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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 166]   CLASS 166,WELLS
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This class relates to processes or means not otherwise classified comprising (1) shafts or deep borings in the earth, commonly known as wells, for the extraction of fluids from the earth, (2) shafts or deep borings in the earth for inserting a fluid into the interstices of a porous earth formation, usually to enable withdrawal of fluid from a producing output well, (3) apparatus peculiarly adapted for treating a well or for use in or with a well, or (4) processes of using, making, or treating a well.

This class takes combinations of elements or process steps relating to wells and going beyond the scope of subcombinations, such as measuring or testing means or pumps, classifiable, per se, in other classes. The class also takes subcombinations, such as packers or expanding anchors, peculiar to wells. However, the class does not take various intermediate combinations, such as devices performing only a measuring or testing function or a pumping function, which may include subcombinations, such as packers or expanding anchors, as minor perfecting features.

Treating a well includes various miscellaneous processes or apparatus relating to wells; typically, gravel layer forming, cementing, washing or acidizing.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

A. RELATIONSHIP TO CLASS 175, BORING OR PENETRATING THE EARTH

The relationship of Class 166 with boring or penetrating the earth, classified in Class 175, is close both for historical and functional reasons. The lines between Class 166 and Class 175 are set forth in the class definition of the latter class with the exception of the below noted reference to cementing. While Class 166 is generic to processes including earth boring or penetrating steps no general subclass has been provided in Class 166 for combinations with earth boring since earth boring of some kind is always associated with well making and the relationships expressed in the claims of patents were thought to be better classified on other bases in this class, see Class 175 subclasses 57+ and the search there noted for earth boring processes, per se.

Generally in relation to apparatus Class 175 is more comprehensive than Class 166 and takes combinations of Class 175 and Class 166 subject matter. Class 166 however, takes some miscellaneous subcombinations which may be disclosed as used only in drilling operations but which are in fact of general utility in wells, particularly when there is no suitable subclass provided in Class 175 and a suitable subclass is provided in Class 166.

Processes of cementing, plugging or consolidating as defined in Class 166 subclass 21 are distinguished from drilling with fluid processes classifiable in Class 175 subclasses 65+ by the interruption of the actual earth cutting operation of the drilling process. Thus a process which purports to be a drilling process but which includes in its disclosure some indication that the actual earth cutting has stopped to permit cementing, such as a statement that "drilling is resumed" or that "after the cement has set", will be considered a cementing process for Class 166. The fact that a drilling tool stem or shaft is disclosed as the means for delivering the cementing materials below ground or a disclosure that drilling mud or drilling fluid is used as a carrier for or a constituent of the cementing material will not preclude classification in Class 166. Such processes in which drilling is interrupted to permit cementing are classifiable in Class 166 even if the cementing step is only normally or inferentially claimed. See, however (1) Note in Class 166, subclass 21.

B. RELATIONSHIP TO PUMPS

The general line between Class 417, Pumps and Class 166 is that if subject matter relating to a feature peculiar to a well is claimed in combination with Class 417 subject matter, classification is in Class 166. The following categories of subject matter more specifically delineate this line.

1. Class 166 Subject Matter Classifiable With Class 417 Subject Matter in Class 417.

a. Combinations of certain subcombinations, which if claimed, per se, are classifiable in Class 166, those with Class 417 subject matter are classifiable in Class 417. A recitation of a well broadly, or with certain well features will not exclude a patent from Class 417. The following are examples of such features which would be classifiable in Class 417:

i. a well tubing or conduit.

ii. structure in well tube to support a Class 417 device.

iii. a packer or anchor for sealing a Class 417 device in tube.

iv. a below ground check valve in pump inlet or outlet.

v. a valve which drains Class 417 device.

b. In examples iv. and v. it should be noted that a broadly recited pump or pump barrel with an anchor, packer or drain valve is classifiable in Class 166 in appropriate anchor, packer or valve subclasses.

2. Class 417 Device Combined With Below Ground Separator or Screen.

A well screen, as defined in Class 166, subclass 227, generally contacts the earth wall of the well bore as a continuation of a casing. A solids separator or inlet screen for a pump tube in a well is generally disposed inside the casing and well screen. A well type screen specifically described as such and claimed in combination with a pump as more than an opening or a passage for fluid is classifiable in Class 166. A gas separator or anchor disclosed as in a well, even though claimed in combination with a Class 417 device is classifiable in Class 166 (see Subclass References to Current Class, below), except as noted in section D below. Further, a sediment trap or deflector (e.g., sand trap) disclosed as in a well is also classified in Class 166 (see Subclass References to Current Class, below) even though claimed in combination with a pump.

3. Above Ground Well Structure Combined With Class 417 Device.

Generally the combination of a Class 417 device, whether above or below ground, with above ground well apparatus for handling pumped fluid or supporting a pump driving means is classifiable in Class 417. Note, however, that features which relate the well structure to the earth, such as placing pipes below the frost line or embedded foundation which also supports well casing will cause classification in Class 166.

4. Below Ground Fluid Entrainment Type Pumps and Flowing Wells.

a. Class 417 will take an aerating column, jet, gas lift or other entrainment type pump, per se. See References to Other Classes, below.

b. Class 166 will take Class 417 device as set forth in paragraph (1) when the solely disclosed and claimed means for supplying all the motive fluid to the device is located in the well and collects the motive fluid by trapping or separating well fluid in the well (e.g., gas anchor, packer with gas passage to central conduit etc.).

c. Class 417 will take subject matter similar to that in paragraph (2) above when there is a specific description of means to supply additional motive fluid from the earth surface or a point outside the well. This classification prevails even though the additional motive fluid may have been originally obtained from the same well. Obviously combinations of these features with other well features may cause classification in Class 166.

5. Summary of Well Feature.

a. The following features, claimed in combination with a Class 417 device, are representative of the type of subject matter in general which will cause classification in Class 166:

i. Any specific relationship of the Class 417 device or other fluid conducting structure to the earth or earth formations as: plural pumps in plural wells; single pump connected to a plurality of wells; inlets from a plurality of earth formations; location of parts in relation to the frost line in earth; lateral conduit below ground; earth contacting well screen; and earth embedded support for tubing or casing.

ii. Any specific relationship to well operation or structure, such as: process steps in addition to installation, removal or operation of a pump; control of pump or pumped fluid in response to a condition sensed in a well; control or pump or pumped fluid in relation to operation of another device in the well, other than mere flow check valves; above ground separation of fluids leaving well for purposes other than the production or removal of pump operating or motive fluid; apparatus, not forming a part of the pump itself, for handling or manipulating pump parts; passages for pumped fluid specifically described as directing the fluid to wash, clean or otherwise treat the well; sediment traps or deflectors; and gas separators (but see Section 4c above).

C. WELL SHAFTS AND METHODS AND THE LIKE ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED

Well shafts or shafts sunk in the earth and structurally similar to well shafts, and methods of operating wells are not all classified in Class 166.

See References to Other Classes for classes that provide for shaft structures and methods which are equivalent or very similar to those found in Class 166.

D. DEVICES OR PROCESSES IN WELLS OR THE LIKE ELSEWHERE CLASSIFIED

Class 166 provides for various well treating and flow controlling devices to be inserted into a well below the ground level, but other classes also provide for similar devices. In cases of doubtful classification the fact that a device is disclosed only for use below ground in a well should incline classification towards Class 166.

Class 166 provides for example, for apparatus and methods for fluid sampling in a well for cementing, washing, or mechanically cleaning a well, acidizing or otherwise treating a formation, packing, plugging, heating, cooling, dissolving paraffin, separating materials in a well, (including liquids from liquids, gases from liquids and solids from liquids), graveling or otherwise forming strainers in a well, and anchoring devices in a well.

See References to Other Classes, below, for other classes which take devices inserted in a well or analogous devices and processes relating to such devices.

E. REFERENCES INTEGRAL TO AND EXTERNAL TO THIS CLASS

Subclass References to the Current Class, below, includes both subclass references integral to Class 166 as well as references to art areas external to this class.

SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

3,for processes of taking a fluid sample only.
50,55, 55.3, 55.4, 55.8, 57, 60, 63, 66, 66.5, 75.1, 77.1, 77.51, 82.1, 85.1, 99, 100, 105, 107, 113, 117.5, 117.6, 120, 157, 162, 170, 174, 177.6, 178, 206, 212, 222, 227, 239, 241, 242.8, 250.1, 254.1-256, 264, 272.1, 285, 292, 296-302, 305, 307, 308, 312, 315, and 316, for boring or penetrating the earth.
50,77.1, 242.9, 285, 286, 287, 292, 302, and 315, for hydraulic and earth engineering.
50,177.5, 179, 206, 249, 268, 272.1, 303, 305, 308, and 315, for mining or in situ disintegration of hard material.
54,55, 72, 88.5, 95.1, 97.1, 105, 165, 205, 227, 244, 277, 311, 314, 316, and 327, for fluid handling.
54.5,55, 63, 135, 162, 177.5, 179, 192, 241.1+, 299, 308, and 311, for ammunition and explosives.
54.5,55, 55.6, and 55.7, for cutlery.
54.5,fishing, trapping, and vermin destroying.
54.5and 66.5, for ships.
55,297, and 298, for cutting.
55,for cutting by use of rotating axially moving tool.
55,85.1, 98, 99, 117.7, 162, 166, 178, 206, 217, 226, and 301, for Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements.
55and 297, for metal deforming.
57and 58, for stoves and furnaces.
57,63, 75.1, 106, 112, 142, 170, 174, 177.7, 179, 188, 202, and 206, for pumps.
60and 315, for electric heating.
64,66, 113, and 250, for geometrical instruments.
64and 250, for registers.
66and 250.1, for Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation).
66and 250.1, for Communications: Electrical.
66and 250.1, for Electricity: Measuring and Testing.
66and 250.1, for radiant energy.
75.1,82.1, 86.1, 88.1, 162, 170, and 311, for brushing, scrubbing, and general cleaning.
75.1,for fire extinguishers.
75.1,78.1, 82.1, 84.1, 86.1, 88.1, 179, 187, 202, and 315, for joint packing.
75.1,81.1, 84.1, 86.1, 88.1, 168, 179, 206, 242.3, and 315, for pipe joints or couplings.
75.1,91.1, 135, 179, 192, 227, 242, and 316, for pipes and tubular conduits.
75.1,92.1, 93.1, 162, and 192, for receptacles.
75.1,86.1, 88.1, 91.1, 95.1, 97.1, and 316, for valves and valve actuation.
77.1,for Distillation: Processes Separatory.
77.1,for implements or apparatus for applying pushing and pulling force.
77.51,117.7, and 315, for tools.
81and 315, for metal working.
100,for fluid conducting lateral probes sealed to the well wall.
105.5+,for devices combined with a pump or plunger means for drawing well fluid out of the well or into a receptacle which is to be taken out of the well.
107,113, 162, 250.1, and 264, for measuring and testing.
117.5+,for means for guiding an insertable element laterally of the well axis, e.g., whipstock, per se.
153,170, 177, 179, and 202, for expansible chamber devices.
162,for dispensing.
162,for excavating.
162,171, 205, 227, 228, and 265, for liquid purification or separation.
177.6,for agitating.
178,for tool driving or impacting.
178,in particular, and appropriate subclasses, for well devices combined with a jar for releasing a stuck part.
222,for fluid sprinkling, spraying, and diffusing.
237,for clutches and power-stop control.
237,for machine element or mechanism.
244,268, 285, 292, 304, 305, 307, 310, and 312, for compositions.
250.1,for acoustics.
250.1,for recorders.
250.1,264, and 265, for Chemistry: Physical Processes.
265,for gas separation: apparatus.
265,for gas separation: processes.
265,for Mineral Oils: Apparatus.
265,for Mineral Oils: Processes And Products.
265,for refrigeration.
285,for coating apparatus.
285,for chemistry of carbon compounds.
285,for Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes.
285and 292, for compositions: coating or plastic.
285and 315, for adhesive bonding and miscellaneous chemical manufacture.
285and 315, for static structures (e.g., buildings).
300,for a detailed discussion of processes involving no more than placing specific compounds or compositions in a well using insignificant manipulative steps.
311,for cleaning and liquid contact with solids.

SECTION IV - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   for apparatus designed or adapted for cleaning for other than well use subclasses 104.05+ for pipe, tube, or conduit cleaner, subclass 249.1 for a brush or broom flue cleaning implement or subclasses 249.2+ for a scraper-type cleaning implement. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   subclass 232 for processes of gas sampling involving the use of sorbents or chemical treatments which may include a shaft sunk in the ground to collect gas for analysis. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   subclass 232 for gas analyzing process for use in a gas well, involving the use of sorbents. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
29Metal Working,   appropriate subclasses for processes or apparatus for assembling or disassembling well structures above ground, or in which there is no special relationship with the well. See Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
30Cutlery,   subclasses 92+ for pipe cutting implements. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
33Geometrical Instruments,   appropriate subclasses, for instruments, per se, for measuring distances, angles, and the like in a well, subclasses 302 and 304+, for borehole direction or inclination sensing and indicating. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
37Excavating,   subclasses 54+ for dredgers. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
37Excavating,   subclass 182 and subclasses 183+ for orange peel and clamshell buckets, which may be inserted in a well. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   subclasses 124+ for vermin destroying shafts sunk in the earth. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 19+ , 169.1+, 192+, 223.1, 245+, and 261 for a masonry construction surrounding an open space which may form a cistern or well wherein no feature peculiar to well operation, e.g., screens, pumps, driving points, shoes, etc., is defined. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
62Refrigeration,   subclasses 45+ for subject matter, including wells, for the use and handling of liquefied gas. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
72Metal Deforming,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 151.01+ for subject matter relating to bore hole studies and subclasses 863+ for soil gas sampling devices. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 152.01+ for instruments, per se, (including subcombination means such as packers or anchors for perfecting the measuring or Testing Function) for bore hole studies and subclasses 863+ for fluid samplers of general utility. Class 166 takes devices for taking a sample of fluid from a potential producing horizon of a well, but such sampling combined with measuring or testing or bore hole study is in Class 73. Devices or methods for sampling gas from the soil by means sunk into the ground to a point not far from the surface of the ground are in Class 73, subclasses 863+. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
81Tools,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
83Cutting,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 172+ for pistons, and particularly subclass 180, for an elongated tubular well type plunger, and subclasses 240+ for a piston having the side wall portion thereof provided with a peripheral axially extending flexible lip. A piston which is fluid driven for treating a well (e.g., for cementing) is classified in Class 166, subclasses 153+. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
95Gas Separation: Processes,   subclasses 241+ for degasification of liquid and other appropriate subclasses for processes to be used near oil or gas wells to separate gas from other constituents discharged from the well. Claims to these processes may include a nominal recitation of the well process. However, a detailed recitation of the well process or a recitation of an input well receiving material from the separator indicates classification in Class 166. See Subclass Refereneces to the Current Class, above.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 155+ for degasifying means for liquid and other appropriate subclasses for apparatus to be used near oil or gas wells to separate gas from other constituents discharged from the well. Claims to this apparatus may include a nominal recitation of the well. However, a detailed recitation of the well or a recitation of an input well receiving material from the separator indicates classification in Class 166. See Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 301+ for apparatus and methods for causing an explosion in a well to break up a formation, clean a bore, or perform other functions involving only an explosion. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
111Planting,   subclasses 118+ for devices for placing fluids below the surface of the earth without any expectation of recovering them and subclasses 89+ for dibbles. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
114Ships,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
118Coating Apparatus,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
134Cleaning and Liquid Contact With Solids,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 272+ for fire hydrants and subclasses 363+ for ground supporting enclosures. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
137Fluid Handling,   appropriate subclasses for fluid handling devices of general application and not having a specific location in a well or other specific relationship to a well, especially subclasses 67+ for such devices with destructible or deformable element control other than valves or closures in wells destructible by drilling, subclass 155 for gas lift valves for wells and subclass 515 for direct response valves in couplings for co-axial conduits. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 37+ for flow restrictors or pipes with flow restrictors; and subclasses 100-178 for conduit structure of general utility, including conduits disclosed only for use as well casings or tubings. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 89+ for closures and plugs other than plugs which are inserted into a prepositioned well conduit. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   appropriate subclasses for process and apparatus for laminating in general and see especially subclasses 293+ and 423+ for inserting a core within a tube combined with a laminating step. A process of lining a well or conduit in a well is classified in Class 166. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
165Heat Exchange,   subclass 45 for a geographically installed heat exchanger that may comprise a well. Heat exchange apparatus comprising part of a well apparatus for producing or treating a well would be classified in Class 166. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
169Fire Extinguishers,   subclasses 2+ for processes for extinguishing or preventing well fires, and also patents for apparatus for extinguishing or preventing fires claiming no more of the well than cooperates with the fire extinguishing or preventing means and also claiming some fire extinguishing or prevention feature beyond a mere cap or casing head, means for diverting flow or means for inserting a fluid into the well. See Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 1 for processes or apparatus for boring including seismic shock generation; subclasses 2+ for processes or apparatus for boring by below ground explosion, and including a device for firing a bullet or exploding a shaped charge from an inaccessible bore to penetrate the formation, to enlarge the bore, or form a bore, and including such device even when limited by disclosure to merely perforating or cutting a casing or other wall member in the bore if the device inherently causes penetration of the formation; subclasses 11+ for processes or apparatus for boring by directly applying heat to fluidize or comminute the earth; especially subclass 12 for combustion of the earth formation itself and subclass 16 for electrically produced heat; subclass 17 for processes or apparatus including heating or cooling either within the bore or of the drilling fluid (merely using drilling fluid to cool or heat is not included); subclasses 40+ for processes or apparatus for boring including signaling, indicating, testing or measuring and especially subclass 45 for tool direction or inclination measuring or indicating within the bore; subclasses 57+ for earth boring processes, per se, and especially subclass 59 for processes of taking samples of solid earth formation including (1) retaining fluid in the solid sample or (2) taking a separate fluid sample (processes of taking a fluid sample only are in Class 166; see Subclass References to the Current Class, above); subclass 77 for side wall tools fed laterally of an existing bore hole (fluid conducting lateral probes sealed to the well wall are in Class 166; see Subclass References to the Current Class, above); subclasses 79+ for tool shafts which are advanced relative to a guide (e.g., whipstock) insertable in a well bore to change the direction of advance (means for guiding an insertable element laterally of the well axis, e.g., whipstock, per se, are in Class 166; see Subclass References to the Current Class, above); subclass 84 for boring apparatus with an above ground cleaner therefor; subclasses 98+ for a below ground tool drive motor with an expansible anchor; subclasses 207+ for boring apparatus with above ground means for handling drilling fluid or cuttings, especially subclasses 209+ in which the means engages the bore entrance; subclass 230 for boring apparatus including an expanding anchor; subclasses 293+ for below ground hammer or impact devices claimed, per se, (well devices combined with a jar for releasing a stuck part are in Class 166; see Subclass References to the Current Class, above); subclass 314 for boring apparatus combined with a well type screen; and subclass 402 for an earth cutting casing shoe type bit. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Relationship To Class 175, Boring or Penetrating The Earth, above.)
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses, for processes and apparatus for boring or penetrating the earth, see particularly Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above, and the search notes located within this section. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
181Acoustics,   subclasses 102+ , for mechanical acoustical devices inserted in wells.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
203Distillation: Processes Separatory,   see Subclass References to the Current Class.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   see Subclass References to the Current Class.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 459+ for filters and strainers which may be used in a well or as a pump intake. See Class 166, subclass 227 for the line between Classes 166 and 210. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 294+ for diverse distinct separators, subclasses 322+ for plural distinct separators, subclasses 348+ for a filter, and subclasses 513+ for a gravitational separator. See Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 277+ for electric heaters, per se, for lowering into a well. The combination of a heater and well structure is in Class 166. The well structure, for example, may be no more than a tubing for flowing fluid from or into the well. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
220Receptacles,   for receptacles of general utility.
222Dispensing,   subclasses 356+ and the subclasses there noted for dipping type dispensers not used in a well. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
235Registers,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 83+ for ray energy detection or measurement in wells. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   appropriate subclasses for valves and valve actuators of general application and not having a specific location in a well or other specific relationship to a well, especially subclass 76 for impact actuated valves, subclasses 142+ for a flow path with a single valve, and subclasses 341+ for valves in which the valve actuator is the valve casing or a continuation thereof. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 1.1+ for valve type blowout preventers, per se, on well casing heads. See Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing and Pulling Force,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for packing structure of general application particularly subclasses 5+ for a packing between a casing and a relatively movable sectional rod and subclass 31 for a rotatable packing between a casing and a reciprocating rod. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   appropriate subclasses for joints between pipes, including tubing and casing sections of general utility. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 68.22+ for hoist buckets to be inserted into a well, and subclasses 65.5 and 86.1+ for grappling devices for withdrawing loose or stuck objects from a well. Grapples for Class 294 may include means for washing dirt away from the object to be grappled. Processes for withdrawing loose or stuck objects from a well involving the use of grappling devices are classified in appropriate subclasses in Class 166. The line between hoisting buckets or grapples for Class 294 and receptacles for Class 166 is set forth in Class 166, subclasses 99 and 162. The line between grapples for Class 294 and expansible anchors for Class 166 is set forth in Class 166, subclass 206. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   appropriate subclass for recovering hard, solid, valuable materials from the earth and for utilizing a tunnel (a horizontal earth passage in which a human works) to recover valuable fluid material from the earth. Wells and well processes for extracting fluid from the earth, including petroliferous material such as freely flowing oil, oil adhered to the formation which must be recovered by secondary methods, asphalts and tars are classified in Class 166. Furthermore, wells and well processes for recovering hydrocarbons from material such as shale by treating the material in situ to remove only liquid or gas, or for treating or converting solid hydrocarbons such as coal or lignite in situ for recovery solely as a liquid or gas are classified in Class 166. However, wells and well processes for treating or comminuting solid materials other than hydrocarbons (e.g., sulfur and salt) for recovery in the liquid or gaseous state are classified in Class 299. Likewise, wells and well processes for recovering valuable solid material including hydrocarbons such as coal, oil shale or oil sand, where any of the valuable material is removed from the well in the solid state, are classified in Class 299. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 323+ for subject matter relating to the determination of an electrical characteristic of the sub-surface of the earth, and involving devices in wells. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 853.1+ for telemetering in wells. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   appropriate subclasses for radar systems in wells. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
346Recorders,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
366Agitating,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 25+ for seismic well logging; subclasses 81+ for acoustic wellbore telemetering; and subclass 86 for acoustic borehole testing. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 8 for a pressurized caisson; subclass 36 for drainage systems comprising shafts sunk in the earth for removing surplus water from the soil; subclass 53 for underground storage of fluids; subclass 128.15 for the collection of fluid contaminants in a collection well for the purpose of soil remediation, including a significant soil treatment step external to the well; subclass 129.4 for the subterranean disposal of waste in an earthen fracture which is created with fluid pressure; subclass 129.45 for drainage or collection of waste or waste byproduct within a waste site for preventing the waste or waste byproduct from contaminating "clean" neighboring earth or earthen structure or purging the waste product from the waste site; subclass 133 for methods and structure relating to shafts of general utility sunk into the earth, and for methods and apparatus for the sinking of shafts, including well shafts, by means of a caisson or other similar means for excavating earth beneath a shaft being sunk; subclass 232 for a process and apparatus for installing piles in the earth; subclass 233 for casting a pile of hardenable material in situ; subclass 234 combined with heating, cooling, or explosion; subclass 240 combined with withdrawal of a form structure subsequent to placing the fluent material; subclass 249 for methods and structure relating to the sinking of a caisson or hollow shaft which is subsequently filled to form a pile or pier; and subclass 270 for temporary shoring means. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts, and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   see Subclass References to the Current Class, above.
417Pumps,   for means for pumping liquid out of wells, especially subclasses 56+ , for drilled well free piston type pumps, subclasses 86 and 118+, for pneumatic displacement pumps, subclasses 90+, and 108+, for aerated column pumps, subclass 358, for a pump-motor unit raised in a well conduit by pressure fluid applied below the unit, subclass 434, for pumps with a separate port or noncyclic valve for draining a pump portion, subclasses 448+, for well pumps removable as a unit by drive rod manipulation and subclasses 451+, for well removable with the pumping member. (See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Summary of Well Feature.)
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for pumps inserted in a well. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
417Pumps,   subclasses 63+ for apparatus having (1) signals, indicators, registers, recorders, or gauges for indicating a condition of the pump or pumped fluid or the position of a pump part such as a piston, control member, valve, etc., such devices comprising relatively movable, changeable or audible information giving parts, or (2) transparent viewing means whereby the pump operation or the condition of some part thereof may be observed.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   for rotary expansible chamber devices, per se. The line between Classes 166 and 418 is the same as that set forth between Classes 166 and 417 for which see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class in the main class definition to Class 166. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for apparatus for gas sampling involving use of sorbents or chemical treatments which may include a shaft sunk in the ground to collect gas for analysis. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 83+ for gas analyzing apparatus for use in a well, involving the use of sorbents.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 230+ for processes of Coating the interior of hollow articles in general. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   for processes for gas sampling involving the use of sorbents or chemical treatments which may include a shaft sunk in the ground to collect samples. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Well Shafts and Methods and the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   for processes involving no more than placing specific compounds or compositions in a well using insignificant manipulative steps. See Subclass References to the Current Class above for a subclass Reference to a detailed discussion. (Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified.)
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   see Class 166, Section II, Lines With Other Classes, subsection D, Devices or Processes in Wells or the Like Elsewhere Classified, and subclasses 244.1 , 268, 285, 292, 304, 305.1, 307, 310, 312, and 371.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   see Class 166, subclasses 244.1 , and 309.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclass 6 for computations in the application of well logging.
703Data Processing: Structural Design, Modeling, Simulation, and Emulation,   subclass 10 for mathematical simulation of a fluid well.

