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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 277]   CLASS 277,SEAL FOR A JOINT OR JUNCTURE
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the generic class for a sealing means or a process of using a seal to act at a joint or juncture of adjacent parts to oppose passage of a fluid. The sealing means or process: (1) closes a space formed between or (2) deflects the fluid away from the joint or juncture by using the fluid, another fluid, or an article.

(1) Note. For a seal that does not claim a static or dynamic use, it is permissible to use its disclosure for placement.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

In Class 520, Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers, subclasses 1+ are the generic subclasses for a synthetic resin or natural rubber preparation, and composition containing or treatment thereof is to be considered an integral part of Class 260 retaining all pertinent definitions and class lines, and having Classes 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, and 528 indented thereunder.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   for a method of mechanical manufacture, subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere, subclasses 888.07+ for a method of piston ring or packing manufacture, or subclass 888.3 for a method of seal or packing manufacture; or for apparatus to assemble or disassemble, subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble, especially subclasses 222+ for an apparatus to insert or remove a piston ring, or subclass 236 for an apparatus to apply or remove a resilient well protector from a well sucker rod.
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   for apparatus to separate liquids from solids (i.e., drying) or contacting solids with gases or vapors, subclass 242 for means to seal an opening in a treating chamber against gas or vapor leakage, or subclass 601 that may have a seal between a rotating drum or receptacle, and a housing.
49Movable or Removable Closures,   for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.), subclasses 475.1+ for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member, especially subclass 477.1 having an inflatable or fluid pressure responsive feature; subclass 478.1 having a magnetic feature, subclass 482.1 having a segmenting, replacing, adjusting, or severing feature; subclass 483.1 having complementary engaging portions on closure or closure and portal frame; subclass 489.1 anchored in channel or slot in closure or portal frame; subclass 490.1 having a U-shaped member or portion to mount the seal, or subclass 498.1 is tubular or has a tubular portion.
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   for a site erected structure or related components (e.g., panels, beams, columns, etc.), subclasses 140+ for a burial vault having a separately placeable closure in abutting relation to wall edges and sealing material retaining construction, subclasses 393+ for a relatively yieldable preformed separator (i.e., expansion joint), or subclasses 408+ for a disparate sheet lamina between exposed surfaces of wall, floor, or roof (e.g., vapor barrier, waterproofing membrane, etc.).
57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   for a process or apparatus for spinning, twisting, and twining.
73Measuring and Testing,   for a detailed structure or method for measuring or testing, subclasses 7+ for a measurement or test made involving anyone or any combination of operations of abrasion, milling, rubbing or scuffing; subclasses 46+ for testing or determining leakage between parts mechanically fitted together and capable of being separated without destruction; subclasses 700+ for direct measurement of fluid pressure; subclasses 863+ for obtaining a predetermined portion of a mass of material to be tested, or subclass 865.8 for apparatus or process for sensing and signaling, or for indicating a physical condition.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 18+ for a flexible sealing material attached to a casing and a moving rod, and a device or mechanism to move the rod.
87Textiles: Braiding, Netting, and Lace Making,   a process or apparatus for forming strands or fabrics from yarns, filaments or strands, by braiding, knotting, or intertwisting the strands, and the corresponding products or fabrics.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 168 for a nonmetallic seal means between a piston or a part moved by the piston and a cylinder end portion; or subclasses 172+ for more than nominal detailed structure of a piston except where limited to detailed structure (e.g., seat, fluid passageway in seat, etc.) solely intended to cooperate with a piston ring or piston ring expander.
100Presses,   subclass 269.21 for a seal or gasket around a piston for a fluid activated reciprocating press.
114Ships,   for marine vehicles and accessories not otherwise classifiable, subclass 93 that may have a seal for a joint between a mast and a deck.
116Signals and Indicators,   for a specifically recited and detailed mechanical device for giving signals of the nature of an alarm or indicator that appeals to any one or more of the senses and combined with nominal apparatus structure from other classes, subclass 70 for a fluid-pressure variation alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; subclasses 101+ for a thermal alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; subclasses 109+ for a liquid level alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; subclass 112 for a fluid flow alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; subclass 208 for a wear indicator for an element having means to convey information to one of the senses; subclasses 216+ for a temperature responsive or compensating means indicator having means to convey information to one of the senses; subclasses 227+ for a liquid level indicator having means to convey information to one of the senses, or subclasses 266+ for a pressure indicator having means to convey information to one of the senses.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 90.37 for a poppet valve mechanism"s lubrication system"s seal or shield that includes those mounted on a valve stem or subclass 188.6 for a seal in combination with a valve stem of an intake, exhaust or fuel valve of an internal combustion engine having a stationary opening (i.e., seat) and moving closure (i.e., head).
137Fluid Handling,   residual class for fluid material handling process or apparatus; subclasses 248+ for a liquid seal between relatively movable valving parts.
139Textiles: Weaving,   for manufacture of fabric by weaving threads.
148Metal Treatment,   subclass 238 for a process of nitriding using an externally supplied nitrogen source or subclasses 317+ for a stock product of the nitriding process.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 60+ for a process of manufacturing an article involving surface bonding or assembly therefor or subclasses 349+ for an apparatus to manufacture an article involving surface bonding or assembly therefor.
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 47+ for a heat exchanger including structural installation on apparatus external to the subject matter of this class.
166Wells,   for well apparatus having a seal where the well apparatus has a distinct feature (e.g.; above ground apparatus preventing upward or downward movement of an inner pipe, rod, or cable part depending into a well casing or tubing; above ground apparatus sealing the annular space between a broadly recited casing supported enclosure and an inner member; lateral port or valve on the tubular member above or below the packing; structural detail of the tubular member not contributing to the sealing function; etc.) other than sealing, subclasses 82.1+ for above ground apparatus having a releasable sealing or cleaning means for an inner part extending into the well; subclasses 84.1+ for above ground apparatus with a seal for a reciprocating part (e.g., sucker rod, etc.); subclasses 86.1+ for above ground apparatus having a valve combined with anchoring or sealing means between a casing and an inner part; subclasses 88.1+ for above ground apparatus having a lateral port combined with anchoring or sealing means between a casing and an inner part, or subclasses 179+ for a packer or plug insertable from the top of a well into a well conduit to seal between a longitudinally extending tubular part and the well conduit, especially subclass 187 for a seal expanded by confined fluid from central chamber, pump or plunger, and subclass 202 for a cup type seal.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclasses for an insulator and specialized apparatus to mount, support, encase, box, or house an electrical component; subclass 23 for means using or adapted to use a fluid or vacuum including a seal; subclasses 152+ for a grommet to insulate a conductor as it extends through a wall or plate; subclass 358 for an electromagnetic shield or anti-inductive device that may be a gasket; or subclass 539 for a box or housing structurally limited to electrical use or including an electrical device that may include a seal between a cable and the box or housing.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   for processes and means for initially forming or radially enlarging an elongated hole in the earth in situ, subclasses 209+ for above ground means engaging bore entrance directing or receiving fluid or cuttings, subclass 214, for a seal located in a fluid head on a tool shaft, subclass 359 for mutually contacting cutter supports that are circumferentially displaced axes for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details, or subclasses 371+ for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details.
184Lubrication,   for a unitized lubrication means removable or installable from one machine to on another and intended to lubricate a bearing part in a machine, subclasses 24+ for a piston rod lubricator or subclasses 104.1+ for a lubricator including a heating or cooling device.
188Brakes,   for means of retarding motion of or stopping of machines; subclasses 72.4+ for a fluid pressure piston axially actuating a brake element or housing against a wheel that may include a seal, subclasses 73.44+ for an axially extending pin to retain an actuator axially slidable in a plane parallel to an axis of a rotating wheel that usually includes a seal, subclass 322.17 for an internal resistance motion retarder including a thrust component used to vary volume in a fluid-filled chamber having a particular retarder component structure with a dynamic sealing ring or flexible boot between a piston rod and cylinder, or subclass 322.18 for an internal resistance motion retarder including a thrust component used to vary volume in a fluid filled chamber having a particular retarder component structure with a dynamic sealing ring between a piston and cylinder.
205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein,   and Methods of Preparing the Compositions; for a process of making an electrolytic coating not provided for elsewhere, subclasses 178+ for multiple superposed coatings having at least one chromium-containing coating, or subclasses 283+ for a predominately chromium coating.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 450 for a filter in a flow line or a flow line connected closed casing having a gasket between the filter and walls of the casing (e.g., oil filter gasket, etc.).
215Bottles and Jars,   for a cap-type bottle or jar closure, subclass 45 for neck structure to receive a particular closure including a seal, subclass 233 for a hardenable liquid or plastic seal where the closure seats on the bottle or jar; subclass 234 for a liquid seal located where the closure seats on the bottle or jar; or subclasses 341+ for a cap-type closure having an identifiable integral or separate seal or liner.
220Receptacles,   for a receptacle having an access opening and a removable closure for the opening and means to seal the juncture therebetween, subclass 228 for a liquid or semi-liquid gasket or subclass 378 for a gasket or packing.
222Dispensing,   subclass 542 for a seal provided for a joint, closure, or flow controller of a dispenser.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   in general, for apparatus or method of joining the meeting faces of juxtaposed or engaged metal articles, of the same article originally in a form sustaining state, or a metal article to a nonmetal article, by direct application of heat or mechanical energy to the articles causing a flowing or blending of the meeting faces or causing a filler to flow or blend where the meeting faces to form a continuous interconnecting zone.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclass 216 for cooperating comminuting surfaces having a gyratory member that includes rotary motion and means to seal the comminuting zone from a drive or other moving parts.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   for means to close or restrict a flow of fluid through a passage by a definite predetermined motion of the means combined with a seal, subclasses 1.1+ for a plurality of relatively movable sealing members that control an annular passage between a well casing and a drill stem, axial rod or pipe; subclasses 171 for a gland member pressing a seal constituting a valve seat against a valve head; subclass 189 for separate actuators or different functions of the same actuator to increase contact pressure between piston type valves provided with expansible sealing and a seat; subclass 191 for means to increase the contact pressure between a piston-type valve having a seal that expands upon closing and a seat; subclass 214 for a valve actuated by a mechanical movement means and having a particularly associated sealing means for either; subclass 257 for a valve actuated by a cam encased in a valve body having a seal; subclasses 306+ for a rotary butterfly valve having a seal carried by the valve or a valve seat; subclasses 314+ for a rotary valve and a seat therefor or a seal between the rotary valve and the seat; subclass 318 for a reciprocating valve having a seal made of nonresilient material on a reciprocating head element or seat made of a resilient material; subclasses 335.1+ for a flexible wall seal between an actuator and valve; or subclass 363 for a removable valve seat having a seal between the valve seat and its supporting structure.
252Compositions,   subclasses 62.51+ for a composition useful for a magnetic purpose or a process for making the composition; subclass 72 for a composition that contains an agent for stopping or reducing a leak in a container; or subclass 378 for a process of intumescing vermiculite, other micaceous substances or other materials, or a product of such a process, not provided for elsewhere.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 239+ for mechanical shaping or molding to form or reform a shaped article, especially subclasses 259+ for a composite article created by shaping or forming molding material against and uniting to a preform.
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   for means to secure in end-to-end or side-to-side relationship a pipe to another pipe, a plate, a wall, a receptacle, or other base where the means are independent from a seal (i.e., more than the frictional engagement of the seal secures a pipe end to another part) or a sleeve securing the pipe ends or another part; subclasses 95+ for a seal responsive to line pressure or means to test the seal by using line pressure, especially subclass 97 for a seal having an inflatable member having an external pressure supply; subclass 187 for temperature responsive means to maintain a good seal for expansion or contraction in the pipe coupling; or subclasses 335+ for a seal combined with the pipe joint or coupling.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   for a body secured to the running gear and a top therefor, subclass 93 for weatherstripping to seal between panels or between a windshield and the body or top.
301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   for a wheel or axle, or where they are a dominant feature when combined with other vehicle structure; subclass 123 for a seal to exclude dirt or dust from a wheel or axle bearing.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   subclasses 100+ for a flexible track joint structure (e.g., pin, link, etc.) including a seal, deflector, or scraper; or subclass 118 for a passageway in a connector pin to provide lubrication.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 209+ for a magnet or an electromagnet, configured or arranged to perform external mechanical work but does not include the external mechanical work.
366Agitating,   subclass 183.4 for a closed connection (e.g., sealed joint, etc.) between a static conveyor with gravity discharge and a rotating mixing chamber.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 141+ for temperature sensing in combination with only a nominally recited diverse art device.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 203+ for a seal at a joint or juncture between and combined with fluid confining structures (e.g., a nozzle, a vessel cover, etc.) of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel.
384Bearings,   for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal, subclasses 130+ for a plain radial bearing having a specific seal, especially the following subclasses: subclass 131 where fluid moves the seal; subclasses 132+ where the seal is a barrier of liquid or gas; subclasses 135+ where centrifugal force moves or holds the seal in place; subclass 137 where the seal has means to remove excess lubricant from the shaft and return it to a lubricant reservoir or for removing material from the shaft about to enter the bearing from the outside; subclasses 139+ where the seal consists of a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.); subclass 144 where the seal is a labyrinth seal; subclasses 145+ where the seal conforms to a bearing surface that has a shape of sphere to permit angular or lateral movement; subclasses 147+ where the seal is a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection extending axially of a center of a seal seat to contact the relatively moving element to be sealed; subclass 149, where the seal is radially contained with an axially acting follower; subclass 150 where mechanical means (e.g., nut, separate resilient elements, etc.) moves the seal; or subclasses 151+ where the seal"s material is resilient and on the outer area of the bearing or shaft; subclass 159 for a railway car journal bearing having a detailed seal; subclasses 477+ for a radial antifriction bearing having a specific seal, especially subclass 478 where centrifugal force loads the seal or a liquid or gas forms a sealing barrier; subclass 479 where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means loads the seal; subclass 480 where the seal is a labyrinth seal; subclasses 481+ where the seal is a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.); subclass 483 where the seal is a radially contained seal with an axially acting follower; subclasses 484+ where the seal is a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection contacting a relatively rotating surface parallel to the axis of rotation; subclass 488 where the seal is a radially extending, annular flange approaching but not contacting a relatively rotating member to substantially but not completely close an annular opening; subclass 489 where the seal is a resilient O-ring seal; or subclass 607 for a thrust bearing having a seal.
403Joints and Connections,   for a joint or connection structure that goes beyond providing an environment for a seal; subclasses 50+ for a flexible diaphragm or bellows secured to each part; subclass 134 for a ball and socket having an external seal (i.e., remote from the bearing surface); subclasses 135+ for a ball and socket that may have a seal at the bearing interface; or subclass 288 for a seal distinct from the joint and unnecessary to the connection of parts.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 152 for method or apparatus to form an underground passageway (e.g., tunnel, etc.) lined by panels having a seal between adjacent panels.
411Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed, Tool-deformed, or Locked-threaded Fastener,   for a fastener suited for general use, subclasses 369+ for a headed threaded fastening means and nut having a washer and seal, or subclass 542 for a washer configured for a fastener having a seal.
413Sheet Metal Container Making,   for a process or apparatus for performing an attendant operation before final assembly of a lid to a receptacle, subclass 7 for a process of applying a sealant to an end joint between the lid and the receptacle; subclass 9 for a process of joining a preformed gasket or liner to the lid; subclasses 12+ for a process of fabricating a frangible end closure or assembling a frangible part to an end closure; subclasses 19+ for a process of applying liquid to form a gasket or liner on the lid; subclass 34 for apparatus to seam together the receptacle and lid using a roller die including means to apply a gasket or seal therebetween; subclasses 58+ for apparatus to form lid having means to apply seal or liner, or subclasses 67+ for apparatus to form lid having means to form frangible zone in lid.
415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   for a means of guiding or confining (e.g., casing, distributing means, etc.) a working fluid (i.e., a liquid or gas that contacts or supports a rotary means that drives or is driven by the liquid or gas), subclass 109 for a rotating shaft having an abutment surface imparting motion in a sealing fluid inside a chamber; subclasses 110+ this may include a seal to separate a fluid path to an interior part of an assembly between relatively movable parts and the working fluid path; subclasses 170.1+ this may include a seal between the rotary means (e.g., runner, etc.) and a static part, or subclass 230 for a seal between a shaft or shaft sleeve, and a static part.
417Pumps,   for a general means to move a fluid from one place to another having an inlet and an outlet, subclass 423.11 for a rotary electric motor and rotary non expansible chamber pump having sealing means therebetween.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 55.4 for a helical working member (e.g., scroll, etc.) having planetary or planetating movement including a seal or subclasses 104+ for a working member having relative rotation to a surface of a working chamber to expand and contract the volume of the working chamber with a movable, expansible, adjustable, or deformable seal.
420Alloys or Metallic Compositions,   for a generic class for alloys containing metal or metallic compositions that contain a continuous phase of metal, methods of making it not provided for elsewhere or "elemental" metal, per se.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   a generic class for apparatus not provided for elsewhere to mold a plastic, shape molten materials where no molding surface is employed, treating a product made by the apparatus of this class, randomly deposit and bond particulate material, or a combination of apparatus of this class with any diverse working or treating apparatus, Digest 47 for a seal ring.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   a residual class for a structurally defined stock material, nonstructural laminate, an article of manufacture or intermediate article of manufacture, not provided for elsewhere; subclasses 131+ for a structurally defined web or sheet (e.g., an overall dimension, etc.) including an aperture; subclasses 320.2+ comprising a single or plural web or sheet that contains components where at least one contains a liquid or has a constituent trapped inside preformed walls; subclasses 357+ containing or consisting of a strand, fiber, grain, cell, particle, or any substance in terms of a particular size or shape, a plurality or such arranged relative to one another, a particular interengagement of a plurality of such or a coating associated therewith; subclasses 367+ containing carbon as an element or compound, and consisting of or coating a rod, strand, filament or fiber; subclass 406 containing or consisting of particulate matter comprising glass having a particular size or shape and a coating; subclasses 411.1+ for a composition of layers adhered or cohered to each other; subclass 426 for layers adhered or cohered to each other where a layer contains glass that may be in fiber or mat form; subclasses 544+ for metallic; subclasses 615+ comprising different contiguous layers or portions, each having a matrix or continuous phase of free metal; or subclasses 616+ comprising different contiguous layers or portions, each having a matrix or continuous phase of free metal having the property of bending or lengthening in a circular fashion in response to an increase in temperature.
445Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing,   subclass 25 for a process of display or gas panel making including a seal not elsewhere classified.
432Heating,   subclass 115 for a rotary drum mounted for rotation about a horizontal or slightly inclined axis, the rotation of the rotary drum imparting a tumbling motion to material placed therein, forming a juncture against a stationary part with a flexible seal, cooler seal, or an air curtain-type flow controller therebetween to prevent escape of the rotary drum"s atmosphere or subclass 244 for a heating device specialized to feed or discharge a work chamber including a seal at the chamber"s wall for conveyor arm or shaft.
433Dentistry,   subclass 115 for a seal in a motorized handheld tool or handpiece.
439Electrical Connectors,   for a generic electrical connection between at least two conducting elements permitting relative motion or where the connection is a readily made or broken type, subclass 89 for a seal to a connector having inductive shielding or arc suppressing means including an elastomeric or nonmetallic conductive portion; subclasses 271+ for a sealing element or material for cooperation with the coupled connector (e.g., gasket, etc.); subclass 559 for a seal to a coupling part that extends into a panel opening; or subclass 927 for a conductive gasket.
440Marine Propulsion,   for a vessel and a device (e.g., propeller, impeller, etc.) other than a sail to move the vessel through water, subclass 112 for means to mount an engine within the vessel"s hull and sealing means for a propeller shaft that pierces the hull.
451Abrading,   subclasses 28+ for a process of performing an abrading operation (i.e., where the sharp edges of mineral crystals form the cutting instrument) and a process of performing an ancillary operation not provided for elsewhere.
464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclass 131 for a drive coupling that accommodates misaligned or angularly related axes through a radially directed pin having a particular bearing cup surrounding the pin end and a flexible seal, subclass 133 for a drive coupling that accommodates misaligned or angularly related axes through a radially directed pin and a flexible seal or subclasses 173+ for a flexible boot for a joint to transmit rotary torque.
494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   for an apparatus or process that breaks down or subdivides a mixture of fluent material into components by using a receptacle-like part having a wall to subject the material to centrifugal force, subclasses 38+ including a seal.
501Compositions: Ceramic,   subclasses 1+ for inorganic compositions other than Portland cement or cementitious material prepared from gypsum that are heat-treated by firing, calcining, sintering, or fusion of a part of the inorganic material during manufacturing or subsequent use to effect hardening or fusion followed by hardening when cooled and processes not provided for elsewhere, and especially subclasses 11+ for a glass composition or a composition intended to be heat-treated to form a glass.
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclass 165 for a high temperature (to greater than 30 k) system, device, or component utilizing suspension of superconducting particulate material in liquid (e.g., seal, pump, etc.).
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 1+ are the generic subclasses for a synthetic resin or natural rubber preparation. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, for the lines between Classes 520, 260, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, and 528.
523Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 179 for a process of preparing a desired or intentional composition of at least one solid polymer or specified intermediate condensation product, or product thereof having utility as an ablative, or an intumescent coating composition is claimed or solely disclosed, or to processes or preparation thereof.

