a chemical used to prevent the formation of hydrogen bubbles at the positive electrode.
(1) Note. A depolarizer is sued to improve conductivity.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 508]    508Anode type electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter including a specific anode type electrode structure.
(1) Note. An electrolytic anode type electrode is an electrode at which negative ions are discharged, or positive ions are formed, or at which other oxidizing reaction occurs.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 509]    509Aluminum or tantalum:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Subject matter wherein the anode type electrode is made of aluminum or tantalum material.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 510]    510Anode riser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Subject matter wherein significant details of an anode electrical connection means (e.g., terminal or lead) are disclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 511]    511Wound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Subject matter wherein the anode type electrode is made by winding foils together with dielectric material.
(1) Note. The anode type electrode is generally in flat, rolled, wound or tubular shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 512]    512With separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 511.  Subject matter including at least one separator or spacer between winding foil electrodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 513]    513With mounting means (e.g., anchoring means or clamping):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 511.  Subject matter wherein an anchoring means is used for securing the electrical components within the capacitor housing to prevent relative movement therebetween.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50.54+ for means for mounting an electrical device to a box or housing.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclasses 238+ for mounting the electrodes of a lamp or electric space discharge device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 514]    514With heat conductor (e.g., heat sink):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 511.  Subject matter including means to absorb or dissipate heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 515]    515With common conductor (e.g., stripline):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 511.  Subject matter wherein the wound anode type electrode has a common conductor or stripline.
(1) Note. A stripline is a form of terminal in which the ends of the devices winding are brought out to terminal strips mounted integral with the device form or assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 516]    516Cathode type electrode (e.g., cathode casing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter wherein a specific cathode structure is disclosed.
(1) Note. An electrolytic cathode is an electrode at which positive ions are discharged, or negative ions are formed, or at which other reducing reaction occur.
(2) Note. Most of the electrolytic cathodes in this subclass are formed as outer casing of the electrolytic capacitor assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 517]    517Casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter including specific details of casing which contains the liquid electrolytic capacitor components.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 518]    518With hermetic seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Subject matter wherein the casing of liquid electrolytic capacitor components is hermetically sealed.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50+ for hermetic sealed envelope type.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 519]    519With header, cover, or endseal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Subject matter wherein an open end of the electrolytic capacitor casing is closed by a header, cover, or endseal.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclass 559 for multipart housing.
215Bottles and Jars,   subclasses 43+ , 50+, and 200 for closures for bottles and jars.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 200+ for closure for receptacles.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for active solid-state semiconductor devices, per se, especially subclasses 678+ for active solid- state device housings, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 520]    520Significant electrical connection means (e.g., terminals or leads):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 519.  Subject matter wherein significant details of electrical connection means (e.g., terminals or leads) are disclosed.

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306.1+,for significant details of electrical terminals or leads.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50.52+ for electrical terminals or leads.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 521]    521With vent means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Subject matter including means to release excess pressure occurring within the casing of electrolytic capacitor components.

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215Bottles and Jars,   subclasses 307+ for venting bottles and jars.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 367.1+ for venting in closure.
429Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process,   subclasses 82+ venting structure for batteries.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 522]    522Multiple capacitors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter including two or more liquid electrolytic capacitors.

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271,for a fixed capacitor combined with a variable capacitor.
299.1+,for plural rotary capacitor.
600,for mounted plural capacitor with no significant capacitor structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 523]    523Solid electrolytic capacitor (e.g., dry electrolytic capacitor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Subject matter including capacitor in which a dielectric is primarily an anodized coating on one electrode, with the remaining space between the electrodes filled with a solid semiconductor, or paste or gel.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 25.03 for the method of making an electrolytic-type device.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 524]    524Dielectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter including specific details of the solid dielectric material.

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311+,for solid dielectric of fixed capacitor.

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29Metal Working,   subclass 25.42 for the method of making a solid dielectric condenser.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 525]    525With significant electrolyte or semiconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter including specific details of the solid electrolyte or the semiconductor material.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 526]    526Paste or gel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter including an electrolyte which is a colloidal solution of liquid in a solid.

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   subclass 414 for gel electrolyte.
429Chemistry: Electrical Current Producing Apparatus, Product, and Process,   subclasses 134 and 300+ for gel electrolyte.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 98+ for colloid systems of continuous or semicontinuous solid phase with discontinuous liquid phase (gels, pastes, flocs, coagulates) or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 527]    527Organic salt (e.g., TCNQ):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 525.  Subject matter wherein the solid electrolyte or solid semiconductor material includes an organic salt or TCNQ.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 528]    528Anode type electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter including a specific anode type electrode structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 529]    529Aluminum or tantalum:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 528.  Subject matter wherein the anode type electrode is made of aluminum or tantalum material.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 530]    530Wound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 528.  Subject matter wherein the anode type electrode is made by winding foils together with dielectric material.
(1) Note. The anode type electrode is generally in flat, rolled, wound or tubular shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 531]    531With lead conductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 530.  Subject matter including a conductor for connecting the wound electrode to external conductors.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 532]    532Cathode type electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter wherein a specific cathode structure is disclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 533]    533With significant lead:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 532.  Subject matter wherein a specific conductor structure for connecting the cathode to an external conductor is disclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 534]    534With protection means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter including means to safeguard against breakdown or short circuiting of the solid electrolytic capacitor.
(1) Note. The protection means is an integral part of the solid electrolytic capacitor structure and significant details of the structure must be disclosed.