SECTION V - GLOSSARY

CASING

A pipe which lines all or a portion of the wall of a well. The casing may be adjacent the wall of the well for only a part of its length and lie within another casing section for the remainder of its length. The casing usually is of metal and is used with cement between it and the well wall. The casing is intended to form the permanent lining of the well.

CENTRAL CHAMBER

A generic term covering both a central conduit, as defined below, and a receptacle for bodily transport of fluid material from inside the well to the top of the well or bodily transport of material from the top of the well for discharge at a point in the well. In a well device the central chamber is considered to be the primary locus from which or to which fluid is moved. For example, the "central chamber" in a tester is the sample chamber receiving the test fluid, whether this be a receptacle or a tubing, while the "central chamber" in a liquid discharging washer is the primary place from which liquid flows, whether this be a tubing or a receptacle.

CENTRAL CONDUIT

Any passage forming conduit which extends from the top of the well into the well and is positioned within another conduit. The central conduit may be, for example, a string of tubing positioned within another tubing or within the casing, or it may be a string of casing positioned within the well bore.

FLUID

A material capable of flowing. A naturally occurring fluid in the earth. It includes gases, liquids, plastics, and solids which can be handled in the manner of a liquid.

LINER

A column of casing having screen forming perforations which does not extend to the top of the well and which is usually the lowest column of casing in the well. The liner is placed in position by lowering it from the top of the well through the casing sections already placed in well. The perforations may be formed before the liner is run into the well or after. The liner is sometimes surrounded by a perforated section of casing, the liner then becoming a secondary lining section of the well.

TUBING

A pipe for conducting fluids which extends from the top of the well to some point below and lies within the casing or is used without a casing as a temporary structure.

WELL CONDUIT

Either (1) a well tubing, (2) a well casing, or (3) the earth or cementitious wall of the well.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 50]    50WELLS WITH LATERAL CONDUITS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a main vertical shaft and one or more conduits extending outwardly transversely into the formation for collecting fluid therefrom or inserting fluid thereinto.
(1) Note. The transversely extending conduits of this subclass comprise relatively long tubes. See subclass 100 for a short probing member carried by a central tube and extending transversely into the earth.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 61 and 62 for processes of boring (1) curved or re-directed bores or (2) horizontal bores, respectively.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclass 19 for a mining plan or layout which may comprise lateral tunnels or drifts large enough for a person to work in extending outwardly from a vertical shaft.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 36+ for wells with lateral conduits for collecting surplus water from the soil.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 51]    51MEANS FOR FORMING FILTER BEDS (E.G., GRAVEL PLACING):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means specially adapted for use in the operation of placing a mass of filter material, e.g., gravel, in final position in the well.
(1) Note. Means for merely lowering a preformed screen or bed of filter material into the well is not included. Such filter beds may have means aiding to form them above ground or a contiguous reservoir for filter material which is intended to fall down to replenish the main filter bed. Also means for merely supporting filter material placed into the well are not included. See subclass 228 for all these devices.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

228,for screens comprising filter material.
278,for processes of placing a bed of filter material.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 52]    52PLURAL WELLS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a plurality of wells.
(1) Note. One or more of the wells may be a shaft for placing fluid in a porous earth strata.
(2) Note. Also included are wells, such as drive points, which may be connected below ground with a single shaft.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

50,for a well comprising a single vertical shaft and plural laterally extending fluid collecting or discharging conduits.
245,for processes involving specific patterns of plural well.
251.1and 256+, for processes involving plural wells and in situ combustion.
252and 268+, for processes involving injection and producing wells.
263,for processes involving cyclic operation of plural wells.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 53]    53AUTOMATIC:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means to sense a condition which may or may not be present or may occur spasmodically, and cause operation of a control device, without the intervention of a human operator, (e.g., liquid level or specific gravity responsive devices, temperature responsive devices or self-correlating devices).
(1) Note. For a definition of self-correlating see Class 137, Fluid Handling, subclasses 87.01+.
(2) Note. Control devices for signals or indicators and control devices comprising valves or closures across a passage operated to control fluid flowing in the passage by means sensing the pressure or velocity of the fluid flowing in said passage and control devices operated in response to means sensing inertia, gravity, time, the bottom of the well, an obstruction in the well, a break, projection, cavity or joint in a well are not considered automatically operated in this class and are classified on other features.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

64+,for well devices with means indicating time or distance or with counting means or temperature responsive means, the temperature responsive means sensing temperature as part of an operating cycle or by insertion into a zone of predetermined temperature which causes a predetermined response.
66,for well devices with electrical indicating means.
113,for well devices with mechanical indicating means.
132,for well devices comprising packers or plugs with expanding anchors and having means to sense the end of a conduit.
206+,and the subclasses there noted for anchor devices caused to be set by a means sensing a cavity, joint or break in a wall or caused to be set by an inertia or gravity sensing means, especially subclasses 209+ for anchors caused to be set by inertia or gravity sensing means and subclasses 214+ for anchors caused to be set by means sensing a cavity joint or break in a well wall.
226,and the subclasses there noted for valves, closures or changeable restrictors caused to be operated by means sensing the well bottom or an obstruction or projection in the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 54]    54Float controlled valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Devices comprising valves controlled by a float responsive to the change in level or specific gravity of a fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 409+ for float controlled valves, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 54.1]    54.1WITH MEANS FOR SEPARATELY PUMPING FROM PLURAL SOURCES IN WELL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a well having plural earth formations which are isolated from each other so that fluid is separately obtainable therefrom and in which pumping means, comprising one or more individual pumps, is operatively associated to pump from each formation for separate delivery of the fluids from the well.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

52,for plural wells.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 54.5]    54.5MEANS FOR CUTTING CABLE OR ROPE BELOW GROUND:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means for severing a flexible strand such as a cable, rope or the like, the severing means being located in a well below ground level when performing the severing operation.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 75.1 for the meaning of ground level as used in this definition.
(2) Note. The cable or rope may be used to suspend a tool, such as an earth boring bit or the like, and the nominal recitation of a tool by name will not preclude classification in this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

55+,for means perforating, weakening, bending or separating pipe at any point in a well.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

30Cutlery,   subclasses 92+ , and the search there noted, for pipe or rod cutters of general utility.
43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   subclass 17.2 for devices for cutting a fishing line near the hook or for otherwise releasing the hook or other fishing element.
114Ships,   subclasses 221+ for ship working implements including devices for cutting a ship"s cable when the anchor is caught or for other reasons.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 54.6]    54.6Cutting means actuated by contacting element suspended in well by cable or rope:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.5.  Devices comprising a means for causing the operation of the severing means which requires contact of some part of the device with a stationary object in the well for its operation, the stationary object being a member which is held in position in the well by the flexible strand which is to be severed.
(1) Note. Many of the devices found in the subclasses noted in the Search Class Notes of subclass 54.5 are of this type.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 55]    55MEANS FOR PERFORATING, WEAKENING, BENDING OR SEPARATING PIPE AT AN UNPREPARED POINT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means for perforating, weakening, bending or separating the side wall of a well pipe at a location in the pipe which has not been specially preconditioned for such action.
(1) Note. A means for merely indicating the location in a pipe at which an operation such as cutting is to be performed is not considered a special preconditioning of the pipe.
(2) Note. The earth wall of the well is not considered a "pipe".
(3) Note. A mere pipe coupling sleeve is not a specially preconditioned location.
(4) Note. A device to fire a bullet or explode a shaped charge to perforate a casing or other wall member in a bore is classified in Class 175, even though there is no disclosure that penetration of the earth occurs.
(5) Note. If the device functions above ground level some significant limitation to the well art should be present for classification under this definition, but if the device functions below ground level a disclosure line prevails, except where there is a body of art in other classes relating to such devices used in a well.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

63,for devices involving explosive apparatus similar to that found in subclass 55 but used for penetrating only the formation rather than a pipe or a pipe and the formation.
297+,for processes for perforating, weakening, bending or separating pipe at an unprepared point.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

30Cutlery,   subclasses 92+ for pipe and rod cutters not disclosed as for use in a wall.
60Power Plants,   subclasses 632+ , for one shot explosion actuated expansible chamber type motors.
72Metal Deforming,   appropriate subclass for a pipe deforming means of general utility, including a pipe deforming means described as functioning in a well and particularly subclasses 112+ for a tool which orbits or rotates as it operates and subclass 391 for a tool having motion in a fixed path to deform fixed material.
83Cutting,   appropriate subclasses, for method and apparatus for cutting or punching holes in a tubular workpiece.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 306+ for well torpedoes for breaking up formation, generating seismic sounds or cleaning the bore.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 317+ , for fluid handling devices of general application including means for tapping, boring or drilling a container or main under pressure.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 2+ for a device for firing a bullet or exploding a shaped charge from an inaccessible bore to penetrate the formation and including such a device even when limited by disclosure to merely perforating or cutting a casing or other wall member in the bore, subclasses 249+ for earth boring apparatus with a core retaining or severing means which is movable relative to a bit and subclasses 263+ for an earth boring cutter element which is laterally shifted below ground.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 86.1+ for means for separating a pipe in a well by a mere grappling action.
408Cutting by Use of Rotating Axially Moving Tool,   appropriate subclasses, for general utility cutting in the manner of that class.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 55.1]    55.1With disparate below ground feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Devices including a means for performing a function below ground level unlike and other than a function which directly contributes to the use of the device as a perforating, weakening, bending or separating device.
(1) Note. The means for performing an unlike function comprise, for example, means to collect a fluid sample, insert an orifice bushing in a pipe wall, insert treating fluid or cement into the well or grapple or otherwise remove an object from the well (unless the grappling or removing means also performs a function which is necessary to the perforating, weakening, bending or separating operation, such as grappling in order to activate cutting means, such grappling means being found in the following subclasses indented under subclass 55).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 2+ for a device which fires a bullet or explodes a shaped charge for perforating a wall member in a bore which device inherently causes penetration of the formation, especially subclass 4.51 for such device which has a position indicating or orienting means and subclass 4.52 for such device which has a wall engaging packer or anchor. In accordance with the line between Classes 166 and 175, as set forth in the class definition of Class 175, Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, and the definition of Class 175, subclass 2, a claim to an apparatus comprising a gun or shaped charge perforating means disclosed as inherently functioning to penetrate the earth is classifiable in Class 175, subclasses 2+ even if it also recites a disparate well feature. Thus, apparatus patents of this type are classified as originals in Class 175 and cross-referenced to Class 166, subclass 55.1 if appropriate while patents of this type with method claims are classified as originals in Class 166, subclass 35 and cross-referenced to a suitable apparatus subclass if appropriate.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 55.2]    55.2Perforating or splitting cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Devices comprising a mechanical tool for forming an aperture or fissure in the wall of the pipe.
(1) Note. An aperture or fissure formed merely by direct application of heat or fluid pressure is not considered an aperture formed within this subclass definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 55.3]    55.3Wedge or cam actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.2.  Devices in which the tool is forced or guided into engagement with the wall of the well pipe by means comprising a member having an angular or curvilinear surface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

117.5+,for means for guiding an insertable element laterally of the well axis (e.g., whipstocks).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 79+ for earth boring apparatus in which the tool shaft is advanced relative to a guide insertable in an inaccessible hole (e.g., well bore) to change the direction of advance.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 55.6]    55.6Cutter rotates circumferentially of pipe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Devices in which a cutting tool is revolved around the periphery of the well pipe and in contact therewith during the cutting operation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

30Cutlery,   subclasses 94+ for cutters, not disclosed as for use in a well, in which the cutting element is rotated about the exterior of a tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 55.7]    55.7Internal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.6.  Devices in which the cutting tool is located inside the pipe and advances outwardly for cutting.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

30Cutlery,   subclasses 103+ for cutters, not disclosed for use in a well, in which the cutting element is rotated internally of a pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 55.8]    55.8Tool moved radially by fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.7.  Devices in which a gaseous or liquid medium under pressure is used to apply a radial force to the tool.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 267+ and the search there noted, for laterally shiftable earth cutting elements or other elements movable by fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 56]    56SCREEN AND OUTSIDE CLEANING PIPE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a well screen combined with a pipe located outside of the screen for handling fluid to clean the screen or the bed of earth or filter material outside of the screen.
(1) Note. The pipe may be located inside of an outer screen member so long as it is located outside of an inner screen member.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 57]    57WITH HEATING, REFRIGERATING OR HEAT INSULATING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices for causing a heating, refrigerating or heat insulating effect.
(1) Note. For classification in this and indented subclasses the apparatus must be described as purposely intended to perform the said functions. An apparatus adapted to perform some other function and causing a mere inherent, unclaimed heating, refrigerating or insulating effect is not classified in this group of subclasses. Such apparatus is classified on other features.
(2) Note. The mere use of the earth as an insulating means, (as when a tunnel is used to inject fluid in a well and the earth above the tunnel insulates it) is not included. See subclasses 75.11+ (especially 90.1) for such devices.
(3) Note. Where the sole function of an element is described as for supplying a heating or refrigerating or insulating effect, classification is in this or indented subclasses even if such function is not claimed.
(4) Note. A device comprising a heating means used merely to set off an explosion, the explosion being intended to accomplish some function due to the violent pressure exerted and not due to heat is not classified in subclasses 57+. See subclasses 55 and 63 for such devices.
(5) Note. An internal combustion engine, per se, is not considered a heating means if the only use of the engine is for driving a shaft or the like.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

90,for nozzles for inserting a steam into a casing, casing head or tubing to extinguish a fire.
302,and the subclasses there noted for processes involving heating.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

126Stoves and Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for heaters of general utility.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 11+ for processes or apparatus for boring by directly applying heat to fluidize or comminute the earth formation and subclass 17 for processes or apparatus including heating or cooling within the bore, or heating or cooling the drilling fluid.
417Pumps,   subclasses 73+ , for combustion type pumps for wells.
431Combustion,   appropriate subclass for a burner, per se, particularly subclass 202 for a burner broadly related to other structures or having a geographic feature.
432Heating,   appropriate subclasses for a residual means for application of heat to materials or bodies.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 58]    58Fuel supply or hot billet in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Devices comprising (1) means for supporting a supply of fuel in the well or (2) a heated bar or container adapted to be lowered into the well after it is heated or filled with a hot material.
(1) Note. "Fuel" in this subclass is any material which is intended to enter into an exothermic chemical reaction in the well.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

55,for pipe perforating, weakening bending or separating means involving exothermically reacting materials inserted in a well.
63,for explosive or gas generating means in a well in which the purpose of the explosion or gas generation is not to evolve heat, being usually to generate pressure or deliver a fracturing blow.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

126Stoves and Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for heaters, especially subclasses 263.01+ for heaters, heating by reaction of chemicals in a container and not disclosed or claimed as only used in a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 59]    59Burner in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Devices comprising means for burning fuel in the well, the fuel being fed to the burner from a source outside of the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 60]    60Electrical heater in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Devices comprising electrical heating means situated below ground level.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 16 for processes or apparatus of boring by directly applying electrically produced heat to fluidize or comminute the earth formation.
219Electric Heating,   subclasses 277+ for electrical oil well heaters, per se. See the class definition of Class 166 for the line.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 61]    61Heater surrounding production tube:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Devices in which a heating means surrounds the well conduit through which the earth fluid flows to the surface of the ground.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

62,for devices in which a heater surrounds only a pump rather than the conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 62]    62With eduction pump or plunger in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Devices comprising pump or plunger means in the well for drawing well fluids out of the well or into a receptacle which is lifted out of the well.
(1) Note. Devices in which a heated fluid is conveyed into the well so as to act as both a heating and a lifting means are not considered to be pumps for this subclass. Such devices may be found in subclass 57.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

61,for well devices comprising a heater surrounding a pump production tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 63]    63WITH EXPLOSIVE OR GAS GENERATING MEANS IN WELL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising an explosive means or a means capable of generating gas, the means in each case being located in the well below ground level.
(1) Note. The "gas generating means" may be a closed container containing compressed gas which is to be released.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

55,for explosive or gas generating devices for perforating, weakening, bending or separating a well pipe at any unprepared point other than devices for firing a bullet or exploding a shaped charge which inherently cause penetration of the formation for which see Class 175, subclasses 2+.
57+,for heating means which may cause generation of gas in the formation or well.
162+,for receptacle in which gas (e.g., air) originally not under pressure may be trapped by fluid rushing in, the gas thus being compressed and escaping.
299,and subclasses there noted for processes involving an explosion in the well.
309,for processes involving producing foam or gas in a well by a foaming or gas producing material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

60Power Plants,   subclasses 632+ for one shot explosion actuated expansible chamber type motors.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 301+ for well torpedoes for use in a well to break up a formation, clean a bore, etc., and for a well torpedo combined with a plug which acts as a tamping means. Class 166, subclass 63, however, take an explosive surrounded by material to form a plug when the explosion occurs.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 2+ for subject matter relating to a device for firing a bullet or exploding a shaped charge in an inaccessible bore to penetrate the earth formation or perforate or cut a casing or other wall member in the bore and inherently penetrate the formation.
417Pumps,   subclasses 73+ , for combustion type pumps for wells.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 64]    64WITH TIME OR DISTANCE MEASURING, TEMPERATURE RESPONSIVE OR COUNTING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices combined with means for measuring time or distance, responding to temperature changes for performing some function, or counting objects such as joint couplings.
(1) Note. A mere delayed action response to a condition such as provided by a damper is not considered time measuring. Such devices are classified on other bases.
(2) Note. Means with indicia to indicate the position of adjustment of a device such as a valve or telescoping part are not included in this subclass. Such a means in combination with a well device would be classifiable in subclass 113.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

33Geometrical Instruments,   appropriate subclasses for means for measuring distance.
235Registers,   appropriate subclasses for counters, per se.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 136 for subsurface temperature determination other than for strata identification.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 127 through 199for the basic measurements of temperature, distance, or time which include a computation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 65.1]    65.1WITH ELECTRICAL MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices provided with a specific electrical component (e.g., particular electrical conductor, insulator or magnetic structure).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

60,for well devices comprising electrical heaters.
63,for electrical means for igniting an explosive charge.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclass for these types of devices which may be located in a well device or well.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   appropriate subclass for an electrical with means which may be located in a well device or well.
439Electrical Connectors,   appropriate subclass for an electrical connector which may be located in a well device or well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 66]    66Indicating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.1.  Devices in which an electric means is used for furnishing information to an observer.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

33Geometrical Instruments,   subclass 312 , for electrical telemetering of sensed borehole direction or inclination.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 40+ , for processes or apparatus for boring including signaling, indicating, testing or measuring.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 83+ , for ray energy detection or measurement.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 1+ , for apparatus relating to the determination of an electrical characteristic of the subsurface of the earth.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for electrical automatic condition responsive indicating systems.
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 25+ for electro acoustic well logging; subclasses 81+ for electro acoustic wellbore telemetering; and subclass 86 for electro acoustic borehole testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 66.4]    66.4Electric motor (e.g., solenoid actuator):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.1.  Devices in which the electrical means includes structure to convert electrical energy into mechanical motion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclass for an electric motor of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 66.5]    66.5Magnetic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.1.  Electrical component including permanent magnetic or electromagnet structure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

66.4,for well means including motor structure, the motor structure generally having magnetic elements.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclass for an earth boring bit which is magnetized or includes a magnet.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 65.5 for a grapple adapted to be used in a borehole and provided with magnetic means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 66.6]    66.6Valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.1.  Electrical means for a flow regulating means operable in the well to effect fluid movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 66.7]    66.7Longitudinally movable operator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.6.  Valve with electrical means in which the flow regulator is opened, closed, or adjusted by an element shifted parallel to the well pipe or casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 67]    67WITH BELOW AND ABOVE GROUND MODIFICATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means intended to function and remain above ground level combined with means intended to function in the well below ground level.
(1) Note. Some specific feature of both the above ground level and below ground level means must be recited in a claim for classification of a patent in this or indented subclasses. The mere recitation of a cable, pipe, rod, tubing or casing for insertion in a bore hole is not sufficient. Above ground level apparatus combined with such features will be found in subclasses 75.11+ or in other subclasses, according to the subject matter involved.
(2) Note. The mere recitation by name only of a pump above ground for inserting a treating or circulating fluid is not sufficient for classification of a patent in this or indented subclasses. Such patents are classified on other characteristics.
(3) Note. See subclass 75.11 for the meaning of ground level in this definition.

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335+,for a well which is above ground but below water. Note, however, that a well device which is disclosed as being under water but in which no claim is made to a feature peculiarly adapting the device to function under water is considered as if the water were not present and is classifiable in subclasses 67+ if it otherwise meets the definition of subclass 67.
51,for above and below ground apparatus for placing gravel.
52,for above and below ground apparatus associated with a plurality of wells.
53+,for above and below ground apparatus with automatic means.
57+,for above and below ground apparatus for heating, refrigerating or with heat insulating means.
64,for above and below ground apparatus with time or distance measuring, temperature responsive or counting means.
65.1+,for above and below ground apparatus with electrical means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 68]    68Eduction pump or plunger in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Devices comprising pump or plunger means situated in the well for drawing fluid out of the well or into a receptacle which is then taken out of the well.
(1) Note. See the class definition of Class 166 for the line with Class 417.

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61and 62, for well devices for heating or refrigerating combined with an eduction pump in a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 68.5]    68.5With above ground (1) motor carried by casing or casing support or (2) well fluid pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Devices comprising (1) an above ground driving motor for actuating the below ground pump or plunger, said motor being carried on a ground embedded casing or an embedded foundation which supports a casing or (2) an above ground pump means which acts on fluid derived from the well.
(1) Note. The pump means under part (2) of the above definition may be a pump for supplying motive fluid to a drive motor for the below ground pump, the main criteria being that the fluid be derived from the same well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 69]    69With receptacle for insertion into well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Devices comprising the combination of an above ground apparatus and a receptacle for insertion in the well.
(1) Note. The claiming of a magazine other than the casing for receiving the receptacle, or a means associated with the well for engaging the receptacle to support or open it is sufficient for classification in this subclass.
(2) Note. A "receptacle" is a device which discharges material in the well or receives fluid from the well and transports its contents between the top of the well and the point of use by its own bodily movement.

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162+,for receptacles to be inserted into the well for function therein and also having means which descend into the well with the receptacle but are intended to function only above ground. An example is a bailing receptacle with a discharge valve which is intended to be opened only above ground.

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414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 403+ for portable receptacle emptying devices, and subclasses 639+ and 657+ for means for lifting well buckets and discharging their contents outside of the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 70]    70Head for tool, piston or cleaner (e.g., cement head):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Devices comprising (1) above ground apparatus claimed in combination with a piston as defined in subclass 153 or a mechanical cleaner as defined in subclass 170, or (2) above ground apparatus with means for engaging a device to be inserted into the well to restrain the device against upward or downward movement.
(1) Note. Under (2) of the definition the means for engaging the device must be something other than a supporting cable, rod or pipe attached to the device.
(2) Note. The "device" under (2) of the definition must be something other than a mere tubing, casing, cable or rod extending into the well from above ground level.

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82+,for a sealing means on a casing head for a cable rod or pipe in combination with means to be engaged by a well device for causing the sealing means to be released or yield so that the well device may pass out of the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 71]    71With above ground casing sinking means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Devices in which there is an anvil, weight, pushing or turning means for causing a well casing to sink in the earth.

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173Tool Driving and Impacting,   appropriate subclasses for devices which provide mechanical movement or blows to a work contacting element which effect alteration in the work.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 72]    72Above ground actuating means for below ground device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Devices comprising a means situated above ground for causing movement of means situated below ground in the well.
(1) Note. A valve above ground which causes actuation of a device in the well by changing pressure conditions is not considered an actuating means for this subclass.
(2) Note. A mere elongated member such as a wire, rod or pipe extending from inside the well to the surface is not considered an actuating means.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 272.1+ for hydrants.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 73]    73Tubing or casing actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 72.  Devices comprising a tubing or casing which is moved by the actuating means.