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

FLUID(S)

A liquid, gas, or particulate matter (e.g., dust, etc.) suspended in a liquid or gas.

MEMBER(S)

These are component(s) that make up the seal.

PART(S)

These are component(s) (e.g., housing, casing, rod, shaft, etc.) of the joint or juncture.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 300]    300PROCESS OF DYNAMIC SEALING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising use of the sealing means to oppose the flow of fluid at the joint or juncture between relatively movable parts and having a relatively movable relationship to at least one of the parts.
(1) Note. Relative movement between the parts need only occur at one time during the operation of the parts being sealed while maintaining sealing during movement, but such movement excludes assembly or disassembly such as the unscrewing of a packed, threaded pipe joint.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

312+,for a process of static sealing.
345+,for a seal between relatively movable parts (i.e., a dynamic seal).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 301]    301Close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Process of dynamic sealing wherein the sealing means is free of relatively movable sealing contact against the relatively movable parts and capable of acting upon or causing sealed or sealing fluid to oppose the flow of fluid at the joint or juncture between the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses are for a sealing means not dependent upon the physical contact between a sealing member and a relatively movable part to affect sealing such as abrading or frictional contact that forms a positive seal at the point of contact.
(2) Note. In a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) a distance between a sealing member and a part or another sealing member is not dependent upon rotational speed between relatively movable parts whereas in a hydrodynamic relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) the distance will change when the rotational speed from normal operation to slower or nonrotational speeds.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

409+,for a dynamic, close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).
904,for a seal formed by a viscous fluid usually contained by one or more physical, contacting-type seals.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 302]    302Magnetic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Close proximity seal wherein the sealing means uses a polar field to control the movement of fluent material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

252Compositions,   subclasses 62.51+ for a composition useful for a magnetic purpose or a process for making the composition, not provided for elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 303]    303Labyrinth:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Close proximity seal wherein the sealing means uses a succession of baffles that define a clearance between each other or an additional member to provide a series of throttling zones.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 304]    304Formed by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form barrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Close proximity seal wherein the joint or juncture has sealing fluid introduced into it at a pressure equal to or greater than the pressure of the sealed fluid to oppose the flow of the sealed fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

926,for a seal for other than a process of dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier having means to create a fluid pressure equilibrium at a joint or juncture.
927,for a seal for other than a process of dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier having means to create a fluid pressure different from the sealed fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 305]    305Floating ring or bushing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Close proximity seal wherein the seal is an annular or tubular seal forming a gap or clearance between the relatively movable parts and having relative movement between the relatively movable parts to oppose the flow of fluid.
(1) Note. A floater-type seal has relative motion between the relatively movable parts it seals between, whereas a seal that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion is capable of sealing relatively movable parts that move angularly, axially, or perpendicularly to its main axis of motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 306]    306Relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Process of dynamic sealing including at least one of a pair of opposing surface members relatively rotating at the joint or juncture that defines a sealing face and wherein the joint or juncture is at an angle to a rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. In a hydrodynamic relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) a distance between a sealing member and a part or another sealing member will change when the rotational speed between relatively movable parts goes from normal operation to slower or non-rotational speeds whereas in a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) the distance is not dependent upon rotational speed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

358+,for a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 307]    307Formed by flexible projection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Process of dynamic sealing wherein the sealing member is a pliant or resilient extension.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 308]    308Contained or compressed by gland member in packing box:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Process of dynamic sealing wherein the seal is intended for use in a chamber having an axially opened end to receive the seal and a member that substantially closes the open end to retain or squeeze the seal within the chamber while having an opening for passage for one of the relatively movable parts.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

329+,for a seal for well apparatus where the seal is in a packing box contained or compressed by a gland member.
510+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 309]    309Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip, piston cup seal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Process of dynamic sealing wherein the sealing means is a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for relatively movable contact to an inner or outer perimeter of one of the relatively movable parts.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

311,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a flexible ring.
436+,for a piston ring having a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., piston cup, etc.).
549+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 310]    310Piston ring for internal combustion engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Process of dynamic sealing wherein the sealing means is an annulus for use on a part (i.e., a piston) that reciprocates along an axis of an enclosing wall of an internal combustion engine and the seal is for engaging the wall.

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311,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a flexible ring.
434+,for a piston ring or piston ring expander or seat therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 311]    311Flexible ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Process of dynamic sealing wherein the sealing means is a pliant or resilient annulus.

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309,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, piston cup, etc.).
310,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a piston ring for an internal combustion engine.
434+,for a piston ring or piston ring expander, or seat therefor.
500+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 312]    312PROCESS OF STATIC SEALING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising use of the sealing means to oppose a flow of fluid at the joint or juncture between stationary or relatively movable parts and having a fixed relationship to the parts.
(1) Note. Some relative movement is permissible due to such examples as expansion, contraction, slippage, or variable pressure load.

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300+,for a process of dynamic sealing.
590+,for a seal between fixed parts or having a fixed relationship against relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 313]    313Between parts of internal combustion engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Process of static sealing wherein the sealing means is for use at the joint or juncture between static parts of an internal combustion engine.

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591+,for a static contact seal intended for use between parts of an internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 314]    314Pipe, conduit, or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Process of static sealing intended for use on an extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor part to seal the joint or juncture between concentric extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor parts; the extended hollow or electrically insulated part"s end, and another extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor part"s end; or the extended hollow part or electrically insulated conductor, and a wall.

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602+,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 315]    315Using flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Process of static sealing wherein the sealing means has a flexible wall member to accommodate relatively movable parts allowing static contact sealing against the parts.

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389,for a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including fluid pressure acting against a bellows or diaphragm to create an axial bias therefor.
391+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm to provide a secondary seal or driving connection therefor.
504,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion by using a flexible connection having static contact between the seal and one of the relatively movable parts.
634+,for a static contact flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 316]    316Forming in place (i.e., in situ):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Process of static sealing wherein the sealing means is a sealing material initially in a fluent or transient state introduced into the joint or juncture between the relatively static parts where it transforms into its final functional condition.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 239+ for mechanical shaping or molding to form or reform a shaped article, especially subclasses 259+ for a composite article created by shaping or forming molding material against and uniting to a preform.
413Sheet Metal Container Making,   for appropriate subclasses a process or apparatus for performing an attendant operation before final assembly of a lid to a receptacle, especially subclass 7 for a process of applying a sealant to an end joint between the lid and the receptacle; subclass 9 for a process of joining a preformed gasket or liner to the lid; or subclasses 19+ for a process of applying liquid to form a gasket or liner on the lid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 317]    317SEAL COMBINED WITH INDICATOR, SAMPLER OR INSPECTION FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means combined with other means to display, test, or examine a condition or function of the sealing means or a chamber for the sealing means.

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73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for a detailed structure or method for measuring or testing, especially subclasses 863+ for obtaining a predetermined portion of a mass of material to be tested; or subclass 865.8 for apparatus or process for sensing and signaling, or for indicating a physical condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 318]    318Fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Indicator, sampler, or inspection feature wherein the condition or function is force per unit area exerted by a liquid or gas.

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73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for a detailed structure or method for measuring or testing, especially subclasses 700+ for direct measurement of fluid pressure.
116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclasses for a specifically recited and detailed mechanical device for giving signals of the nature of an alarm or indicator that appeals to any one or more of the senses and combined with nominal apparatus structure from other classes, especially subclass 70 for a fluid-pressure variation alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; or subclasses 266+ for a pressure indicator having means to convey information to one of the senses.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 319]    319Fluid temperature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Indicator, sampler, or inspection feature wherein the condition or function is a measure of warmth or coldness of a liquid or gas using a reference to some standard value.

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116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclasses for a specifically recited and detailed mechanical device for giving signals of the nature of an alarm or indicator that appeals to any one or more of the senses and combined with nominal apparatus structure from other classes, especially subclasses 101+ for a thermal alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; or subclasses 216+ for a temperature responsive or compensating means indicator having means to convey information to one of the senses.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 141+ for temperature sensing in combination with only a nominally recited diverse art device.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 320]    320Fluid leakage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Indicator, sampler, or inspection feature wherein the condition or function is escape or entry of fluid for the sealing means or chamber for the sealing means.

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73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for a detailed structure or method for measuring or testing, especially subclasses 46+ for testing or determining leakage between parts mechanically fitted together and capable of being separated without destruction.
116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclasses for a specifically recited and detailed mechanical device for giving signals of the nature of an alarm or indicator that appeals to any one or more of the senses and combined with nominal apparatus structure from other classes, especially subclasses 109+ for a liquid level alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; subclass 112 for a fluid flow alarm giving audible indication usually operated automatically; or subclasses 227+ for a liquid level indicator having means to convey information to one of the senses.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 321]    321Wear, proper seating, or presence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Indicator, sampler, or inspection feature wherein the means shows deterioration, proper or improper positioning, or location to aid in sealing to oppose the flow of fluid.

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73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for a detailed structure or method for measuring or testing, especially subclasses 7+ for a measurement or test made involving any one or any combination of operations of abrasion, milling, rubbing, or scuffing.
116Signals and Indicators,   appropriate subclasses for a specifically recited and detailed mechanical device for giving signals of the nature of an alarm or indicator that appeals to any one or more of the senses and combined with nominal apparatus structure from other classes, especially subclass 208 for a wear indicator for an element having means to convey information to one of the senses.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 322]    322SEAL FOR WELL APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means wherein the sealing means is for use in a device or mechanism that extracts fluid from earth (e.g., a well, pump, etc.) or bores or penetrates the earth.
(1) Note. Art terms such as packer, polish rod, stringer, tool, swab, shoe, etc., describe well or well-drilling apparatus.

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166Wells,   appropriate subclasses for well apparatus having a seal where the well apparatus has a distinct feature (e.g., above ground apparatus preventing upward or downward movement of an inner pipe, rod, or cable part depending into a well casing or tubing; above ground apparatus sealing the annular space between a broadly recited casing supported enclosure and an inner member; lateral port or valve on the tubular member above or below the packing; structural detail of the tubular member not contributing to the sealing function; etc.) other than sealing, especially subclasses 82.1+ for above ground apparatus having a releasable sealing or cleaning means for an inner part extending into the well; subclasses 84.1+ for above ground apparatus with a seal for a reciprocating part (e.g., sucker rod, etc.); subclasses 86.1+ for above ground apparatus having a valve combined with anchoring or sealing means between a casing and an inner part; subclasses 88.1+ for above ground apparatus having a lateral port combined with anchoring or sealing means between a casing and an inner part; or subclasses 179+ for a packer or plug insertable from the top of a well into a well conduit to seal between a longitudinally extending tubular part and the well conduit, especially subclass 187 for a seal expanded by confined fluid from central chamber, pump, or plunger; and subclass 202 for a cup-type seal.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses for processes and means for initially forming or radially enlarging an elongated hole in the earth, in situ, especially subclasses 209+ for above ground means engaging bore entrance directing or receiving fluid or cuttings; subclass 214 for a seal located in a fluid head on a tool shaft; subclass 359 for mutually contacting cutter supports that are circumferentially displaced axes for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details; or subclasses 371+ for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 323]    323Installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling, or restoration of the seal.

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370+,for a relatively rotatable extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
421,for a close proximity labyrinth seal having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander or seat therefore having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
511,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal intended for containment or compression by a gland member in a packing box having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
598,for a static contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
609,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or apparatus to assemble or disassemble, especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere; or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble, especially subclass 236 for an apparatus to apply or remove a resilient well protector from a well sucker rod.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 324]    324For overpressure control device (e.g., seal for a blowout preventer, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus wherein the seal is for use in an annular passage formed between an inner part (e.g., cable, drill stem, pipe, rod, rope, string, tubing, etc.) and a surrounding part (e.g., well casing, tubing head, etc.) intended to regulate a higher than normal pressure condition or prevent upward movement of the inner part (e.g., cable, drill stem, pipe, rod, rope, string, tubing, etc.).

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584,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
611,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature.
616+,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having an associated mounting or retaining means for the seal.
638,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit or cable including a particular extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion), mounting, or retaining means.

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251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for means to close or restrict a flow of fluid through a passage by a definite predetermined motion of the means combined with a seal, especially subclasses 1.1+ for a plurality of relatively movable sealing members that control an annular passage between a well casing and a drill stem, axial rod, or pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 325]    325Segmented radially actuated (e.g., ram type, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Overpressure control device wherein the seal is divided into portions and intended for movement in a plane perpendicular to an annular axial flow path formed by the annular passage.

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344,for a segmented and radially actuated seal (e.g., oil saver, gas saver, etc.) for well apparatus.
543+,for a dynamic segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston.
626,for a static contact seal having a particular seal shape intended for use on a pipe, conduit or cable.
632,for a peripherally segmented static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 326]    326Rotatable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Overpressure control device wherein the seal is part of an assembly fixed to the inner part (e.g., cable, drill stem, pipe, rod, rope, string, tubing, etc.) that rotates relative to the surrounding part (e.g., well casing, tubing head, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 327]    327Axially compressed ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Overpressure control device wherein the seal has an annular shape and is concentric to the annular passage including means acting along an annular axial flow path formed by the annular passage axis to squeeze the seal.

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328+,for a seal for above ground well apparatus actuated along its longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 328]    328Longitudinally actuated packer for above ground apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus wherein the seal is between axially spaced members where one or more of the members axially bias the seal into sealing engagement at the joint or juncture between the part (e.g., axial rod, pipe, drill stem, etc.) surrounded by another part (e.g., well casing, etc.) intended to function or remain at ground level.

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327,for a sealing ring for well apparatus having an overpressure control device that works by axially compressing the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 329]    329Contained or compressed by gland member in packing box:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 328.  Longitudinally actuated packer wherein the seal is intended for use in a well apparatus having a chamber including an axially opened end to receive the seal and a member that substantially closes the open end to retain or squeeze the seal within the chamber while having an opening for passage for one of the parts.

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308,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a seal to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box.
510+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box.
620+,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable including a clamping gland.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 330]    330For line or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Seal for well apparatus wherein the part (e.g., axial rod, pipe, drill stem, etc.) is a wire or cord.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 331]    331Inflatable packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus including a member having a cavity or chamber therein or forms a cavity or chamber that includes one of the parts of the joint or juncture in the well apparatus for entry of a pressurized fluid to expand at least a portion of the sealing means into position against another part of the joint or juncture.

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336+,for a seal intended for use in below ground well apparatus.
605,for a hollow, fluid-filled, or inflatable static contact seal or an associated member intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
646,for a static contact seal having a hollow or fluid filled inflatable chamber for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 332]    332Deforms radially inward:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Inflatable packer for internal expansion against the part (e.g., rod, shaft, tubing, line, cable, etc.) extending through the inflatable packer.

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583,for a dynamic inflatable or biased by an inflatable member circumferential contact seal for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 333]    333And inflating medium control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Inflatable packer and a device or mechanism to regulate the pressurized fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 334]    334Particular wall structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Inflatable packer wherein the expanded portion of the sealing means or the sealing means biased by the expandable member has specific construction.

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340+,for a longitudinally actuated packing sleeve for below ground well apparatus having a particular wall structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 335]    335Axially facing packing cup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus wherein the seal has an open container-like shape or form (e.g., C, U, V, etc.) radially extending to a longitudinal axis of one of the parts.

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439,for a piston ring including a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection having a C, U, or V cross-sectional profile forming an axially facing cup (e.g., piston cup, etc.).
626,for a static contact seal having a particular seal shape intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 336]    336For below ground apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus wherein the seal"s use is on a device intended to function below earth level.

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331+,for an inflatable packer-type seal for well apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 337]    337Longitudinally actuated packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Below ground apparatus wherein the seal"s intended use is between axially spaced members and biased into sealing engagement by axial movement of at least one of the members.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 338]    338Packing sleeve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Longitudinally actuated packer wherein the seal has an elongated tubular form.

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585,for a dynamic, circumferential contacting, elongated sleeve or bushing for other than a piston.
607,for a sleeve-type, static contact seal intended for a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 339]    339Expanded by wedging member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 338.  Packing sleeve includes a member having an inclined surface to radially bias the packing sleeve.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 340]    340Particular wall structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 338.  Packing sleeve wherein the packing sleeve has specific construction.

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334,for an inflatable packer for well apparatus having a particular wall structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 341]    341Reinforcing feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 340.  Particular wall structure wherein the wall structure includes means to strengthen the wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 342]    342Plural stacked rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Longitudinally actuated packer comprising annular seals arranged axially in series.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 343]    343Seal (e.g., wiper, oil saver, stripper, etc.) accommodates irregular size of inner part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus wherein the seal surrounds and adjusts to an inside part (e.g., tubing, string, rod, etc.) having varying proportions and intended to clean by rubbing or pushing off adherent foreign matter.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 344]    344Segmented radially actuated packer (e.g., oil saver, gas saver, etc.) for above ground apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Seal for well apparatus wherein the seal is divided into portions intended for movement in a direction perpendicular to and seal an annular axial flow path formed at the joint or juncture between the part (e.g., axial rod, pipe, drill stem, etc.) surrounded by another part (e.g., well casing) intended to function or remain at ground level.

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325,for a segmented and radially actuated (e.g., ram-type, etc.) seal for a well apparatus overpressure control device (e.g., seal for a blowout preventer, etc.).
543+,for a dynamic, segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston.
626,for a static contact seal having a particular seal shape intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
632,for a peripherally segmented static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 345]    345SEAL BETWEEN RELATIVELY MOVABLE PARTS (I.E., DYNAMIC SEAL):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising sealing means to oppose the flow of fluid at the joint or juncture between relatively movable parts and having a relatively movable relationship to at least one of the parts.
(1) Note. Relative movement between the parts need only occur at one time during the operation of the parts being sealed while maintaining sealing during movement, but such movement excludes assembly or disassembly such as the unscrewing of a packed threaded pipe joint.

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300+,for a process of dynamic sealing.
590+,for a seal between fixed parts or having a fixed relationship against relatively movable parts.
906,for a seal for a part having indefinite length (e.g., strip, sheet, etc.).

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222Dispensing,   subclass 542 for a seal provided for a joint, closure or flow controller of a dispenser.
366Agitating,   subclass 183.4 for a closed connection (e.g., sealed joint, etc.) between a static conveyor with gravity discharge and a rotating mixing chamber.
415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for a means of guiding or confining (e.g., casing, distributing means, etc.) a working fluid (i.e., a liquid or gas that contacts or supports a rotary means that drives or is driven by the liquid or gas), especially subclass 109 for a rotating shaft having an abutment surface imparting motion in a sealing fluid inside a chamber; subclasses 110+ for a seal to separate a fluid path to an interior part of an assembly between relatively movable parts and the working fluid path; subclasses 170.1+ for a seal between the rotary means (e.g., runner, etc.) and a static part; or subclass 230 for a seal between a shaft or shaft sleeve and a static part.
494Imperforate Bowl: Centrifugal Separators,   appropriate subclasses for an apparatus or process that breaks down or subdivides a mixture of fluent material into components by using a receptaclelike part having a wall to subject the material to centrifugal force, especially subclasses 38+ including a seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 346]    346Diverse and distinct dynamic seals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal includes disparate seal types distinguishable from each other and are for location on associated parts of the joint or juncture to constitute a sealing assembly.
(1) Note. The components forming the sealing assembly may not be part of a single (e.g., removable, etc.) unit.
(2) Note. Seals consisting exclusively of the same type (e.g., lip, mechanical, labyrinth, impeller, etc.) are not proper for this or indented subclasses.
(3) Note. A translatable seal (e.g., floater, etc.) that carries thereon another diverse seal is not distinct.
(4) Note. Cross diverse and distinct dynamic seals into subclasses for the seal types.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 347]    347Close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 346.  Diverse and distinct dynamic seals wherein the sealing means is free of relatively movable sealing contact relating to the relatively movable parts and capable of acting upon or causing a sealed or sealing fluid to oppose the flow of fluid at the joint or juncture.

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301+,for a process of dynamic close proximity sealing (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).
409+,for a dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).
904,for a seal formed by a viscous fluid usually contained by one or more physical contacting type seals.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 348]    348And relatively rotatable radially extending contacting sealing members (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Close proximity seal and at least one of a pair of opposing surface members relatively rotating at the joint or juncture that defines a sealing face and wherein the joint or juncture is at an angle to a rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. A hydrodynamic, relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) will only have a gap during normal rotational operation and will close its gap under slower or nonrotational speeds whereas a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, etc.) of the impeller type always has a gap between a fluent impeller and a part or another sealing member.