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272+,for protection or compensating means for electrostatic capacitor.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 535]    535Casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter including specific details of the casing which contains the solid electrolytic capacitor components.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 536]    536With hermetic seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 535.  Subject matter wherein the casing is hermetically sealed.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50+ for hermetic sealed enveloped type.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 537]    537With header, cover, or endseal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 535.  Subject matter wherein an open end of the solid electrolytic capacitor casing is closed by a header, cover, or endseal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclass 559 for multipart housing.
215Bottles and Jars,   subclasses 43+ , 50+, and 200 for closures for bottles and jars.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 200+ for closure for receptacles.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   appropriate subclasses for active solid-state semiconductor devices, per se, especially subclasses 678+ for active solid- state device housings, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 538]    538Significant electrical connection means (e.g., terminals or leads):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Subject matter wherein significant details of electrical connection means (e.g., terminals or lead) are disclosed.

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306.1+,for significant details of electrical terminals or leads.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50.52+ for electrical terminals or leads.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 539]    539With potting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Subject matter wherein a space between the casing and the electrolytic capacitor components is occupied by a solid or semisolid mass of insulating material; or wherein the electrolytic capacitor components directly encapsulated in a mass of insulating material in the casing.

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600+,for plural components which are potted or encapsulated.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 841 and 855+ for process of conductor or circuit manufacturing involving encapsulating or potting of electrical components.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclass 521 for potting of electrical components, per se.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 272.11+ for processes of encapsulating electrical components.
336Inductor Devices,   subclass 96 for potted inductor devices wherein some significant details of the inductor device is claimed.
338Electrical Resistors,   subclass 269 and 275 for resistors with molded casings or housings.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 540]    540With terminal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter wherein a specific conductor structure for connecting the solid electrolytic capacitor to external conductors is disclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 541]    541Multiple capacitors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 523.  Subject matter including two or more liquid electrolytic capacitors.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,for a fixed capacitor combined with a variable capacitor.
299.1+,for plural rotary capacitor.
600,for mounted plural capacitor with no significant capacitor structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 361 subclass 600]    600HOUSING OR MOUNTING ASSEMBLIES WITH DIVERSE ELECTRICAL COMPONENTS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising (a) housings, boxes, panels, or mounting arrangements with an electrical device, multiple electrical devices, or diverse electrical components or (b) housing or mounting arrangements with keyboards, CRTs, disk drive units, displays, or computer related equipment which inherently have diverse electrical components.
(1) Note. This subclass includes electrical housing or mounting assemblies where the combination is not provided for in any other class or in any other subclass in this class.
(2) Note. Nominal recitation of devices in conjunction with housings or mounting arrangements, without device structural details, are classified in this class.
(3) Note. Housing or mounting assemblies in combination with structural details, functional details, or equipment descriptions, of a particular art device, are classified with the art device.
(4) Note. Support equipment or housings for computer and computer related equipment will be classified in this class, if nominal recitation of the computer or computer related equipment is recited with no data processing or calculating procedures.
(5) Note. The term "computer means" or "data processing means" will be understood as nominal recitation whenever claims do not recite details for calculating or data processing.
(6) Note. Computer related equipment comprises memory unit or equipment, data processors, data input/output controllers, data input/output units, and arithmetic units.
(7) Note. Support equipment or housings for disk drives, keyboards, display units, and CRTs without particular equipment description or functional detail for a disk drive, keyboard, display unit, or CRT, will be classified in this class.
(8) Note. Housings with printed circuit and diverse electrical components or devices are classified in this class.
(9) Note. Recitations drawn to integrated circuitry, semiconductor device or package, silicon chip, hybrid device, pellet, disk type device, flip chip, etc., without structural or functional limitations defining topology or details of the semiconductor devices will be treated as diverse components and are classified in this class.

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115+,for specific circuit breaker structure with protection and safety system or device.
142,for electromagnetic control circuit devices including housing.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 568+ for gauge work support adjustment, subclass 572 for gauge probe support, and subclass 573 for gauge work support.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 756 for fluid pressure gauge mounting and connection.
84Music,   appropriate subclassesfor musical instrument(s) with cases or supports. For instrument supports of general application not claimed in combination with musical instruments or structurally limited to use with specific musical instruments, see Class 248, Supports, appropriate subclasses.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50+ for boxes and housings with insulator or conductor structure, subclasses 250+ for printed circuits, per se, and subclass 260 for printed circuit(s) with one component or plural same components. A printed circuit with diverse components is classified in Class 361, appropriate subclass.
181Acoustics,   subclasses 148+ for diaphragm and enclosure, subclasses 171+ for diaphragm mounting or suspension means, and subclasses 198+ for housing or enclosure of mechanical sound-modifying means.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclasses 5+ for similar type switches arranged in keyboard manner. Class 200 is the generic class for devices having structural detail of closing or opening electrical circuits. Arrangement of circuit breakers, mounting of circuit breakers, or housing of circuit breakers are classified in Class 361, subclasses 600+.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 71.01+ for receptacle support type racks.
219Electric Heating,   appropriate subclasses for heater-unit with housing, casing, or support means.
220Receptacles,   subclass 3.9 for outlet or junction box type receptacle with support.
235Registers,   subclass 145 for support equipment and housings for keyboards comprising those portions of registers, usually manually actuated, including key, shift keys, space bars, etc., which control and initiate the action of the calculating machine to determine what numbers shall be