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71,for above ground casing sinking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 74]    74With below ground screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Devices comprising a well screen as defined in subclass 227.

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51,for wells with screens and means for placing filter material.
56,for wells with screens and pipes outside of the screens for cleaning them or the area around them.
71,for casings with screens and above ground casing sinking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 75.11]    75.11ABOVE GROUND APPARATUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Device comprising means peculiar to a well; e.g., recitation of a cable, pipe, rod, tubing or casing for insertion in a bore hole and intended to function with the means and remain at or above the surrounding terrain.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass ground level is either (a) the level at which a person may work outside the casing of the well; this working space being provided either in the open, by a cellar, or tunnel or (b) the level; e.g., in a trench, at which a laterally running pipe line for discharging well fluid from or inserting treating fluid into the well is connected to the well casing.
(2) Note. This subclass includes those means adjacent the defined level though actually below it.
(3) Note. Devices dropped into or forced down along the length of the well conduit for functioning inside the conduit, and of a type usually used below ground level, are excluded even though they may function above ground level. Such devices are classified on other features, usually as packers, plugs, pistons or wipers.
(4) Note. A well device which is disclosed as being under water but in which no claim is made to a feature peculiarly adapting the device to function under water is considered as if the water were not present and is classifiable in this subclass.

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51,for a means of placing a mass of filter material; e.g., gravel, in a final position in the well.
65.1+,for devices with electrical means.
67+,for above and below ground apparatus in combination.
348,for underwater suspension means.
357,for separator attached to a well under water.
360,for underwater assembly means.
365,for underwater disassembly means.
368,for a wellhead which is above ground but below water.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclasses 210.1+ and 236.01 for wipers or scrapers applied to well heads for cleaning pipes, rods, or cable passing to or from the well with no more of the well casing being claimed than is necessary to support the wiper or scraper. The wiping or scraping device may include lateral ports, for the purpose only of disposing of material removed from an inner member being wiped.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 89+ for pipes or pipe fittings (including well pipe and fittings) having closures or plugs, or closures and plugs limited by structure to use with pipes. Class 138 takes such devices even if named for use with a well casing but a well feature such as a lateral port causes classification in Class 166.
169Fire Extinguishers,   subclass 69 for means for extinguishing well fires involving more than a mere cap, plug, flow diverter or means for inserting fluid in the well.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 207+ for earth boring apparatus including above ground means for handling drilling fluid or cuttings and especially subclasses 209+ for such apparatus in which the means engages the bore entrance.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 1.1+ for blowout preventers of the type comprising plural relatively movable flow obstructing members controlling flow through the annular passage between an inner rod or pipe and a surrounding casing or tubing head and having characteristics which go beyond a mere packing means. Addition of a lateral port in a casing head structure for diverting flow from the well is enough to cause classification in Class 166, but Class 251 takes blowout preventers or other valves in appropriate subclasses even though the valve is operated by the well fluid pressure or there are plural valves and broad recitations of casing or casing head structure.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   subclass 31 for annular seals or blowout preventers between an inner cable, rope, rod or pipe and a casing head. Addition of a well feature such as a port for handling fluid will cause classification in Class 166. A means for causing fluid to tighten the packing, however, would be classifiable in Class 277 with the packing.
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 123.3+ for joints between concentric pipes. Class 285 takes casing heads with means for sealing inner pipes which are normally stationary, including means for sealing such inner pipes while they are being run into the well, and/or means for anchoring pipes against movement up or down with the anchoring feature comprising more than a mere pipe coupling resting on a sealing or valve device. The claiming of a fluid handling feature such as a port or valve will cause classification in Class 166.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 75.12]    75.12Treatment of produced fluids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus which the gas or oil (or water) is cleaned, separated, or filtered.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 207+ for earth boring apparatus including above ground means for handling drilling fluid or cuttings and especially subclasses 209+ for such apparatus in which the means engages the bore entrance.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 75.13]    75.13Well caps or casing heads:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus which prevents the flow of fluid from or into the well.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 89+ for pipes or pipe fittings (including well pipe and fittings) having closures or plugs, or closures and plugs limited by structure to use with pipes except for a well feature such as a lateral port.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 75.14]    75.14Suspension means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus for hanging tubing within a well.

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208,for below ground liner hangers.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 75.15]    75.15With means for injecting solid or particulate material into the well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising the particular structure or device for placing balls, cement, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 76.1]    76.1Having structure for converting from one mode of operation to another; e.g., valve to pack-off:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus whose function is changed (a) by reassembling all or some of their parts in a different relationship or (b) by adding or omitting a part.
(1) Note. Since well casing heads are commonly arranged (e.g., with threaded bolts) so that parts may be interchanged, added or omitted, the convertability feature must be explicitly discussed in the specification and recited in the claim for classification here.
(2) Note. The mere use of a valve to shut off flow so parts may be interchanged, without removal of the valve, is not considered enough for classification in this subclass.

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102,for a class device convertible to a nonclass device.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 77.1]    77.1Moving tubing or cable into an existing well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising means for pushing a rope-like line or thin-walled pipe into a cased borehole.

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71,for a casing sinking means with a below ground modification.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 162 for an above ground means to feed a boring tool into the earth.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 29+ for pipe or rod jack.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 232+ for processes and apparatus for installing piling.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 77.2]    77.2Coiled tubing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.1.  Moved tubing wherein the thin-walled pipe is wound on a reel.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 162+ for feeding material by moving a grip element engaging the material.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 77.3]    77.3Chain injector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.2.  Moved coiled tubing wherein the tubing is pushed by a series of links or rings.

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226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   subclasses 170+ for orbitally traveling material engaging surface on endless belt or chain.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 77.4]    77.4Piston and cylinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.1.  Moved tubing wherein the thin-walled pipe is pushed by an assembly including a generally tubular-shaped member confining a movable mass and driven by fluid pressure.
(1) Note. Patents properly classifiable here must include specific piston and cylinder structure connections; i.e., claims properly classified under subclasses 77.2 and 77.3 are not classified here.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 77.51]    77.51With means facilitating connecting or disconnecting supported tubing or rod sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a separate apparatus for effecting the make-up or break-up of discrete pieces of thin-walled pipe or tubular bar in a line being inserted or removed from the well.
(1) Note. The devices classifiable in this subclass must be specifically described as performing one of the following functions during the connecting or disconnecting operation (a) rotate one section of rod or pipe, (b) hold one section of rod or pipe stationary or (c) temporarily support a section of rod or pipe.
(2) Note. The separate apparatus under this definition must be normally separate from the device being assembled or disassembled and must be something more than a mere detachable section of pipe constituting a continuation of the line of pipe being handled.
(3) Note. A mere guide for aligning a rod or pipe section to be connected or disconnected from another without supporting the section is excluded from this subclass and will be found below in subclass 85.1.

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78.1,for apparatus for rotating a tubing extending into a well.
85.1,for above ground apparatus for assembling or disassembling other well apparatus.
377+,for a process of disassembling a well part.
378+,for a process of assembling a well part.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

81Tools,   subclasses 52+ for a wrench or screwdriver, subclasses 54+ for a mechanically operated type and especially subclasses 57+ for use in well operations (pipe tongs).
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   subclass 164 for means to drive a tool about an axis and having means to hold and relatively rotate tool shaft sections.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 170+ for similar apparatus combined with a rotary drive for an earth boring tool.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 22.51+ for well pipe or rod racking mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 77.52]    77.52With elevator detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.51.  Device for connecting sections using a specific lifting device for a pipe or bar.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 77.53]    77.53Upper and lower slips:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.51.  Device for connecting sections including wedge-shaped members, usually with a serrated face, located near the pipe or bar at the top and bottom.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 78.1]    78.1With tube rotating means (rotary tables):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising means for turning a thin-walled pipe about its axis.
(1) Note. The tubing is usually a pump tubing which is rotated to distribute wear.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 195 , for a boring apparatus with a tool rotating means.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   subclass 31 for rotatable packing for axially movable rod.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 79.1]    79.1Cap having transporting means or ground support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus which prevents the flow of fluid from or into the well including (a) a device having wheels or skids or (b) structure arranged to merely rest on the area around the pipe or be connected to either this area or a foundation only, rather than to the casing or tubing of the well.

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94.1,for a laterally adjustable cap or head.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 80.1]    80.1Having retractable pipe section to allow closing of gate type valve or flapper valve for rod or pipe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising (a) a discrete tubular member axially shiftable to enable a flow control means; e.g., gate valve, to stop flow or (b) a hinged plate allowing passage of a tubular member or bar in one direction and preventing upward flow after removal of a tubular member or bar.
(1) Note. The axially adjustable member remains assembled with the rest of the device at all times.
(2) Note. The pipe section does not have to actuate the valve.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 81.1]    81.1Fluid catcher around pipe coupling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising an enclosure or deflecting member, other than the casing head, placed about a section of well pipe so that the liquid contents of the pipe may be prevented from being indiscriminately emitted.
(1) Note. Pipe wipers or cleaners are not properly classifiable here.

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80.1,for a retractable pipe section to allow closing of gate valve or flapper valve for rod or pipe.
82.1,for a releasable seal or cleaner for an inner member.

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285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 13+ for enclosures about pipe couplings for collecting leakage from the couplings and subclasses 148.6+ for a leak-gland type coupling.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 82.1]    82.1Releasable seal or cleaner disengaged by projection on inner member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a detachably connected flow preventing or enclosure device for tubing, pipe, rod, or wireline within a casing opened by a lug, movable rod, collar, trip member, or protuberance on the tubing, pipe, rod, or wireline to cause the device to be detached from the well.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 220.4 , for fabric type wiper for rods, pipes or cables, subclass 236.01 for a scraper, and subclass 236.1 for a rotary scraper.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   subclasses 5+ for a packing which opens or yields to allow a projection on the rod to pass, subclasses 19+, for sealing means with external fluid receiver usually between a casing and an inner rod, pipe or cable, subclass 31 for rotatable packing for axially moving rod, subclass 33 for axially biased rod.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 83.1]    83.1Latches releasable radially inward:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.1.  Releasable seal or cleaner in which there are catch or dog members which move towards the centerline of the casing, when the projection contacts the device, in order to detach the enclosure or the flow preventing device.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 84.1]    84.1With seal for reciprocating member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a flow prevention device for rod, pipe, tubing, wireline moving into and out of a well.
(1) Note. The inner member must be free to reciprocate and not anchored against movement.

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82.1+,for releasable seal or cleaner for inner member and unfastening means.
86.1+,for inner member anchor or seal with valve.
88.1+,for inner member anchor or seal with lateral port.

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277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   subclasses 5+ for a packing which opens or yields to allow a projection on the rod to pass, subclasses 19+, for sealing means with external fluid receiver usually between a casing and an inner rod, pipe or cable, subclass 31 for rotatable packing for axially moving rod, subclass 33 for axially biased rod.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 84.2]    84.2Cooling fluid or grease supplied to seals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.1.  Reciprocating member seal wherein means are provided to deliver (a) temperature reducing liquid or gas or (b) lubrication to the flow prevention device.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 84.3]    84.3Rotary blowout preventer type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.1.  Reciprocating member seal wherein the flow prevention device is rotatable (via bearings) and is sensitive to excessive well bottom pressure.

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251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 1.1+ for blowout preventers of the type comprising plural relatively movable flow obstructing members controlling flow through the annular passage between an inner rod or pipe and a surrounding casing or tubing head and having characteristics which go beyond a mere packing means. Addition of a lateral port in a casing head structure for diverting flow from the well is enough to cause classification in Class 166, but Class 251 takes blowout preventers or other valves in appropriate subclasses even though the valve is operated by the well fluid pressure or even though there are plural valves and broad recitations of casing or casing head structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 84.4]    84.4Fluid pressure actuated seals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.1.  Reciprocating member seal wherein the flow prevention device is moved to a pipe engaging position by liquid or gas force.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 84.5]    84.5Seal fixedly mounted to rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.1.  Reciprocating member seal wherein the flow prevention device is permanently attached and movable with a tubular bar.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 85.1]    85.1With assembly or disassembly means (e.g., handling, guiding or tool feature):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising (a) means for cooperating with a separate apparatus for aiding in putting together or taking apart a device or a part thereof or (b) means for aiding in inserting a member into or removing a member from the well.
(1) Note. The separate apparatus under (a) of the definition must be normally unconnected with the device being assembled or disassembled and must be something more than a mere detachable section of pipe constituting a continuation of the line of pipe being handled.
(2) Note. The aiding means under (b) of the definition must comprise more than a mere flared section of pipe.

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377+,for processes of placing, removing or assembling well elements.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 315.01 through 329.4for a fluid handling system with repair, tapping, assembly, or disassembly means.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 86.1+ in particular for grapples that are adapted to function in a well bore.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 85.2]    85.2Pitless well adapters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.1.  Assembling device in which the upper end of an inner pipe is connected to a below ground lateral port in a casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 85.3]    85.3Seal or bushing insertion or removal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.1.  Assembling device including means for installing or removing a flow prevention device or cylindrical lining from a well member.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 85.4]    85.4With blowout preventer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.1.  Assembling device for connecting a flow prevention device, sensitive to excessive well bottom pressure, to a well member.

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251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 1.1+ for blowout preventers of the type comprising plural relatively movable flow obstructing members controlling flow through the annular passage between an inner rod or pipe and a surrounding casing or tubing head and having characteristics which go beyond a mere packing means. Addition of a lateral port in a casing head structure for diverting flow from the well is enough to cause classification in Class 166, but Class 251 takes blowout preventers or other valves in appropriate subclasses even though the valve is operated by the well fluid pressure or even though there are plural valves and broad recitations of casing or casing head structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 85.5]    85.5Guiding or aligning feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.1.  Assembling device including means for directing or lining up a well member.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 86.1]    86.1Inner member anchor or seal with valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a flow regulating device in combination with a means for (a) preventing upward or downward movement of an inner pipe, rod, or cable member depending into a well casing or tubing or (b) preventing flow in the annular space between a casing supported enclosure and a pipe, rod, tubing, or wireline, said regulating device being disposed either in the well casing, tubing or pipe or in a conduit communicating with said well casing, tubing or pipe.
(1) Note. The sealing means under (b) of this definition may be of the blow out preventer type which is considered a "valve" for classification in Class 251, subclasses 1.1+.

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84.1+,for a well apparatus with a seal for a reciprocating member.

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251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 1.1+ for blowout preventers of the valve type.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 86.2]    86.2Annular sealing type valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.1.  Inner member seal with valve wherein the flow regulating device controls flow through the annulus defined between the pipe, rod, tubing, or wireline and casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 86.3]    86.3Gate type (perpendicular to pipe) valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.1.  Inner member seal with valve including a flow regulating device movable perpendicular to the pipe, rod, tubing, or wireline.
(1) Note. The gate valve can only moves to the closed position after the inner member has been removed or disconnected.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 87.1]    87.1Axially movable type valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.1.  Inner member seal with valve comprising a flow regulating device which is movable in the direction of the axis of a pipe in order to control fluid flow in the pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 88.1]    88.1Inner member anchor or seal with lateral port:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising an enclosure having an opening in a side wall thereof for allowing flow of fluid into the well or from the well for outside delivery in combination with (a) means for preventing upward or downward movement of a pipe, rod or cable member depending into the well or (b) a flow prevention device closing the annular space between the enclosure and an pipe, rod or cable member.
(1) Note. The sealing means under (b) of the definition may be a valve type blow out preventer classifiable, in Class 251, subclasses 1.1+.

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84.1+,for a seal interposed between a casing and an inner member reciprocating therein and which may have a lateral port communicating with the casing.
86.1+,for a casing which may have a lateral port and an inner elongated member either anchored to the casing or sealed therein, in which a flow passage is provided with a valve.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 220.4 , for fabric- type wiper for rods, pipes or cables, subclass 236.01 for a scraper, and subclass 236.1 for a rotary scraper.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 1.1+ for valve-type blowout preventers.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   subclasses 5+ for a packing which opens or yields to allow a projection on the rod to pass, subclasses 19+, for sealing means with external fluid receiver usually between a casing and an inner rod, pipe, or cable, subclass 31 for rotatable packing for axially moving rod, subclass 33 for axially biased rod.
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 123.3+ for joints between a well head and an inner pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 88.2]    88.2Slip type well anchor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.1.  Inner member anchor with lateral port wherein the means for preventing movement is a wedge-shaped member with a serrated face.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 88.3]    88.3Seal actuated with anchor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.2.  Slip type inner member anchor with lateral port wherein the flow prevention device and means for preventing movement are put into mechanical motion simultaneously.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 88.4]    88.4With hydraulic conduit or line extending through outer member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.1.  Inner member anchor with lateral port wherein the casing includes an opening for a pipe or tube extending therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 89.1]    89.1Plural inner pipes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.1.  Inner member anchor with lateral port in which there are at least two conveying lines within the outermost casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 89.2]    89.2Parallel pipes (as opposed to concentric):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.1.  Plural inner pipes anchor with lateral port wherein the conveying lines are coaxial and side by side.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 89.3]    89.3Having slip type hanger:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.1.  Plural inner pipes anchor with lateral port in which a means for preventing movement has a wedge-shaped member with a serrated face.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 90.1]    90.1With means for inserting fluid into the well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a constricted tube to speed flow for introducing gas or liquid into a well casing, casing head or tubing.

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88.1+,for well casing heads having lateral ports which may be employed to introduce a fluid into said casing in combination with the inner members sealed or anchored with respect to the casing head.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 91.1]    91.1With flow restrictors (e.g., chokes or beans):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a head, cap, or system of pipes attached to a well casing or tubing in combination with a means for regulating the flow of fluid by presenting a predetermined limitation to fluid movement.
(1) Note. All valves and pipes offer some restriction to flow; this subclass, however, is intended to take only those well devices which include means specially built to restrict flow and known to the art as "chokes" or "beans".

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 40+ for flow restrictors.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 117 and 118+ for fluid handling systems of general utility with valves and flow restrictors.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 92.1]    92.1Cap or head pivotably attached to tube or casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a cover or top plug type structure in which all, or a section, is hinged to a pipe or to a tubular member inserted in a well.

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75.13,for well caps or casing heads of general utility which do not require the pivoting of the caps or heads.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 93.1]    93.1Split cap or head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a cover or top plug-type structure for a well casing or tubing which is divided on a longitudinal plane so that it may be applied in a lateral direction to the casing or tubing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 94.1]    94.1Laterally adjustable cap or head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a cover or top plug-type structure for a well casing or tubing which is adjustable for movement away from or over the tubing or casing in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tubing or casing.

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79.1,for a cap or head provided with transportation means or which is unconnected to the well casing or tubing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 95.1]    95.1Central valve or closure and lateral port:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising (a) a head for attachment to a casing or tubing and having a flow regulating device operating across a vertical passage in line with the casing or tubing and an opening for a pipe in the side wall of the head or (b) a cap for closing off the tubing or casing and an opening for a pipe in the side wall of the tubing casing or cap.
(1) Note. There must be some detail of the head or cap shown or claimed for classification in this subclass. A patent having mere conventional showing of the cap or head and claims drawn to other features is classifiable in subclass 75.11 or other appropriate subclasses.
(2) Note. A sole disclosed use as a well casing head of a structure comprising a valve and a lateral port for handling fluid to or from the well is enough to cause classification in Class 166.

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88.1+,for devices in which an inner member is anchored or sealed with respect to an outer pipe and there is a port in the outer pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 96.1]    96.1External anchoring or bracing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a head, cap or enclosure for attachment to a well casing or tubing and structural reinforcement such as tie rods for holding or shoring the head, cap or enclosure to the well casing or tubing or for attaching the casing or tubing to the ground or to a fixed well structure.
(1) Note. The anchoring or bracing means must comprise more than, or be additional to, a mere pipe joint or joint securing a closure to the top of a pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 97.1]    97.1With valve on cap or head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus comprising a cover or top plug type structure for attachment to a well tubing or casing in combination with a flow regulating device contiguous to, or on, the cover, plug-type structure, tubing, or casing.
(1) Note. There must be some detail of the valve structure or its attaching means shown for classification in this subclass.

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75.13,for well caps or heads.
80.1,for retractable pipe section extending through a valve.
86.1+,for an inner member anchor or seal with a valve.
95.1,for a central valve and a lateral port.

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251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclasses 1.1+ for blowout preventers comprising separate sections operable to close the annulus about a pipe and having characteristics which go beyond a mere packing means. Provision of a specific means for coupling the valve to the casing or arrangements of valves in branch lines are examples of features which will cause classification of a well casing head structure in Class 166.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 97.5]    97.5Parallel pipes extending along distinct paths through wellhead:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.11.  Above ground apparatus including generally coaxial conduits which (a) are not located one within another and (b) extend from a position above ground to a position below ground.

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54.1,for means for separately pumping from plural sources in a well, which may include parallel, nonconcentric conduits extending above ground.

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285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 124.1+ for pipe systems including plural noncommunication paths which are parallel and nonconcentric and which are of the wellhead suspension type.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 98]    98GRAPPLE AND WELL ANCHORED LIFTING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a means which is fixed in position in the well combined with a means for grappling an object in the well and a means for lifting the object and moving it relative to the fixed means.

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294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   appropriate subclasses for grapples, per se, and subclasses 86.1+ in particular for grapples that are adapted to function in a well bore.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 99]    99WITH JUNK RETRIEVING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices adapted to retrieve a plurality of discrete objects (e.g., pieces of tools usually known as junk or fish from a well).
(1) Note. This subclass is closely related to the well grapple art in Class 294, Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements, subclasses 86.1+, especially subclass 86.11. The distinction is that Class 166, subclass 99 relates to junk retrievers which have features of fluid handling or other well features considered too specialized for Class 294. Specifically, if junk is swept into the retrieving device by means of fluid circulated down the inside of a central conduit which supports the retrieving device classification is in Class 166, subclass 99. On the other hand, a junk retrieving device (e.g., a junk basket as in Class 294, subclass 86.11) in which junk is swept into the basket by circulation of fluid down the outside of a central conduit supporting the device and then up the inside of the conduit, or a junk retrieving device in which junk is swept into the device merely by means such as a plunger causing a sudden inrush of fluid, is classified in Class 294.
(2) Note. The devices of this subclass are intended to comprise a unitary means to recover junk only, as distinct from a mass of fluent material which may incidentally contain junk. Thus a device for this subclass may consist of a receptacle with a foraminous bottom which permits the fluent material to drain away as distinct from a receptacle with a solid bottom which retains fluent material. Receptacles for recovering a mass of fluent material are found in Class 166, subclasses 107+ and 162+ and also in Class 294, Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements, subclasses 68.22+. Receptacles in combination with earth boring means are found in Class 175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclasses 308+. If a single device has two distinct means, one (of any type) for recovering junk only and one for recovering a mass of fluent material of the type classifiable in Class 166, subclasses 107+ or subclasses 162+, classification is in this subclass.

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107+,and 162+, for a receptacle for retrieving fluent material from a well which material may or may not contain junk, as distinct from a junk retriever for subclass 99 which may be a receptacle designed to hold only junk but which receptacle incidentally may also hold a small amount of fluent material.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 244+ for a core removing means, which core may contain junk and subclasses 308+ for earth boring means with a receptacle which may be adapted to retrieve junk.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 86.1+ for a well grapple, especially subclass 86.11 for a well grapple of the basket forming type and see (1) Note above; and subclass 86.34 for a device for freeing a single stuck object from its environment in a well by a washover or cutover means and retrieving said object.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 100]    100LATERAL PROBE OR PORT SEALED AGAINST WELL WALL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising (1) a means pressed against the side wall of a prepositioned well conduit so as to form a seal around a port for passage of fluid or (2) a means penetrating the earthen side wall of the well bore so as to provide a passage for fluid between a tubular member in the well and the formation.
(1) Note. The port is often formed in a packer sealing means. Separate packers which, broadly considered, form ports between them are not included. See subclass 191 and the subclasses there noted for such devices.

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223,for nozzles which are projected against a conduit structure but have no sealing means.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 152.26 for a sealing detail in an apparatus for fluid flow measuring or fluid analysis combined with sampling wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 2+ , 77, 78, and 79+ for means insertable in an inaccessible hole (e.g., well bore) to bore into a sidewall thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 101]    101PACKER OR PLUG AND PUMP OR PLUNGER MEANS EXERTING OUTWARD PRESSURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a packer or plug combined with a pump or plunger means for exerting outward fluid pressure against the wall of the surrounding conduit either in the space between a pair of packer or plug means or in the space beneath the packer or plug means.
(1) Note. The pump or plunger means must be some device other than a packer or plug which forms a seal with the surrounding conduit specified in the definition. See subclass 119 for devices which may create pressure by the relative movement of packer or plug sealing means.
(2) Note. Cementing and washing devices and other well devices commonly are associated with a pump (usually at the well top) for producing pressure beneath a packer. A mere broad or nominal reference to a pump means is therefore not sufficient for classification in this subclass. Such devices are classified in appropriate subclasses on other features.
(3) Note. The pump or plunger means must cause a direct outward fluid pressure. See subclass 106 for devices in which an eduction pump while withdrawing liquid may create a condition which causes outward pressure as defined in subclass 101.