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306+,for a process of using a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
352+,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals having a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) and other than a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).
358+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 349]    349And circumferential peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 348.  Face or mechanical seal and a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for relatively movable contact to an inner or outer perimeter of one of the parts.

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309,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, piston cup, etc.).
549+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 350]    350And circumferential contact seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Close proximity seal and the seal having radial, peripheral, surface contact against one or more of the relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 351]    351Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Circumferential contact seal wherein the seal is a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for relatively movable contact to an inner or outer perimeter of one of the parts.

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309,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, piston cup, etc.).
549+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 352]    352Relatively rotatable radially extending contacting sealing members (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 346.  Diverse and distinct dynamic seals including at least one of a pair of opposing surface members relatively rotating at the joint or juncture that defines a sealing face and wherein the joint or juncture is at an angle to a rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts.

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306+,for a process of using a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
348+,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals including a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) and a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
358+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 353]    353And circumferential peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Diverse and distinct dynamic seals and a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for relatively movable contact to an inner or outer perimeter of one of the parts.

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309,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, piston cup, etc.).
549+,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 354]    354Helically threaded part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal wherein at least one of the parts has an indent or projection wound twist-like about its surface and has relative movement to the seal.

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911+,for a seal and nominal motion transmitting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 355]    355Brush seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal wherein the sealing means is a plurality of bristles located at the joint or juncture on one of the parts and projecting towards the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 356]    356For journal box (e.g., railway car journal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal wherein the sealing means is for a box that encloses part of a machine shaft or axle supported by a bearing.

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543+,for a dynamic, segmented ring, circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston.
579+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact, floating ring or bushing seal for other than a piston.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal, especially subclass 159 for a railway car journal bearing having a detailed seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 357]    357For rotary piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal wherein the sealing means is for an apparatus having a working chamber formed between relatively rotatable parts to aid in sealing to oppose the flow of fluid.

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398,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) that accommodates or exhibits eccentric, gyratory, or oscillatory motion.

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418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 104+ for a working member having relative rotation to a surface of a working chamber to expand and contract the volume of the working chamber with a movable, expansible, adjustable, or deformable seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 358]    358Relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal including at least one of a pair of opposing surface members relatively rotating at the joint or juncture that defines a sealing face and wherein the joint or juncture is at an angle to a rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts.

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306+,for a process of using a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
348+,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals including a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) and a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
352+,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals having a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) and other than a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).

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175Boring or Penetrating The Earth,   appropriate subclasses for processes and means for initially forming or radially enlarging an elongated hole in the earth in situ; especially subclass 359 for mutually contacting cutter supports that are circumferentially displaced axes for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details; or subclass 371 for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   subclasses 100+ for a flexible track joint structure (e.g., pin, link, etc.) including a seal, deflector, or scraper.
384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 139+ for a plain, radial bearing; or subclasses 481+ for a radial, antifriction bearing where the seal is a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for a general means to move a fluid from one place to another having an inlet and an outlet; especially subclass 423.11 for a rotary, electric motor and rotary, nonexpansible chamber pump having sealing means therebetween.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 359]    359Temperature responsive feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member including means to react to a change in temperature.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses do not include a seal that merely accommodates thermal expansion between parts.

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931+,for a seal for other than a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member including a temperature responsive feature having a temperature responsive feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 360]    360Accommodates or prevents thermal distortion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 359.  Temperature responsive feature for adjusting to or deterring deformation caused by the change in temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 361]    361Multiple sealing faces (e.g., double seals, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member including more than one pair of sealing faces.
(1) Note. Sealing face members having one or more points of contact between them form only one sealing face.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; subclass 143 for a plain, radial bearing having plural seals consisting of a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 362]    362Floating intermediate sealing face member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Multiple sealing faces including a sealing face member located between and free (i.e., not fixed to one of the relatively movable parts) for rotating relatively to the relatively rotatable sealing face members fixed to their relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 363]    363Including an outwardly axial biasing member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Floating intermediate sealing face member including means to force the floating intermediate sealing face member"s sealing faces away from each other along a rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 364]    364Concentric and radially spaced:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Multiple sealing faces including more than one pair of sealing face members having a common rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts and having radially spaced, sealing face, contacting surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 365]    365Three or more:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Multiple sealing faces having three or more sealing face surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 366]    366Shaft mounted sealing face members biased axially away from each other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Multiple sealing faces wherein the surface members are on the one relatively movable part (e.g., shaft, etc.) enclosed by the other relatively movable part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.) and forced along the rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts in an outwardly direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 367]    367Shaft mounted sealing face members biased axially towards each other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Multiple sealing faces wherein the surface members are on the one relatively movable part (e.g., shaft, etc.) enclosed by the other relatively movable part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.) and forced along the rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts in an inwardly direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 368]    368Housing mounted sealing face members biased axially away from each other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Multiple sealing faces wherein the surface members are on the one relatively movable part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.) that encloses the other relatively movable part (e.g., shaft, etc.) and forced along the rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts in an outwardly direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 369]    369Housing mounted sealing face members biased axially towards each other:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Multiple sealing faces wherein the surface members are on the one relatively movable part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.) that encloses the other relatively movable part (e.g., shaft, etc.) and forced along the rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts in an inwardly direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 370]    370Installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling, or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
421,for a close proximity labyrinth seal having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander, or seat therefor having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
511,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal intended for containment or compression by a gland member in a packing box having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
598,for a static contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
609,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or apparatus to assemble or disassemble, especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere; or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 371]    371Unitized seal assembly (e.g., cartridge, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Sealing face member wherein the sealing face member and a biasing means therefor are in an operative assembly adapted to fit on one of the parts.

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572+,for a dynamic, circumferential contacting, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) including a particular mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement feature for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 372]    372Having rotation prevention (i.e., anti-rotation) feature for the sealing face member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 371.  Unitized cartridge including means to prevent relative rotation between the unitized cartridge and the sealing face member.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 373]    373Lug or rib:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 372.  Rotation prevention wherein the rotation prevention means is an inward or outward radially extending projection that fits into a corresponding slot, recess, or groove.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 374]    374Retains opposed sealing face members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 371.  Unitized cartridge including a pair of sealing face members.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 375]    375Mounted in housing or casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 371.  Unitized seal assembly wherein the unitized seal assembly is for installation in the relatively movable part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.) that encloses the other relatively movable part (e.g., shaft, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 376]    376Snap fit into groove:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 375.  Mounted in housing or casing wherein the unitized seal assembly has a projecting portion to secure by a sudden sharp engagement into a groove in the housing or casing.

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925,for a seal for other than a unitized, relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member that snap fits into a groove of a housing or casing having a snap fit feature for mounting or assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 377]    377Particular axial biasing feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member including a specific means to force it (i.e., against or apart from the opposing sealing face member) along its rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 378]    378Magnetic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Particular axial biasing feature wherein the axial bias is a polar field.

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501,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston and a magnetic means to bias the seal.
629,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable that uses magnetism.

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335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets,   and Electromagnets; subclasses 209+ for a magnet or an electromagnet, configured or arranged to perform external mechanical work but which does not include the external mechanical work.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 379]    379Particular spring feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Particular axial biasing feature wherein the axial bias is an elastic contrivance or body having a specific resilient characteristic.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 380]    380Made of elastomeric material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Particular spring feature wherein the spring is manufactured of a rubberlike material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 381]    381Frustoconical shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 380.  Made of elastomeric material wherein the spring has a frustrum of a cone configuration.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 382]    382O-ring shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 380.  Made of elastomeric material and is circular in both plain view and cross-section.

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910,for an O-ring seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 383]    383Imbedded in another material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Particular spring feature wherein the spring is inside a mass of another substance.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 384]    384Washerlike shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Particular spring feature wherein the spring has a general disc-like configuration (e.g., having a frustoconical or "Belleville" profile, incorporating radial or axial corrugation, or including one or more radially extending fingers, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 385]    385Arrangement or location:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 379.  Particular spring feature wherein the spring has a specific organization or position.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 386]    386Radially biasing member creates axial bias:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Arrangement or location wherein the spring exerts its force in a direction perpendicular to the rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts and transform the force into the axial bias.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 387]    387Fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Particular axial bias feature comprising means to create axial bias by using hydraulics or pneumatics.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 388]    388Creates counter pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Fluid pressure axial bias wherein the fluid pressure generates a force opposing the axial biasing means that forces the sealing face members together to reduce the axial load exerted at the sealing face.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 389]    389And bellows or diaphragm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 387.  Fluid pressure axial bias wherein the fluid pressure pushes against a flexible wall member to create axial bias.

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315,for a process of static sealing employing a flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm.
391+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm to provide a secondary seal or driving connection therefor.
504,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion by using a flexible connection having static contact between the seal and one of the relatively movable parts.
634+,for a static, contact, flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 390]    390Particular secondary mounting seal or driving connection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member including a specific seal at a joint or juncture between the sealing face member and the part it mounts on or a specific supporting means linking the sealing face member to the part (e.g., shaft, etc.) relatively rotating to and enclosed by the other part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.).

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911+,for a seal for other than a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having nominal motion transmitting means.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 142 for a plain radial bearing having a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) axially translatable and rotatable to a shaft.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 391]    391Flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.  Mounting seal or driving connection including a flexible wall member to accommodate relative axial movement between the sealing face member and one of the parts.

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389,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including fluid pressure acting against a bellows or diaphragm to create an axial bias therefor.
504,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion by using a flexible connection having static contact between the seal and one of the relatively movable parts.
634+,for a static, contact flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 141 for a plain radial bearing having a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a diaphragm attached to it and a part axially movable therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 392]    392Between sealing face member and shaft or part relating to shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.  Flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm wherein the flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm is between the sealing face member and the part (e.g., shaft, etc.) relatively rotating to and enclosed by the other part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 393]    393Particular connecting feature to sealing face member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 391.  Flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm including a specific means to attach the flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm to the sealing face member.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 394]    394Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.  Mounting seal or driving connection wherein the secondary seal is a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for sealing against the sealing face member or one of the parts.

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549+,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 395]    395U- or V-shaped cross-sectional profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 394.  Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection including another projection forming a U or V in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the seal at right angles to one of its principal horizontal dimensions.

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530,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a C, M, U, V, X, or Z cross-sectional seal shape.
647,for a static seal having a C-, U-, or V-shaped cross-sectional seal profile for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 396]    396Axially compressed packing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.  Mounting seal or driving connection including means to bias the secondary seal into contacting the sealing face member or one of the parts by squeezing it along the rotational axis.

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510+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 397]    397Frictionally engaged or interfitting projection and recess:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 390.  Mounting seal or driving connection wherein the driving connection is by surface adhesion or a reciprocally fitting protrusion and indent.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 398]    398Eccentric, gyratory or oscillatory motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member including accommodation or exhibition of angular or lateral deflection, circular displacement, eccentric movement, or vibration.
(1) Note. A seal that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion is capable of sealing relatively movable parts that move angularly or perpendicularly to its main axis of motion; whereas a floater-type seal has relative motion between the relatively movable parts it seals.

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357,for a dynamic seal for a rotary piston.
503+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston that accommodates gyrating or oscillating motion.
916,for a seal having vibration dampening means.

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418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 55.4 for a helical working member (e.g., scroll, etc.) having planetary or planetating movement including a seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 399]    399Particular sealing face member configuration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member wherein the sealing face member has a specific shape or formation.

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418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 55.4 for a helical working member (e.g., scroll, etc.) having planetary or planetating movement including a seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 400]    400Hydrodynamic feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Particular sealing face member configuration wherein the sealing face member has means to create turbulence against the opposing sealing face.
(1) Note. In a hydrodynamic, relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.), a distance between a sealing member and a part or another sealing member will change when the rotational speed between relatively movable parts goes from normal operation to slower or nonrotational speeds whereas in a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.), the distance is not dependent upon rotational speed.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 401]    401Fluid passage to the sealing face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Particular sealing face member configuration wherein the sealing face member has a passageway to permit flow of fluid to the sealing face.

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408,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including means to introduce, circulate, or remove fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 402]    402Flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Particular sealing face member configuration wherein the surface member is a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for relatively movable contact against the other surface member.

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549+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 140 for a plain, radial bearing having a flexible, relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 403]    403Angled or tapered sealing face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 399.  Particular sealing face member configuration wherein the sealing face is at an angle at other than ninety degrees to the axis of rotation at the joint or juncture.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 404]    404Made of particular material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member wherein the sealing member has a specific composition or substance.

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935+,for a seal for other than a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) made out of a particular material.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 482 for a radial antifriction bearing having a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) made of a resilient sliding surface material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 405]    405Ceramic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.  Particular material wherein the composition or substance is a fired, clay-containing composition (e.g., porcelain, earthenware, etc.), glass, or refractory composition (e.g., inorganic oxides, carbides, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 406]    406Metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.  Particular material wherein the composition or substance is metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 407]    407Elastomeric or plastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.  Particular material wherein the composition or substance is a polymeric material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 408]    408Introduction, circulation or removal of fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 358.  Sealing face member including means to convey a fluid into, within, or out of the seal face member or one of the relatively movable parts.

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401,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having a means for fluid passage in its sealing face.
512+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having means to introduce or direct a fluid.
928,for a seal including means to introduce, circulate, or remove fluid having a pressure relief or venting feature for other than a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member.
930,for a seal for other than a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member including means to introduce, circulate, or remove fluid having a heating or cooling feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 409]    409Close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal wherein the sealing means is free of relatively movable sealing contact against the relatively movable parts and capable of acting upon or causing sealed or sealing fluid to oppose the flow of fluid at the joint or juncture between the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses are for a sealing means not dependent upon the physical contact between a sealing member and a relatively movable part to affect sealing such as abrading or frictional contact that forms a positive seal at the point of contact.
(2) Note. In a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.), a distance between a sealing member and a part or another sealing member is not dependent upon rotational speed between relatively movable parts; whereas in a hydrodynamic, relatively rotatable, radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) the distance will change when the rotational speed from normal operation to slower or nonrotational speeds.

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301+,for a process of dynamic close proximity sealing (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).
347+,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals including a close proximity seal.
590,for this subclass only, a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) between fixed parts or having a fixed relationship against relatively movable parts.
904,for a seal formed by a viscous fluid usually contained by one or more physical contacting-type seals.

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137Fluid Handling,   appropriate subclasses for fluid material handling process or apparatus; especially subclasses 248+ for a liquid seal between relatively movable, valving parts.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for a general means to move a fluid from one place to another having an inlet and an outlet; especially subclass 423.11 for a rotary electric motor and rotary nonexpansible chamber pump having sealing means therebetween.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 410]    410Magnetic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Close proximity seal wherein the close proximity seal provides a polar field to act upon or cause the sealed or sealing fluid to oppose the flow of fluid.

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501,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston and a magnetic means to bias the seal.
629,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable that uses magnetism.

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252Compositions,   subclasses 62.51+ for a composition useful for a magnetic purpose or a process for making the composition, not provided for elsewhere.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 209+ for a magnet or an electromagnet, configured or arranged to perform external mechanical work but does not include the external mechanical work.
384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 133 for a plain bearing where the seal is a magnetic fluid barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 411]    411Gap or clearance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Close proximity seal wherein the close proximity seal provides a throttling zone to oppose the flow of fluid while being free of relatively movable sealing contact.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal, especially subclass 488 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal is a radially extending, annular flange approaching but not contacting a relatively rotating member to substantially but not completely close an annular opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 412]    412Labyrinth:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Gap or clearance wherein the gap or clearance seal has more than one throttling zone.

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355,for a dynamic, brush seal that may declare or reveal a labyrinth-like structure.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal, especially subclass 144 for a plain, radial bearing or subclass 480 for a radial, antifriction bearing where the seal is a labyrinth seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 413]    413Having adjustable member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Labyrinth including a repositionable sealing member that allows alteration of the clearance.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 414]    414Formed by cellular pockets (e.g., honeycomb, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Labyrinth wherein the labyrinth is axially and circumferentially adjacent compartments having openings toward the opposing sealing member or one of the relatively movable parts to provide the throttling zones.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 415]    415Having wear resistant, abradable or ablative member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Labyrinth including at least a portion of the labyrinth or one of the relatively movable parts made of a material to inhibit deterioration, to promote wear, or to promote burning away.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 416]    416Segmented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Labyrinth wherein the labyrinth"s perimeter is divided into portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 417]    417Formed by multiple washers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Labyrinth wherein the labyrinth is a plurality of substantially flat rings aligned to provide the throttling zones.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 418]    418Formed by plural grooves or projections on opposing surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Labyrinth wherein the labyrinth is a plurality of projections or grooves on one sealing member oppositely facing an opposing plurality of projections or grooves on another sealing member to provided the throttling zones.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 419]    419Interfitting or overlapping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 418.  Plural grooves or projections wherein the groove or projection extend beyond the inner or outer periphery of the other oppositely facing projection or groove.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 420]    420And axially oriented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 419.  Interfitting or overlapping wherein the opposing projections or grooves extend in a direction parallel to an axis of rotation formed between the relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 421]    421Having installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Labyrinth including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
370+,for a relatively rotatable extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander, or seat therefore having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature.
511,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal intended for containment or compression by a gland member in a packing box having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
598,for a static contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature.
609,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or for apparatus to assemble or disassemble; especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere; or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 422]    422Floating ring or bushing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 411.  Gap or clearance wherein the gap or clearance includes an annulus or tubular seal having relative movement at the joint or juncture and having relative movement free of relatively movable, sealing contact against the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. A floater-type seal has relative motion between the relatively movable parts it seals between whereas a seal that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion is capable of sealing relatively movable parts that move angularly or perpendicularly to its main axis of motion.

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305,for a process of using a dynamic close proximity floating ring or bushing (i.e., contactless).
447+,for a floating piston ring seal.
579+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact floating ring or bushing seal for other than a piston.
585,for a dynamic circumferential contacting elongated sleeve or bushing for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 423]    423Impeller (e.g., slinger, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Close proximity wherein the close proximity seal provides a rotary motion transmitting means to direct, deflect, or distribute the sealed or sealing fluid into opposing the flow of fluid.

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400,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) providing a hydrodynamic feature.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 132+ for a plain, radial bearing where the seal is a barrier of liquid or gas; or subclass 478 for a radial, antifriction bearing where centrifugal force loads the seal or a liquid or gas forms a sealing barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 424]    424Rib or groove on radial extending surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Impeller seal wherein the impeller has an axially facing radial surface having a projection or indentation on the surface to act upon the sealed or sealing fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 425]    425And static sealing means affected by rotational movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Impeller seal including means for sealing between the relatively movable parts at rest or at a transitional speed below the effective operation of the impeller.

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400,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) providing a hydrodynamic feature.
433,for a dynamic seal where centrifugal force affects change in displacement, shape, or contact.
929,for a seal for other than a dynamic close proximity impeller seal including a static sealing means affected by rotational movement where a change in operation or condition induces additional leakage control.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 135+ for a plain, radial bearing where centrifugal force moves or holds the seal in place; or subclass 478 for a radial antifriction bearing where centrifugal force loads the seal or a liquid or gas forms a sealing barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 426]    426Actuated by counterweight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 425.  Static sealing means wherein the static sealing means has a weighted means acted upon by centrifugal force to control the static sealing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 427]    427Forms centrifugal liquid barrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Impeller seal for moving or directing the sealed or sealing fluid outwardly from its rotational axis to create a liquid wall at the joint or juncture.

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415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for a means of guiding or confining (e.g., casing, distributing means, etc.) a working fluid (i.e., a liquid or gas that contacts or supports a rotary means that drives or is driven by the liquid or gas); especially subclass 109 for a rotating shaft having an abutment surface imparting motion in a sealing fluid inside a chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 428]    428Having cup or chamber inside the impeller or another rotating member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 427.  Centrifugal liquid barrier wherein the impeller or other revolving component has within an open vessel or cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 429]    429Fluid collector or receiver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Impeller seal including means to receive fluid from the impeller.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 430]    430Helical groove or thread on axially extending surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Impeller seal wherein the impeller has an indent or projection winding twistlike about its axially extending surface to act upon the sealed or sealing fluid.

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559,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection having a hydrodynamic, sealing feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 431]    431Formed by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form barrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Close proximity seal wherein the joint or juncture has sealing fluid introduced into at a pressure equal to or greater than the pressure of the sealed fluid to oppose the flow of the sealed fluid.

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408,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including means to introduce, circulate, or remove fluid.
512+,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having means to introduce or direct a fluid.
926,for a seal for other than a dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier having means to create a fluid pressure equilibrium at a joint or juncture.
927,for a seal for other than a dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier having means to create a fluid pressure different from the sealed fluid pressure.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 132+ for a plain, radial bearing where the seal is a barrier of liquid or gas; or subclass 478 for a radial antifriction bearing where centrifugal force loads the seal or a liquid or gas forms a sealing barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 432]    432External device or system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Pressurized sealing fluid including an enclosure for the joint or juncture and means outside the enclosure to introduce the pressurized sealing fluid.

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513,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having means to introduce or direct a fluid having an external device or system.
930,for a seal for other than a dynamic close proximity pressurized sealing fluid barrier including an external device or system having a heating or cooling feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 433]    433Centrifugal force affects change in displacement, shape or contact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal wherein the dynamic seal has an inertial force repelling the sealing means away from its axis of rotation to move, deform, or alter its engagement to another sealing member or relatively movable part.

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425+,for a dynamic, close proximity impeller (e.g., slinger, etc.) seal having a static sealing means affected by rotational movement.
929,for a seal for other than a dynamic seal where centrifugal force affects displacement, shape, or contact where a change in operation or condition induces additional leakage control.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 135+ for a plain, radial bearing where centrifugal force moves or holds the seal in place; or subclass 478 for a radial antifriction bearing where centrifugal force loads the seal or a liquid or gas forms a sealing barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 434]    434Piston ring or piston ring expander or seat therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal comprising an annular seal provided for a part (i.e., a piston) that reciprocates along an axis of an enclosing wall and the seal is for engaging the wall; means to outwardly bias the seal against the enclosing wall; or means (e.g., a seat, etc.) on the part reciprocating along the axis of the enclosing wall to locate or retain the seal or biasing means in an operative position.

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310,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a piston ring for an internal combustion engine.
311,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a flexible ring.
909,for a seal having similar sealing structures for a piston and rod.
910,for an O-ring seal.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or apparatus to assemble or disassemble; especially subclasses 888.07+ for a method of piston ring or packing manufacture.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 172+ for more than nominal detailed structure of a piston except where limited to detailed structure (e.g., a seat, a fluid passageway in seat, etc.) solely intended to cooperate with a piston ring or piston ring expander.
100Presses,   subclass 269.21 for a seal or gasket around a piston for a fluid actuated reciprocating press.
188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses for means of retarding motion of or stopping of machines; especially subclasses 72.4+ for a fluid pressure piston axially actuating a brake element or housing against a wheel that may include a seal; or subclass 322.18 for an internal resistance motion retarder including a thrust component used to vary volume in a fluid-filled chamber having a particular retarder component structure with a dynamic sealing ring between a piston and cylinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 435]    435Having installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring, expander, or seat including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling, or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
370+,for a relatively rotatable extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
421,for a close proximity labyrinth seal having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
511,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal intended for containment or compression by a gland member in a packing box having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
598,for a static contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
609,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or apparatus to assemble or disassemble; especially subclasses 222+ for an apparatus to insert or remove a piston ring; or subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 436]    436Piston ring having peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., piston cup, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring including a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for relative reciprocating contact against the enclosing wall.

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309,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, piston cup, etc.).
549+,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 437]    437Having particular mounting, retaining or supporting feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 436.  Peripherally, radially sealing, flexible projection including specific means to fasten, secure, or back the piston ring on the piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 438]    438Having C, U, or V cross-sectional profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 436.  Peripherally radially sealing flexible projection wherein the piston ring has a C-, U-, or V-shape in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the piston ring at right angles to one of its principle horizontal dimensions.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 439]    439Axially facing cup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 438.  C, U, or V cross-sectional profile wherein the C-, U-, or V-shape or form is radially extending to the reciprocating axis of the piston.

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335,for a seal for well apparatus having an axially facing cup shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 440]    440Piston ring surface of dissimilar material or hardness:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring including a surface of different material, hardness, or density from the rest of the piston ring.

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569,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral radially sealing flexible extending portion (e.g., lip seal, etc.) including a lining or insert.
935+,for a seal for other than a piston ring surface made out of a particular material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 441]    441Insert:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 440.  Piston ring wherein the surface of the piston ring has the different material, hardness, or density pushed into it.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 442]    442Surface coating, plating or impregnation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 440.  Piston ring wherein the use of chemical infusion (e.g., nitriding, etc.) provides a different material, hardness, or density as a layer on the surface or near the surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 443]    443Nitrided:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 442.  Piston ring wherein the chemical infusion of nitrogen increases the nitrogen content of the surface.

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148Metal Treatment,   subclass 238 for a process of nitriding using an externally supplied nitrogen source; or subclasses 317+ for a stock product of the nitriding process.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 444]    444Chromium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 442.  Piston ring wherein the surface has chrome provided as a layer on the surface or chemically infused near the surface.

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205Electrolysis: Processes, Compositions Used Therein, and Methods of Preparing the Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for a process of making an electrolytic coating not provided for elsewhere, especially subclasses 178+ for multiple superposed coatings having at least one chromium-containing coating; or subclasses 283+ for a predominately chromium coating.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 445]    445Rotation limiting feature (i.e., anti-rotation):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring, expander, or seat including means to limit or prevent relative rotation between any combination of the piston ring, piston ring expander, or seat, or pluralities of the piston ring or piston ring expander.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 446]    446Between rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Piston ring or piston ring expander wherein the feature to limit rotation (i.e., antirotation) is between any combination of the piston ring or piston ring expander, or between any combination of more than one piston ring or piston ring expander.

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490,for a piston ring having sectional structure including a component ring of eccentric or variable thickness.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 447]    447Floating piston ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring including relative movement to the seat.

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305,for a process of using a dynamic close proximity floating ring or bushing (i.e., contactless).
422,for a dynamic, close proximity floating ring or bushing (i.e., contactless).
579+,for a dynamic, circumferential, contact floating ring or bushing seal for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 448]    448Material other than metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 447.  Floating piston ring consisting of a substance different from metal.

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468,for a separate particular piston ring expander means made out of a material other than metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 449]    449Particular piston seat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Seat therefor wherein the part (i.e., a piston) has more than a nominal groove structure on its cylindrical face to locate or retain the piston ring or piston ring expander.
(1) Note. The declaration of a groove or opposing sidewalls connected by an end wall is nominal structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 450]    450Helical form:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Particular piston seat wherein the groove is a helix or spiral along the cylindrical face of the piston and accommodates a similarly shaped piston ring or piston ring expander.

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458,for a piston ring having a single piece noncircular or multi-turn (e.g., helical, spiral, oblong, elliptical, polygonal, etc.) shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 451]    451Stepped walls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Particular piston seat wherein the groove has a nonuniform axial width and walls that are at a right angle to each other.

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586,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston seated in a groove having stepped walls.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 452]    452Oblique wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Particular piston seat wherein the groove has a nonuniform axial width and a tapered or inclined wall.

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587,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston seated in a groove having an oblique wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 453]    453More than one oblique wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Oblique wall wherein the groove has tapered or inclined walls.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 454]    454Having parallel walls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 453.  More than one oblique wall wherein the groove has any tapered or inclined walls that are parallel to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 455]    455Arcuate wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Particular piston seat wherein the groove has a curved wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 456]    456Coating, treatment, or wall insert:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Particular piston seat wherein the groove has a portion subject to or formed by a substance, action or material addition.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 457]    457Having passageway for fluid return, pressure relief, or venting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Particular piston seat wherein the groove has an opening for return of fluid or for releasing or relieving fluid pressure.

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928,for a seal having a pressure relief or venting feature for other than a piston ring seat including a passageway for fluid return, pressure relief, or venting.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 458]    458Piston ring having single piece noncircular or multiturn (e.g., helical, spiral, oblong, elliptical, polygonal, etc.) shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring has a helical or spiral form or shape other than circular in either a relaxed or stressed state.

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450,for a piston groove having a helical form intended to accommodate a similarly shaped piston ring or piston ring expander.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 459]    459Piston ring including exposed port, slot, pocket, groove, channel, recess, or bevel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring including an uncovered opening, incline, removed, or indented portion on an outer peripheral surface of the piston ring.
(1) Note. The enclosing wall or piston can cover the exposed or passageway, slot, pocket, groove, channel, recess, or bevel but not another ring or expander.
(2) Note. An expander or spacer for spacing one or more separate piston rings is not a piston ring even if it directly engages the enclosing wall.

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477+,for a particular piston ring expander having a slotted or undulating circular band having an inclined or axially facing seat for the piston ring.
484,for a piston ring expander having a radially extending tongue formed from it.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 460]    460Circumferential groove, channel, recess, or bevel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Piston ring wherein the groove, channel, recess, or bevel extends substantially annularly about the outer peripheral surface of the piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 461]    461Axially spaced:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 460.  Piston ring wherein the annular groove, channel, recess or bevel has another annular groove, channel, recess, or bevel spaced axially from it.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 462]    462Ports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 461.  Axially spaced wherein the piston ring has through holes.
(1) Note. A "port" or "through hole" is a passageway extending through the ring and totally enclosed by the material of the ring.

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463,for a piston ring having an exposed circumferential groove, channel, recess, or bevel, and ports.
464,for a piston ring having an exposed port, slot, pocket, groove, channel, recess, or bevel and circumferentially spaced ports.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 463]    463Ports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 460.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring has through holes.
(1) Note. A "port" or "through hole" is a passageway extending through the ring and totally enclosed by the material of the ring.

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462,for a piston ring having exposed axially spaced circumferential grooves, channels, recesses or bevels, and ports.
464,for a piston ring having an exposed port, slot, pocket, groove, channel, recess, or bevel and circumferentially spaced ports.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 464]    464Circumferentially spaced ports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring has annularly spaced through holes.
(1) Note. A "port" or "through hole" is a passageway extending through the ring and totally enclosed by the material of the ring.

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462,for a piston ring having exposed axially spaced circumferential grooves, channels, recesses or bevels and ports.
463,for a piston ring having an exposed circumferential groove, channel, recess or bevel, and ports.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 465]    465Circumferentially spaced slots, pockets, grooves, channels, recesses, or bevels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring has annularly spaced pockets, grooves, channels, recesses, or bevels.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 466]    466Piston ring displays twisting or torsion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring"s configuration exhibits a rotating or cocking movement during the reciprocating operation of the piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 467]    467Particular piston ring expander:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring expander wherein the piston ring has inherent specific biasing means or a separate specific biasing means to outwardly bias the piston ring against the enclosing wall.
(1) Note. Do speculate on the resilient nature of the ring. There must be some indication of this resilient nature by a ring being defined as resilient or expansible, or by a structure causing expansion (e.g., wedging surfaces forcing a ring outwardly, etc.).

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447+,for expansion means created by the relative movement of a floating piston ring in its groove.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 468]    468Separate and other than metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the biasing means is distinct from the piston ring and made out of a material that differs from metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 469]    469Bias limiting feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander including means to restrict the extent of radial expansion.

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445+,for a piston ring or piston ring expander or seat therefor having a feature to limit rotation between any combination of piston ring, piston ring expander or seat, pluralities of the piston ring, or piston ring expander.
494+,for a piston ring having a gap and a separate bridging piece for the gap.
496+,for a single piece split piston ring having opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends.
498+,for a single piece split piston ring having other than opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 470]    470Adjustable loading feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander including means to alter the force exerted by the piston ring expander.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 471]    471Thermal expansion feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander is responsive to heat.

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931+,for a seal for other than a piston ring expander including a temperature responsive feature having a temperature responsive feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 472]    472Annular expander nested in annular groove of the piston ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander is annular and intended to be at least partially received by the piston ring having an annular recess of any cross-sectional shape (e.g., tapered, etc.) that will partially receive the annular piston ring expander.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 473]    473Between piston rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 472.  Particular annular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander nests in annular grooves formed between piston rings.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 474]    474And contacting surfaces therebetween are complementary:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 472.  Particular annular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander provides an annular surface complementary to the opposing annular recess surface of the piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 475]    475Having more than one pair of such surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 474.  Contacting surfaces therebetween are complementary wherein the piston ring expander provides complementary surfaces for opposing annular recess surfaces of the piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 476]    476Inclined or beveled groove contacting expander having dissimilar contour:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 472.  Particular annular piston ring expander provides an annular surface having a profile other than a slanting or sloping surface of the annular recess of the piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 477]    477Slotted or undulating circular band including inclined or axially facing seat for the piston ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander is a resilient annular band having openings therein or having a wavy or corrugated contour, and a radially extending surface intended to space, position, retain, or bias a separate and distinct piston ring.

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459+,for a piston ring having an exposed port, slot, pocket, groove, channel, recess, or bevel
485,for a piston ring expander having an undulating structure providing an axially extending face against the inner periphery of the piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 478]    478Axially spaced axially facing seats:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 477.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander has more than one radially extending surface intended to space, position, retain, or bias separate and distinct piston rings along the piston"s reciprocating axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 479]    479Circular band having radially displaced undulations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 478.  Axially spaced, axially facing seats wherein the annular band has a wavy or sinuous structure parallel to the piston"s reciprocating axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 480]    480Circular band having axially displaced undulations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 478.  Axially spaced, axially facing seats wherein the annular band has a wavy or sinuous structure radially perpendicular to the piston"s reciprocating axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 481]    481U-shaped circular band radially directed either inwardly or outwardly throughout its circumference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 478.  Axially spaced, axially facing seats wherein the annular band has a channel-shaped cross-section oriented radially in either an inward or outward facing direction throughout its perimeter.
(1) Note. The U- or channel-shaped structure does not have to be continuous or unbroken throughout its circumference.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 482]    482Circumferentially spaced separately seated radially acting bias feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander has peripherally spread apart, individually positioned, resilient members acting in a direction perpendicular to the piston"s axis of reciprocation.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 483]    483Disposed in socket or about pin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 482.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the radially acting bias members are received and held in circumferentially spaced hollows of or arranged about circumferentially spaced projections.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 484]    484Radially extending tongue formed from expander:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander has a radially inward or outward resilient biasing projection fabricated from the piston ring expander.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 485]    485Undulating periphery providing axially extending face against inner perimeter of the piston ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander provides a circumferential, radial facing, wavy, or corrugated structure against an opposing inside circumference of the piston ring.

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477+,for a particular piston ring expander, having a slotted or undulating circular band, having an inclined or axially facing seat for the piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 486]    486Bias feature adjoining opposed ends of split or segmented piston ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander is contacting or near a piston ring divided into portions forming facing ends along its perimeter.

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487,for a segmented piston ring expander.
493,for a segmented piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 487]    487Segmented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander"s perimeter is divided into portions.

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486,for a piston ring expander adjoining opposed ends of a split or segmented piston ring.
493,for a segmented piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 488]    488For axially adjacent piston rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 467.  Particular piston ring expander wherein the piston ring expander engages piston rings that adjoin each other along their radially extending circumferences.
(1) Note. The ring may be separate or may be part of a unitary, overlapping structure forming a helix.

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489+,for a piston ring having sectional structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 489]    489Sectional piston ring structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring consisting of more than one component.
(1) Note. A piston ring placed as an original should have more than nominal structure before crossing in this and indented subclasses.

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446,for a piston ring or piston ring expander having means to limit rotation between another piston ring or piston ring expander.
488,for a piston ring expander engaging axially adjacent piston rings.
548,for a dynamic, segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than piston having complementary interfitting adjoining rings.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 490]    490Eccentric or variable thickness component ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.  Sectional piston ring wherein the component has a radial periphery of changing radius or an axial periphery of changing thickness.
(1) Note. The shape of the sectional piston ring formed by the component rings can be eccentric or concentric or of uniform or variable thickness.

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458,for a piston ring having a single piece, noncircular, or multiturn (e.g., helical, spiral, oblong, elliptical, polygonal, etc.) shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 491]    491C, L, T, U, V, or Z cross-sectional profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.  Sectional piston ring wherein the component has a C-, L-, T-, U-, V-, or Z-shape in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the component ring at right angles to one of its principal horizontal dimensions.

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530,for a dynamic, circumferential, contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a C, M, U, V, X, or Z cross-sectional seal shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 492]    492Three or more sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 491.  Sectional piston ring wherein the sectional piston ring has at least three component rings.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 493]    493Segmented piston ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring"s perimeter is divided into portions.

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486,for a piston ring expander adjoining opposed ends of a split or segmented piston ring.
487,for a segmented, piston ring expander.
543+,for a dynamic, segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 494]    494Separate bridging piece for gap in piston ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring includes a break providing opposed ends and a means separate from the piston ring for closing the gap therebetween or for connecting the ends together.

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486,for a piston ring expander adjoining opposed ends of a split or segmented piston ring.
546+,for a dynamic, segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston having a particular end structure.
631,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a split including end joining structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 495]    495Secured to end:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 494.  Bridging piece wherein the bridging piece fastens to one or both of the opposing ends.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 496]    496Split single piece piston ring having opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring is an annulus including only a gap providing opposed ends that are of substantially identical shape having opposite orientation.

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546+,for a dynamic segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston having a particular end structure.
631,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a split including end joining structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 497]    497Arcuate or beveled mating surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 496.  Single piece split piston ring wherein the opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends are complementary curved or angular engaging surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 498]    498Split single piece piston ring having other than opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Piston ring wherein the piston ring is an annulus including only a gap providing opposed ends that are of substantially dissimilar shape even when considering opposite orientation.

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546+,for a dynamic, segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston having a particular end structure.
631,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a split including end joining structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 499]    499Arcuate or beveled mating surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Split single piece piston ring wherein the opposed ends have curved or angular engaging surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 500]    500Circumferential contact seal for other than piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Dynamic seal wherein the seal has a radial peripheral surface contact against one or more of the relatively movable parts and for other than a part (i.e., a piston) that reciprocates along an axis to an enclosing wall and where the seal is for engaging the wall.

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311,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a flexible ring.
354,for a dynamic seal for a helically threaded part.
907,for a passageway in a rod or shaft.
908,for a seal for use in a rotating and reciprocating arrangement.
909,for a seal having similar sealing structures for a piston and rod.
910,for an O-ring seal.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 168 for a nonmetallic seal means between a piston or a part moved by the piston and a cylinder end portion.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 90.37 for a poppet valve mechanism"s lubrication system’s seal or shield that includes those mounted on a valve stem.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses for processes and means for initially forming or radially enlarging an elongated hole in the earth in situ; especially subclass 359 for mutually contacting cutter supports that are circumferentially displaced axes for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details; or subclass 371 for a rolling cutter bit or rolling cutter bit element with seal details.
188Brakes,   appropriate subclasses for means of retarding motion of or stopping of machines; especially subclass 322.17 for an internal resistance motion retarder including a thrust component used to vary volume in a fluid-filled chamber having a particular retarder component structure with a dynamic sealing ring or flexible boot between a piston rod and cylinder.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   subclass 216 for cooperating comminuting surfaces having a gyratory member that includes rotary motion and means to seal the comminuting zone from a drive or other moving parts.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for means to close or restrict a flow of fluid through a passage by a definite predetermined motion of the means combined with a seal; especially subclass 214 for a valve actuated by a mechanical movement means and having a particularly associated sealing means for either.
301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   appropriate subclasses for a wheel or axle, or where they are a dominant feature when combined with other vehicle structure; especially subclass 123 for a seal to exclude dirt or dust from a wheel or axle bearing.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   subclasses 100+ for a flexible track joint structure (e.g., pin, link, etc.) including a seal, deflector, or scraper.
384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 151+ for a plain radial bearing where the seal’s material is resilient and on the outer area of the bearing or shaft.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for a general means to move a fluid from one place to another having an inlet and an outlet; especially subclass 423.11 for a rotary electric motor and rotary nonexpansible chamber pump having sealing means therebetween.
440Marine Propulsion,   appropriate subclasses for a vessel and a device (e.g., propeller, impeller, etc.) other than a sail to move the vessel through water; especially subclass 112 for means to mount an engine within the vessel’s hull and sealing means for a propeller shaft that pierces the hull.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 501]    501And magnetic bias:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal including a polar field to bias the seal.

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378,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a magnetic axial bias therefor.
629,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable that uses magnetism.

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252Compositions,   subclasses 62.51+ for a composition useful for a magnetic purpose or a process for making the composition, not provided for elsewhere.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 209+ for a magnet or an electromagnet, configured or arranged to perform external mechanical work but does not include the external mechanical work.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 502]    502For valve stem in internal combustion engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal wherein the seal is at the joint or juncture between a reciprocating part (i.e., stem of a valve controls the flow of gas in an internal combustion engine) and a housing part (i.e., a guide for a valve in an internal combustion engine).

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 188.6 for a seal in combination with a valve stem of an intake, exhaust or fuel valve of an internal combustion engine having a stationary opening (i.e., seat) and moving closure (i.e., head).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 503]    503Accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal wherein the seal permits angular or lateral deflection, circular displacement, eccentric movement, or vibration of one or more of the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. A seal that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion is capable of sealing relatively movable parts that move angularly or perpendicularly to its main axis of motion whereas a floater type seal has relative motion between the relatively movable parts it seals.