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106,for a packer or plug and eduction pump means which may indirectly or incidentally cause pressure outwardly, while it pumps liquid out of the well.
177,for packers or plug devices reciprocated in a surrounding conduit to cause surging or outward pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 102]    102CONVERTIBLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices used below ground level and so designed that (1) by working on them above ground and reassembling all or some of their parts, adding or omitting a part or rearranging or adjusting parts they are changed from devices classifiable in Class 166 to ones which function as devices classifiable in other classes, or (2) by working on them above ground and reassembling all or some of their parts or adding or omitting a part their mode of operation may be changed.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 104]    104WITH MOTOR FOR ROTARY OR OSCILLATING MOTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices combined with a prime mover imparting rotary or oscillating motion.
(1) Note. A device which acts merely to rotate itself is not considered a rotary motor. See subclass 223 for well devices comprising rotary nozzles.

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66.4,for well devices with electrical rotary motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 105]    105WITH EDUCTION PUMP OR PLUNGER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices combined with a pump or plunger means for drawing well fluid out of the well or into a receptacle which is to be taken out of the well.
(1) Note. See the class definition of Class 166 for the line with Class 417, Pumps.
(2) Note. Well devices such as sampling or cementing means frequently are provided with means for circulating liquids (e.g., introducing a liquid to drive out a liquid). Such liquid circulating means are not considered pumps for this subclass. These devices are classified on other features, mainly, the arrangement of valves and packers as in subclasses 142+.
(3) Note. Claims involving merely a pump or pump tubing carrying an expanding support in a well conduit, or a packer or plug structure for a pump and claiming the pump by name only or as a pump barrel are classified on the basis of the supporting or packing structure rather than in this or indented subclasses, the pump or pump barrel being treated as a mere pipe or central conduit, according to the disclosure.

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61and 62, for heating, refrigerating or insulating means with an eduction pump or plunger in the well.
68,for above and below ground structure including an eduction pump or plunger in the well.
176,for brushing, scraping, cutting or punching type cleaners on a pump sucker or rod.
206+,for expansible anchor means on a pump tubing.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclass 155 for gas lift valves for wells and subclass 206 for apparatus for gas displacements of a liquid.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 324 for earth boring apparatus having a tool shaft with means other than bit structure to induce fluent flow.
267Spring Devices,   subclass 125 , for a piston-type fluid spring device useful in apparatus for drawing fluid from a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 105.1]    105.1Having sediment trap or deflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Devices including (1) a device for both separating and collecting sand, earth or other solid impurities from the well fluid which is being or has been moved by the pump or plunger, or (2) a device which acts as a means for diverting or deflecting impurities away from the pump or plunger.
(1) Note. Patents which are disclosed as receptacles for elevating fluid and which may incidently include some earth material are not included here but will be found in subclasses 107+ below.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 105.2]    105.2Carried by reciprocating plunger or plunger rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.1.  Devices in which the sediment collecting or deflecting device is attached to the plunger or plunger rod of the reciprocating type.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 105.3]    105.3Sediment trap formed in pumping chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.1.  Devices in which the sediment collecting means is formed within the same housing which houses the pumping element of a pump such that the sediment is in effect collected in the pump chamber or housing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 105.4]    105.4In pump discharge flow path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.1.  Devices in which the collecting or deflecting means acts on fluid which has already been acted upon by the pumping element of the pump.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 105.5]    105.5Having liquid-gas separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Devices including a device having structure to cause gas (1) to be separated from the liquid well fluid or (2) to be collected or confined by the structure.
(1) Note. A packer or packers and a passage, whether valved or not, is not included under the definition of this subclass, see subclass 106 below. To be included in this definition there must be some gas directing structure in addition to the packer.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 105.6]    105.6Gas fed to entrainment type pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.5.  Devices in which there is a pump of the type which liquid is pumped by being displaced or carried by a gas (e.g., jet, aerated column, etc.), and the gas separating or collecting structure includes means for directing the gas to the pump to act as a pumping fluid for the liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 106]    106With packer or plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Devices including packers or plugs as defined in subclass 179.
(1) Note. Claims involving merely a pump carrying a packer or plug or expanding support and including the pump or pump barrel by name only are classified on the basis of the packing, plug or support structure rather than in this subclass, the pump or pump barrel being treated as a mere pipe unless disclosed as a portion of a central conduit.

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101,for packers or plugs and pump or plunger means exerting outward pressure on the space below the packer or plug, which pressure may be alternated with an inward eduction flow.

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417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for pumps combined with packers or plugs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 107]    107Receptacles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Devices comprising a container into which a well fluid is drawn by the pump or plunger means, the container being lifted bodily out of the well to transport the fluid to the top of the well.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 864.52 for sampling devices comprising a receptacle with suction means. Patents having a sole disclosure of or a claim to use in a well are classified in Class 166.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 308+ , and the search there noted, for earth boring apparatus having a receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 108]    108Piston actuates foot valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Devices in which a pump or plunger piston is mechanically connected with a valve at the bottom portion of the container so as to close the valve when the piston is at the end of its lifting stroke.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 109]    109Telescoping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Devices in which the fluid is drawn into the container by the relative motion of telescopically related tubular parts thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 110]    110Lateral port always below piston and used in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Devices in which there is an opening through the side wall of the container below the lowest position of the pump or plunger piston providing for fluid flow through the opening while the container is in the well.
(1) Note. The opening must be more than a mere scallop on the lower edge of the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 111]    111Bail engaging piston rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Devices in which a bail on the top of the container engages the actuating rod of the pump or plunger piston.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 112]    112With leak means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Devices comprising a pump having a means for causing a portion of the well fluid being pumped to flow back into the well to treat it (e.g., wash it) while the pump is being operated to draw a major portion of the well fluid out of the well.

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417Pumps,   subclass 434 , for pumps including a separate port or noncyclic valve for draining a pump portion and subclasses 443+ and 446, for pumps with a pressure responsive distributor (e.g., check valve) which may be selectively held open as, for example, to drain the pump.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 113]    113COMBINED (E.G., WITH NON-ELECTRICAL INDICATING):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices combined with means for other functions than operating, treating or making a well or a means for perfecting the functions of operating, treating or making a well, the said means not being provided for in preceding subclasses.
(1) Note. Operating, treating or making a well is considered to include, for example, flowing, washing, acidizing, cementing, and connecting or disconnecting parts in a well. Ancillary subcombination of such devices such as pumps for forcing fluid into a well or inflating a packer, clutches, detents, knives or release detents or open closures, means attachable or detachable in the well, bearings or jars are not considered subject matter for this subclass. Devices including these means having been classified in appropriate subclasses according to the features claimed.
(2) Note. Devices found in this subclass include for example, cementing plugs with an indicating flare fluid, a well plug with an indicating ball on a string, a bailer with a means for taking an impression of lost tools, a washing device with a camera, and cementing casing shoes with means for testing the casing for fluid tightness.
(3) Note. While well devices with added special means for testing for fluid leakage are included, well devices such as packers or plugs which inherently are capable of use as fluid leakage testers without modification are not found in this subclass but are classified according to other features.
(4) Note. It is common in the art and inherent in most devices to give an indication of the operation of some part by manipulating a flow controlling means so as to cause a change in pressure. Devices for giving an indication by a change in pressure are not included unless some indicia means are claimed, such as a gauge, scale or pointer.
(5) Note. Many well devices inherently give an indication of their position, as when expanding anchor means catch on conduit joints, when they are manipulated to operate valves or when detent or clutch means are operated. Well devices adapted to indicate an operation by means such as the position of parts or resistance to motion are not included in this subclass unless an indicia means such as a scale or pointer is included.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 304+ , for means sensing and indicating borehole direction or inclination.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.01+ , for apparatus for bore hole studies. Such apparatus may include a sampling device or other well devices such as packers in combination with means for bore hole study such as flow meters, temperature recorders, well pressure indicators, etc., the well devices being used to perfect the bore hole study means rather than being used for well functions such as treating the well.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 40+ for processes or apparatus for earth boring including signaling, indicating, testing or measuring.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 136 for subsurface temperature measurement, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 114]    114CENTRAL MEMBER WITH PRE-SET PACKER OR PLUG IN SAME CONDUIT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a packer or plug set in final position within a surrounding conduit (the setting tool or conduit which supported the packer or plug during insertion into the surrounding conduit having been withdrawn) combined with a centrally positioned longitudinally extending member, other than the aforesaid setting tool or supporting conduit and not a mere retrieving means for the packer or plug which is run into the surrounding conduit after the packer or plug is set.
(1) Note. The centrally positioned longitudinally extending member must be more than a mere piston, fluid driven into the well or plug, per se. Usually the centrally positioned member is a central conduit, receptacle or pump barrel. For a piston, fluid driven into the well cooperating with another such piston see subclass 153.

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115+,for a central chamber sealed with respect to a prepositioned surrounding conduit.
179+,and the subclasses there noted for packers or plugs assembled in a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 115]    115CENTRAL CHAMBER SEALED WITH RESPECT TO PREPOSITIONED MODIFIED SURROUNDING CONDUIT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a central conduit or centrally positioned receptacle in combination with a surrounding conduit, the surrounding conduit being prepositioned in final position in the earth before the central conduit or receptacle is associated therewith, there being a means sealing a portion of the annular space between the central conduit or receptacle and the surrounding conduit.
(1) Note. For classification in this subclass a patent must claim the surrounding conduit which may even be the earth wall of the well, with some particularity. For example, the mere naming of a conduit or a conduit with a perforation or group of perforations is not enough, but the recitation of spaced perforations or groups of perforations is sufficient. A mere functional claiming of a relationship is not enough. See the search notes for devices having a particular relationship with a surrounding conduit.
(2) Note. The sealing means of the definition is usually a packer carried by the central conduit or receptacle.
(3) Note. A broadly recited pump barrel is not considered a central conduit or receptacle. Devices comprising a pump barrel with a packer cooperating with a shoulder in a surrounding conduit may be found in subclasses 195 and 203.

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114,for a central chamber with a packer or plug combined with a preset packer or plug whose setting means has been withdrawn.
136,for packers or plugs with expanding anchors where the expanding anchor is spring set and adapted to engage in a recess in the surrounding conduit.
195,for deformable packers adapted to engage a shoulder on a surrounding conduit.
203,for nondeformable packers adapted to engage a shoulder on a surrounding conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 116]    116Surrounding conduit carries packer or plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 115.  Devices in which the surrounding conduit carries a packer or plug as defined in subclass 179.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 117]    117RECEPTACLE OR PART THEREOF LEFT IN WELL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a receptacle so constructed and arranged that the receptacle or a part thereof is left in the well and separated from its lowering means, if any, when performing or after performing its intended function.
(1) Note. The part left in the well must comprise more than a mere knock out or frangible closure.
(2) Note. These devices are usually intended to plug the well by rupturing, breaking up or parting the receptacle while releasing its contents.

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205,and 227+, for well screens or well screen parts which may be lifted from the well after sediment collects therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 117.5]    117.5MEANS FOR GUIDING INSERTABLE ELEMENT LATERALLY OF WELL AXIS (E.G., WHIPSTOCK):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a means positioned in a well conduit and adapted to be engaged by an element or member movable in the well conduit so that the element or member is directed laterally of the longitudinal axis of the well conduit.

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55+,for device for perforating, weakening, bending or separating pipe at any point in a well and especially subclass 55.3 for wedge or cam actuated pipe perforating or splitting cutters.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 61 for processes of drilling curved or redirected bores and subclasses 79+ for earth boring devices in which the tool moves axially relative to means to redirect the tool laterally.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 117.6]    117.6Secured in operative position by movable means engaging well conduit (e.g., anchor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.5.  Devices in which the diverting means is secured in operative position in the well conduit by means movable relative to the diverting means and adapted to engage or cause a portion of the diverting means to engage the wall of the well conduit to prevent either longitudinal or rotary movement of the diverting means relative to the well conduit.

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206+,for expansible anchors in well conduits. See the search notes thereunder for other features combined with anchors.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 81 for earth boring devices having a means to redirect the tool laterally which has a bore wall engaging anchor.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 117.7]    117.7MEANS ANCHORED AGAINST ROTATION IN ONE CONDUIT SECTION FOR RELATIVELY ROTATING ANOTHER SECTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a means located below ground level in a well conduit adapted to cause relative rotary motion between one section of conduit and another section of conduit also located in the well, said means including a means movable outwardly to engage the surrounding well conduit section to prevent rotation of one portion of the rotating means in the well.
(1) Note. Generally one of the sections of conduit is a pipe which is stuck in the well bore and held against rotation and the below ground means is anchored to a separate outer well conduit and engages only the uppermost section of the stuck section in the manner of a fishing tool.

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98,for a grapple with a well anchored lifting means.
206+,and the search there noted, for expansible well anchors or casings.

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81Tools,   subclasses 436+ for tools which have a force-exerting portion inserted into a cavity in the work, especially subclasses 442+ for expanding type portions.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 86.24+ for internally expanding well grapples, and subclasses 93+ for internally expanding grapples of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 118]    118With expanding anchor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising plug or packer means combined with expansible anchor means as defined in subclass 206.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 119]    119Relatively movable packers or plugs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices wherein there are at least two packers or plugs so arranged that all portions of the sealing part of one are bodily movable with respect to all portions of the sealing part of the other while the device is in unitary condition in the well.

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123,for devices having expanding anchors and packers or plugs in which one packer or plug is detachable from another in the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 120]    120Anchor actuated by fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices in which the anchoring means is movable to set or inset position, all or part of the movement being due to fluid pressure.
(1) Note. The whole of the movement to operative locking position is usually due to the fluid pressure. Devices in which some of the movement to final locking position is due to some other motive power are classifiable here only if there is also some added modification of the device for the use of fluid pressure to move or tend to move the anchoring means. The added modification must be supplementary to the common placement of a packer and expanding anchor whereby the pressure of the fluid being blocked acts to increase the anchoring effect. See subclass 140 for devices so arranged that fluid pressure increases the anchoring action but having no special modification for this purpose.
(2) Note. Devices in which fluid pressure is used to release a latch so that some other means may move the anchoring means are not classified in this or indented subclasses. See subclass 136 for spring set anchors with latches released by fluid pressure.
(3) Note. The fluid pressure may be caused by movement of the device through or into a body of fluid.

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212,for expansible anchors actuated by fluid pressure, the anchors being not disclosed as associated with packers or plugs.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 99 for earth boring apparatus in which a below ground motor is anchored to the bore wall by a support having fluid operated expansible anchor.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 121]    121Pressure transmitted by cup type packer or plug seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Devices wherein the fluid pressure for moving the anchoring means is exerted on a cup type packer sealing portion of the type defined in subclass 202.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 122]    122Pressure transmitted by packer or plug expanded by confined fluid from central chamber, pump, or plunger:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.  Devices wherein the fluid pressure for moving the anchor is applied to the sealing portion of a packer or plug in the manner defined in subclass 187.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 123]    123With detachable setting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices comprising means for detachably coupling the device to a means for lowering the device into the surrounding conduit, the detachable connection being such that the packer or plug may be left in the well while the lowering means is completely withdrawn.

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181+,and the search there noted, for other packers and plugs or other well elements having a detachable setting means or part.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 124]    124Screw threaded:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Devices in which the connection comprises screw threads on the device engaging screw threads on the lowering means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 125]    125Radially movable latch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 123.  Devices in which the connection comprises a latching member which is movable in a direction generally radially of the well bore in order to unmake the connection in the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 126]    126With controllable passage between central chamber and space below packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices with a controllable passage between a central chamber comprising a central conduit or a receptacle and a space below a packer, as set forth in subclass 142.

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120+,(especially 122), for devices as defined in subclass 126 in which the expanding anchor is actuated to setting position by fluid pressure.
123,for devices as defined in subclass 126 in which the central conduit is a detachable setting tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 127]    127Spaced packer or plug seals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Devices in which there are packer or plug sealing portions spaced from each other as defined in subclass 191.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 128]    128Passage controllable by movement of central chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Devices in which the valve, closure or changeable restriction controlling the passage is opened, closed or held in position or freed for movement because the central chamber is moved.

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127,for devices as defined in this subclass in which there are spaced packer blocking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 129]    129With controllable bypass outside central conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices wherein the packer is adapted to be supported by a central conduit from the top of the well as it is run into the well and there is a fluid passage within the packer but not in communication with the central conduit passageway in the region of the packer, which fluid passage connects the space below the packer with the annular space above the packer, the fluid passage being controllable by a valve, closure or changeable restriction.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 130]    130Packer expanded by upper valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Devices wherein the packer blocking portion is expanded laterally by means of force transmitted through coacting shoulder members which are situated above the packer and which act to close the fluid passage as they expand the packer blocking portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 131]    131With controllable passage between central conduit and space above packer or plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices wherein there is a fluid passage between a central conduit which supports the packer or plug from the top of the well while it is being run into the well and the annular space above the packer or plug, between the central conduit and the surrounding conduit, the passage being controllable by a valve, closure or changeable restriction.

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123+,for devices as defined in this subclass wherein the passage is opened by detaching the central conduit.
127,for a device comprising a central chamber expanding anchors, spaced packers and a controllable passage between the chamber and the space above a lower packer outside of the chamber.
129+,for devices as defined in this subclass in which the passage between the central conduit and the space above the packer passes through the packer but outside the central conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 132]    132Portion extends beyond end of surrounding conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices wherein the anchoring means is prevented from expanding till the device or a part thereof passes beyond the end of the surrounding well conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 133]    133With controllable passage through packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices in which there is a fluid passage through the packer connecting the space below the packer with the space above the packer, the passageway being controllable by a valve, closure or changeable restriction.

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126+,for devices as defined in this subclass in which the controllable passage through the packer is between a central chamber and the space below the packer.
129+,for devices as defined in this subclass in which the controllable passage is a bypass outside a central conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 134]    134Support and holddown expanding anchors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices in which the expanding anchor comprises two distinct means, one being adapted to anchor the device against downward movement, and the other adapted to anchor the device against upward movement.

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122,for devices as defined in subclass 134 in which the packer or plug sealing portion is expanded in order to actuate the anchor means to expand condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 135]    135Flow stopping type, e.g., plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices comprising a plug as defined in subclass 179.

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132,for plugs anchored beyond the conduit end.
192+,for plugs without separate expanding anchor means, these plugs being usually held in place by the frictional engagement of the sealing means.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 301+ for well torpedoes with plugging means; and subclass 333 for plugs used in blasting.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 89 for closures and plugs of general utility (including those assembled with a conduit before the conduit is inserted into the well).
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 136]    136Spring set anchor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices in which the energy stored in a spring is used to move the expanding anchor outwardly to set it.
(1) Note. Where a spring means forms a resilient mounting but movement of the anchor is due to some other means classification is not in this subclass. See subclasses 138+ for such devices.

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132,for spring set anchors which cooperate with the end edge of the surrounding conduit to prevent upward movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 137]    137Spring moves anchor slip relative to wedge or cam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Devices in which the spring causes relative movement between a wedge or cam and the expanding anchor means to move the means outwardly.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 138]    138Wedge or cam and friction drag:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Devices in which there is a friction means as defined in subclass 241 and a wedge or cam means engageable with the anchor means in order to move it outwardly.
(1) Note. The friction means may be identical with the anchor means if the device is constructed so that the anchor frictionally resists movement when in the unexpanded condition in order to enable setting of the device.
(2) Note. The friction means may be a packer or plug sealing means if this sealing means is used like a friction drag to set the anchor.

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121,for packers or plugs and expanding anchors set by fluid pressure wherein fluid pressure acting on a cup type packer seal may cause it to act in a manner similar to a friction drag when setting the expanding anchor.
129+,for devices as defined in this subclass in which there is also a controllable bypass outside of a central conduit supporting the packer or plug.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 139]    139Threaded element rotated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.  Devices in which interengaging screw threads on different parts are relatively rotated in order to set the anchor, packer or plug.
(1) Note. The rotation may occur as a preliminary operation or during the setting operation proper.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 140]    140Anchor above packer or plug seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.  Devices wherein the anchoring means is positioned above the packer or plug blocking portion.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include those devices in which the anchoring means is positioned in the same zone as the packer or plug means so that only part of the blocking portion of the packer or plug is below the anchor. See subclasses 138 and 139 for such devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 141]    141Sealing portion closes port between central pipe and outside space when unexpanded:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising an expansible packer or plug in which the blocking or sealing portion of the packer closes a port in the side wall of the central tubular member when in unexpanded condition and opens the port to the space outside the packer or plug when expanded laterally to blocking position.
(1) Note. A ring portion which is attached to the sealing part and handled as a unit therewith is considered part of the sealing portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 142]    142With controllable passage between central chamber and space below packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising (1) a packer constructed to be supported from the top of the well by a central conduit for insertion thereby into the well or (2) a packer as defined in subclass 179 for use with a centrally positioned receptacle as defined in subclass 162, there being a fluid passage between the central conduit or receptacle and the space below the packer outside of the conduit or receptacle, fluid flow through said passage being capable of being altered or affected by a valve, closure device or changeable restriction in subclass 224 positioned across the passage.
(1) Note. The passage may include as a part thereof any space inside of the surrounding conduit which receives the packer.
(2) Note. A packer is considered to bound a space even if unexpanded.
(3) Note. The central conduit or receptacle forms a central chamber for the purpose of receiving or discharging fluid, as for example, in sampling, cementing or washing devices.

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126+,for devices as defined in this subclass which also comprise expanding anchor means.

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417Pumps,   subclasses 526 , 528, and 547, for piston connected to a hollow piston rod which acts as a discharge conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 143]    143Central conduit detachable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Devices in which the central conduit is adapted to be readily detachable from the packer while in the well by means of a connection such that either the packer or conduit may be left in the well while the other member is completely withdrawn from the well.

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123+,for devices as defined in subclass 143 in which there are also expansible anchor means.
158,for a screen with a jetting or washing point or shoe and a detachable jet or wash pipe.
181+,for packers or plugs with detachable setting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 144]    144Bottom supported casing or screen section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 143.  Devices in which the central chamber is a central conduit and is detachably attached to the lower portion of a casing or screen section which carries the packer sealing portion so that the central conduit supports the casing or screen section against the action of gravity while it is being lowered into the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 145]    145Bypass closing and passage opening to upward flow constrained to occur simultaneously:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Devices in which there is a bypass around the packer and a valve or closure for the bypass, the control element for the passage being so interconnected with the valve or closure for the bypass that complete opening of the passage to upward fluid flow into the central chamber and closing of the bypass to upward fluid flow are constrained to occur together.
(1) Note. A bypass is a passage through the packer that connects the annular space outside the central conduit or receptacle and above the packer with the space below the packer.
(2) Note. The closing of the bypass and opening of the passage need not occur exactly simultaneously but may occur a short time interval apart as the result of an operating movement which is intended to take place without interruption once started.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 146]    146Passage connects with space below packers and continuously open passageway connects with space between packers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Devices in which the passage connects with a space below a plurality of packer blocking means and there is a passageway which is always open to passage of fluid in either direction between the central conduit of receptacle and the annular space between the packer blocking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 147]    147Passage connects with space between packer or plug seals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Devices in which the passage connects with the annular space between spaced packer or plug sealing portions as defined in subclass 191.

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146,for devices in which the passage connects with a space below packers and a continuously open passageway connects with the space between the packers.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 148]    148Upwardly biased check valve and means for opening or bypassing it:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Devices in which there is a check valve normally effectively closing the passage against upward flow of fluid while the device is being run into the well but permitting downward flow and there is also a means for rendering the check valve ineffective to stop upward flow after the device is positioned in the well, either by opening said valve or providing a fluid passageway around said valve.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 599.01 through 601.21for systems dividing into parallel flow lines then recombining.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 149]    149With passageway between central chamber and space above packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Devices in which there is also a passageway between the central conduit or receptacle and the annular space above the packer and outside of the central conduit or receptacle.
(1) Note. The central chamber may comprise concentric conduits each of which forms a "chamber", one having a passage to the space beneath the packer and one having a passageway to the space above the packer.

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131and 184, for devices in which there is a central conduit carrying a packer and a controllable passage between the conduit and the space above the packer.
143+,for devices as in subclass 149 comprising a passageway provided between a central chamber and the space above the packer due to the disconnection of the central chamber from the packer, or a passageway provided between a setting tool and a concentric screen section carrying a packer.
146,for devices as in subclass 149 and in which the passageway is continuously open and there is an additional packer carried by the central chamber above the passageway outlet.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 150]    150Passageway controllable by movement of central chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Devices in which fluid flow through the passageway between the central conduit or receptacle and the space above the packer is controllable by a valve, openable closure or changeable restriction operated or held in position by movement of the central conduit or receptacle.

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145,for devices as in this subclass in which fluid flow through a bypass through the packer is stopped when fluid flow to the central chamber is permitted.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 151]    151Passageway valve directly responsive to fluid pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Devices in which fluid flow through the passageway between the central conduit or receptacle and the space above the packer is controllable by a valve, openable closure or changeable restriction which is responsive to fluid pressure exerted directly upon it by contact with the fluid whose flow is being controlled.
(1) Note. A valve, closure or changeable restriction operated by a dropped ball or other means acted on by fluid pressure is not considered within the definition of this subclass. See subclass 149 for such devices used to control the passageway between the central chamber and the space above the packer.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 152]    152Passage controllable by movement of central chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 142.  Devices in which the valve, closure or changeable restriction controlling the passage is opened, closed, held in position or freed for movement because the central conduit or receptacle is moved.

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128,for devices as defined in subclass 152 in which there is also an expanding anchor means.
143+,(especially 144), for devices as defined in subclass 152 in which the central chamber (usually a setting tool) is detachable after operating a valve to close the passage.
145,for devices as defined in subclass 152 in which there is also a bypass around the packer which is closed when the passage to the central chamber is opened.
146,for devices as defined in subclass 152 in which there is also a continuously open passageway between the central chamber and a space between plural packers.
148,for devices as defined in subclass 152 in which there is also an upwardly biased check valve between the central chamber and the space below the packer.
150,for devices having a controllable passage between a central chamber and a space below a packer and also having a space below a packer and also having a passageway between a central chamber and the space above the packer in which the passageway is controlled by a valve, closure or changeable restriction operated by movement of the central chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 153]    153PISTONS, FLUID DRIVEN INTO WELL (E.G., CEMENTING PLUGS):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising piston means adapted to be inserted from the top of the well into an already placed well conduit and to be driven down by fluid pressure acting directly on the piston.
(1) Note. The piston must closely contact the wall of the casing or tubing as it moves down or be close enough to function as a scraper.

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170+,for brushing, scraping, cutting or punching cleaners adapted to fall down a well by gravity.
177.3,for wiping means adapted to fall by gravity down the well.
193+,for plugs of the dropped ball type.
291,for processes of cementing using piston separators.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 172+ for pistons for an expansible chamber device.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 154]    154Surrounding conduit valve or closure opened by piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Devices in which a valve, closure or restriction means carried by the casing or tubing in which the piston operates is opened or released for opening by engagement of the piston with the means or an element connected thereto.

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194,for sleeve valves on conduits opened by dropped ball type plugs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 155]    155With downflow past piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Devices which are so constructed that fluid may flow downwardly past the piston at a certain period of its operation by a flexing of the piston sealing means or opening of a valve or closure.
(1) Note. Plugs which are constructed to be drilled out in their entirety are not classified in this subclass but will be found in subclass 153 or other indented subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 156]    156With stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Devices in which there are means in the casing or tubing in which the piston operates cooperating with the piston to stop its motion.
(1) Note. A stop means which comprises merely the top or bottom of the casing or tubing (e.g., the inwardly sloping wall of a set shoe) is not included. See subclasses 153+ for such devices.
(2) Note. A means in the tubing or casing which stops the piston only until fluid pressure is increased is also not included. See subclasses 153+ for such devices.
(3) Note. The stop means may be for preventing an upward motion of the piston after it is driven down the well.
(4) Note. The stop means must be more than merely the bottom piston of a pair of pistons.

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154,for pistons, fluid driven into the well, engaging a valve part which acts as a stop or engages some other stop means.
155,for pistons which allow fluid to flow past them after they contact a stop.
170+,for stops associated with brushing, scraping or cutting type cleaners.
193+,for dropped balls or plugs of the type which do not make a close fit with the surrounding conduit as they move downwardly combined with stops.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 157]    157SCREEN WITH WASHING POINT OR SHOE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a conduit comprising a screen in combination with a means at the end of the conduit comprising a structure having a port for conducting fluid outwardly of the end of the conduit usually to wash the screen.

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327+,for conduit shoes with check valves (usually disclosed for floating in and cementing a casing).

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 314 for earth boring apparatus, including a jetting point, combined with a well type screen.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 158]    158Detachable wash pipe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.  Devices in which there is a separate pipe associated with the screen for passing fluid downwardly into the well to wash the screen, the separate pipe being readily removable from association with the screen structure while the screen remains in the well.
(1) Note. Wash pipes which are disclosed as merely liftable from the screen structure (e.g., the back pressure valve) are classified in this subclass if they are also disclosed as capable of being completely removed from the well leaving the screen in the well.

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143+,for devices as defined in this subclass in which the detachable jet or wash pipe is a central conduit and there is a packer carried by the screen.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 162]    162RECEPTACLES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a container which is bodily movable for transporting material from the top of the well and discharging the material therefrom at a point in the well or which is bodily movable for receiving fluid material from the well and transporting it to the well top.

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69,for a receptacle used with above ground apparatus.
99,for receptacles combined with junk retrieving means.
107+,for receptacles combined with a pump or plunger mechanism for drawing fluid into the receptacle.
142+,for receptacles with packers and a controllable passage between the receptacle and the space below the packer.
205,and 227+, for well screens or well screen parts which may be lifted from the well after sediment collects therein.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 1.7 for submerged cleaners with ambient flow guides, and subclass 246.5 for tank cleaners. See the search notes thereunder.
37Excavating,   subclass 182 for orange peel buckets and subclass 461 for clamshell buckets.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.23+ for sampling of a well fluid combined with flow measuring or fluid analysis wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic, and especially subclass 152.28 for sampling of a well fluid combined with fluid flow measuring or fluid analysis by use of a downhole measuring apparatus wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic and subclass 864.51 for receptacles for taking liquid samples from locations other than wells. See the class definition of Class 166 for the line with Class 73 as to receptacles used in a well.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclass 331 for well torpedoe receptacles.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 308+ , and the search there noted, for earth boring means with a receptacle for cuttings or sediment. A mere dart extension to operate a bottom valve is not considered an earth boring means sufficient for classification in Class 175.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 523+ for gravitational separators, with mechanical liquid removers, and subclasses 532+ for gravitational separators with heavier constituent traps.
220Receptacles,   for receptacles of general utility, especially subclasses 200+ for receptacle closures.
222Dispensing,   subclasses 356+ and subclasses there noted for dipping type dispensers. See section 13 of the class definition of Class 222 for other classes relating to the subject matter.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 68.22+ for hoisting bucket or bailer type receptacles, and subclass 86.11 for devices similar to receptacles for carrying only solid objects such as junk out of a well. Class 294 takes dumping and bailing receptacles which are structurally very similar to those of Class 166, the line being that Class 166 takes those receptacles that have some feature special to use in wells or are described for use in wells and are long and slender so as to adapt them for use in narrow diameter bored wells and also have at least one of the following features; a pump or plunger means for loading the receptacle, disclosure that the receptacle or part thereof is left in the well and separated from its lowering means, a separate air, gas or vacuum chamber, a valve and destroyable closure, a closed or valved top, valve control means operated by contact with the side wall, a bottom loading valve, which is bodily movable for discharge, a side opening for use in the well. These features form the subject matter of subclasses 107, 117 and 163 through 169 of Class 166.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 163]    163With separate air chamber having openable passage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Devices in which the container has a fluid retaining chamber and a separate air, gas or vacuum chamber, so arranged that when a passage into the air, gas or vacuum chamber is opened the fluid in the well rushes into the fluid retaining chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 164]    164With destroyable closure and valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Devices in which there is a closure which is adapted to be broken or otherwise destroyed so that fluid in the well will enter the container and there is also a valve for retaining the fluid in the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 165]    165With valved or closed top:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Devices in which the top of the container is closed or there is a valve or openable closure closing the top or an opening adjacent the top.
(1) Note. There may be enclosed side openings near the top; but a mere bail is not considered to close the top.

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163and 164, for receptacles with closed or valved tops and separate air chambers or destroyable closures and check valves.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclass 205 for apparatus of general utility providing means whereby a container may be filled with liquid by evacuating the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 166]    166Valve control means contacting well conduit wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Devices comprising a valve or closure and control means for the valve or closure adapted to contact the wall of the well conduit within which the container is positioned.

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145,for devices as defined in subclass 166 in which there is also a packer, a bypass around the packer and a passage between the receptacle and the space below the packer which is opened when the bypass is closed.

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294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 68.22+ for hoist buckets in which a valve may be opened by contact with the bottom or an obstruction across a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 167]    167Bottom receiving and side discharge valves:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Devices in which there is a valve across the bottom of the container to admit and thereafter retain fluid from the well and there is also an additional valve or openable closure in the side wall of the container for releasing the contents of the container after the container is withdrawn from the well.

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165,for well containers with valves or openable closures in the side walls adjacent the top of the container.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 168]    168Readily releasable bottom valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Devices in which there is a valve across the bottom of the container for admitting and retaining fluid from the well, the valve and container being so constructed that the valve may be readily bodily moved from its position across the container so that the container may be emptied after it has been withdrawn from the well.
(1) Note. In the case of a pivoted valve the "bodily movement" is such as to include movement of the pivot axis.
(2) Note. A reciprocating type check valve readily movable only by means extending through the discharge opening is not included in the definition of this subclass. See Class 294, subclass 72 for such devices.

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285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   appropriate subclasses for a joint between tubular sections of the receptacle.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 169]    169Lateral ports used in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Devices in which there is an opening in the side wall of the container so that fluid may be discharged from or may enter laterally into the container while it is in the well.
(1) Note. Usually the lateral port is controlled by a valve member operated when a part contacts the well bottom.
(2) Note. The opening must be more than a mere scallop on the lower edge of the container.

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110,for a well receptacle with a piston or plunger and a lateral port for use in the well always positioned below the plunger or piston.
165,for openings associated with the top closing structure of the container.
166,for well receptacles with side discharge openings in which a valve control means contacts a well conduit wall.
167,for a well receptacle with a side opening for discharge of the contents outside of the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 170]    170BRUSHING, SCRAPING, CUTTING OR PUNCHING-TYPE CLEANERS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means for cleaning well conduits or other devices in a well by brushing, scraping, cutting or punching.
(1) Note. The devices in this and indented subclasses are for removing only material deposited on well elements or conduits.

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177.3,for means for cleaning by wiping.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 104.05+ for devices of general utility for cleaning pipes and subclass 249 for flue cleaners. Where the sole disclosure or claimed use of a cleaner is a use inside a well, classification is in Class 166.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 87 for a piston for an expansible chamber device which includes brushing, scraping or cutting means.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 263+ , for earth boring bits having cutter elements laterally shiftable below ground and subclasses 327+ for earth boring bits, per se.
417Pumps,   subclasses 545+ , for well swabs (valved pistons reciprocated in a well to remove fluid therefrom). Well swabs classifiable in Class 417 may include scrapers. Such patents should be cross-referenced to Class 166.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 171]    171Perforation cleaners:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Devices comprising means specially adapted for cleaning perforations in well conduits.
(1) Note. These devices either comprise means disclosed as entering the perforations of a well conduit, means claimed in combination with a perforated conduit or means claimed as adapted to be used for cleaning perforated conduits. Cleaners which may be used for perforation cleaning but do not qualify under this note may be found in subclass 170 or indented subclasses other than subclass 171.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 407+ for a strainer of general utility combined with cleaning means and see the search notes thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 172]    172Bow spring type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Devices in which the cleaning element is supported on a bow spring or constitutes a bow spring.
(1) Note. A bow spring is one which is supported at its ends and bulges outwardly at its mid-portion.

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241.1,for bow spring centering or friction means which do not have a separate cleaning element or which do not claim a cleaning function, and see the notes to subclass 241.1.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 173]    173On tubing or casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Devices comprising cleaning elements projecting outwardly from and supported by a tubing or casing.

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172,for cleaning elements of the bow spring type supported on a tubing or casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 174]    174Retractable on support while lowering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Devices comprising a cleaning element so constructed that its effective lateral dimensions may be reduced while it is being lowered into a well conduit so that the cleaner may be easily inserted in the well and then may expand to perform its cleaning function.
(1) Note. The reduction of lateral dimensions must be more than that brought about merely by the resilience of a bristle or wire as it is lowered in the well.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

171,for retractable perforation cleaners.
172,for bow spring type cleaners.
173,for retractable cleaners on a fluid conducting tubing or casing.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 263+ , for earth cutter elements which are laterally shiftable (e.g., expansible) below ground.
417Pumps,   subclasses 454+ , for well swabs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 175]    175Reciprocable relative to central member extending from well top:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Devices comprising a cleaning element which can reciprocate longitudinally of the well relative to a centrally positioned member extending down into the well from the top of the well.
(1) Note. Usually the cleaning element is mounted loosely on a rod so that as the rod is reciprocated in the well the position of the cleaning element varies with respect to the rod.

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172,for bow spring scrapers reciprocable relative to their supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 176]    176On sucker rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Devices in which the cleaning element is supported on a sucker rod which is used to pump the well while the scraper is on it.

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175,for scrapers on sucker rods, the scrapers being reciprocable relative to the sucker rod.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 325.1+ , and the search there noted, for earth boring apparatus having bore well engaging means carried on the tool or tool shaft.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 177.1]    177.1SONIC DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus wherein acoustic energy is used for agitating, fracturing or vibrating.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 1 for processes or apparatus for boring the earth combined with seismic shock generation and subclass 56 for processes or apparatus for boring the earth including a relationship between the natural vibration characteristics of one boring element and (a) the natural vibration characteristics of another boring element or (b) the frequency of an imposed motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 177.2]    177.2With specific downhole feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.1.  Sonic device wherein the apparatus includes a oscillator structure; e.g., piston, stem, nozzle, diffuser; driving structure; e.g., linkage; or filter below ground level.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 177.3]    177.3WIPER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having a means for cleaning the interior surface of a tubular well member.
(1) Note. For classification in this subclass as a wiper, a device must clearly be intended to function as removing detritus. An incidental wiping action of a device intended for some other use, such as a packer or plug, is not sufficient to cause classification here. Classification is then based on the other use or the characteristics of the packer or plug.

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153+,for pistons, fluid driven into the well, which wipe the walls of the surrounding conduit.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 172+ for a piston for an expansible chamber device, even though disclosed as a well plunger or swab.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 177.4]    177.4CEMENTING DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising specific structure for agitating, vibrating or mixing a slurry used to fix or adhere a pipe to a formation or to another pipe in a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 177.5]    177.5HYDRAULIC FRACTURING DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising specific structure for placing a liquid to erode a formation to increase permeability.

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101,for devices comprising a packer or plug and a pump or plunger means exerting outward fluid pressure on a conduit surrounding the packer or plug beneath it or between a pair of packers or plugs.
308,for a process of fracturing a formation.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 301+ for well torpedoes.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 20+ for an expansible breaking down device for breaking up hard material in situ.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 177.6]    177.6VIBRATOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus using rapid back and forth movement for loosening pipes, inserting pipes, cleaning, or stimulating flow.

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177.1+,for sonic vibrating devices.
178,for devices for giving a discrete blow to a well apparatus or part thereof to free it from the well, any vibratory effect being merely incidental to the intended function rather than the principal intended function of the device.
249,for processes for vibrating the earth.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 56 for processes or apparatus for boring the earth including a relationship between the natural vibration characteristics of one boring element and (a) the natural vibration characteristics of another boring element or (b) the frequency of an imposed motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 177.7]    177.7AGITATOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising means for generating irregular, quick, or violent action for cleaning or stimulating flow in a well.
(1) Note. For classification in this subclass as an agitator a device must clearly be intended to function as removing detritus or promoting fluid movement.
(2) Note. Excluded from this subclass is agitation caused by the motion of whirling or rotary nozzles.

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112,for eduction pumps with means to force well liquid out of the pump while it is operating to wash the well or agitate the liquid.
170+,especially subclass 174 for brushing, scraping or cutting cleaners which may agitate the well fluid as they brush or scrape.
177.1,for sonic agitating means.
178,for devices for giving a discrete blow to a well apparatus or part thereof to free it from the well, any vibratory effect being merely incidental to the intended function rather than the principal intended function of the device.
223,for agitation caused by the motion of whirling or rotary nozzles.

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366Agitating,   subclasses 108+ for agitating by vibration devices.
417Pumps,   subclasses 430+ , for pumps with means to agitate the pump fluid or prevent foreign material settling therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 178]    178WITH JAR MEANS FOR RELEASING STUCK PART:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising an apparatus combined with a means for giving a sharp blow to the apparatus or part thereof to free it from the well.
(1) Note. The jarring function must be specifically described for classification in this subclass and not left to inference.

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177.1+,for agitating, wiping, vibrating or formation fracturing apparatus.
196+,for packers or plugs with a telescopic central support which is adapted to give a jarring blow.

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173Tool Driving or Impacting,   subclasses 90+ , for above or below ground impacting devices (other than lost motion connections in an earth bore) of general utility for imparting blows to a tool or the like.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 293+ for below ground hammer or impact members, either (1) claiming a specific earth cutting means or having some feature related to earth boring such as a wall engaging guide or packer on a shaft being used in a boring operation or (2) comprising a lost motion connection.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 86.18 for a well grapple with a releasing means responsive to a jarring force and subclass 86.23 for a well grapple with an impact means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 179]    179PACKERS OR PLUGS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices insertable from the top of or well into a well conduit and comprising: (1) Means usually known as a packer and comprising a vertical or longitudinally extending tubular member forming a fluid passage and an annular means projecting from the member and blocking fluid flow either up or down or both in the annular space between the tubular member and the surrounding well conduit, said means comprising structure which goes beyond a mere packing assembly or (2) means usually known as a plug and comprising a means for blocking the flow of fluid either up or down or both in a surrounding well conduit by filling the bore of the conduit.
(1) Note. The device must be insertable from the top of the well to final position in the well, and the surrounding conduit must have been finally positioned in the well before the device is inserted in it. Parts of the device may be inserted at different times in order to be assembled in the well.
(2) Note. The device may be arranged to stop flow in the annular space between a pipe and an enclosing conduit by contacting the top of a shoulder (e.g., a rat hole shoulder) in the conduit. The shoulder may be disclosed as a flat well bottom, if a sealing function is clearly disclosed.
(3) Note. An annular casing or tubing shoe is considered to be a packer for this and indented subclasses only if it is disclosed as having a blocking function, and the blocking function is claimed, or if it is specially modified to have a blocking function and the modification is claimed.
(4) Note. The device must be of limited extent longitudinally of the well. For example, a filling of concrete extending along distance between concentric pipes is a part of the pipe structure rather than a packer.
(5) Note. A packer or plug usually comprises an annular deformable or laterally expansible blocking or sealing portion, such as rubber, combined with a supporting structure, such sealing portion and support structure, per se, being subject matter for Class 277, Seal for a Joint or Juncture.
(6) Note. The device usually forms a tight seal with the conduit, but if a device is disclosed as intended to function to block fluid flow the seal may not be tight.
(7) Note. A brushing or scraping means is not considered a packer or plug device for this or indented subclasses. See subclass 170 for such devices.
(8) Note. Devices usually called "cement baskets" are considered to be "packers" for this or indented subclasses.

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100,for a lateral probe or port sealed against a well wall.
101,for a packer or plug and a pump or plunger means exerting outward pressure.
106,for well devices having eduction pumps and packers or plugs.
114,for a central member and a prepositioned packer or plug.
115+,for a central chamber with a packer or plug and a modified surrounding conduit.
118+,for packers or plugs and expanding anchors.
141,for a packer in which the sealing portion closes a port between a central pipe and an outside space when the sealing portion is unexpected.
142+,for a central chamber with a packer and a controllable passage between the central chamber and the space below the packer.
153+,for pistons fluid driven into the well.
177.1+,for agitating, wiping, vibrating or fracturing means.
315,for methods of placing packers or plugs.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 172+ for a piston for an expansible chamber device even though disclosed as for use as a well plunger or swab.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 301+ for well torpedoes with plugging means; and subclass 333 for plugs used in blasting.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 89+ for closures or plugs for pipes in general including those placed in a well conduit before the conduit is lowered in the well.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 200+ , for closures or plugs including those placed in a well conduit before the conduit is lowered into the well.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for a packing element, per se, or material combined with the structure necessary to cooperate therewith to perform a packing function, which structure may include a tubular member supporting an annular means for blocking fluid flow and all the ancillary means for causing the annular means to function to block the flow, as well as the surrounding conduit, but does not include a well feature for a distinct function, e.g., a lateral port on the tubular member above or below the packing, or structural detail of the tubular member not contributing to the blocking function. The mere naming of the device as a well packer or as for use in a well does not preclude classification in Class 277.
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 123.3+ for seals between concentric pipes other than those established below ground level as provided for in Class 166, subclass 179.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 20+ for an expansible breaking down device for hard material in situ, and which may include or comprise an expansible packer or plug.
417Pumps,   subclasses 545+ , for valved piston including valved well swabs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 180]    180Adjustable over pipe or set over prepositioned pipe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising a laterally expansible blocking portion (1) intended to be positioned around and form a seal with a fluid conducting pipe which is already in place in the well or (2) which is so constructed that it may be expanded and contracted in the well to form a seal between the surrounding conduit and an inner concentric fluid conducting pipe at different positions along the pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 181]    181With detachable setting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising means for detachably coupling the device to a means for lowering the device into the surrounding conduit, the detachable connection being such that the packer or plug may be left in the well while the lowering means is completely withdrawn.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

117,for receptacles detachable from a lowering means, the detached portions of the receptacle and the contents of the receptacle cooperating to form a plug.
123+,for packers or plugs with expanding anchor means and detachable setting means.
143+,for packers with a controllable passage between a central chamber and the space below the packer, the central chamber being detachable from the packer.
158,for a screen with a washing point or shoe having a detachable wash pipe.
205,for a screen having a portion removable in the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 182]    182Packer or plug locked expanded:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 181.  Devices in which the sealing portion of the packer or plug is maintained in laterally expanded condition after the setting means is detached by a ratchet, dog or latch other than an expanding anchor as defined in subclass 206.

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123+,for packers or plugs with detachable setting means maintained in expanded condition by expanding anchor means.
198,for packers or plugs expanded by a telescoping central support, the packer or plug being locked in expanded condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 183]    183With controllable bypass outside central conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices wherein the packer is adapted to be supported by a central conduit from the top of the well while it is being run into the well, the central conduit extending through the region of the blocking portion of the packer, and there is a fluid passage separate from the central conduit passageway, and through the packer blocking portion which fluid passage connects the space below the packer with the annular space above the packer, fluid flow in the passage being controllable or changeable by a valve, closure or changeable restriction as defined in subclass 224.

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129+,for devices as defined in subclass 183 with an expanding anchor means.
149+,for devices with a controllable passage between a central chamber and a space below a packer or plug and also a passageway between the central chamber and a space above the packer or plug, the said passageway being outside the central chamber and through the packer or plug.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 184]    184With controllable passage between central conduit and space above packer or plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising a packer or plug adapted to be supported from the top of the well by a central conduit for insertion thereby into the well and a fluid passage between said central conduit and the annular space above the packer or plug between the central conduit and the surrounding conduit, fluid flow in the passage being controllable or changeable by a valve, a closure or a changeable restriction, as defined in subclass 224.