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398,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) that accommodates or exhibits eccentric, gyratory, or oscillatory motion.
916,for a seal having vibration dampening means.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 504]    504Flexible connection between seal and another part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion wherein the seal for use on one of the relatively movable parts (e.g., shaft, rod, etc.) includes a compliant link (e.g., flexible sleeve, flexible boot, flexible diaphragm, etc.) that accommodates oscillatory or gyratory motion between and secures the seal and the other of the relatively movable parts (e.g., casing, housing, etc.).
(1) Note. The seal may be part of and include a stuffing box.

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315,for a process of static sealing employing a flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm.
389,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including fluid pressure acting against a bellows or diaphragm to create an axial bias therefor.
391+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm to provide a secondary seal or driving connection therefor.
634+,for a static contact flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.

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464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclasses 173+ for a flexible boot for a joint to transmit rotary torque.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 505]    505Oscillates perpendicularly to axis of motion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion wherein the seal permits side-to-side deflection of one of the relatively movable parts at right angles to an axis of movement between the relatively movable parts.

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356,for a dynamic seal for use in a journal box that may include a seal mounted for lateral movement to an axis of seal chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 506]    506Arcuate bearing surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion wherein the seal or one of the relatively movable parts has a curved bearing surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 507]    507Partially spherical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 506.  Arcuate bearing surface wherein the arcuate bearing surface is somewhat circular, ball-like, or round.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 145+ for a plain radial bearing where the seal conforms to a bearing surface that has a shape of sphere to permit angular or lateral movement.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for a joint or connection structure that goes beyond providing an environment for a seal; especially subclasses 135+ for a ball and socket that may have a seal at the bearing interface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 508]    508Axially spring biased:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion including an elastic contrivance or body to force the seal in a direction along an axis of motion of the relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 509]    509Coaxial spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Axial spring bias wherein the spring has a symmetrical axis substantially common to the axis of motion formed by the relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 510]    510Contained or compressed by gland member in packing box:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal wherein the seal is intended for use in a chamber having an axially opened end to receive the seal and a member that substantially closes the open end to retain or squeeze the seal within the chamber while having an opening for passage for one of the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. A biasing spring is not a gland or follower.

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308,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a seal to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box.
329+,for a seal for well apparatus where the seal is in a packing box contained or compressed by a gland member.
396,for a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a secondary mounting seal consisting of axially compressed packing.
620+,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable including a clamping gland.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 149 for a plain radial bearing, or subclass 483 for a radial antifriction bearing having radially contained seal having an axially acting follower.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 511]    511Having installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
370+,for a relatively rotatable extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander or seat therefore having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
598,for a static contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
609,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or for apparatus to assemble or disassemble; especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere; or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 512]    512Fluid introducer or director:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box wherein the seal, gland or packing box includes means to convey a fluid into, within or out of the seal, gland or packing box.

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408,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including means to introduce, circulate, or remove fluid.
431+,for a dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier.
918,for a seal for other than dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a filter or fluid separator.
927,for a seal for other than dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having means to create a fluid different from the sealed fluid pressure.

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184Lubrication,   appropriate subclasses for a unitized lubrication means removable or installable from one machine to on another and intended to lubricate a bearing part in a machine; especially subclasses 24+ for a piston rod lubricator.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 513]    513External device or system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Fluid introduction or director wherein the means is an apparatus or organization of apparatuses located outside the packing box.

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930,for a seal for other than a dynamic seal to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box including an external device or system to introduce or direct a fluid having a heating or cooling feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 514]    514Drain, pressure relief, or vent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Fluid introduction or director including means to direct fluid away from or for alleviating fluid stress or strain.

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928,for a seal having a pressure relief or venting feature for other than a dynamic circumferential contact seal, for other than a piston intended to be in a packing box contained or compressed by a gland member and having a drain, pressure relief, or vent feature.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 479 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means to load the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 515]    515Passage through axial facing surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Fluid introduction or director wherein the means is a passageway that extends from one radially extending surface to another radial or axial extending surface of the seal, packing box, or gland.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 516]    516Spacer between seals (e.g., lantern ring, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Fluid introduction or director wherein the means is a nonsealing member separating seals.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 517]    517Between packing boxes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Fluid introduction or director wherein the means is between chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 518]    518Plural distinct packing boxes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box comprising distinguishable sealing chambers, seals, and glands.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 519]    519Segmented packing boxes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box wherein the chamber is divided into portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 520]    520Particular gland feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box wherein the member that substantially closes the open end of the packing box while having an opening for passage for one of the relatively movable parts has a specific characteristic.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal, subclass 150 for a plain, radial bearing where mechanical means (e.g., nut, separate resilient elements, etc.) moves the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 521]    521Segmented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 520.  Particular gland feature wherein the gland is divided into portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 522]    522Spring bias:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 520.  Particular gland feature including an elastic contrivance or body to exert force on the gland.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 523]    523Disposed about external bolt or stud:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 522.  Spring bias wherein the spring bias surrounds a fastener or projecting pin located outside the packing box and used to mount the gland to the packing box.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 524]    524Eye or T-type bolt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 520.  Particular gland feature wherein the gland uses a fastening means threaded at one and having a hole, loop, or crosspiece at the other end intended to engage corresponding structure on the gland or packing box.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 525]    525Internally threaded:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 520.  Particular gland feature wherein the gland has a radially inward facing projecting helical rib intended to fasten the component to the packing box.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 526]    526Externally threaded:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 520.  Particular gland feature wherein the gland has a radially outward facing projecting helical rib intended to fasten the component to the packing box.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 527]    527Wear sleeve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box including a tubular member mounted on one of the relatively movable parts intended to protect the one relatively movable part from deterioration from the relatively movable surface contact of the seal.

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571,for a dynamic, circumferential contacting peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) including a wear sleeve.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 528]    528Helically coiled packing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box wherein the seal has a spirally wound structure between the parts along their axis of relative motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 529]    529Having particular cross-sectional seal profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box wherein the seal has a specific shape in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the seal at right angles to one of its principle horizontal dimensions.

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490,for a piston ring having sectional structure including a component ring of eccentric or variable thickness.
548,for a dynamic segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than piston having complementary interfitting adjoining rings.
626,for a static contact seal having a particular seal shape intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 530]    530C-, M-, U-, V-, X-, or Z-shaped:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 529.  Particular cross-sectional seal profile wherein the profile has a U-, V-, C-, M-, X-, or Z-configuration.

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491+,for a piston ring having a sectional structure including a component ring having a C, L, T, U, V, or Z cross-sectional profile.
567,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having peripherally radially sealing flexible projections forming a radially facing U or V cross-sectional profile.
647,for a static seal having a C-, U-, or V-shaped cross-sectional seal profile for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 531]    531Wedging surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 529.  Particular cross-sectional seal profile wherein the profile includes an inclined surface to generate a radial bias.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 532]    532Made of elastomer or plastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 531.  Wedging surface wherein the seal is a rubberlike material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 533]    533Segmented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 531.  Wedging surface wherein the seal"s perimeter is divided into portions.

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543+,for a dynamic segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 534]    534Particular seal material or construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box wherein the seal is of a specific material or has a specific arrangement of material.

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935+,for a seal for other than a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box made out of a particular material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 535]    535Composite:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 534.  Particular material or construction wherein the material consists of distinct substances that retain their identities in the material used to form the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 536]    536Fibrous component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 535.  Composite wherein the composite includes a plurality of slender filament-like strands.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 537]    537Braided, woven, or twisted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 536.  Fibrous component wherein the fibrous component has an intertwined structure.

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57Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,   appropriate subclasses for a process or apparatus for spinning, twisting and twining.
87Textiles: Braiding, Netting or Lace Making,   appropriate subclasses for a process or apparatus for forming strands or fabrics from yarns, filaments, or strands by braiding, knotting, or intertwisting the strands and the corresponding products or fabrics.
139Textiles: Weaving,   appropriate subclasses for manufacture of fabric by weaving threads.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 538]    538Distinct sheath or covering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 535.  Composite wherein the composite includes a distinct casing or layer surrounding at least a major portion of an outer periphery of the seal.

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652+,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a sheath or covering.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 539]    539Graphite:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 534.  Particular material or construction wherein the specific substance forming the seal is graphite.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 540]    540Elastomer or plastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 534.  Particular material or construction wherein the specific substance forming the seal is rubberlike.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 541]    541Metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 534.  Particular material or construction wherein the specific substance forming the seal is metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 542]    542Consisting of loose-fill type packing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Seal for the gland and packing box wherein the seal is a free unshaped packing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 543]    543Segmented ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal wherein the seal is an annulus divided across its perimeter into portions.

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325,for a segmented and radially actuated (e.g., ram-type, etc.) seal for a well apparatus overpressure control device (e.g., seal for a blowout preventer, etc.).
344,for a segmented and radially actuated seal (e.g., oil saver, gas saver, etc.) for well apparatus.
356,for a dynamic seal for use in a journal box that may include a segmented seal.
493,for a segmented piston ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 544]    544Having pressure balancing or radial bias reduction feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 543.  Segmented ring including means to equalize fluid pressure forces acting on the segmented ring or means to generate a radially outwardly directed force to oppose a radially inwardly directed bias force.

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926,for a seal for other than a dynamic, segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston having pressure balancing or radial bias reducing means having means to create a fluid pressure equilibrium at a joint or juncture.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 131 for a plain radial bearing where fluid moves the seal; or subclass 479 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means loads the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 545]    545Radial biasing spring element other than nominal garter spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 543.  Segmented ring including means other than a nominally set forth coiled wire spring that encircles the seal around its circumference to provide a radial bias for the segmented ring.

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486,for a piston ring expander adjoining opposed ends of a split or segmented piston ring.
487,for a segmented, piston ring expander.
533,for a dynamic, segmented, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a particular cross-sectional shape to provide a wedging surface.
553+,for a dynamic, circumferential, contacting peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., a lip seal, etc.) including a bias means other than a nominal garter spring for other than a piston.
589,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston radially backed by resilient or elastomeric member.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 150 for a plain radial bearing where mechanical means (e.g., nut, separate resilient elements, etc.) moves the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 546]    546Particular segment end structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 543.  Segmented ring wherein the segmented ring portions have adjoining edges that have a specific configuration.

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494+,for a piston ring having a gap and a separate bridging piece for the gap.
496+,for a single piece split piston ring having opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends.
498+,for a single piece split piston ring having other than opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends.
631,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a split including end joining structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 547]    547Interfitting projection and recess:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 546.  Particular segment end structure wherein the end structure of one of the segmented ring portions has a protrusion to fit within a cavity on the end structure or another adjoining segment.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 548]    548Plural complementary interfitting rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 543.  Segmented ring wherein the segmented ring has one or more adjacent rings where a portion of a peripheral surface of one the rings penetrates a corresponding recess on a peripheral surface of an adjoining ring.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include adjacent rings having complementary inclined or wedging surfaces.

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489+,for a piston ring having sectional structure.
529+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a particular cross-sectional seal shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 549]    549Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal wherein the seal is a pliant or resilient extension having a tip for relatively movable contact to an inner or outer perimeter of one of the relatively movable parts.

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309,for a process of dynamic sealing employing a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, piston cup, etc.).
349,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals including a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.), a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) and a circumferential peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
351,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals including a close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) and a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
353,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals including a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) and a circumferential peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
394+,for a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a secondary mounting seal having a peripherally radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
402,for a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having a flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) configuration.
436+,for a piston ring having a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., a piston cup, etc.).

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclasses 147+ for a plain radial bearing where the seal is a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection extending axially of a center of a seal seat to contact the relatively moving element to be sealed; or subclasses 484+ for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal is a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection contacting a relatively rotating surface parallel to the axis of rotation.
464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclass 131 for a drive coupling that accommodates misaligned or angularly related axes through a radially directed pin having a particular bearing cup surrounding the pin end and a flexible seal; or subclass 133 for a drive coupling that accommodates misaligned or angularly related axes through a radially directed pin and a flexible seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 550]    550Made of metal or is a scraper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection wherein the flexible projection is metal or, dislodges or removes unwanted foreign material by direct relatively movable contact against one of the parts.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 137 for a plain radial bearing where the seal has means to remove excess lubricant from the shaft and return it to a lubricant reservoir or for removing material from the shaft about to enter the bearing from the outside.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 551]    551Having installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
370+,for a relatively rotatable extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
421,for a close proximity labyrinth seal having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander, or seat therefore having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
572+,for a dynamic circumferential contacting peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) including a particular mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement feature for other than a piston.
598,for a static contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
609,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end to end pipe, conduit or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or for apparatus to assemble or disassemble; especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere; or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 552]    552Having pressure relief or venting feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection including means for releasing or relieving fluid pressure at the joint or juncture.
(1) Note. For this subclass a valve for a passageway must claim or disclose a venting function.

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928,for a seal having a pressure relief or venting feature for other than a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection including a pressure relief or venting means.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 479 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means loads the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 553]    553Bias feature other than nominal garter spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection including means other than a nominally set forth coil wire spring that encircles the seal around its circumference to provide a radial bias for the flexible projection.
(1) Note. Dimensional aspects of a garter spring are proper for this and indented subclasses.

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545,for a dynamic, circumferentially contacting segmented ring for other than a piston having other than a nominal garter spring as a radial biasing spring element.
589,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston radially backed by resilient or elastomeric member.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 148 for a plain radial bearing where the seal is a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection including bias means extending axially of a center of a seal seat to contact the relatively moving element to be sealed.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 554]    554Embedded spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Bias for the flexible projection wherein the flexible projection encloses the bias feature.

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618,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable including an axially related or embedded coil spring that mounts or retains the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 555]    555Radially extending finger spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Bias for the flexible projection wherein the bias is one or more lengthwise projecting digits oriented along the peripheral radially sealing flexible projection.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 556]    556Material other than metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Bias for the flexible projection consisting of a substance other than metal.

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468,for a particular piston ring expander separate from a piston ring and other than metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 557]    557Axially extending helical or spiral spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Bias for the flexible projection wherein the bias feature is a wound wire formed into a tubular or conical formation about a longitudinal axis of the flexible projection.

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618,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable including an axially related or embedded coil spring that mounts or retains the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 558]    558Particular fluid pressure responsive bias:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 553.  Bias for the flexible projection wherein the radial bias includes specific means to react to a change in fluid pressure to vary the radial bias.

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929,for a seal for other than a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a fluid pressure responsive radially biasing means where a change in operation or condition induces additional leakage control.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 559]    559Hydrodynamic sealing feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection including means to create a turbulence at the point of relatively movable contact between the flexible projection and the relatively movable part.
(1) Note. For this subclass, dust or dirt in a vacuum, liquid, or gas is considered a fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 560]    560Dimensional aspect of the flexible projection (e.g., angle, length, radius, thickness, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection wherein the flexible projection has at least a portion of its shape defined quantitatively (e.g., angle, length, radius, thickness, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 561]    561Intermediate flexible bending portion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection wherein the flexible projection has radially opposed ends and has a pliant and resilient wall structure therebetween intended to provide greater flexibility.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 562]    562Plural peripheral radially sealing flexible projections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection including more than one peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection.

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612,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having plural extended projections.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 486 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal is a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection contacting a relatively rotating surface parallel to the axis of rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 563]    563Having interposed fluid receiver or director:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 562.  Plural, flexible projections including means between the flexible projections to collect, contain, or guide the fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 564]    564Having insert between the flexible projections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 562.  Plural, flexible projections including a member inset therebetween intended to bias or reinforce.
(1) Note. Radially facing, U- or V-shaped, sealing rings are proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 565]    565On radial facing side of single seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 562.  Plural, flexible projections wherein the plural, flexible projections are on an axially extending side of the same seal body.

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615,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having axially spaced projections.
648+,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having plural projections along a sealing surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 566]    566Both radial sides of the single seal (e.g., X-shaped, Y-shaped, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 565.  Radially facing wherein the seal body has one or more flexible projections on another axially extending side.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 567]    567Radially facing U or V cross-sectional profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 565.  Radially facing wherein the flexible projections have a U- or V-profile in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the seal at right angles to one of its principle horizontal dimensions perpendicular to the axis of relative motion formed between the relative movable parts.

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491+,for a piston ring having a sectional structure including a component ring having a C, L, T, U, V, or Z cross-sectional profile.
530,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a C, M, U, V, X, or Z cross-sectional seal shape.
647,for a static seal having a C-, U-, or V-shaped cross-sectional seal profile for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 568]    568Including an excluder or wiper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 565.  Radially facing wherein the flexible projections has one or more projections to seal against dust or foreign matter.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 569]    569Lining or insert:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection wherein the flexible projection includes a material layered on or inset into its surface.

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440+,for a piston ring having a surface of dissimilar material or hardness.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 570]    570Made entirely of fluorocarbon material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection wherein the flexible projection is a fluorocarbon material.

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945+,for a seal made of an elastomer or plastic containing fluorine for other than a dynamic, circumferential contact seal, for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection made of fluorocarbon material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 571]    571Wear sleeve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection including a tubular member mounted on one of the relatively movable parts intended to protect the one relatively movable part from deterioration caused by the relatively movable surface contact of the peripheral radially sealing flexible projection.

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527,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a wear sleeve.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 572]    572Particular mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 549.  Peripheral radially sealing flexible projection including a specific structure, holding, or support means to maintain the flexible projection in relatively movable sealing contact against one of the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses include a nominal recitation of a casing having an additional structural feature relating the flexible projection to the casing.

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371+,for a unitized cartridge containing a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.).
551,for a dynamic, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 573]    573Peripheral mounting static seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 572.  Mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement including a circumferential static seal between the mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement and the part.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 574]    574Protrusion or bead cross-sectional profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 573.  Peripheral mounting static seal wherein the static seal has a projection from its surface in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the static seal at right angles to one of its principle horizontal dimensions.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 575]    575Secured by molding or bonding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 572.  Mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement including shaping, forming or adhering means to affix the flexible projection to the mounting, frame, casing or reinforcement.

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617,for a static contact seal mounted or retained by molding or casting into a pipe, conduit or cable.
922+,for a seal manufactured by bonding or joining for other than a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) secured by molding or bonding.
924,for a seal manufactured by deformation, material removal, or molding for other than a dynamic circumferential contact seal, for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) secured by molding or bonding.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 576]    576Secured by clamping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 572.  Mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement wherein the mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement has portions of itself brought together to affix the flexible projection to the mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement.

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922+,for a seal manufactured by bonding or joining for other than a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) secured by clamping.
924,for a seal manufactured by deformation, material removal, or molding for other than a dynamic, circumferential, contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) secured by clamping.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 577]    577By distinct members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 576.  Secured by clamping wherein the portions are separate components brought together to make the mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 578]    578Having circumferentially adjustable biasing element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal including a member extending circumferentially around the periphery of the seal and adjustable along its length to radially bias the sealing means.

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470,for a piston ring expander having means to adjust the load.

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384Bearings,   for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal, subclass 150 for a plain, radial bearing where mechanical means (e.g., nut, separate resilient elements, etc.) moves the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 579]    579Having floating ring or bushing (i.e., circumferentially contacting):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential, contact seal wherein the seal is an annular or tubular seal having relative movement between the relatively movable parts to oppose the flow of fluid.
(1) Note. A floater-type seal has relative motion between the relatively movable parts it seals between, whereas a seal that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion is capable of sealing relatively movable parts that move angularly or perpendicularly to its main axis of motion.

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305,for a process of using a dynamic close proximity floating ring or bushing (i.e., contactless).
356,for a dynamic seal for use in a journal box that may be a floating ring or bushing.
422,for a dynamic, close proximity, floating ring or bushing (i.e., contactless).
447+,for a floating, piston ring seal.
585,for a dynamic, circumferential, contacting, elongated sleeve or bushing for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 580]    580Radially translatable in groove:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Floating ring or bushing wherein the ring or bushing moves perpendicular to a rotational axis formed between the relatively movable parts and within a channel on one of the relatively movable parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 581]    581And biased:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 580.  Radially translatable in a groove and a resilient member to hold or press the ring or bushing against a surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 582]    582Made of elastomer or plastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 579.  Floating ring or bushing consisting of a resilient, rubberlike material.

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944+,for a seal made of a particular elastomeric or plastic material for other than a dynamic, circumferential, contact seal, for other than a piston having a floating ring or bushing.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 583]    583Inflatable seal or seal biased by inflatable member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential, contact seal including a cavity or chamber within the seal or an associated member expanded by entry of a pressurized fluid to bias the seal or associated member against one of the relatively movable parts.

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331+,for an inflatable packer-type seal for well apparatus.
605,for a hollow, fluid-filled, or inflatable static contact seal or an associated member intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
646,for a static contact seal having a hollow or fluid-filled inflatable chamber for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 584]    584Extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential contact seal including means deterring the seal from being squeezed out of its seated position or otherwise dislocated.

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324+,for a seal for well apparatus having an overpressure control device that may include extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
611,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature.
616+,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having an associated mounting or retaining means for the seal.
638,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable including a particular extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) mounting or retaining means.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 585]    585Elongated sleeve or bushing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic circumferential contact seal wherein the seal has a somewhat elongated, tubular shape intended to guide an inner, relatively movable part.

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338,for a longitudinally actuated packing sleeve for well apparatus.
422,for a dynamic close proximity floating ring or bushing (i.e., contactless).
579+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact, floating ring or bushing seal for other than a piston.
607,for a sleeve-type, static, contact seal intended for a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 586]    586Seated in groove having stepped walls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential, contact seal wherein the seal is in a channel having nonuniform axial width and walls that are at a right angle to each other in one of the relatively movable parts.

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451,for a piston groove having stepped walls.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 587]    587Seated in groove having oblique wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential, contact seal wherein the seal in a channel having a nonuniform axial width and a tapered or inclined wall in one of the relatively movable parts.

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452+,for a piston groove having an oblique wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 589]    589Radially backed by resilient or elastomeric member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 500.  Dynamic, circumferential, contact seal wherein the seal includes an elastic element to bias the sealing means in a direction perpendicular to an axis formed between the relatively movable parts.

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545,for a dynamic, circumferentially contacting, segmented ring for other than a piston having other than a nominal garter spring as a radial, biasing, spring element.
553+,for a dynamic, circumferential contacting, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., a lip seal, etc.) including a bias means other than a nominal garter spring for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 590]    590SEAL BETWEEN FIXED PARTS OR STATIC CONTACT AGAINST RELATIVELY MOVABLE PARTS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means wherein the seal is at the joint or juncture formed between stationary parts, or having a stationary sealing relationship to the relatively movable parts.
(1) Note. Some relative movement is permissible due to such examples as expansion, contraction, slippage, or variable pressure load.

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312+,for a process of static sealing.
345+,for a seal between relatively movable parts (i.e., a dynamic seal).

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215Bottles and Jars,   appropriate subclasses for a cap-type bottle or jar closure; especially subclass 234 for a liquid seal located where the closure seats on the bottle or jar.
220Receptacles,   appropriate subclasses for a receptacle having an access opening and a removable closure for the opening and means to seal the juncture therebetween; especially subclass 228 for a liquid or semi-liquid gasket.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 591]    591Contact seal between parts of internal combustion engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Static seal wherein the seal"s intended use between and sealingly touching against adjacent components of an internal combustion engine.

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313,for a process of static sealing between parts of an internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 592]    592Particular coating or layer of sealing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 591.  Intended for internal combustion engine including a film or sheet of a specific composition or configuration to form a seal against an adjacent seal member or one of the components of the internal combustion engine.

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654,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular sealing material or construction using plural layers.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 593]    593Having compression limiting feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 591.  Intended for internal combustion engine including means to restrict seal compaction between the parts.

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611,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature.
639,for a static seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular mounting or retaining means such as a compression limiting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 594]    594Particular dimensions or configuration of sealing bead or formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 591.  Intended for internal combustion engine including an embossment or other structure having a specific size or shape for forming a seal between an adjacent sealing member or one of the components of the internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 595]    595Metallic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 594.  Sealing bead or formation wherein the sealing bead or formation is metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 596]    596Elastomeric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 594.  Sealing bead or formation wherein the sealing bead or formation is a rubberlike material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 597]    597Heat dissipating, cooling, or insulating feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 591.  Intended for internal combustion engine including means to conduct and dissipate thermal energy, or shield the seal or one of the components of the internal combustion engine from thermal energy.

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930,for a seal for other than a static seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine including a heat dissipation, cooling, or insulating feature having a heating or cooling feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 598]    598Having installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 591.  Intended for internal combustion engine including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling, or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
370+,for a relatively rotatable, extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
421,for a close proximity labyrinth seal having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander, or seat therefore having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
609,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or for apparatus to assemble or disassemble, especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 599]    599Having flow restrictor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 591.  Intended for internal combustion engine including an opening for alignment to an opening for flow in the adjacent engine components where the seal opening has means to reduce or eliminate flow of fluid therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 600]    600Covering member or eyelet for opening:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 591.  Intended for internal combustion engine including an opening and means to envelop an edge of the opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 601]    601Covering fire ring or sealing formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 600.  Covering member or eyelet wherein the covering member or eyelet is for the opening provided for a combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 602]    602Contact seal for a pipe, conduit, or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Static seal wherein the seal sealingly touches against and is intended for an extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor part to seal the joint or juncture between concentric extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor parts; the extended hollow or electrically insulated part"s end, and another extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor part"s end; or the extended hollow part or electrically insulated conductor and a wall.

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314,for a process of static sealing intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.

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285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   appropriate subclasses for means to secure in end-to-end or side-to-side relationship a pipe to another pipe, a plate, a wall, a receptacle, or other base where the means are independent from a seal (i.e., more than the frictional engagement of the seal secures a pipe end to another part) or a sleeve securing the pipe ends or another part; subclasses 95+ for a seal responsive to line pressure or means to test the seal by using line pressure, especially subclass 97 for a seal having an inflatable member having an external pressure supply; subclass 187 for temperature responsive means to maintain a good seal for expansion or contraction in the pipe coupling; or subclasses 335+ for a seal combined with the pipe joint or coupling.
439Electrical Connectors,   appropriate subclasses for a generic electrical connection between at least two conducting elements permitting relative motion or where the connection is a readily made or broken type, especially subclasses 271+ for a sealing element or material for cooperation with the coupled connector (e.g., gasket, etc.); or subclass 559 for a seal to a coupling part that extends into a panel opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 603]    603Plural interfitting seal members for installation on the individual joined pipes, conduits, or cables:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable wherein the seal comprises cooperating sealing members and at least one member is for location on each pipe, conduit, or cable of the joint or juncture.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 604]    604Allows rolling or folding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable including means permitting at least a part the seal to rotate or bend completely over on itself.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 605]    605Hollow, fluid filled, or inflatable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable wherein the seal or an associated member has a cavity or chamber that is empty, contains a liquid or gas, or is expanded by entry of a pressurized fluid.

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331+,for an inflatable packer-type seal for well apparatus.
583,for a dynamic, inflatable, or biased by an inflatable member circumferential contact seal for other than a piston.
645+,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular hollow or filled chamber cross-section.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 606]    606And wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable wherein the seal is for use between the pipe, conduit, or cable and the wall.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclasses for an insulator and specialized apparatus to mount, support, encase, box, or house an electrical component; especially subclasses 152+ for a grommet to insulate a conductor as it extends through a wall or plate; or subclass 539 for a box or housing structurally limited to electrical use or including an electrical device that may include a seal between a cable and the box or housing.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 607]    607Sleeve type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable wherein the seal has a tubular or frustoconical shape.

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338,for a longitudinally actuated packing sleeve for well apparatus.
585,for a dynamic, circumferential, contacting, elongated sleeve or bushing for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 608]    608Inserted between end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable wherein the seal is for use in the joint or juncture having coaxial radially extending opposing ends.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 609]    609Having installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  End-to-end joint including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling, or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
370+,for a relatively rotatable, extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
421,for a close proximity labyrinth seal having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander or seat therefor having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
598,for a static contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
630,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or for apparatus to assemble or disassemble; especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere; or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 610]    610Spirally wound structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  End to end joint wherein the seal has a concentrically coiled arrangement.

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627,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit or cable having a particular material or construction.
633,for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit or cable having a spirally wound structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 611]    611Extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  End-to-end joint including means deterring the seal from being squeezed out of its seated position or otherwise dislocated, or restricting seal compaction between the parts.
(1) Note. In this subclass the extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) feature may work by limiting the compression of the seal or the compression limiting feature may prevent extrusion.

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324+,for a seal for well apparatus having an overpressure control device that may include extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
584,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
593,for a static, contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having a compression limiting feature.
616+,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit or cable having an associated mounting or retaining means for the seal.
638,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit or cable including a particular extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) mounting or retaining means.
639,for a static seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit or cable including a compression limiting mounting or retaining feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 612]    612Having plural projections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  End-to-end joint wherein the seal includes more than one sealing extension.

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562+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having plural. peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projections (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
615,for a static contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having axially spaced projections.
648+,for a static seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular cross-sectional profile such as plural projections along a sealing surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 613]    613Hose coupling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  End-to-end joint wherein the extended hollow is flexible or flaccid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 614]    614Each end has recess for the seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 608.  End-to-end joint wherein the ends of the joint include axially facing indentations for the seal.

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625,for a static, contact seal having a particular mounting or retaining feature for and intended for use on a pipe, conduit or cable.
643,for static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit or cable having plural recesses on parts or seals to form a mounting or retaining groove.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 615]    615Having axially spaced projections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable including a plurality of pliant or resilient radial extensions separated by distance along a longitudinal axis of the pipe, conduit, or cable.

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565+,for a dynamic, circumferentially contact seal for other than a piston having plural, peripheral, radially sealing projections on a radial facing side of a single seal.
612,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit or cable joint having plural extended projections.
648+,for a static seal for other than an internal combustion engine or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular cross-sectional profile such as plural projections along a sealing surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 616]    616Having associated mounting or retaining feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable including related fastening or securing means for the seal.

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324+,for a seal for well apparatus having an overpressure control device that may include extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
584,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
611,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature.
637+,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular associated mounting or retaining means.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 617]    617Molded or cast into the pipe, conduit, or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 616.  Mounting or retaining feature wherein the pipe, conduit, or cable has the seal built into it.

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575,for a dynamic, circumferential, contacting, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) molded or bonded to a mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement for other than a piston.
924,for a seal manufactured by deformation, material removal, or molding for other than a static pipe, conduit, or cable.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 259+ for a composite article created by shaping or forming molding material against and uniting to a preform.
425Plastic Article Shaping or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   a generic class for apparatus not provided for elsewhere to mold a plastic, shape molten materials where no molding surface is employed, treating a product made by the apparatus of this class, randomly deposit and bond particulate material, or a combination of apparatus of this class with any diverse working or treating apparatus, Digest 47 for a seal ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 618]    618Axially related or embedded coil spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 616.  Mounting or retaining feature wherein the mounting or retaining feature is a helically wound annular spring coaxial to or encapsulated by the seal.

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554,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral radially sealing projection biased by an embedded spring.
557,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having a peripheral radially sealing projection biased by an axially extending helical or spiral spring.
627,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular material or construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 619]    619Axially related backing ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 616.  Mounting or retaining feature wherein the mounting or retaining feature has an annular shape coaxial to the seal providing support.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 620]    620Clamping gland:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 619.  Axially related backing ring including axially acting means to force the seal into a joint or juncture formed between the pipe, conduit, or cable.
(1) Note. A biasing spring is not a gland or follower.

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329+,for a seal for well apparatus where the seal is in a packing box contained or compressed by a gland member.
510+,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 621]    621Particular axially acting feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 620.  Clamping gland wherein the gland has a specific means to move the gland along the axis.
(1) Note. In this subclass and indented subclass the particular axially acting feature is intended to be more than a "bolted flange or gland".
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 622]    622Threaded gland:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 621.  Particular, axially acting feature wherein the gland has a helical rib to move the gland along the axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 623]    623Particular gland shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 620.  Clamping gland wherein the gland has a specific form.
(1) Note. For this subclass a "segmented gland" must have a particular joining structure for the segments.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 624]    624And seal secure together:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 619.  Axially related backing ring and the seal fasten to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 625]    625Particular and located on the pipe, conduit, or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 616.  Mounting or retaining feature wherein the extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor part has a specific means to mount or retain the seal.

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614,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint where each end has a recess for the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 626]    626Particular seal shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable wherein the seal has a specific form.

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325,for a segmented and radially actuated (e.g., ram-type, etc.) seal for a well apparatus overpressure control device (e.g., seal for a blowout preventer, etc.).
344,for a segmented and radially actuated seal (e.g., oil saver, gas saver, etc.) for well apparatus.
335,for a seal for well apparatus having an axially facing cup shape.
605,for a hollow, fluid-filled, or inflatable static contact seal or an associated member intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
644+,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular cross-sectional seal profile
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 627]    627Particular seal material or construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 602.  Pipe, conduit, or cable wherein the seal is of a specific material or has a specific arrangement of material.

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534+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a particular material or construction.
610,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end to end pipe, conduit or cable joint having a spirally wound structure.
618,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit or cable including an axially related or embedded coil spring that mounts or retains the seal.
611,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end to end pipe, conduit or cable joint having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature.
650+,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular sealing material or construction.
935+,for a seal for other than a static contact seal for a pipe, conduit, or cable made out of a particular material.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 628]    628Contact seal for other than internal combustion engine, or pipe, conduit, or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 590.  Static seal wherein the seal’s intended use is to sealingly touches against a part that is other than an internal combustion engine, extended hollow or electrically insulated conductor.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.); especially subclasses 475.1+ for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member.
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   appropriate subclasses for a site erected structure or related components (e.g., panels, beams, columns, etc.); especially subclasses 140+ for a burial vault having a separately placeable closure in abutting relation to wall edges and sealing material retaining construction; subclasses 393+ for a relatively yieldable preformed separator (i.e., expansion joint); or subclasses 408+ for a disparate sheet lamina between exposed surfaces of wall, floor, or roof (e.g., vapor barrier, waterproofing membrane, etc.).
114Ships,   appropriate subclasses for marine vehicles and accessories not otherwise classifiable; especially subclass 93 that may have a seal for a joint between a mast and a deck.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 450 for a filter in a flow line or a flow line connected closed casing having a gasket between the filter and walls of the casing (e.g., oil filter gasket, etc.).
215Bottles and Jars,   appropriate subclasses for a cap-type bottle or jar closure; especially subclass 45 for neck structure to receive a particular closure including a seal; or subclasses 341+ for a cap-type closure having an identifiable, integral or separate seal or liner.
220Receptacles,   appropriate subclasses for a receptacle having an access opening and a removable closure for the opening and means to seal the juncture therebetween; especially subclass 378 for a gasket or packing.
222Dispensing,   subclass 542 for a seal provided for a joint, closure, or flow controller of a dispenser.
251Valves And Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for means to close or restrict a flow of fluid through a passage by a definite predetermined motion of the means combined with a seal; especially subclass 257 for a valve actuated by a cam encased in a valve body having a seal; subclasses 306+ for a rotary butterfly valve having a seal carried by the valve or a valve seat; subclasses 314+ for a rotary valve and a seat therefor or a seal between the rotary valve and the seat; or subclass 318 for a reciprocating valve having a seal made of nonresilient material on a reciprocating head element or seat made of a resilient material.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   appropriate subclasses for a body secured to the running gear and a top therefor; especially subclass 93 for weatherstripping to seal between panels or between a windshield and the body or top.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 203+ for a seal at a joint or juncture between and combined with fluid confining structures (e.g., a nozzle, a vessel cover, etc.) of a nuclear reactor pressure vessel.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 152 for method or apparatus to form an underground passageway (e.g., tunnel, etc.) lined by panels having a seal between adjacent panels.
445Electric Lamp or Space Discharge Component or Device Manufacturing,   subclass 25 for a process of display or gas panel making including a seal not elsewhere classified.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 629]    629Magnetic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than wherein the seal has a polar field.

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378,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a magnetic axial bias therefor.
410,for a dynamic, close proximity seal that uses magnetism to affect fluid flow.
501,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston and a magnetic means to bias the seal.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.; especially subclass 478.1 for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member having a magnetic feature.
252Compositions,   subclasses 62.51+ for a composition useful for a magnetic purpose or a process for making the composition, not provided for elsewhere.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 209+ for a magnet or an electromagnet, configured or arranged to perform external mechanical work but does not include the external mechanical work.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 630]    630Having installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than including means to aid in mounting, extricating, construction, dismantling or restoration of the seal.

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323,for a seal for well apparatus having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
370+,for a relatively rotatable, extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature.
435,for a piston ring, piston ring expander, or seat therefore having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
551,for a dynamic, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) for other than a piston having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.
598,for a static, contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly or repair feature.
609,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an installation, removal, assembly, disassembly, or repair feature.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture or for apparatus to assemble or disassemble; especially subclass 402.02 for a method of repairing a seal or element thereof not provided for elsewhere; or subclasses 700+ for general apparatus to assemble or disassemble.
49Movable or Removable Closures,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.), especially subclass 482.1 for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member having a segmenting, replacing, adjusting, or severing feature.
413Sheet Metal Container Making,   appropriate subclasses for a process or apparatus for performing an attendant operation before final assembly of a lid to a receptacle, especially subclass 34 for apparatus to seam together the receptacle and lid using a roller die including means to apply a gasket or seal therebetween before they are; or subclasses 58+ for apparatus to form lid having means to apply seal or liner.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 631]    631Split including end joining structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than wherein the seal structure has a gap and uniting means to connect edges created by the gap.

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494+,for a piston ring having a gap and a separate bridging piece for the gap.
496+,for a single piece split piston ring having opposed asymmetrical mirrored ends.
498+,for a piston ring where a single piece split annulus has substantially opposed dissimilar ends.
546+,for a dynamic, segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston having a particular end structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 632]    632Segmented periphery:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than wherein the seal’s perimeter is divided into portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 633]    633Spirally wound structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than wherein the seal has a concentrically coiled arrangement.

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610,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having a spirally wound structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 634]    634Flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than wherein the seal has a flexible wall member to accommodate relatively movable parts allowing static contact sealing against the parts.

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315,for a process of static sealing employing a flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm.
389,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including fluid pressure acting against a bellows or diaphragm to create an axial bias therefor.
391+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm to provide a secondary seal or driving connection therefor.
504,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston that accommodates gyratory or oscillatory motion by using a flexible connection having static contact between the seal and one of the relatively movable parts.

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74Machine Elements and Mechanisms,   subclasses 18+ for a flexible sealing material attached to a casing and a moving rod, and a device or mechanism to move the rod.
100Presses,   subclass 269.21 for a seal or gasket around a piston for a fluid actuated reciprocating press.
188Brakes,   for means of retarding motion of or stopping of machines; subclasses 73.44+ or an axially extending pin to retain an actuator axially slidable in a plane parallel to an axis of a rotating wheel that usually includes a seal.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for means to close or restrict a flow of fluid through a passage by a definite predetermined motion of the means combined with a seal, subclasses 335.1+ , for a flexible wall seal between an actuator and valve.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for a joint or connection structure that goes beyond providing an environment for a seal; subclasses 50+ for a flexible diaphragm or bellows secured to each part.
464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclasses 173+ for a flexible boot for a joint to transmit rotary torque.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 635]    635Dome-, cup-, or bell-shaped, or for ball joint:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 634.  Flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm wherein the seal has an open containerlike shape or form (e.g., C, U, V, etc.) to enclose the joint or is for a spherical part of the joint.

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403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for a joint or connection structure that goes beyond providing an environment for a seal; especially subclass 134 for a ball and socket having an external seal (i.e., remote from the bearing surface).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 636]    636Tubular or frustoconical shape having corrugated wall portion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 634.  Flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm wherein the seal is an elongated enclosing flexible wall having a portion including alternate furrows and ridges (e.g., pleated, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 637]    637Having particular associated mounting or retaining feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than including a specific related fastening or securing means for the seal.

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616+,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having an associated mounting or retaining means for the seal.

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251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for means to close or restrict a flow of fluid through a passage by a definite predetermined motion of the means combined with a seal; especially subclass 171 for a gland member pressing a seal constituting a valve seat against a valve head; subclass 189 for separate actuators or different functions of the same actuator to increase contact pressure between piston type valves provided with expansible sealing and a seat; subclass 191 for means to increase the contact pressure between a piston-type valve having a seal that expands upon closing and a seat; or subclass 363 for a removable valve seat having a seal between the valve seat and its supporting structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 638]    638Extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 637.  Mounting or retaining feature including means deterring the seal from being squeezed out of its seated position or otherwise dislocated.

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324+,for a seal for well apparatus having an overpressure control device that may include extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
584,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) structure.
611,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature.
619+,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit or cable including an axially related backing ring to mount or retain the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 639]    639Compression limiting feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 637.  Mounting or retaining feature including means restricting seal compaction between the parts.

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593,for a static, contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having a compression limiting feature.
611,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having an extrusion preventing (i.e., anti-extrusion) or compression limiting feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 640]    640Anchoring feature extending through seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 637.  Mounting or retaining feature including a fastening or securing means projecting through the seal to firmly affix the seal to one of the parts.

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411Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed, Tool-Deformed, or Locked-Threaded Fastener,   appropriate subclasses for a fastener suited for general use; especially subclasses 369+ for a headed, threaded, fastening means and nut having a washer and seal, or subclass 542 for a washer configured for a fastener having a seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 641]    641Groove structure on the seal or part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 637.  Mounting or retaining feature wherein the mounting or retaining means is an indentation on the seal or part.