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123+,143+ and 181+, for a central conduit detachable from a packer or plug, a fluid passage above the packer or plug being opened when the central conduit is detached.
127,for a device comprising an expanding anchor, spaced packer or plug seals and a controllable passage between a central conduit and the space between the packer or plug seals.
129and 183, for a central conduit with a packer, the conduit passage being continued past the packer blocking means and there being a controllable bypass through the packer outside of the central conduit passage.
131,for a device comprising an expanding anchor, a packer or plug and a controllable passage between a central conduit and the space above the packer or plug.
147,for a central conduit with spaced packer or plug seals and a controllable passage between the conduit and the space between packer or plug seals.
149+,for a central conduit with a packer and a controllable passage between the conduit and the space above the packer and also the space below the packer.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 185]    185With central conduit and fluid port to space outside:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising a packer or plug adapted to be supported from the top of the well by a central conduit for insertion thereby into the well, and a port for the passage of fluid between said central conduit and the space outside the conduit adjacent the packer or plug.
(1) Note. The port may be any side opening or a restricted open end portion of the central conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

100,for a lateral probe or port sealed against a well wall.
101,for a packer or plug and pump or plunger means exerting outward pressure.
106,for a packer or plug and an eduction pump.
126and 142+, for a packer with a controllable passage between a central conduit and the space below the packer.
131and 184, for a packer or plug with a controllable passage between a central conduit and the space above the packer.
141,for a packer or plug sealing portion which closes a port between a central conduit and the space outside when unexpanded.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 186]    186Port between sealing portions and bypass around:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Devices in which the port is between spaced packer or plug blocking or sealing means and there is a bypass passage across both spaced means connecting the spaces outside the central conduit with each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 187]    187Expanded by confined fluid from central chamber, pump or plunger:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices wherein the packer or plug is moved into expanded, blocking position by means of or with the help of fluid supplied from a central conduit or receptacle or forced into the packer or plug by a pump or plunger means, the fluid while expanding the packer or plug being confined within the device.
(1) Note. Operation of a latch by fluid pressure whereby the packer or plug may be expanded by other means is not included. Such devices are classified on other features.

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121,for devices in which fluid pressure on a cup shaped packer expands it and causes it to act on an anchor to cause expansion thereof, the fluid while expanding the packer or plug not being confined within the device.
122,for devices in which fluid from a central conduit causes expansion of a packer or plug which acts on an anchor to cause expansion thereof.

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277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 70+ , 103 and 126+ for packing of general application which is biased by fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 188]    188Controllable passage through packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising a fluid passage through the packer with a valve, closure or changeable restriction for controlling or altering flow through the passage.

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126and 142+, (especially subclasses 149+) for packers with a controllable passage between a central tubing or receptacle and a space beneath the packer.
129and 183, for a packer with a controllable bypass outside a central conduit.
133,for a packer with an expanding anchor and a controllable passage through the packer.

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417Pumps,   subclasses 545+ , for valved pistons including valved well swabs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 189]    189For non-concentric members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices in which the packer or plug seals the space between the surrounding conduit and two longitudinally extending members which are positioned in side by side relationship (not one within the other).
(1) Note. These devices are usually packings for a pump tube and a gas vent pipe. Where more structure is involved than a mere packing such a device is classifiable in Class 417 as a pump venting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 191]    191Spaced sealing portions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising spaced sealing portions on the same central supporting structure.
(1) Note. Sealing portions separated merely by a washer or washers so that the sealing portions act as a unit are not considered to be spaced in the meaning of the definition of this subclass.
(2) Note. The "sealing portion" is the part which does the actual blocking of flow in the surrounding conduit. It is usually of rubber or deformable but may be a hard machined surface.
(3) Note. The sealing portions must be spaced, from any other sealing portion when in set, expanded condition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

119,for relatively movable spaced packer or plug sealing portions with an expanding anchor.
127,for spaced packer or plug sealing portions and an expanding anchor with a controllable passage between a central chamber and a space below a packer.
146and 147, for spaced packer or plug sealing portions with a controllable passage between a central chamber and a space below a packer.
186,for spaced packer or plug sealing means with a port between a central conduit and a space between the packer seals and a bypass passage around both packer seals.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 192]    192Flow stopping type; e.g., plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising means for blocking the flow of fluid either up or down or both in a surrounding well conduit by completely filling the bore of the conduit.
(1) Note. The essential elements for filling the bore should be claimed. For example, if a central support member for a deformable seal is disclosed as a solid rod and the support member is claimed classification is in this subclass. However, if a central support member is disclosed as a pipe which is closed off at one end with a deformable or other sealing portion claimed, classification is based on other characteristics of the device if subclasses are provided for such characteristics since the device as claimed is indistinguishable from a packer.
(2) Note. The plug member as a whole may be adapted to be drilled up or otherwise destroyed. If only a central portion is destroyed or is intended to be destroyed first the device is classifiable in subclass 188.

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117,for plugs formed by leaving a receptacle as defined in subclass 162 or part thereof in the well.
132and 135, for plugs combined with expanding anchor means.
153+,for pistons, fluid driven into the well.
187,for plugs expanded by fluid from a central conduit, pump or plunger.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 301+ for well torpedoes with plugging means; and subclass 333 for plugs used in blasting.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 89 for pipe closures and plugs of general utility, including those placed in a well conduit before the conduit is lowered into the well.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 233+ for expansible plug type closures.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 193]    193Free falling type (e.g., dropped ball):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Devices comprising an element which does not closely contact the conduit wall and is intended to be dropped or floated down the surrounding conduit (rather than let down by a supporting string) till it strikes a shoulder on the conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

153+,for piston devices which closely engage the conduit wall and are forced down by fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 194]    194With sleeve valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 193.  Devices comprising a sleeve portion which is moved by the plug or is moved due to fluid pressure or other means made effective by the presence of the plug, the sleeve portion being carried by the surrounding conduit and acting to open or close ports in the conduit walls for fluid passage.

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154,for conduit valves operated by a piston, fluid driven into the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 195]    195Deformable portion engages conduit restriction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices in which the expansible portion is made of a deformable nonmetallic or soft metallic material and is adapted to engage an inwardly projecting shoulder on the surrounding conduit.
(1) Note. The shoulder may be the bottom of the conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

115,for a central chamber with a packer or plug claimed in combination with a modified surrounding conduit.
192+,for plugs having a deformable portion engaging a surrounding conduit shoulder.
201,for packers having a rigid ring portion which engages a conduit shoulder and rides up on a pipe to expand a deformable sealing portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 196]    196Central support has shoulders expanding sealing portion, or telescopes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising either (1) a central support for the deformable sealing portion comprising telescoping sections whereby relative longitudinal movement of this section causes expansion of the sealing portion or (2) a central support for the deformable sealing portion having projecting portions relatively movable towards each other to cause expansion of the sealing portion.
(1) Note. The central support is usually a pipe which extends beyond the ends of the deformable sealing portion in a longitudinal direction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

118+,especially subclasses 134 through 140, for devices in which projecting portions on a central support, which causes expansion of a deformable sealing portion, comprise expanding anchor means.
195,for packers of the telescoping support type in which the deformable portion of the packer engages a shoulder on the surrounding conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 202]    202Cup type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices in which the laterally expansible blocking portion of the device has one end thereof attached to and adjacent to a central pipe support and the other longitudinally displaced end portion spaced from the support axis and in which the blocking portion is flexible or hinged to the support whereby the fluid pressure of the fluid, the flow of which is being stopped, tends to cause the spaced end portion to engage the enclosing conduit more tightly.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

121,for cup type packer seals which transmit fluid pressure to move expanding anchors to set position.
153+,for pistons, fluid driven into the well with cup type seals.
199,and 201, for packers in which sleeve or shoulder parts spread one end of a deformable sealing portion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 172+ , and particularly subclasses 240+ for a piston in which the side wall portion thereof is provided with a peripheral axially extending flexible lip (e.g., cup type).
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for packing which establishes a tight seal. The metal cement baskets found in this subclass (202) are not considered to form tight seals for Class 277.
417Pumps,   subclasses 545+ , for valved pistons including valved well swabs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 203]    203Non-deformable type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Devices comprising nondeformable portions (e.g., a hard metal) forming the blocking means between the inner supporting member and the outer conduit.
(1) Note. Casing shoes or the like are classified in this subclass if the blocking or sealing function of the shoe is disclosed and this function or the structure performing the function is claimed.

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161,for casing shoes with cutting, scraping or reaming means.
192+,for nondeformable plugs.
204,for metallic rings used to prevent extrusion of a deformable sealing portion of a packer or plug, such rings forming a secondary blocking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 205]    205SCREEN WITH VALVE, CLOSURE, CHANGEABLE RESTRICTOR OR PORTION REMOVABLE IN WELL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising a screen combined with (1) a valve, closure or changeable restrictor as defined in subclass 224, (2) a destroyable portion or (3) a screen part removable from the well while the screen remains in the well.

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143+,for screens with packers and detachable setting means, there being a valve closure or changeable restriction between the conduit of the setting means and the space below the packer.
157+,for screens with washing point or shoes provided with valves.
181+,for screens with packers and detachable setting means.
231+,for spiral screens constructed so that the space between the spirals may be varied.
296,for processes for preventing flow into a strainer while it is being lowered by blocking the strainer openings.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 544+ for fluid handling means of general utility combined with screens.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 418+ for filters of general utility with flow controllers, and see the search notes thereunder.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 206]    206EXPANSIBLE ANCHOR OR CASING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising (1) a means attached to a member which is run into a well conduit already in fixed position in the well, the means being movable outwardly to engage and jam against the surrounding conduit wall or to interlock in a preformed recess in the conduit, the means functioning to attach the member to the conduit in the well so as to resist action of gravity or a lifting force or (2) a section of casing which is expansible in the well.
(1) Note. The outwardly movable means usually have teeth that bite into the surrounding conduit wall and serve to fix the device in the well conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

174,for expansible brushing or scraping cleaners.
179+,for expansible packers or plugs.
241,for devices which frictionally engage or press against the wall of a surrounding conduit and offer some resistance to longitudinal movement but are not interlocked with or jammed against the wall of the conduit to form an anchor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 98+ for an earth boring means having a below ground drive motor with an expansible bore wall engaging anchor, subclass 230 for other earth boring apparatus with an expanding bore wall engaging anchor and subclasses 263+ for earth boring cutter elements which are laterally shiftable (e.g., expansible) below ground.
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 123.3+ for joints between concentric pipes not established below ground level in a well as provided for in Class 166, subclass 206.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 86.24+ for internally expanding well grapples, and subclasses 93+ for internally expanding grapples of general utility. Sole disclosure of, or a statement in a claim of use as a grapple is enough for classification Class 294.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 20+ for an expansible breaking down device for hard material in situ which may be structurally similar to an anchor.
417Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for well pumps with expanding anchor means where there is only a nominal recitation of a pump, pump barrel or tubing in a claim to a device including an expanding anchor classification is in Class 166 in this or indented subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 207]    207Expansible casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices in which the outwardly movable means comprises a section of casing which is expansible in the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 208]    208Liner hanger:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices specifically disclosed for anchoring a liner to the surrounding well conduit against movement up or down or both.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 209]    209Set by wedge or cam at any point by drop only (e.g., tubing catcher):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices in which setting the outwardly movable means by engagement with an element that forces the outwardly movable means into contact with the surrounding conduit during running in the member by a quick downward motion of the member, no other motion or act of an attendant being required for movement of the outwardly movable means to the final position and the outwardly movable means being anchorable to the surrounding conduit at any point thereon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

118,for a packer or plug and expansible anchor set by a dropping movement only.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 210]    210With friction drag for setting by turning movement also:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.  Devices which comprise a friction means with the outwardly movable means shiftable to the final position after or during a turning movement of the running in member, so that the outwardly movable means may be anchored either by a quick downward movement of the running in member or also may be anchored after or during a turning movement of the running in member.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 211]    211With spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.  Devices in which the stored energy of a spring is used to effect all or part of the movement of the outwardly movable means to the final position.
(1) Note. A spring used only as a friction drag does not come within the definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 212]    212Fluid pressure actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices in which the outwardly shiftable means is movable to or from the final position by means of the force exerted by the pressure of a fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

55.8,for well pipe cutters which are moved radially outward by fluid pressure.
120+,for packers or plugs and expanding anchors actuated by fluid pressure.
187,for packers or plugs expanded by fluid from a central conduit, pump or plunger.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

83Cutting,   subclass 180 for an expanding mandrel inside a hollow workpiece, subclass 191 for an active cutter inside hollow workpiece, and subclasses 639.1+ for a fluid-pressure actuated reciprocatable cutting tool.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 99 for a below ground drive motor for an earth boring apparatus which is anchored to the bore wall by a fluid operated expansible anchor, and subclasses 267+ for laterally shiftable cutter elements which are shifted by fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 213]    213Bowed anchor means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices in which the movable means is secured to a central support at each end and bowed outwardly intermediate the ends.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

241.1,for devices of similar form which are not jammed against the wall surrounding conduit.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 214]    214Spring set:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices in which the energy stored in a spring is used to move the movable means outwardly to anchor the device in the conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

136,for spring set expansible anchors combined with packers or plugs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 215]    215Spring moves anchor slip relative to wedge or cam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.  Devices in which the spring causes relative movement between an element that forces the outwardly movable means into contact with the surrounding conduit and the outwardly movable means to shift the means radially.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

137,for packers or plugs combined with expansible anchors set by a spring causing relative movement between the anchor and a wedge or cam.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 216]    216With wedge or cam and friction drag:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices comprising a combination of a friction means and an element that forces the outwardly movable means into contact with the surrounding conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

138+,for devices comprising a friction drag, a wedge or cam moved expansible anchor means and a packer or plug.
210,for anchors set at any point by drop only and also set by a turning movement, the setting means comprising a wedge or cam and also a friction drag.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 217]    217Expansible means translated by wedge or cam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Devices in which the outwardly movable means is translated radially due to relative movement between it and an element that forces the outwardly movable means into contact with the surrounding conduit surface.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

120+,for wedge or cam actuated slips set by fluid pressure.
209+,for wedge or cam actuated expanding anchors set at any point in the well by a sudden lowering.
215,for a wedge or cam and an expanding anchor operated by a spring.
216,for expansible means with a wedge or cam and a friction drag.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 86.25 for cam spread, expanding jaw, well grapples, and subclasses 93+ for cam spread expanding jaw grapples of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 222]    222WHIRLING OR LATERAL DISCHARGE OR PROJECTABLE NOZZLES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means for directing fluid outwardly into the well from a tubing or casing, said means comprising more than a mere opening in a wall and (1) acting to give a whirling or tangential motion to the fluid, or (2) positioned in a side wall of the tubing or casing rather than being an end opening, or (3) said means being capable of being projected from the tubing or casing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

99,for junk retrieving means having nozzles for directing fluid outwardly from the junk catcher.
112,for eduction pumps with nozzles for spraying the well walls.
157+,for screens with washing points or shoes.
169,for receptacles having lateral ports for the discharge of fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 424 for earth boring jetting or suction nozzles.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   appropriate subclasses for fluid spraying and discharging devices of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 223]    223Rotary or projectable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Devices in which the means for directing the fluid turns about an axis on the casing or tubing or is capable of being projected from the tubing or casing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

100,for well devices with a lateral probe or port sealed against the well wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 227]    227SCREENS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means, usually strainers or filters, for separating solids from the earth fluid flowing into a well conduit.
(1) Note. A strainer may comprise no more than a pipe with a multiplicity of perforations. The disclosed use is the important factor for classification herein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

157+,for screens and washing points or shoes.
171,for screens with mechanical perforation cleaners.
205,for screens with a valve, closure, changeable restrictor or removable portion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 544+ for fluid handling apparatus of general utility combined with screens.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 41 for flow restrictors of general utility combined with screens.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 314 for earth boring apparatus with a well type screen including jetting or well points.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 459+ for a filter of general utility attached to a pipe end, subclasses 483+ for filter elements, and subclasses 500.1+ for filter materials.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   for rotary expansible chamber type pumps or motors, per se. As between Classes 166 and 210 a patent is placed in Class 166 if its sole disclosed or claimed use is merely as a well screen or well filter for earth fluids, whether disclosed on a casing or tubing. Class 210, however, takes patents for filters or screens of general utility and also those specifically disclosed as pump or pipe intakes positioned within a well and not forming a casing of the well.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 131+ for a stock material product in the form of a single or plural layer web or sheet in which at least one component is perforated or reticulated, and subclasses 304.4+ for a composite web or sheet product in which one component is porous or cellular.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 228]    228Porous material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Devices comprising a straining portion made up of a mass of material having fine, irregularly shaped or tortuous pores or channels.
(1) Note. The material is usually a body of gravel, sand or porous concrete.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

51,for apparatus for placing porous beds.
230,for screens using woven fabric (wire mesh) to form straining openings.
276,for a process for providing a porous mass of adhered filter material in the well.
278,for a process of graveling or filter forming.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclass 496 for shaped porous filter elements of general utility, and subclass 510.1 for a filter material comprising a porous unitary mass.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 304.4+ for a stock material product in the form of a composite sheet or web, in which one component is porous or cellular.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 229]    229Inserted screen plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Devices comprising an element of limited extent such as a plug having a straining opening or openings and positioned at least partially within a hole or recess in a conduit wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 230]    230Woven mesh:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Devices comprising a woven fabric providing straining openings between the element of the fabric.
(1) Note. A "wire mesh screen" will be presumed to be a "woven fabric" unless described as not woven.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

229,for screens in which a woven fabric forms a plug member.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 175+ , 190, 193, 196+ for other products comprises a layer of mechanically interengaged strands, which may be open mesh.
442Fabric (Woven, Knitted, or Nonwoven Textile or Cloth, etc.),   subclasses 19 , 29, 43+, and 58 for a coated or impregnated open mesh fabric.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 231]    231Spiral:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Devices comprising a helically wound element which provides straining openings between turns of the element, or (2) has straining openings provided in it or (3) provides straining opening between itself and a base member to which it is secured.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 232]    232With spacing lug for adjacent turns:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Devices in which the helical element is provided with spaced lugs to engage an adjacent turn of the element in order to position the turns to form straining openings.
(1) Note. The spaced lugs may be formed by spaced recesses in the edge of the helical element.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 233]    233With perforated pipe:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 231.  Devices combined with a pipe having solid walls formed with perforations cooperating with the straining openings of the helical element to pass the strained fluid.
(1) Note. A skeleton structure built in the shape of a pipe is not considered a solid pipe with perforations. See subclasses 231 and 232 for such structure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

232,for screens having a perforated pipe and a helical element and in which the helical element has spacing lugs.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 234]    234Strip or rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Devices comprising elongated solid elements which provide (1) straining openings between each other, or (2) straining openings between themselves and a base member to which they are secured, or (3) straining openings in themselves.
(1) Note. The elongated solid element may be curved but is not a complete annulus. However, several separate elongated elements may be welded or otherwise secured together to form an annular unit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

231+,for screens comprising spiral elongated elements providing straining openings.
235,for screens comprising integral annular elongated elements providing straining openings.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 105+ for a stock material product in the form of a composite sheet or web including layers of angularly related strips or strands (e.g., rods, filaments, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 235]    235Stacked annular sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Devices comprising a vertically aligned assembly of annular units which provide straining openings between themselves or at least two of which have straining openings in themselves.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 236]    236Concentric pipes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Devices comprising a plurality of concentrically positioned pipe sections at least one of which has straining openings.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

228,for concentric pipes with porous material therebetween.
230,for screens in which a concentric pipe section is made of a woven fabric such as a wire mesh.
232,and 233, for screens in which a concentric pipe section is made of a spiral element providing straining openings.
234,for screens in which one or more concentric pipes are made of elongated elements providing straining openings.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 237]    237DETENTS OR CLUTCHES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices comprising means for preventing relative movement between two parts and manipulable to permit relative movement, or means to permit relative movement and manipulable to prevent relative movement, the change in condition between movement prevention and movement permission being for the purpose of enabling operation of some device in a well (e.g., setting a packer) and the two parts always remaining connected in the well by other means.
(1) Note. Devices which include mere end stops to limit motion are not included in this subclass. See subclass 241.1 for centering devices which include stops for limiting the sliding movement of the centering means on their supports.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

63,and subclasses there noted, for well devices with detents released by an explosive means.
162+,and subclasses there noted, for well receptacles with latch devices for valves and closures.
182,and 198, for detents holding the telescopic supports of packers or plugs locked in order to hold the packers or plugs expanded.
206+,and subclasses there noted, for expansible anchors coacting with a pre-positioned conduit.
216,for devices comprising an expanding anchor and friction drag with a detent means to prevent setting of the anchor till a desired location is reached.
241.1+,and subclasses there noted, for centering devices.
332.1+,and subclasses there noted, for valve devices with actuating means engaging the well bottom, an obstruction or wall.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 2+ and 527+ for trips and detents of general utility.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclasses 30+ for clutches of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 238]    238Flow permitting means bridging fluid conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Devices in which the movement prevention means extends completely across a well conduit but permits fluid to flow past the means, the means acting to control relative movement between the conduit and another part.
(1) Note. A separate movable part, such as a go-devil, between two detent means is not considered within the definition of this subclass. See other subclasses in this group for such devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 239]    239Operated by dropped weight:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Devices in which the movement prevention means is set in operation by a falling weight (e.g., a go-devil).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

153+,for fluid driven pistons operating detent means.
193+,for dropped ball type plugs operating detent means.
238,for a weight operated movement preventing means comprising an element bridging a fluid conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 268 , 270, and 271 for earth cutting elements which are laterally shiftable below ground (e.g., expansible) by a dropped element.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 240]    240Lug in closed branched slot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Devices comprising a lug on one part moveable in a branched slot having a continuous perimeter on the other part, so that though the lug is always in the slot, movement of the parts (at least in some directions) is prevented in one position of the lug and permitted in another position.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 241.1]    241.1GUIDE FOR DEVICE OR CONDUIT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising positioning means attached to and projecting laterally beyond (1) a tool; (2) a fluid moving structure; or (3) a fluid conveying means (i.e., tubing) to centralize within the well the tool, fluid moving structure, or fluid conveying means.
(1) Note. Included are centralizing means that press against the inner wall of the conduit to form a stationary point of reference for manipulation of the well device, but may be moved longitudinally with respect to the well if enough force is applied.
(2) Note. Included in this subclass are devices for centrally positioning a casing during a cementing operation.
(3) Note. Included in this subclass are discreet guides for either connecting (1) two spaced well devices or fluid conveying portions, or (2) terminating either the device or fluid conveying means, and which require the well device or fluid conveying means to be fabricated for the purpose of holding the guide.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

138+,for a friction drag combined with a packer or plug and an expansible anchor.
153+,for pistons propelled by fluid in a well conduit.
166,for receptacles with centering devices engaging the wall of a well conduit to operate a valve.
170+,especially 172, for centering devices combined with scraping or brushing means.
179+,for packers or plugs.
206+,for an anchoring device which is jammed against the wall of a surrounding conduit or interlock therewith, especially subclasses 210 and 216 for anchoring devices with wedges and friction drags and subclass 213 for anchors similar to centering devices, but jammed against the surrounding conduit wall.
332.1+,for valves in combination with friction devices engaging a well conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 325.1+ for earth boring apparatus having bore wall engaging means carried on the tool or tool shaft, particularly subclass 325.3 for bearings.
384Bearings,   subclasses 29+ for a cylindrical linear bearing of general use; if bore hole contacting structure is disclosed or claimed, placement is in Class 175, subclasses 325.1+.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 241.2]    241.2On sucker or pump rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.1.  Apparatus in which a fluid moving structure is positioned centrally within a fluid conveying means.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 241.3]    241.3Rotatable or having a rotatable element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.2.  Apparatus where the centralizer includes an element that turns about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 241.4]    241.4Surrounding existing rod:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.2.  Apparatus where the centralizer encircles and is secured to a fluid moving structure having no alteration to accommodate the centralizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 241.5]    241.5For a wireline operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.1.  Apparatus in which the guide is peculiarly adapted to be employed with equipment for well logging or surveying.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 241.6]    241.6Surrounding existing device or tubing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.1.  Apparatus where the guide encircles either (1) the fluid conveying means or (2) the tool.
(1) Note. Included under tool would be, for example, cable cutters, or drift recorders.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 241.7]    241.7Removably secured by a fastener (e.g., pin) parallel to the tubing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.6.  Apparatus in which the means holding the guide to the existing fluid conveying means or device is readily taken out along the tubing length.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.1]    242.1CONDUIT WALL OR SPECIFIC CONDUIT END STRUCTURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising (a) a particular modification to a pipe through the thickness or (b) means at the end of a conduit for facilitating entry of the conduit into the well (e.g., casing shoes).
(1) Note. Claims to a plurality of well conduits may be classified here, but conduits with attachments thereon other than shoes are classified in subclass 243 or other subclasses according to the features claimed.
(2) Note. Couplings for conduit sections are considered parts of the conduit wall structure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

227+,for conduit structure comprising or combined with a screen or filter.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 100+ for pipe structure of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.2]    242.2Flexible tube or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.1.  Conduit wall structure comprising a pliant thin-walled pipe; e.g., coiled tubing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

77.2+,for forcing coiled tubing into an existing well.
385,for a method of placing or shifting a well part using a flexible cable or wire.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 118+ for flexible pipe structure of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.3]    242.3Plural parallel nonconcentric conduits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.1.  Conduit wall structure comprising at least two side by side, coaxial pipes.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are pipes of dissimilar diameter; e.g., hydraulic lines, control lines, flushing tubing, grouting tube.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