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625,for a static, contact seal having a particular mounting or retaining feature for and intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.), subclass 483.1 for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member having complementary engaging portions on closure or closure and portal frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 642]    642Channel shaped:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 641.  Groove structure wherein the groove has a generally U-shaped cross-section.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.) for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member; especially subclass 489.1 anchored in channel or slot in closure or portal frame; or subclass 490.1 having a U-shaped member or portion to mount the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 643]    643Single seat formed by plural recesses:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 641.  Groove structure wherein the parts or seals have indentations to form the mounting or retaining groove when assembled.

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614,for a static contact seal intended for insertion between an end to end pipe, conduit or cable joint where each end has a recess for the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 644]    644Particular cross-sectional seal profile:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than wherein the seal has a specific shape in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the seal at right angles to one of its principal horizontal dimensions.

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626,for a static, contact seal having a particular seal shape intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 645]    645Hollow or filled chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 644.  Particular cross-sectional seal profile wherein the seal has a cavity empty or full of material.

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605,for a hollow, fluid-filled, or inflatable static contact seal or an associated member intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.), subclass 498.1 for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member is tubular or has a tubular portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 646]    646Inflatable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 645.  Such as a hollow or filled chamber wherein the chamber has pressurized fluid introduced to expand the seal.

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331+,for an inflatable packer-type seal for well apparatus.
583,for a dynamic inflatable or biased by an inflatable member circumferential contact seal for other than a piston.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.), subclass 477.1 for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member having an inflatable or fluid pressure responsive feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 647]    647C-, U-, or V-shaped:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 644.  Particular cross-sectional seal profile wherein the seal has a C-, U-, or V-form in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the seal at right angles to one of its principle horizontal dimensions.

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395,for a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a secondary mounting seal having U- or V-shaped, peripherally, radially sealing, flexible projections (e.g., lip seal, etc.).
530,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a C, M, U-, V, X, or Z cross-sectional seal shape.
567,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston having peripherally, radially sealing, flexible projections forming a radially facing U or V cross-sectional profile.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 648]    648Plural projections along sealing surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 644.  Particular cross-sectional seal profile wherein the seal has more than one sealing extension along a side of the seal facing the part.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

565+,for a dynamic, circumferentially contact seal for other than a piston having plural, peripheral, radially sealing projections on a radial facing side of a single seal.
612,for a static, contact seal intended for insertion between an end-to-end pipe, conduit, or cable joint having plural extended projections.
615,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having axially spaced projections.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 649]    649Plural projections along opposite sealing surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 648.  Plural projections along a sealing surface including plural projections along an adverse sealing surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 650]    650Particular sealing material or construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 628.  Contact seal for other than wherein the seal is of a specific material or has a specific arrangement of material.

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534+,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a particular material or construction.
627,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular material or construction.
935+,for a seal for other than a static contact seal for an internal combustion engine, pipe, conduit or cable made out of a particular material.

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215Bottles and Jars,   appropriate subclasses for a cap type bottle or jar closure; especially subclass 233 for a hardenable liquid or plastic seal where the closure seats on the bottle or jar.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 651]    651Embedded reinforcement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 650.  Particular sealing material or construction wherein the seal envelops a means to strengthen the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 652]    652Distinct sheath or covering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 650.  Particular sealing material or construction wherein the seal has a distinct casing or layer surrounding at least a major portion of an outer periphery of the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 653]    653Metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 652.  Distinct sheath or covering wherein the sheath or covering is metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 654]    654Plural layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 650.  Particular sealing material or construction wherein the seal has more than one ply of material.

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592,for a static, contact seal intended for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having a particular coating or layer of sealing material.
  

CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS

The following collections have their patents placed without regard to their original classification or to their claimed subject matter. These collections, therefore, are only examples of the art encompassed by the definition and a thorough search for a desired concept should include a search in the proceeding subclasses. Do not place originals in cross-reference art collections.

[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 902]    902SEAL FOR STERLING ENGINE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means intended to seal a joint or juncture of a sterling engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 903]    903SEAL FOR ROTATING KILN OR DRUM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means intended to seal a joint or juncture between a static part and a relatively rotating hollow cylindrical heated container.

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34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   for appropriate subclasses apparatus to separate liquids from solids (i.e., drying) or contacting solids with gases or vapors; especially subclass 601 that may have a seal between a rotating drum or receptacle, and a housing.
432Heating,   subclass 115 for a rotary drum mounted for rotation about a horizontal or slightly inclined axis, the rotation of the rotary drum imparting a tumbling motion to material placed therein, forming a juncture against a stationary part with a flexible seal, cooler seal, or an air curtain-type flow controller therebetween to prevent escape of the rotary drum’s atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 904]    904VISCOUS SEAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means wherein the sealing means is a material having a ropy or glutinous consistency (e.g., lacking in easy movement or fluidity, etc.) and having the quality of sticking or adhering to oppose the flow of fluid at the joint or juncture.

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301+,for a process of dynamic close proximity sealing (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).
347+,for diverse and distinct dynamic seals including a close proximity seal.
409+,for a dynamic, close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 905]    905T-SHAPED OR I-SHAPED RING MEMBER INCLUDING SEAL ON A SIDE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising an annular component of T- or I-shaped cross-section having sealing means on either or both sides of the annular component"s central periphery.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 906]    906SEAL FOR ARTICLE OF INDEFINITE LENGTH (E.G., STRIP, SHEET, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising sealing means for use on an article of indeterminate extent.

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432Heating,   subclass 244 for a heating device specialized to feed or discharge a work chamber including a seal at the chamber’s wall for conveyor arm or shaft.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 907]    907PASSAGEWAY IN ROD OR SHAFT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including a pathway for a fluid in a part (e.g., rod, shaft) relatively movable to and surrounded by another part (e.g., housing, casing, etc.).

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305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   subclasses 100+ for a passageway in a connecting pin for lubrication.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 908]    908SEAL FOR USE IN ROTATING AND RECIPROCATING ARRANGEMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising sealing means between relatively movable parts that rotate and reciprocate.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 909]    909SIMILAR SEALING STRUCTURES FOR MOUNTING ON PISTON AND ABOUT ROD:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising sealing means providing the same basic sealing structure for use in different embodiments such as (1) on a part (i.e., a piston) that reciprocates along an axis of an enclosing wall and, (2) on either the enclosing wall surrounding a reciprocating part (e.g., rod, etc.) or the part (i.e., a piston).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 910]    910O-RING SEAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising a seal circular in plan view but may be of any geometric shape in a view of a vertical plane cutting across the seal at right angles to one of its principal horizontal dimensions.

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382,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) using an O-ring shaped axial biasing spring made of elastomeric material.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 152 for a plain radial bearing where the seal is in the shape of an O-ring on the outer area of the bearing or shaft and made out of a resilient material; or subclass 489 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal is a resilient O-ring seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 911]    911SEAL COMBINED WITH NOMINAL MOTION TRANSMITTING DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means combined with a movement relay setting forth only so much structure foreign to the class to define the operating environment of the seal means.

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390+,for a relatively rotatable radially extending sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including a secondary mounting seal or driving connection therefor.
634+,for a static, contact, flexible sleeve, boot, or diaphragm seal for other than an internal combustion engine or a pipe, conduit, or cable.

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403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for a joint or connection structure that goes beyond providing an environment for a seal; especially subclass 288 for a seal distinct from the joint and unnecessary to the connection of parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 912]    912Spline connection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 911.  Nominal motion transmitting device wherein the device is a series of spaced ridges parallel to a longitudinal axis of one of the parts (e.g., rod, shaft, etc.) that fits into a corresponding hole in the other part.

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354,for a dynamic seal for a helically threaded part.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 913]    913SEAL FOR FLUID PRESSURE BELOW ATMOSPHERIC (E.G., VACUUM, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means intended to maintain a sealed fluid at a pressure lower than air pressure from its surrounding environment.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 914]    914BACKUP SEAL FOR FAILURE OF PRIMARY SEAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising a main and secondary sealing means whereby the secondary sealing means acts as an auxiliary seal upon the breakdown of the main sealing means.
(1) Note. The fluid pressure typically forces the auxiliary seal into operation.

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929,for a seal where a change in operation or condition induces additional leakage control.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 915]    915SEAL INCLUDING COMPRESSION SET FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising a seal material having a specific property defined by the measurement of permanent deformation remaining after releasing the material from a compressive load as an index to creep or stress relaxation.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 916]    916SEAL INCLUDING VIBRATION DAMPENING FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means to reduce or eliminate oscillatory or gyratory effects.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 917]    917SEAL INCLUDING FRANGIBLE FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means allowing breaking or tearing of the seal.

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413Sheet Metal Container Making,   for appropriate subclasses a process or apparatus for performing an attendant operation before final assembly of a lid to a receptacle; especially subclasses 12+ for a process of fabricating a frangible end closure or assembling a frangible part to an end closure; or subclasses 67+ for apparatus to form lid having means to form frangible zone in lid.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 918]    918SEAL COMBINED WITH FILTER OR FLUID SEPARATOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means combined with means to remove foreign material from a fluid or separate distinct fluids.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 450 for a filter in a flow line or a flow line connected closed casing having a gasket between the filter and walls of the casing (e.g., oil filter gasket, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 919]    919SEAL INCLUDING ELECTRICAL FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including an ability to conduct or resist a flow of electricity.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclasses for an insulator and specialized apparatus to mount, support, encase, box, or house an electrical component; subclasses 152+ for a grommet to insulate a conductor as it extends through a wall or plate; or subclass 539 for a box or housing structurally limited to electrical use or including an electrical device that may include a seal between a cable and the box or housing.
439Electrical Connectors,   appropriate subclasses for a generic electrical connection between at least two conducting elements permitting relative motion or where the connection is a readily made or broken type, especially subclass 927 for a conductive gasket.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 920]    920SEAL INCLUDING ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including an ability to protect against electrical and magnetic radiation.

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclasses for an insulator and specialized apparatus to mount, support, encase, box, or house an electrical component; especially subclass 350 for an electromagnetic shield or anti-inductive device that may be a gasket.
439Electrical Connectors,   appropriate subclasses for a generic electrical connection between at least two conducting elements permitting relative motion or where the connection is a readily made or broken type, especially subclass 89 for a seal to a connector having inductive shielding or arc suppressing means including an elastomeric or nonmetallic conductive portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 921]    921CLOSURE OR WEATHER STRIP SEAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means wherein the seal is a narrow piece intended for use at the juncture between an obstructive structure and a passageway, or to close or reduce a gap formed at the juncture to prevent or reduce the flow of ambient air or moisture therethrough.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal movable or removable closure structure (e.g., door jam, etc.); especially subclasses 475.1+ for a seal acting at a juncture of the closure and an adjacent member.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   appropriate subclasses for a body secured to the running gear and a top therefor, subclass 93 for weatherstripping to seal between panels or between a windshield and the body or top.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 922]    922BONDING OR JOINING FOR MANUFACTURE OF SEAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising a seal constructed by binding or uniting components of the seal.

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575,for a dynamic, circumferential, contacting, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) molded or bonded to a mounting, frame, casing, or reinforcement for other than a piston.
576+,for a dynamic circumferential contacting peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) secured by clamping to a mounting, frame, casing or reinforcement for other than a piston.

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29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for a method of mechanical manufacture; especially subclasses 888.07+ for a method of piston ring or packing manufacture; or subclass 888.3 for a method of seal or packing manufacture.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 60+ for a process of manufacturing an article involving surface bonding or assembly therefor; or subclasses 349+ for an apparatus to manufacture an article involving surface bonding or assembly therefor.
228Metal Fusion Bonding,   appropriate subclasses in general, for apparatus or methods of joining the meeting faces of juxtaposed or engaged metal articles, of the same article originally in a form sustaining state, or a metal article to a nonmetal article, by direct application of heat or mechanical energy to the articles causing a flowing or blending of the meeting faces or causing a filler to flow or blend together with the meeting faces to form a continuous interconnecting zone.
413Sheet Metal Container Making,   for appropriate subclasses a process or apparatus for performing an attendant operation before final assembly of a lid to a receptacle; subclass 7 for a process of applying a sealant to an end joint between the lid and the receptacle; subclass 9 for a process of joining a preformed gasket or liner to the lid; or subclasses 58+ for apparatus to form lid having means to apply seal or liner.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 923]    923Shrink fitting for the assembly of seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 922.  Bonding or joining for manufacture of seal wherein the seal components are bonded or joined by subjecting one or more of the components to a temperature variation of such a magnitude as to change a dimension of at least one of the components allowing them to be easily put together, afterwards when the temperature returns to normal the components held together by an interference fit.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 924]    924DEFORMATION, MATERIAL REMOVAL OR MOLDING FOR MANUFACTURE OF SEAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising a seal made from a fluent or solid material formed into a particular shape.

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575,for a dynamic circumferential contacting peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) molded or bonded to a mounting, frame, casing or reinforcement for other than a piston.
576+,for a dynamic, circumferential contacting peripheral radially sealing flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) secured by clamping to a mounting, frame, casing or reinforcement for other than a piston.
617,for a static, contact seal mounted or retained by molding or casting into a pipe, conduit or cable.

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29Metal Working,   for a method of mechanical manufacture, subclasses 888.07+ for a method of piston ring or packing manufacture or subclass 888.3 for a method of seal or packing manufacture.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 239+ for mechanical shaping or molding to form or reform a shaped article, especially subclasses 259+ for a composite article created by shaping or forming molding material against and uniting to a preform.
413Sheet Metal Container Making,   appropriate subclasses for a process or apparatus for performing an attendant operation before final assembly of a lid to a receptacle; especially subclass 34 for apparatus to seam together the receptacle and lid using a roller die and including means to apply a gasket or seal therebetween before they are.
425Plastic Article Shaping or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   a generic class for apparatus not provided for elsewhere to mold a plastic, shape molten materials where no molding surface is employed, treating a product made by the apparatus of this class, randomly deposit and bond particulate material, or a combination of apparatus of this class with any diverse working or treating apparatus; Digest 47 for a seal ring.
451Abrading,   subclasses 28+ for a process of performing an abrading operation (i.e., where the sharp edges of mineral crystals form the cutting instrument) and a process of performing an ancillary operation not provided for elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 925]    925SNAP FIT FEATURE FOR MOUNTING OR ASSEMBLY OF SEAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means comprising a seal having a projecting or receiving portion secured by a sudden sharp engagement means for installation or construction.

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376,for a unitized, relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member mounted by snap fitting into a groove in a housing or casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 926]    926SEAL INCLUDING FLUID PRESSURE EQUALIZING OR BALANCING FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means to create a fluid pressure equilibrium at the joint or juncture.
(1) Note. This subclass collects patents for this concept not covered by a regular subclass.

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304,for a process of dynamic, close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier.
431+,for a dynamic, close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier.
544,for a dynamic segmented ring circumferentially contacting seal for other than a piston having pressure balancing or radial bias reducing means.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 479 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means loads the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 927]    927SEAL INCLUDING FLUID PRESSURE DIFFERENTIAL FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means to create a fluid pressure greater than or less than the pressure of the sealed fluid at the joint or juncture to oppose the flow of fluid.

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304,for a process of dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier.
431+,for a dynamic close proximity seal (e.g., contactless, fluent, etc.) created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier.
512+,for a dynamic circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having means to introduce or direct a fluid.

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384Bearings,   for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal, subclass 479 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means loads the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 928]    928SEAL INCLUDING PRESSURE RELIEF OR VENT FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means for releasing or relieving fluid pressure at the joint or juncture.
(1) Note. For this subclass a valve for a passageway must claim or disclose a venting function.

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408,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including means to introduce, circulate, or remove fluid.
457,for a piston groove having a passageway for fluid return, pressure relief, or venting.
514,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having fluid draining, venting or pressure relief means.
552,for a dynamic, circumferential contacting, peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection (e.g., lip seal, etc.) including a pressure relief or venting means for other than a piston.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 479 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means loads the seal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 929]    929SEAL FEATURE WHERE CHANGE IN OPERATION OR CONDITION INDUCES ADDITIONAL LEAKAGE CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means to prevent seepage from occurring at the joint or juncture during a change in the system or state of the seal (e.g., when relative movement between parts stops, etc.).
(1) Note. This subclass collects patents for this concept not covered by a regular subclass.

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425+,for a dynamic, close proximity impeller (e.g., slinger, etc.) seal having a static sealing means affected by rotational movement.
433,for a dynamic contact seal where centrifugal force affects displacement, shape, or contact of seal.
558,for a dynamic, circumferentially peripheral, radially sealing, flexible projection including a fluid pressure responsive biasing feature contact for other than a piston.
914,for a seal having a backup seal in case of failure of primary seal.

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384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for more than nominal bearing structure or detail (e.g., liner, bearing race, cage, etc.) combined with a specific seal; especially subclass 131 for a plain radial bearing where fluid moves the seal, subclasses 135+ for a plain radial bearing where centrifugal force moves or holds the seal in place; subclass 478 for a radial antifriction bearing where centrifugal force loads the seal or a liquid or gas forms a sealing barrier; or subclass 479 for a radial antifriction bearing where the seal establishes a pressure or pressure responsive means loads the seal,.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 930]    930SEAL INCLUDING HEATING OR COOLING FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means to transfer thermal energy (e.g., heater, heat exchanger, or heat transmitter; hot or cold fluid, etc.).

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408,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) including means to introduce, circulate, or remove fluid.
432,for a dynamic, close proximity seal created by pressurized sealing fluid introduced to form a barrier including an external device or system.
513,for a dynamic, circumferential contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having means to introduce or direct a fluid having an external device or system.
597,for a static, contact seal for use between parts of an internal combustion engine having a heat dissipating, cooling, or insulating feature.

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165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 47+ for a heat exchanger including structural installation on apparatus external to the subject matter of this class.
184Lubrication,   appropriate subclasses for a unitized lubrication means removable or installable from one machine to on another and intended to lubricate a bearing part in a machine; especially subclasses 104.1+ for a lubricator including a heating or cooling device.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 931]    931SEAL INCLUDING TEMPERATURE RESPONSIVE FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means to react to a change in a measure of warmth or coldness.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses do not include a seal that merely accommodates thermal expansion between parts.

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359+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) having a temperature responsive feature.
471,for a particular piston ring expander having thermal expansion means.

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285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   appropriate subclasses for means to secure in end-to-end or side-to-side relationship a pipe to another pipe, a plate, a wall, a receptacle, or other base where the means are independent from a seal (i.e., more than the frictional engagement of the seal secures a pipe end to another part) or a sleeve securing the pipe ends or another part; especially subclass 187 for temperature responsive means to maintain a good seal for expansion or contraction in the pipe coupling.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 932]    932Bi-metallic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 931.  Temperature responsive sealing means consisting of two metals having different coefficients of thermal expansion.

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428Stock Materials or Miscellaneous Articles,   a residual class for a structurally defined stock material, nonstructural laminate, article of manufacture, or intermediate article of manufacture not provided for elsewhere; especially subclasses 616+ comprising different contiguous layers or portions, each having a matrix or continuous phase of free metal having the property of bending or lengthening in a circular fashion in response to an increase in temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 933]    933Chemical reaction or physical change of state:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 931.  Temperature responsive sealing means wherein the sealing means changes its molecular structure or changes its phase (e.g., by polymerizing, volatilizing, intumescing, fusing, melting, freezing, etc.) from one condition (i.e., a solid, liquid, or gas) to another.

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252Compositions,   subclass 72 for a composition that contains an agent for stopping or reducing a leak in a container; or subclass 378 for a process of intumescing vermiculite, other micaceous substances or other materials, or a product of such a process not provided for elsewhere.
523Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 179 for a process of preparing a desired or intentional composition of at least one solid polymer or specified intermediate condensation product, or product thereof having utility as an ablative or an intumescent coating composition is claimed or solely disclosed, or to processes or preparation thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 934]    934SEAL SWELLS WHEN WET:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means including means to absorb liquid to increase the volume of the sealing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 935]    935SEAL MADE OF A PARTICULAR MATERIAL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Sealing means consisting of a specific composition or substance.

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404+,for a relatively rotatable, radially extending, sealing face member (e.g., face, mechanical, etc.) made of a particular material.
440+,for a piston ring having a surface of dissimilar material or hardness.
534+,for a dynamic, circumferential, contact seal for other than a piston intended to be contained or compressed by a gland member in a packing box having a particular material or construction.
627,for a static, contact seal intended for use on a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular material or construction.
650+,for a static, contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or a pipe, conduit, or cable having a particular sealing material or construction.
934,for a seal that swells when wet.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

428Stock Materials or Miscellaneous Articles,   a residual class for a structurally defined stock material, nonstructural laminate, an article of manufacture, not provided for elsewhere; especially subclasses 131+ for a structurally defined web or sheet (e.g., an overall dimension, etc.) including an aperture.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 936]    936Composite:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 935.  Made of a particular material consisting of specific distinct substances that retain their identities in the material used to form the sealing means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

428Stock Materials or Miscellaneous Articles,   a residual class for a structurally defined stock material, nonstructural laminate, article of manufacture or intermediate article of manufacture, not provided for elsewhere; especially subclasses 320.2+ comprising a single or plural web or sheet that contains components where at least one contains a liquid or has a constituent trapped inside preformed walls; subclasses 357+ containing or consisting of a strand, fiber, grain, cell, particle or any substance in terms of a particular size or shape, a plurality or such arranged relative to one another, a particular interengagement of a plurality of such or a coating associated therewith; subclasses 411.1+ for a composition of layers adhered or cohered to each other; subclass 426 for layers adhered or cohered to each other where a layer contains glass that may be in fiber or mat form; or subclasses 615+ comprising different contiguous layers or portions, each having a matrix or continuous phase of free metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 937]    937Glass particles or filament:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 936.  A composite wherein the composite material includes pieces or fibers of glass to reinforce the seal structure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

428Stock Materials or Miscellaneous Articles,   a residual class for a structurally defined stock material, nonstructural laminate, article of manufacture or intermediate article of manufacture, not provided for elsewhere; especially subclass 406 containing or consisting of particulate matter comprised of glass having a particular size or shape and a coating; or subclass 426 for layers adhered or cohered to each other where a layer contains glass that may be in fiber or mat form.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 938]    938Carbon or graphite particle or filament:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 936.  A composite wherein the composite includes a piece or fiber of carbon to reinforce the seal structure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

428Stock Materials or Miscellaneous Articles,   a residual class for a structurally defined stock material, nonstructural laminate, article of manufacture or intermediate article of manufacture, not provided for elsewhere; especially subclasses 367+ containing carbon as an element or compound, and consisting of or coating a rod, strand, filament, or fiber.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 939]    939Containing metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 935.  Made of a particular material wherein the composition or substance contains metal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

420Alloys or Metallic Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for a generic class for alloys containing metal or metallic compositions that contain a continuous phase of metal, methods of making it not provided for elsewhere, or "elemental" metal, per se.
428Stock Materials or Miscellaneous Articles,   a residual class for a structurally defined stock material, nonstructural laminate, article of manufacture or intermediate article of manufacture, not provided for elsewhere; especially subclasses 544+ for metallic.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 940]    940Alloy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 939.  Containing metal wherein the composition or substance is an intimate mixture of metals or of a metal and a nonmetal.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 941]    941Aluminum or copper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 939.  Containing metal wherein the composition or substance contains copper or aluminum.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 942]    942Silver or gold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 939.  Containing metal wherein the composition or substance contains silver or gold.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 943]    943Ceramic or glass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 935.  Made of a particular material wherein the composition or substance is a fired clay containing composition (e.g., porcelain, earthenware, etc.), glass or refractory composition (e.g., inorganic oxides, carbides, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

501Compositions: Ceramic,   subclasses 1+ for inorganic compositions other than Portland cement or cementitious material prepared from gypsum that are heat treated by firing, calcining, sintering, or fusion of a part of the inorganic material during manufacturing or subsequent use to effect hardening or fusion followed by hardening when cooled and processes not provided for elsewhere, and especially subclasses 11+ for a glass composition or a composition intended to be heat treated to form a glass.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 944]    944Elastomer or plastic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 935.  Made of a particular material wherein the composition or substance is rubberlike.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

582,for a dynamic, circumferential contact floating ring or bushing made of a particular elastomeric material for other than a piston.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 1+ is the generic subclass for a synthetic resin or natural rubber preparation, and composition containing or treatment thereof is to be considered an integral part of Class 260 retaining all pertinent definitions and class lines and having Classes 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, and 528 indented thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 945]    945Containing fluorine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 944.  Consisting of elastomer or plastic wherein the elastomer or plastic includes fluoride.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

570,for a dynamic circumferential contacting peripheral radially sealing flexible projection made of fluorocarbon for other than a piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 277 subclass 946]    946PTFE "TEFLON":
 This subclass is indented under subclass 945.  Containing fluorine wherein the fluoride is part of a polytetrafluoroethylene composition.
  

FOREIGN ART COLLECTIONS

The definitions below correspond to abolished subclasses from which these collections were formed. See the Foreign Art Collection schedule for specific correspondences. [Note: The titles and definitions for indented art collections include all the details of the one(s) that are hierarchically superior.]

FOR 100RADIALLY CONTAINED PACKING WITH AXIALLY ACTING FOLLOWER (277/102):
 Foreign art collections comprising a chamber and a member coaxial therewith a packing within said chamber and a follower exerting an axial thrust on the packing and biasing it radially into sealing engagement with the chamber and coaxial member.
  
FOR 101Piston (277/103):
 Foreign art collections wherein the follower is a fluid piston.
  
FOR 102Sectional follower (277/104):
 Foreign art collections wherein the follower comprises a plurality of connected segments.
  
FOR 103Bolted flange (277/105):
 Foreign art collections wherein the follower is provided with a flange which is adjustably secured to the chamber by bolts or studs.
  
FOR 104Spring biased flange (277/106):
 Foreign art collections comprising spring means external of the chamber acting directly on the flange or bolt.
  
FOR 105With operating handle (277/107):
 Foreign art collections comprising an operating handle for actuating the follower.
  
FOR 106With tool engaging means (277/108):
 Foreign art collections wherein the follower comprises a part which is modified for engagement with a tool.
  
FOR 107Weight actuated (277/109):
 Foreign art collections wherein the follower is actuated by a weight.
  
FOR 108Screw thimble (277/110):
 Foreign art collections wherein the follower comprises an internally screw-threaded thimble.
  
FOR 109With locking means (277/111):
 Foreign art collections provided with a locking means to prevent undesired looseness or retrograde movement of the screw thimble.
  
FOR 110Screw (277/112):
 Foreign art collections in which the follower is screw-threaded into the chamber.
  
FOR 111With operating mechanism (277/113):
 Foreign art collections comprising a mechanism for transmitting motion between an actuator and a follower.
  
FOR 112Unidirectional movement (277/114):
 Foreign art collections wherein the follower is provided with means preventing retrograde movement thereof.
  
FOR 113Tapered follower or box (277/115):
 Foreign art collections wherein the chamber is a packing box, the box or follower being tapered on the surface contacting the packing.
  
FOR 114Arcuate (277/116):
 Foreign art collections wherein the tapered surface is arcuate.
  
FOR 115Axially related backup member radially actuated by movement of follower (277/116.2):
 Foreign art collections comprising an axially related backing member for the packing having portions which are biased radially due to an axial movement of the follower, said member being structurally dissimilar to the packing.
  
FOR 116Telescoping actuator (277/116.4):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing is retained on a central stem comprising a plurality of telescoping members each having a radial shoulder the packing being held between respective shoulders and biased by relative movement thereof.
  
FOR 117With inserted sleeve expander (277/116.6):
 Foreign art collections comprising a radially related sleeve disposed between the packing and a central member on which the packing is held, the sleeve being so configured that axial movement thereof will cause the packing to be biased radially outwardly into packing engagement.
  
FOR 118Deflected packing (277/116.8):
 Foreign art collections wherein at least a part of a packing member is spaced from the central stem and is so arranged that the action of the follower is to bend or bow the packing member about one or more distinct points.
  
FOR 119Wedging surfaces (277/117):
 Foreign art collections wherein the bias is transmitted through wedging surfaces.
  
FOR 120Internal shell (277/118):
 Foreign art collections wherein a wedging surface is on a shell within the chamber.
  
FOR 121Split or segmental packing (277/119):
 Foreign art collections wherein a wedging surface is disposed on a split or segmental packing member.
  
FOR 122Expanding and contracting (277/120):
 Foreign art collections wherein one packing member or segment expands and another packing member or segment contracts due to the action of the follower.
  
FOR 123Elastomeric (277/121):
 Foreign art collections comprising at least one packing member or segment made of elastomeric material.
  
FOR 124Contracting (277/122):
 Foreign art collections wherein one of the packing members or segments is adapted to contract due to the action of the follower.
  
FOR 125Plural packing elements (277/123):
 Foreign art collections comprising a plurality of packing elements.
  
FOR 126Nested (277/124):
 Foreign art collections wherein at least a portion of one packing member is disposed within a portion of another packing member.
  
FOR 127Diverse (277/125):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing members are dissimilar.
  
FOR 128EXTERNALLY OPERATED ADJUSTMENT (277/126):
 Foreign art collections comprising adjustable means operable exteriorly of a packing chamber or seat for biasing the packing into sealing engagement.
  
FOR 129Fluid motor (277/127):
 Foreign art collections wherein the means comprises a fluid motor.
  
FOR 130Circumferential band (277/128):
 Foreign art collections wherein the means comprises a circumferential band contacting a peripheral surface of the packing.
  
FOR 131Acting along radius (277/129):
 Foreign art collections wherein the means acts along a radial line extending through the packing.
  
FOR 132LATERAL ACCESS TO PACKING BOX (277/130):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing box having an access opening in a side wall thereof.
  
FOR 133With distinct closure (277/131):
 Foreign art collections comprising a distinct closure for the access opening.
  
FOR 134Packing attached (277/132):
 Foreign art collections wherein the closure member is connected to or integral with a packing member.
  
FOR 135IMPELLER TYPE (277/133):
 Foreign art collections comprising an impeller or baffle means, at least a part of which is rotatable, which means acts to deflect the path of dust or fluid to prevent passage of same through the juncture.
  
FOR 136Axially acting (277/134):
 Foreign art collections wherein the impeller or baffle means is so constructed as to direct fluid in a direction parallel to the axis thereof.
  
FOR 137LIQUID BARRIER (277/135):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing comprises a liquid barrier sustained between the sealed members.
  
FOR 138WITH ANTIROTATION KEY OR ANCHOR (277/136):
 Foreign art collections wherein a packing or bias member is keyed or anchored to its seat so as to prevent relative rotation.
  
FOR 139Radial wall (277/137):
 Foreign art collections wherein the key or anchor engages a radial wall of the packing seat.
  
FOR 140WITH DISTINCT RADIALLY ACTING BIAS (277/138):
 Foreign art collections comprising means distinct from the inherent resilience of the packing material for biasing the packing in a radial direction.
  
FOR 141Unitary packing spacer and bias means (277/139):
 Foreign art collections wherein the bias means is a spacer or holder for axially spaced packing members.
  
FOR 142U-section (277/140):
 Foreign art collections wherein the spacing means is of generally U-shaped cross section.
  
FOR 143Common bias for axially spaced packings (277/141):
 Foreign art collections wherein two or more axially spaced packing rings have a single common bias means.
  
FOR 144With axially acting bias means (277/142):
 Foreign art collections comprising additional bias means acting in an axial direction.
  
FOR 145With axially component (277/143):
 Foreign art collections comprising means for resolving a radial force into axial and radial biasing components.
  
FOR 146Complementary inclined surfaces (277/144):
 Foreign art collections wherein the radial bias acts through inclined surfaces.
  
FOR 147Transversely symmetrical (277/145):
 Foreign art collections wherein the elements which comprise the inclined surfaces are symmetrical to a plane transverse of the axis of the packing.
  
FOR 148With bias restrainer (277/146):
 Foreign art collections comprising means associated with the bias means which (1) prevents the bias means from escaping from a seat or (2) limits the action of the bias means.
  
FOR 149With adjustable loading means (277/147):
 Foreign art collections comprising means for adjusting the stress on the bias means.
  
FOR 150Individually biased segments (277/148):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing comprises a plurality of segments at least one of which is biased independently of the remaining segment(s).
  
FOR 151Circumferentially spaced radially acting springs (277/149):
 Foreign art collections comprising a plurality of springs which act in a radial direction at spaced points about the periphery of the packing.
  
FOR 152With radial pin or socket (277/150):
 Foreign art collections wherein the bias means is disposed within a radial socket or about a radial pin.
  
FOR 153Circumferential thrust (277/151):
 Foreign art collections wherein the biasing means exerts a thrust at spaced points on the circumference of the packing and in a direction tangential or parallel thereto.
  
FOR 154Axial lip or boss (277/152):
 Foreign art collections wherein the bias means acts directly on a lip or boss extending axially of the seat engaging part of the packing.
  
FOR 155Exposed coil spring (277/153):
 Foreign art collections wherein the bias means is a coil spring exposed throughout at least a portion of its periphery.
  
FOR 156Interfitted segments (277/154):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing comprises a plurality of segments, the opposed end portions of which are provided with complementary interfitting portions.
  
FOR 157With bridging segments (277/155):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing comprises a plurality of segments, the opposing ends of which are capped or bridged by a separate segment.
  
FOR 158Break joint (277/156):
 Foreign art collections comprising plural split or segmental packing members with the joint or gap between opposed ends of each packing member, so arranged as to be out of registration with the corresponding portion of an adjacent packing member.
  
FOR 159Periphery engaging spring (277/157):
 Foreign art collections comprising a spring which engages the periphery of the packing member.
  
FOR 160Incompatible shapes (277/158):
 Foreign art collections wherein the spring and packing are of diverse peripheral shape.
  
FOR 161Radially extending tongues (277/159):
 Foreign art collections wherein the spring has tongues or projections extending from the main body thereof.
  
FOR 162Wave or undulate (277/160):
 Foreign art collections wherein the spring is wave or undulate in shape.
  
FOR 163Polygonal (277/161):
 Foreign art collections wherein the spring is of polygonal shape.
  
FOR 164Open-end (277/162):
 Foreign art collections wherein the spring has a gap between two spaced ends.
  
FOR 165Spiral (277/163):
 Foreign art collections wherein the spring is of spiral configuration.
  
FOR 166Embedded or enclosed spring (277/164):
 Foreign art collections comprising a spring embedded within or enclosed by a packing element.
  
FOR 167Nonmetallic (277/165):
 Foreign art collections wherein the means for biasing the packing is made of a nonmetallic material.
  
FOR 168ANCHOR EXTENDING THROUGH OR INTERFIFFTED WITH PACKING (277/166):
 Foreign art collections comprising anchor means extending through or interfitting with the packing.
  
FOR 169Helical seat (277/167):
 Foreign art collections comprising a helical packing seat.
  
FOR 170SERIALLY ARRANGED, SEPARATELY SEATED OR ANCHORED PACKING MEMBERS (277/167.3):
 Foreign art collections comprising a pair of complementary packing members, each seated or anchored to a respective member to be packed, in sealing engagement therewith, and also being in sealing engagement with the other packing member, both of said packing members being necessary to perform a sealing function.
  
FOR 171SINGLE SEAT FORMED BY OPPOSED RECESSES IN PLURAL MEMBERS (277/167.5):
 Foreign art collections comprising a recess in each of two packed members, the two recesses cooperating to form a single packing seat.
  
FOR 172LATITUDINALLY STEPPED OR TAPERED SEAT (277/168):
 Foreign art collections comprising a seat for a packing element, said seat having a portion which is stepped or tapered in the direction of its width.
  
FOR 173Arcuate wall (277/169):
 Foreign art collections comprising an arcuate wall portion.
  
FOR 174Oblique wall (277/170):
 Foreign art collections comprising an oblique wall portion.
  
FOR 175Plural (277/171):
 Foreign art collections comprising a plurality of oblique wall portions.
  
FOR 176Parallel (277/172):
 Foreign art collections wherein the oblique portions are parallel to each other.
  
FOR 177FLOATING PACKING MEMBER (277/173):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing member which is relatively movable with respect to both members.
  
FOR 178Radially translatable (277/174):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing member is movable as a unit in a radial direction.
  
FOR 179Axially spring pressed (277/175):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing member is held against a cooperating surface by an axially acting spring.
  
FOR 180Additional member (277/176):
 Foreign art collections comprising an additional member which cooperates with the packing member.
  
FOR 181Elastomeric (277/177):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing member is composed of elastomeric material.
  
FOR 182INTERFITTING WITH RADIALLY PROJECTING FLANGE (277/178):
 Foreign art collections wherein a part of a packing member interfits with a flange which projects radially from a member to which the packing is attached.
  
FOR 183EMBEDDED REENFORCEMENT OPPOSING TAPERED MOUNTED SURFACE (277/179):
 Foreign art collections wherein a reenforcement is embedded in a packing element opposite a tapered mounting surface.
  
FOR 184WITH COMPRESSION STOP (277/180):
 Foreign art collections comprising a compressible packing and a rigid element associated therewith, said rigid element serving to limit the compression, said rigid material being of harder material than the remaining portion of said packing.
  
FOR 185PACKING ATTACHED RETAINER (277/181):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing member having a distinct retaining portion carried thereby to retain said packing member in its operative position.
  
FOR 186Peripheral shell (277/182):
 Foreign art collections wherein the attaching member comprises a confining or housing element engaging the packing member about its outer periphery.
  
FOR 187With radial mounting flange (277/183):
 Foreign art collections wherein the housing element is provided with a radial flange defining a mounting portion for the housing element.
  
FOR 188Channel-shaped (277/184):
 Foreign art collections comprising a radially opening channel-shaped member.
  
FOR 189Plural at axially opposed ends (277/185):
 Foreign art collections wherein there are two packing attached retainers, one at each of two axially opposed ends of the packing.
  
FOR 190Resilient (277/186):
 Foreign art collections wherein the retaining portion is resilient.
  
FOR 191PACKING CHAMBER OR SEAT WITH SEPARABLE END WALL (277/187):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing chamber or seat having a detachably secured end wall.
  
FOR 192WITH AXIALLY RELATED BACKING OR RETAINING MEMBER (277/188 R):
 Foreign art collections comprising a backing or retaining member axially related to a packing element. Mere duplication of the same packing element in a single seat or chamber is classified on the basis of a single element in the same environment.
  
FOR 194WITH ANCHOR OR RETAINER (277/189):
 Foreign art collections comprising a means for anchoring or retaining a packing member in operative position.
  
FOR 195COMPOSITE SEAT (277/189.5):
 Foreign art collections wherein the packing seat comprises a plurality of intimately secured parts.
  
FOR 196WEDGING PORTIONS (277/190):
 Foreign art collections comprising a plurality of complementary portions, at least one of which is of wedge-shaped cross-section, the displacement of said wedge-shaped portion relative to the other, causing a corresponding lateral deflection or displacement due to the wedging action.
  
FOR 197Enclosed (277/191):
 Foreign art collections comprising a covering completely enclosing the complementary portions.
  
FOR 198SEGMENTAL (277/192):
 Foreign art collections comprising a plurality of separable distinct segments which are interrelated to form a single packing element.
  
FOR 199Axially related segments (277/193):
 Foreign art collections wherein the segments are axially related to each other.
  
FOR 200L-shaped (277/194):
 Foreign art collections wherein at least one of the segments is of L-shaped cross-section.
  
FOR 201With radially related segment (277/195):
 Foreign art collections comprising an additional segment which is related radially with respect to at least one of the other segments.
  
FOR 202Coiled or corrugated segment (277/196):
 Foreign art collections wherein at least one of the segments is coiled or corrugated.
  
FOR 203Diametrically opposed splits (277/197):
 Foreign art collections comprising split segments oriented so that the splits of adjacent segments are in diametrically opposed relation.
  
FOR 204Concentric segments (277/198):
 Foreign art collections wherein the segments are nested in concentric relationship.
  
FOR 205Interfitting segments (277/199):
 Foreign art collections wherein the ends of the segments are provided with complementary interfitting parts.
  
FOR 206AXIALLY SPACED FLANGES WITH CORRUGATED CONNECTION WEB (277/200):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing member having a pair of axially spaced flanges joined by an intervening web of corrugated or undulated formation.
  
FOR 207ANNULUS WITH DUCT OR PASSAGEWAY (277/201):
 Foreign art collections comprising an annular packing element having an opening which extends through a wall thereof.
  
FOR 208Elongated (277/202):
 Foreign art collections wherein the opening is elongated.
  
FOR 209HELICAL (277/203):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing element which is coiled into a helical configuration.
  
FOR 210VOLUTE (277/204):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing element coiled about itself in a volute formation.
  
FOR 211FLEXIBLE U- OR V-CUP (277/205):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing member having a pair of flexible peripheral lips extending from a body portion, said lips and body portion together forming a channel-shaped cross-section, the lips being of greater extent than any intervening part.
  
FOR 212Radially facing (277/206 R):
 Foreign art collections wherein the channel opens radially and each side wall of the channel has a component in a radial direction.
  
FOR 214RIBBED CONTACT SURFACE (277/207 R):
 Foreign art collections comprising a packing element having a plurality of ribs extending therefrom adapted for contact with another member forming a sealing surface therewith.
  
FOR 215Axially spaced (277/208):
 Foreign art collections wherein the ribs are axially spaced on the circumference of the packing element.
  
FOR 216Opposite surfaces (277/209):
 Foreign art collections wherein the ribs are on opposite sides of the packing element.
  
FOR 217Line contact (277/210):
 Foreign art collections wherein the ribs make substantially a line contact with the member against which they bear.
  
FOR 218Opposite surfaces (277/211):
 Foreign art collections wherein the ribs are on opposite sides of the packing element.