89.2,for inner member anchor or seal with lateral port using parallel pipes.
97.5,for parallel pipes extending through distinct paths through wellhead.
242.5,for side entry.
313,for a method for parallel string or multiple completion of well.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 120.1+ for plural non-communicating paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.4]    242.4Corrosion prevention or deterring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.1.  Conduit wall structure comprising specific wall structure for averting or slowing deterioration due to reaction with water, pollutants, or salt spray.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

250.05,for a method of scale or corrosion determination.
250.11,for a method of locating coupon holders.
902,for corrosion inhibiting.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   Digest 6 for corrosion prevention.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.5]    242.5Side entry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.1.  Conduit wall structure comprising means for introducing an; e.g., cable or conduit, into the conduit wall through a bulged or enlarged section of the conduit.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

65.1+,for side entry of electrical cable.
117.5+,for side pocket mandrel and means for guiding into a side pocket.
255.3,for determining location or position of whipstocks.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.6]    242.6Downhole coupling or connector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.1.  Conduit wall structure comprising a specific joining structure for two conduit sections.
(1) Note. Couplings for conduit sections are considered parts of the conduit wall structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.7]    242.7Telescopic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.6.  Coupling for conduit wall structure wherein the coupling allows relative axial movement between two conduit wall sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.8]    242.8Shoe detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.1.  End structure comprising the particular shape, design, construction, or configuration of the means at the terminus of a conduit for facilitating entry of the conduit into the well (e.g., cementing shoes).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

156,for casing shoes with stop means for pistons, fluid driven into the well.
157+,for screens with a washing point or shoe.
203,for conduit shoes specifically formed and claimed as packers.
222+,for shoes with nozzles for whirling or lateral discharge or projectable nozzles.
316+,for conduits with valves, closures or changeable restrictors, especially subclasses 327+ for shoes with check valves.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 402 for casing shoe type earth cutting bits.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 242.9]    242.9Brick or cement casing liner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.1.  Conduit wall structure wherein the conduit wall is formed of a hardened clay or powdered alumina, silica, lime, iron oxide and magnesia material used in; e.g., water wells.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 19+ , and 169.1+, for a masonry construction, per se, surrounding an open space which may be defined as forming a cistern or well.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 132+ for tunnel structure and structure of shafts of general utility; and subclasses 231+ for columnar foundation structures (e.g., pier, pile) and methods and apparatus for installing the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 243]    243MISCELLANEOUS (E.G., ANCHOR PIPES):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Devices not provided for in other subclasses.
(1) Note. In this subclass are found, for example, tubing supports of types other than those found in subclasses 206+, catchers for falling objects and go-devils.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 244.1]    244.1PROCESSES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  A process.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclass 1 for processes of handling material in a pipe line including forming or maintaining a film on the interior of the pipe.
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   subclasses 200+ for processes involving no significant manipulative steps or relationship with the well and consisting only of placing a treating material in a well. Examples of broadly recited steps which are not considered significantly manipulative are (a) generally producing the well or (b) broad removal of spent material. Examples of processes classifiable in Class 166 rather than Class 507 are: using pressure; introducing one material after another; introducing materials through separate conduits; introducing material at the bottom of the well or below paraffin deposits; contacting well fluids with an introduced material during pumping; producing or blowing the well; a process in which materials are introduced into a well to react with each other (including a process in which one material reacts with the product of the reaction between another material and a material found in the well); a process in which a material is introduced in a special location, as between the casing and tubing; or a process in which material is inserted into the pores of the earth.
516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   appropriate subclasses for subject matter relating to: colloid systems (such as sols*, emulsions, dispersions, foams, aerosols, smokes, gels, or pastes) or wetting agents (such as leveling, penetrating, or spreading); subcombination compositions of colloid systems containing at least an agent specialized and designed for or peculiar to use in making or stabilizing colloid systems; compositions and subcombination compositions specialized and designed for or peculiar to use in breaking (resolving) or inhibiting colloid systems; processes of making the compositions or systems of the class; processes of breaking (resolving) or inhibiting colloid systems; in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 245]    245Specific pattern of plural wells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which an arrangement of more than two wells in plan view is claimed with enough specificity to indicate a pattern of wells (e.g., two lines of wells, one well surrounded by a ring of other wells, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 246]    246Using microorganisms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which a biological organism of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size (e.g., bacteria, etc.) is used.
(1) Note. A process involving using a bactericide or the like to treat any microorganism which may be present but which is not introduced as a part of the process is not included under this definition. Such a process is classifiable on other features.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 247]    247Nuclear energy or radioactivity for treating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising (1) using nuclear energy or (2) using radioactivity of a substance to effect some treating operation (e.g., heating the formation, etc.).
(1) Note. Nuclear energy in this subclass is energy created by an induced nuclear reaction as described in the class definition of Class 376, Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements. Patents which claim well processes which recite a nuclear reactor or details of the nuclear explosive are provided for in Class 376, subclasses 273+.

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248,for a process involving using electromagnetic waves to treat the earth by heating it.
299,for a process using a non-nuclear explosion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 248]    248Electric current or electrical wave energy through earth for treating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising passing an electric current through the earth to treat it or material in the pores of the earth (e.g., by heating, etc.).
(1) Note. Electromagnetic Waves created in the earth to treat it are considered to come within the definition.

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247,for processes for treating the earth by radioactive emissions.
250.1+,for processes in which a current may be passed through the earth for the purpose of an indicating, testing, measuring or locating step.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 249]    249Vibrating the earth or material in or being placed in the earth pores:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which rapidly pulsating forces of a mechanical nature are applied to the earth, material in the pores of the earth or material being injected into the pores of the earth.
(1) Note. The rapid pulsations must be in the sonic or ultrasonic range, i.e., at least 15 cycles per second. Some disclosures do not recite the rapidity of the vibrations. If, however, it is concluded that the intent of the disclosure is to cover sonic or ultrasonic vibrations, the patent should be classified under this definition.
(2) Note. A single explosion, implosion or blow may be followed by rapid pulsations but such subject matter is not included under this definition unless explosions or blows are repeated at sonic or ultrasonic frequencies. See subclass 299 for a process including an explosion, or implosion by breaking a container.
(3) Note. Vibrations applied to the earth merely for measuring, testing, indicating, etc., are not included. A process with such steps would be classifiable in subclasses 250.1+.
(4) Note. A process involving incidental vibration of the earth or material in the earth, such as may take place when cementitious material or gravel in a well is vibrated are not included. The stated purpose of the process must be to impart vibrations or pulsations to the earth or material in or being placed in the pores of the earth.

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286,for a cementing process including vibrating the cement being placed in a well bore rather than in the pores of the earth.

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299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclass 14 for mining processes involving breaking down material by vibrating.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.01]    250.01With indicating, testing, measuring or locating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  Process including a step of: providing evidence of a condition; e.g., leak, oil-gas interface; performing an analysis; e.g., downhole pressure; counting; or determining the position of an object or formation.
(1) Note. A process including a mere step(s) of indicating, detecting, signaling, recording or measuring wherein the result is not related to any other step in the claim is not classifiable here.
(2) Note. A process involving merely taking a sample of earth fluid is not included under this definition. See subclass 264 for such a process.
(3) Note. A process in which an inherent measuring step or the like would take place, such as a process involving the use of a fluid at a certain temperature, is not classified under this definition unless a separate step of making the measurement, or the like, is recited in a claim. Further, many well processes inherently give a signal or indication when some well function is performed, such as a pressure rise taking place when a plug closes an opening in a cementing operation. Such processes, also, are not classified under this definition unless some added indicating step is claimed.

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64,for well apparatus combined with time or distance measuring or counting means.
66,for well apparatus combined with electrical indicating means.
113,for below ground devices comprising well apparatus combined with non-electrical indicating, testing or measuring means.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclass 302 , for processes of sensing and indicating borehole direction or inclination, and subclasses 717+ sounding devices combined with samplers not for well fluids.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.02+ for miscellaneous tests and measurements relating to wells. Class 73 takes a process relating to measuring or testing including steps relating to well features for perfecting the measuring or testing process while Class 166 takes a more comprehensive process relating to well conditions or structure which includes a measuring or testing step.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 4.51 for a gun or explosive charge perforating means or step which inherently results in penetration of the earth in combination with a position orienting or indicating means or step, contributing to the effect of the perforating or penetrating means or step, subclasses 40+ for processes or apparatus for earth boring including signaling, indicating, testing or measuring and especially subclass 45 for tool direction or inclination measuring or indicating within the bore hole.
181Acoustics,   subclasses 101+ for acoustic devices in wells or seismological prospecting.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 83+ for ray energy detection or measurement.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 323+ for subject matter relating to the determination of an electrical characteristic of the subsurface of the earth.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for electrical automatic condition responsive indicating systems, and subclasses 853.1+ for well bore signaling systems.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave Systems and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclass 22 for transmission through media other than air or free space, and subclass 459 for radar systems in wells.
346Recorders,   subclass 33 for well logging.
367Communications, Electrical: Acoustic Wave Systems and Devices,   subclasses 25+ for seismic well logging; subclasses 81+ for acoustic wellbore telemetering; and subclass 86 for acoustic borehole testing.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 25+ for geochemical, geological, or geothermal exploration. A nominal step in a claim, reciting drilling a well or recovering fluid from the earth does not affect classification of a patent in Class 436.
702Data Processing: Measuring,Calibrating, or Testing,   subclasses 6 through 13for the application of well logging which requires a mathematical calculation and only nominal recitation to the structure of well logging.
703Data Processing: Structural Design, Modeling, Simulation, and Emulation,   subclass 10 for mathematical simulation of a fluid well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.02]    250.02Permeability determining:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Measuring including the step(s) of ascertaining the ease with which a fluid can flow through a formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.03]    250.03Determining fluid interface or fluid level:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Measuring including the step(s) of indicating a liquid-gas contact or a depth of a gas or liquid within a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.04]    250.04Plug indicating or releasing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Indicating including the step(s) of monitoring the position or disengagement of a flow stopping device.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.05]    250.05Scale or corrosion determination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Indicating including the step(s) of finding detritus or deterioration due to reaction with water, pollutants, or salt spray.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.06]    250.06Steam quality:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Testing including the step(s) of finding the degree of superiority of superheated water vapor.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.07]    250.07Bottom hole pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Testing including the step(s) of determining weight per volume at the well total depth.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.08]    250.08Leak testing or locating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Testing or locating including the step(s) of finding a nongeological fault allowing the escape of fluid or solids.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.09]    250.09Impression means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Measuring including the step(s) of taking an imprint of the formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.1]    250.1Fracturing characteristic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Measuring or indicating including the step(s) of determining the orientation, width, length, or pressure of the result of placing a liquid or particulate material to erode a formation to increase permeability.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.11]    250.11Holder for coupon or sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Indicating including the step(s) of using or installing a device to retain (a) a metal member to monitor the effect of corrosion or (b) a detector within a well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.12]    250.12Tracer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Indicating involving the use of an easily detectable material (e.g., dye, inert gas, halocarbons, cobalt-57, carbon dioxide).

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252.6,for tracing material with a driving fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.13]    250.13Determining stuck point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Indicating including the step(s) of finding where an object (tool, tubing, etc.) is caught in a well.

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98+,for apparatus for removing objects from a well.
301,for method of releasing a stuck object.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.14]    250.14Of cementing or plugging technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Measuring including the step(s) of determining the quality or ingredients of (a) pipe to formation or pipe to pipe sealing or adhering strength or (b) pipe stopper strength.

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285+,for a cementing process.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.15]    250.15Automatic control for production:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Measuring including the step(s) of using a sensor to regulate outgoing gas or oil without an operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.16]    250.16Prospecting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Locating including the step(s) of finding the presence of hydrocarbons from water or earth samples.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 250.17]    250.17Including testing or treating tool having at least one actuatable packer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Testing including the step(s) of using an apparatus with a single or plurality of inflatable sealing devices that reduce or stop flow to monitor well parameters or change a well condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 251.1]    251.1Including in situ combustion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Indicating including a step of burning in the pores of the formation.
(1) Note. "Burning" under this definition is a vigorous union of a substance with oxygen, but does not include an explosion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 252.1]    252.1Including production of earth fluid by driving fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  Indicating in which liquid or gas in the pores of the formation, before the start of the process, is caused to be pushed towards a well by another liquid or gas for flowing to the surface of the earth.

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251.1,for an in situ combustion process involving indicating, testing, measuring or locating.
268+,for a process of flooding.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 252.2]    252.2Residual oil or oil saturation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Production of earth fluid by driving fluid including the step(s) of determining liquid hydrocarbon remains or suffusion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 252.3]    252.3Salinity or acidity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Production of earth fluid by driving fluid including the step(s) of determining the amount of (a) a compound that results when, in an acid, the hydrogen is replaced by a metallic element or compound or (b) a compound containing hydrogen in a fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 252.4]    252.4Flood front:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Production of earth fluid by driving fluid including step(s) of monitoring a leading fluid in a process of pushing hydrocarbons into a well using liquid or gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 252.5]    252.5Permeability or viscosity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Production of earth fluid by driving fluid including step(s) of determining a measure of the ease with which a fluid can flow through a formation or a property of a fluid that causes the fluid to tend to hold together as during flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 252.6]    252.6And tracing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.1.  Production of earth fluid by driving fluid including step(s) of using an easily detectable composition (e.g., dye, inert gas, halocarbons, cobalt-57, carbon dioxide).

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250.12,for a method of measuring, testing, indicating, or locating using a tracer not requiring the use of a drive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 253.1]    253.1Indicating the location, presence or absence of cement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  A process including a step of determining or indicating the position, diffusion or existence of plugging or consolidating material.
(1) Note. For classification in this subclass a process must have a step which relates directly to the subject matter rather than to some step from which the position, presence or absence of cement, etc., may be deduced. For example, a step of logging a well may indicate the location to receive cement after a cementing operation, or the process may include the step of indicating the pressure of cement being pumped from which it may be deduced that cement is present. Such steps are too indirect to be included. An example of a process under this subclass is one in which the well is cemented by a cement containing a radioactive material whose presence is sensed to thereby determine the position of the cement.

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64,for apparatus comprising means for measuring the distance to a body of cement.
250.14,for a process of determining cement quality or make-up.
285+,for a cementing process.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 254.1]    254.1Determining position of earth zone or marker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  A process in which some identifiable property of a portion of a formation is ascertained.
(1) Note. The position determining steps must be explicitly recited in a claim for classification in this subclass and not left to inference. The position of a portion of the earth is almost always determined at some stage in processes involving wells.
(2) Note. Included in this subclass are a natural property which exists before any alteration by man and locating a radioactive marker inserted in a formation.

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253.1,for a process of determining location or absence of cement which may use radioactive markers.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.02+ for a well logging wherein the well process is used only to perfect a test.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 40+ , especially subclass 50 for a process of earth boring including indicating, testing or measuring a condition of the formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 254.2]    254.2Well logging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.1.  Determining position of earth zone which includes the step(s) of using a wireline operated device to traverse the formation.
(1) Note. The logging step must be explicitly recited in a claim for classification in this subclass and not left to inference. The position of a portion of the earth is almost always determined at some stage in processes involving wells.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.02+ for formation logging.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 323+ for a method or apparatus for geophysical surface or subsurface in situ.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 255.1]    255.1Determining position of object in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.01.  A process in which the location of a well completion device in the well is ascertained.
(1) Note. The object must be something other than an instrument used in a process for ascertaining the position of something.
(2) Note. A fluid or a formless substance is not considered an object under this definition. A casing or tubing, however, is considered an object.
(3) Note. For classification in this subclass some special step for directly determining the position of an object must be recited in a claim since the position of objects is generally known in well processes or can be deduced from other information if so desired.

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250.13,for locating stuck pipe.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 4.51 for subject matter relating to well perforating by a bullet or shaped charge of an explosive combined with position orienting or indicating and subclass 45 for boring tool position, direction, or inclination measuring or indicating within the bore.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 255.2]    255.2Tool orienting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.1.  Determining position of an object including a step of setting or arranging a device in a determinate position with respect to other well structure or the formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 255.3]    255.3Using whipstock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.2.  Tool orienting wherein the device is for diverting a pipe, tubing, or a well tool.

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117.5+,for whipstock apparatus in general.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 61 for methods and subclasses 79+ for apparatus of drilling using a whipstock.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 256]    256In situ combustion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which burning takes place underground in the pores of the earth.
(1) Note. "Burning" under this definition is a vigorous union of a substance with oxygen, but does not include an explosion.
(2) Note. Burning taking place in a fracture in the earth is considered to take place in the pores of the earth.

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251.1,for a process involving in situ combustion and a step of indicating, testing, measuring or locating.
270,for a process involving injection and producing wells and chemical interreaction of introduced material in the pores of the earth.
299,for a process involving an explosion.
300,for a process involving chemical interreaction of materials introduced into a well.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses for boring by combustion of the formation material.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 257]    257Injecting while producing by in situ combustion from same well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  A process in which material found in the earth is produced from the top of a well due to in situ combustion taking place in the pores of the earth, while at the same time material is being injected into the pores of the earth from the same well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 258]    258Plural distinct superimposed formations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  A process in which plural, naturally distinct, vertically related zones of earth are involved.
(1) Note. The distinct zones are usually identified by the fluid they contain, such as oil or water. But where it appears that different fluids are in a single zone having the same physical characteristics throughout, the zone is considered to be a single entity.
(2) Note. It is common to produce a fluid from a formation located between two or more other formations. Patents are classified in this subclass only when the existence of plural distinct zones or formation is a significant factor in the claimed process. A reference in a claim to the top or bottom of a zone is not enough for classification under this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 259]    259Including fracturing or attacking formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  A process in which the earth is cracked to produce a fissure or fissures therein, or in which fluid introduced into the pores of the earth chemically reacts with the earth or deposits in the earth to enlarge the pores of the earth.
(1) Note. See (1) Note in subclass 307 for a discussion of the meaning of "deposits in the earth".
(2) Note. The fracture or pore enlargement must be effected by some cause other than the heat of the in situ combustion itself. A process in which the heat of the in situ combustion is said to cause fracturing or increase of permeability is classified on other features.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 260]    260Injecting specific fuel or catalyst for burning into formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  A process in which (1) a burnable substance is placed into the pores of the earth and burned therein or (2) a catalyst for affecting the burning operation is placed into the pores of the earth.
(1) Note. For classification as an original in this subclass the burnable substance should be recited in a claim with some specificity since it is very common to insert fuel into the pores of the earth for in situ combustion. A mere recitation of a combustible mixture of gaseous fuel and air or oxygen is not enough. However, a recitation of a specific ratio of fuel to oxygen or air is sufficient. Also a statement in a claim of the injection of fuel in a significant sequence such as after an air injection is also sufficient.
(2) Note. "Burned" in the definition means a vigorous union of a substance with oxygen.
(3) Note. A process in which a material is placed into the pores of the earth for some other purpose and is not said to be burned though it may actually be incidentally burned is not included under this definition. Such a process would be classifiable in subclass 261.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 261]    261Injecting specific material other than oxygen into formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  A process in which a material is placed into the pores of the earth, said material being other than oxygen, per se, or air.
(1) Note. A broad recitation of a combustion supporting gas or a mixture of oxygen and an inert gas or of air enriched with oxygen is not included. However, a recitation of a separate injection of inert gas or a recitation of a specific ratio of oxygen in air or inert gas is included, except a recitation such as 20% or more oxygen in inert gas which is tantamount to a recitation of air or air enriched with oxygen.

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260,for an in situ combustion processes in which a specific fuel or catalyst for burning is injected into the pores of the earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 262]    262Solid fuel or particles in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  A process in which solid fuel or a bed of solid particles is placed in a well for purposes of starting or affecting in situ combustion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 263]    263Cyclic injection then production of a single well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process including a step in which a well is (1) used for a period of time only to place material into the pores of the earth and then for a period of time used only to produce fluid from the earth or (2) used for a period of time to produce fluid from the earth and then used (a) for a period of time only to place material into the pores of the earth or (b) for a period of time is shut in to stop flow of fluid from the earth.

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245,for specific pattern of plural wells.
268,for cyclic operation in an injection well moving hydrocarbons to a producing well.
370,for varying downhole pressure in a producing well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 264]    264Sampling well fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising taking a limited amount of the fluid in a well or the adjacent earth for testing or measuring purposes.
(1) Note. No special steps for limiting the flow need be set forth for classification in this subclass. The mere statement is a claim that a sample is taken is sufficient. Merely setting a sampler in position, however, without the step of taking the sample is not sufficient for classification in this subclass. Such processes would be classifiable in subclass 315.

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369+,and the subclasses there noted for a process of producing a well.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 152.02+ for a process or apparatus for taking a sample from a well combined with making a determination of a physical characteristic of a well, a borehole casing, or a drill rigging wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic, in particular subclasses 152.07, 152.09, and 152.11 for core sample analysis for making a formation logging wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic, and subclasses 152.23+ for fluid flow measuring or fluid analysis combined with sampling well fluid wherein the test is not purely electrical or purely magnetic, and subclasses 863+ for a process or an apparatus for sampling a fluid not in a well or for a soil gas sampling process and apparatus.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 59 for processes of taking solid samples of earth formation combined with a step of retaining fluid therein or taking a separate fluid sample.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 50+ for apparatus for gas sampling involving use of sorbents or chemical treatments which may include a shaft sunk in the ground to collect gas for analysis.
436Chemistry: Analytical and Immunological Testing,   subclasses 1 through 183for gas sampling as part of a process of chemical testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 265]    265Separating material entering well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising separating a stream of material which has entered the well into two or more portions and as a result of such separation delivering the material coming out of the top or head of the well to two or more separate repositories or transmission lines.
(1) Note. One of the repositories may be the same well from which the material flows.

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54,for apparatus including float controlled valves for separating fluid in a well.
105.5+,for wells having structure for separating gas from well fluid.
313,for a multiple completion well in which separate streams of material enter the well from separate formations and come out of the top of the well for delivery to separate repositories.

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23Chemistry: Physical Processes,   appropriate subclasses for sampling involving the use of sorbents or chemical treatment. A well may be broadly recited as a source.
62Refrigeration,   subclasses 58 , 123+, and 600+ for processes and apparatus for separation of a mixture by refrigeration even though broadly related to a well.
95Gas Separation: Processes,   for processes of gas separation, per se, especially subclasses 241+ for degasification of liquid.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   for apparatus for gas separation, per se, especially subclasses 155+ for degasifying means for liquid.
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   for apparatus for treating mineral oils not disclosed as in a well nor in the pores of the earth even though a well is named broadly as a source.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   for processes of treating mineral oils not disclosed as in a well nor in the pores of the earth even though a well is named broadly as a source.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 600+ for a process of separating the components or constituents of a liquid-liquid or liquid-solid mixture.
417Pumps,   subclass 435 , for pumps having means for venting gas from pumped liquid.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   appropriate subclasses for sampling apparatus involving the use of sorbents or chemical treatment. A well may be broadly recited as a source.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 210+ for processes of separating or purifying gases by a chemical reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 266]    266Injection and producing wells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 265.  A process including using a plurality of wells, at least one of which receives a fluid for insertion into the pores of the earth and another of which conveys a fluid from the pores of the earth to the surface of the earth.
(1) Note. The line between this subclass and the various classes relating to separation of fluids is that the positive recitation in a claim of the step of placing a fluid in a well causes classification in this subclass.
(2) Note. See subclass 265 for search notes on classes concerned with fluid separations.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 267]    267Separating outside of well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 265.  A process comprising separating the material coming out of the well into two or more portions by steps taking place outside of the well.
(1) Note. The line between this subclass and the classes concerned with separation or treatment of fluids is that a process comprising some significant steps of flowing or treating taking place in a well combined with steps of separating the fluid after it leaves the well is classified in Class 166, but a process including the mere step of withdrawing fluid from a well is classified according to the remaining subject matter of the process.
(2) Note. A method of pumping a well (classifiable, per se, in Class 417, Pumps) combined with a method of separating fluid after it leaves the well is classifiable in this subclass.
(3) Note. See subclass 265 for search notes on classes concerned with fluid separation.

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266,for processes involving separation outside of the well and also the use of injection and producing wells.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 268]    268Distinct, separate injection and producing wells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising a step of using a plurality of wells, at least one of which receives a fluid for insertion into the pores of the earth, usually to push hydrocarbons, and another of which conducts the pushed hydrocarbons and fluid from the pores of the earth to the surface of the earth.
(1) Note. Patents are classified as originals under this definition even if the output well is not claimed if the sole disclosure is for a process involving input and output wells, and a fluid claimed as inserted into the formation is disclosed as a drive fluid. A "drive fluid" is one which is continued to be inserted into the formation until breakthrough or near breakthrough at an output well occurs (e.g., the "water" in a waterflood process, etc.). A patent describing a waterflood secondary recovery process or the like which is not specifically disclosed as applicable to a single combined input and output well is considered as drawn to a sole disclosure of input and output wells even if the output well is not mentioned.

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245,for a process in which there is a specific pattern of plural wells including input and output wells.
252.1+,for a process using input and output wells and including a step of indicating, testing, measuring, or locating.
256,for a process using in situ combustion.
263,for a process using a single well in which a single well is used as an output well and then shut in or used as an input well or is used as an input well and then used as an output well.
266,for a process using input and output wells and in which there is a separation of material issuing from an output well.
306,for a process in which fluid enters and leaves a single well at spaced zones in the well.

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299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclass 4 for subject matter relating to input and output wells utilized for in situ conversion of solid material other than hydrocarbon to fluid for recovery.
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   subclasses 200+ for compositions for treating a well and processes for using the compositions involving no significant manipulative step or relationship with the well. A process including placing a composition into the pores of the earth is considered to involve a significant manipulative step or relationship.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 269]    269Fluid injected from longitudinally spaced locations in injection well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  A process in which fluid material is introduced into the pores of the earth from locations in an input well which are spaced from each other along the longitudinal axis of the well, i.e., vertically spaced in the ordinary well having a vertical axis.
(1) Note. A location which is packed off from another location is considered longitudinally spaced. A single group of holes in a well conduit is not considered to provide longitudinally spaced locations, but longitudinally spaced groups of holes do provide spaced locations. Fluid introduced from an uncased portion of a well is considered to be introduced from a single location.
(2) Note. A claim which calls for separate introduction of fluids at locations longitudinally arranged in the well is considered to meet the definition since such claim inherently requires the use of a packer or equivalent means to effect the separate introduction.

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258,for a process involving plural distinct superimposed formations and in situ combustion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 270]    270Injecting a composition to adjust the permeability (e.g., selective plugging):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  A process in distinct, separate wells in which the fluid temporarily alters the ease of flow through the formation by filling in the pores for a specific time, usually immediately prior to a hydrocarbon driving fluid.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are gels.

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300,for chemical interaction of two or more introduced materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 270.1]    270.1Injecting a composition including a surfactant or cosurfactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  A process in distinct, separate wells in which the fluid is a wetting agent that causes the lowering of interfacial tension between two fluids; e.g., water and oil.
(1) Note. The term "surface active agent" also describes this type of material.

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507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   subclasses 200+ for well treating compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 270.2]    270.2Nonaqueous type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.1.  Surfactant or cosurfactant in which the fluid is a gas or a liquid not containing water.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 271]    271Including fracturing or attacking formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  A process in which the earth is cracked to produce a fissure or fissures therein or in which fluid introduced into the pores of the earth chemically reacts with the earth or deposits in the earth to enlarge the pores.
(1) Note. See (1) Note in subclass 307 for a discussion of the meaning of "deposits in the earth".

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259,for a process including in situ combustion, input and output wells and fracturing or attacking the formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 272.1]    272.1Involving the step of heating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  A process in distinct, separate wells incorporating the step of raising the temperature of the fluid.
(1) Note. Any incidental heating due to a chemical reaction is not included unless it is specifically claimed.
(2) Note. The heating due to the natural heat of a formation is not included.

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247,for a process involving input and output wells and nuclear energy or radioactivity for heating the formation.
256+,for a process involving input and output wells and in situ combustion.
266,for a process involving input and output wells and separating fluid outside of the well by heating.
302+,for a heating process.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 12 for processes or apparatus for forming a bore by combustion of the earth formation material and subclass 17 for processes or apparatus including heating within the bore or heating the drilling fluid used in boring.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclass 4 for subject matter relating to input and output wells utilized for in situ conversion of solid material, other than hydrocarbons, to fluid for recovery and generally including the use of heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 272.2]    272.2In association with fracturing or crevice forming processes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.1.  Heating including the step of creating a fissure in the formation.

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308,for fracturing.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 272.3]    272.3Steam as drive fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.1.  Heating utilizing high temperature water vapor.

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60Power Plants,   subclasses 643+ for motive fluid energized by externally applied heat.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 152+ for steam engines.
122Liquid Heaters and Vaporizers,   subclass 35 for boiler steam storage, 379+ for cleaning, and 459+ for steam treatment.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   subclasses 16.1+ for gaseous blast or current (fluid steam injection).
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 110+ for first fluid holder or collector open to second fluid (steam vapor condenser).
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   digest 10 for steam heaters and condensers.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 272.4]    272.4In combination with alkyls or carbon chains:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.3.  Steam drive including a substance having (a) univalent aliphatic, aromatic-aliphatic, or alicyclic hydrocarbon radical or (b) the element carbon in a chemical string.

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293,for cement or consolidating material containing inorganic water settable and organic ingredients.
294,for cement or consolidating material being organic or having organic ingredients.
295,for organic cementing material being a resin or resinous.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 272.5]    272.5With override zone, diverting, or path blocking operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.3.  Steam drive including a bypassing, redirecting, or plugging operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 272.6]    272.6Liquid material injected:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.1.  Heating wherein the fluid is flowable, wettable, cohesive, has a viscosity which decreases with temperature, and which is above ambient temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 272.7]    272.7Horizontal well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.1.  Heating in which the borehole is substantially parallel to the earth"s surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 275]    275Injected fluid comprises water and material other than inorganic gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  A process in which a fluid mixture or solution comprising water and a material other than an inorganic gas, is introduced into the pores of the earth.
(1) Note. The "material" must be other than a material which is already present in the source water. Thus a natural brine would not comprise an added "material" but a naturally occurring water to which salt has been added would have an added "material".
(2) Note. See (1) Note in subclass 268 for the classification of a patent claiming placing a fluid into the formation but not claiming an output well.

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273,and 274, for a process involving input and output wells in which two or more separate fluids are introduced into the formation. Patents in subclasses 273 and 274 which disclose significant species relating to introducing a single fluid mixture or solution comprising water and a material other than inorganic gas should be cross-referenced to subclass 275.
305.1+,and the subclasses there noted for processes of recovering fluid from a well involving placing a fluid into the formation from the same well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 276]    276Providing porous mass of adhered filter material in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising establishing a mass of material having small irregular interstices in the well at the location where earth fluid enters the well so as to act as a filter for such fluid.
(1) Note. The material may be made porous before or after it is placed in the well. It must continue to be an adhered mass after being made porous.
(2) Note. The mass of material must be coherent or made of adhered particles. A bed of separate unadhered particles such as a gravel bed is not included. See subclass 278 for a process of making an unadhered bed of particles.

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278,for a process of graveling or filter forming.
280,for a specific propping feature for a fracture.
285+,and the subclasses there noted for a process of cementing, plugging or consolidating which may include establishing a porous mass of adhered particles in the formation, especially subclass 295 for a process in which the cementing or consolidating material is or has an ingredient which is a resin.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 277]    277Repairing object in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising repairing an object in the well (e.g., connecting broken ends, stopping leaks through the casting wall, replacing a casing section, etc.).

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207,for an expansible casing section.
311+,for processes for cleaning, which may cause an ineffective object to become operative.
315,for a process of placing, shifting, constructing or assembling well parts including expanding a casing section against a bore hole wall.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 15.01 through 15.26for a process of cleaning, repairing, or assembling.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 278]    278Graveling or filter forming:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising making a bed of gravel or other filter material in situ in the well for straining fluids flowing into the well.
(1) Note. This definition does not include a process involving merely forming a bed of filter material outside of the well and lowering it into the well. See subclass 315 for a process of making a well.
(2) Note. This definition includes washing away earth around a well conduit to form a bed of gravel or the like. Processes involving merely cleaning a well, however, would be classified in subclasses 311+ and processes involving attacking a formation would be classified in subclass 307 or the subclasses there noted.
(3) Note. Making a bed of gravel or filter material in the formation is not included. Note subclass 280 for propping material in a fracture and subclasses 285+ and the subclasses there noted for permeable material deposited in the formation.

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51,for apparatus for forming a filter bed.
276,for a process involving providing a porous mass of adhered gravel or filter material in the well.
280,for a process involving a specific propping feature for a fracture.
285+,and subclasses there noted for a process of cementing, plugging or consolidating which may involve establishing a filter effect in the formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 279]    279Material placed in pores of formation to treat resident fluid flowing into well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising placing material into the pores of the earth so that fluid which was in the pores of the earth before the start of the process will be treated to acquire some beneficial property (e.g., corrosion inhibiting, etc.) as it flows past the material to enter the well.
(1) Note. Merely flushing out a material (e.g., an acid, etc.) which has been placed in the pores of a formation by flow of fluid from the pores of the earth without any desired beneficial property being given to the earth fluid does not come within this definition. Such processes are classified in subclass 305 and the subclasses there noted.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 280.1]    280.1Specific propping feature (EPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.1.  A process comprising some claimed specific feature relating to placing discrete particles in a fracture in a formation to maintain the walls of the fracture spaced apart by resisting forces tending to close the fracture.
(1) Note. For classification as an original under this definition the specific feature must be more than merely identifying the propping material as sand, or the equivalent, or merely the use of a specific fluid containing the propping material or merely the introduction of the propping material in one of a series of fracturing fluids.
(2) Note. Placing in a fracture a slurry of cement which sets and remains in place as an adhered mass and which cement may contain hard particles dispersed therein is not considered to come within this definition. For a process involving cementing see subclasses 281, 283 and 285. This definition does include, however, a process in which discrete propping particles are adhered together after being placed and a process in which propping particles are incorporated in a carrier fluid, which may be cement (such as a gel), and the carrier fluid is changed in nature, or removed, or is of such a nature that the discrete particles themselves resist closing of the fracture rather than a mass of cement in which the particles are embedded resisting closing of the fracture.
(3) Note. A process in which discrete particles are placed in a fracture so that the particles are crowded together or compacted to plug the fracture to impede the flow of fluid is not considered to come within this definition. See the subclasses relating to cementing or plugging, especially subclass 292 for such a process.
(4) Note. Discrete particles in a fracture which are described merely as forming a filter will be assured also to act as props and be classifiable under this definition.
(5) Note. Included in this subclass are the foreign patent documents from ECLA (E21B 43/267).

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205,for a process of cementing, plugging or consolidating in which the cement or plug is located in a fracture and resists forces tending to close the fracture.
281,283, and 308, for a process involving fracturing a formation, which may include propping the formation by steps not specific enough to come within this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 280.2]    280.2Composition of proppant (EPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.1.  Process wherein the composition of a constituent is defined.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are the foreign patent documents from ECLA (E21B 43/267B).
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 281]    281Separate steps of (1) cementing, plugging or consolidating and (2) fracturing or attacking formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which a part of the process relates to (1) cementing, plugging or consolidating and a separate part of the process relates to (2) fracturing or attacking the formation.
(1) Note. See the definition of subclasses 307 and 308 for the meaning of attacking the formation and fracturing the formation, respectively.
(2) Note. It is not considered two separate parts of a process if a single stream or volume of one fluid composition performs both functions (1) and (2). See subclasses 282 and 283 for such processes.
(3) Note. It is not considered two separate parts of a process performing functions (1) and (2) if the process is for forming a fracture by cementing, plugging or consolidating material and as a separate step forming another fracture by such material. Such process would be classifiable in subclass 283.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 282]    282Specific low fluid loss feature for fluid attacking formation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which a fluid is introduced into the pores of the earth to chemically react with the earth or deposits in the earth to enlarge the pores of the earth and there is a specifically claimed feature of the process for limiting travel of the fluid in the pores of the formation.
(1) Note. See (1) Note of subclass 307 for the meaning of "deposits in the earth".
(2) Note. The feature to limit travel of the fluid may relate to an addition in the fluid or to another material placed in the pores of the formation or in the well in contact with the formation acting to limit or block flow of the attacking fluid in all directions or to deflect the flow to a desired direction. A mechanical means for directing flow such as a packer in the well bore is not included. The blocking or flow directing material is sometimes called a blanketing material.

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281,for processes relating to separate steps for (1) cementing, plugging or consolidating and (2) attacking the formation in which the cementing, plugging or consolidating material may limit loss of the attacking fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 283]    283Specific low fluid loss feature for fracturing fluid or cement causes fracture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which the earth is cracked by a fluid in order to create a fissure or fissures therein and in which (1) there is a specifically claimed feature for limiting travel of the fluid in the pores of the formation or (2) the fluid is a cementing, plugging or consolidating material.
(1) Note. See (2) Note of subclass 282 for the meaning of the feature to limit travel of the fluid.

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281,for processes relating to separate steps of (1) cementing, plugging or consolidating and (2) fracturing, in which the cementing, plugging or consolidating material may limit fluid loss of the fracturing fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 284]    284Fluid flow causes pellet to block opening in wall of conduit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which there is an opening in the side wall of a pipe or well conduit and a pellet entrained in a fluid is caused to be moved by said fluid to impede flow of said fluid through the opening, a single pellet being used to impede flow through an opening.
(1) Note. Plural pellets may be used to block plural openings but only one pellet is used for each of the openings blocked by the pellets. If a plurality of pellets or particles are used to block an opening the operation is considered to be a cementing or plugging process for subclasses 285+.
(2) Note. The pellet must be free to travel a substantial distance due to fluid flow. A pellet confined in a cage adjacent an opening which pellet is moved by fluid flow to block the opening is considered a check valve. A process using such a pellet would be classified on other features.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 285]    285Cementing, plugging or consolidating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising (1) causing fluent material to flow into position in prepositioned well conduit substantially to stop flow of a fluid by forming a blocking means in situ, said material being plastic or hardenable after being so placed, (2) placing small particles in a prepositioned well conduit to cause them to form a mass of particles in situ substantially to stop flow of a fluid, (3) placing or forming solid or plastic material in the pores of or spaces in a formation to block them and thereby impede flow of an earth fluid, (4) treating a formation with an introduced material so as to prevent it from shifting or breaking down, i.e., consolidating the formation, or (5) treating a formation (e.g., by heating, etc.) to cause the formation to coalesce into an impermeable or consolidated mass.
(1) Note. Patents with claims in which there is only a broad mention by name only of a cementing, plugging or consolidating process with no detail of the steps of the process or the material used, are classified on the basis of the other steps recited. In the case, however, of a drilling process in which drilling is interrupted for cementing, classification may be in subclasses 285+ even if the cementing step is only nominally or inferentially claimed. See section III of the class definition. However, if any other steps are set forth in a claim affording a basis for classification in a subclass below subclasses 285+ then the patent is classified in the appropriate subclass, the nominal cementing step being disregarded.
(2) Note. Processes which include forming a coating or lining on the bore hole wall or plugging the pores of the formation by drilling fluid while the earth in being cut or disintegrated to form the bore, are not classified as cementing, plugging or consolidating processes for this class. See section III of the class definition of Class 166 for the line with Class 175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, and the search notes below.
(3) Note. Merely forming a plug or the like by lowering a quantity of plastic material in a container and permitting it to harden in the container is not included. See subclass 315 for such processes.
(4) Note. Under this definition material deposited in the openings of a formation may block one fluid and not another, or may form a permeable mass.
(5) Note. Material deposited in the formation to form a film or thin coating on the formation material, or to form a foam, is not considered to come within this definition. See subclasses 305+ and the subclasses there noted for processes for so treating the formation.
(6) Note. Material deposited in a fracture to form discrete props for the fracture is not considered to come within this definition. See subclass 280 for processes involving a specific propping feature and see (3) Note in said subclass for the distinction between propping and cementing or plugging.

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244.1,for a miscellaneous process involving forming a film or coating on a member.
276,for a process for providing a porous cementitious filter in a bore hole.
279,for a process for placing material in the pores of a formation to treat resident fluid flowing into the well.
280,for a process including a specific feature relating to propping a fracture.
281,for a process involving separate steps of (1) cementing, plugging or consolidating and (2) fracturing or attacking the formation.
283,for a process for fracturing a formation by forcing cement or plugging material into the formation.
284,for a process for causing a pellet to block an opening in the wall of a well conduit by flowing a fluid carrying said pellet, a single pellet being large enough to block an opening.
305+,and subclasses there noted for a process for placing material other than cementing, plugging or consolidating material in the openings of a formation.

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52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 741.11+ for a process of construction or assembling of a building, e.g., cistern or well, made by workmen operating on an exposed face of such a structure.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   appropriate subclasses for plastic compositions which may be used in well cementing, plugging or consolidating processes.
118Coating Apparatus,   subclasses 25+ and the subclasses there noted for apparatus of general utility for applying a coating.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   appropriate subclasses for processes and apparatus for laminating in general and see especially subclasses 293+ and 423+ for inserting a core within a tube.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 65+ for processes of boring with a fluid and especially subclass 72 for such processes which include prevention of lost circulation or caving while drilling. See section III of the class definition of Class 166 for the line between Class 166 and Class 175.
260Chemistry of Carbon Compounds,   appropriate subclasses for compounds which may be used in cementing, plugging or consolidating processes.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes of working, shaping or molding plastic materials, within the class definition.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 57 for processes of cementing fluid reservoirs in the earth by means operated from the earth surface; subclasses 130+ for processes of applying heat to or removing heat from an earth formation; subclasses 233+ for casting a pile in situ from hardenable fluent material; and subclasses 263+ for applying a chemical substance to an earth formation to condition the same, especially subclasses 266+ for cementitious substances, except that patents disclosing or claiming treatment of a well or treatment of the earth around a well are classified in Class 166.
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   subclasses 100+ for the composition of well drilling mud and processes which involve no more than the mere use of such compositions or a compound.
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   appropriate subclasses, particularly Class 523, subclasses 130+ for a composition having utility in consolidating a formation in a well or in cementing a well or to processes of preparing said composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 286]    286Tamping, vibrating, exploding or using receptacle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  A process comprising placing cement by (1) using a container of the cement in a well, (2) exploding the cement against the bore hole wall, (3) vibrating the cement while in the bore hole, or (4) striking the cement in the bore hole a blow or series of blows.

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117,for a receptacle, all or a part of which is separated from a lowering means and left in the well in order to plug the well with cement.
162+,for a container for transporting material into a well.
249,for a process involving vibrating the earth or material in or being placed in the pores of the earth.
315,for a process for forming a plug or the like by merely lowering a quantity of plastic material in a container and letting it harden.

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405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 234 for a process or apparatus for casting a pile in situ of hardenable fluent material utilizing an explosion.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 287]    287Removable molding or forming means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  A process in which a mold or forming means is used to hold the cement, the mold or forming means being removed from the well bore after the cement has set and been shaped by the mold or form.

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405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 243 for a corresponding process employed to cast a pile in situ.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 288]    288Including heating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  A process involving the use of a significant or substantial amount of heat.
(1) Note. The use of heat in preparing a cementing, plugging or consolidating material above ground is not included. See subclasses 292+ for such a process.
(2) Note. The presence of heat must be positively stated in a claim for classification of a patent in this subclass. An inference that heat is present, as because of a chemical reaction, is not sufficient for classification in this subclass.
(3) Note. Merely permitting the natural heat present in the well to act on cementing, plugging, or consolidating material is not included. See subclass 295 for methods involving the use of resins set by the natural heat of the well.

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405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 234 for processes or apparatus for casting a piling in situ of hardenable fluent material including heating or cooling.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 289]    289Discharging cement from casing at different levels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  A process in which cementing, plugging or consolidating material is caused to issue from a single string of well casing at a plurality of levels.
(1) Note. A group of substantially evenly spaced perforations in a casing out of which cementing, plugging or consolidating material may issue is considered a single level rather than a plurality of levels.

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269,for a process involving input and output walls and fluid injected into the earth from different levels in an injection well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 290]    290By tubing which is subsequently lifted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  A process comprising placing the cementing, plugging or consolidating composition by means of a well tubing, the lower end of which is lifted from the level at which the composition is placed, after placement.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 291]    291With piston separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  A process comprising forcing the cement down a tubing or casing in the well and separating the traveling body of cement from an adjacent fluid by a piston means at an end of the cement body.
(1) Note. The piston means may itself comprise a fluid of limited longitudinal extent which functions like a solid piston.

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153+,for well devices comprising pistons fluid driven into the well.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 292]    292Using specific materials:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  A process using a specifically claimed material in at least one of the steps of the process.
(1) Note. The mere naming in a claim of Portland cement, hydraulic cement or water is not sufficient to cause classification of a patent in this subclass.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   appropriate subclasses for compositions useful in well cementing, plugging or consolidating.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 64 and 65+, especially subclass 72, for drilling while circulating fluid which may form a mud sheath or plug the formation. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class in the class definition of Class 166 for the line between Class 166 and Class 175.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 263+ for processes of applying a chemical substance to an earth formation not involving wells.
507Earth Boring, Well Treating, and Oil Field Chemistry,   subclasses 100+ for compositions to carry off cutting during drilling and broadly claimed processes of using said compositions or compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 293]    293Cement or consolidating material contains inorganic water settable and organic ingredients:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  A process in which the material which causes cementing, plugging or consolidating comprises a mixture of an organic material and an inorganic material which hydrates to become hard or plastic.
(1) Note. Clays, for the purpose of this definition, are not considered to be materials which hydrate to become hard or plastic.
(2) Note. The material of the definition must be a slurry which is considered to form an intermingled mixture of organic and inorganic cementing, plugging or consolidating materials when in final position in the well or formation. If the organic and inorganic materials were considered to be separate or separate in the formation or well so that only one of them performs the cementing, plugging or consolidating function, then classification would be on some other basis, probably in subclasses 292 or 294+.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 294]    294Cement or consolidating material is organic or has organic ingredient:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  A process in which the material performing the cementing, plugging or consolidating function is organic or comprises an organic ingredient.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 295]    295Organic material is resin or resinous:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  A process in which the organic material is a resin or is resinous.
(1) Note. The resin or resinous material may be the end result of a reaction between other materials in the well or formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 296]    296Preventing flow into strainer while lowering by blocking openings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising the steps of preventing the flow of earth fluid into a well conduit through the openings of a preformed strainer or preformed filter while it is being lowered through a producing formation and then permitting flow of earth fluid through said openings to produce the well.

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205,for screens with valves, closures or removable portions.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 314 for drive points with screens which may have means for preventing entrance of fluid while driving the point into the ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 297]    297Perforating, weakening, bending or separating pipe at an unprepared point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising forming a hold, weakening a localized portion, bending or separating portions of a pipe at any suitable location which has not previously been prepared to make it easier to operate on.
(1) Note. The earth wall of the well or a cake left on the formation by circulating fluid while drilling a bore is not considered a pipe wall, but a cementitious wall of a well conduit made by the process defined in subclass 285 or made above ground is considered a pipe wall.
(2) Note. In processes relating to an above ground location some significant well feature should be present for classification in this subclass, but for processes taking place below ground a disclosure line is followed except for those processes provided for in other classes.
(3) Note. The term "bending" in this definition is limited to bending which causes a change in the direction of the longitudinal axis of the pipe. Processes involving expanding a pipe wall may be found in subclasses 277 and 315.

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55+,for devices for perforating, weakening, bending or separating a well pipe at an unprepared location.

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72Metal Deforming,   subclasses 367.1+ for processes of tube making and/or reshaping which may be disclosed as for use in a well.
83Cutting,   subclasses 13+ for cutting methods in general, and particularly subclass 54, indented thereunder, for a method of cutting the wall of a hollow workpiece.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 2+ for processes of firing a bullet or exploding a shaped charge from an inaccessible bore for perforating a wall member in the bore if the process inherently result in penetration of the formation.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 298]    298Perforating, weakening or separating by mechanical means or abrasive fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  A process in which the wall portion of the pipe is perforated, weakened or separated by (1) a mechanical cutting, punching or abrading means or (2) a jet of fluid containing an abrasive.
(1) Note. A projectile propelled by an explosive jet of fluid such as that produced by a shaped charge is not included. Processes using such projectiles or jets are classifiable in subclass 297 or Class 175, Boring or Penetrating the Earth, subclasses 2+.

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55+,for apparatus for perforating, weakening or separating a pipe wall.

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83Cutting,   subclasses 13+ for cutting methods in general, especially subclass 54 for a method of cutting the wall of a hollow workpiece, and subclass 177 for apparatus for cutting by fluid blast and/or suction.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 67 for boring by fluid erosion and subclass 422 for an earth boring nozzle.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 299]    299With explosion or breaking container to implode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process in which an explosion is caused to occur or a container is broken to cause an implosion.
(1) Note. An explosion in an internal combustion engine for driving the engine is not considered an "explosion" for this subclass. Such disclosures are classified on other features.
(2) Note. The container usually contains relatively low pressure fluid such as air at atmospheric pressure so that when it is broken in a high pressure environment, such as a well, an implosion occurs.
(3) Note. A "container" under this definition is a completely enclosed space and not a tubing of indefinite length.
(4) Note. Breaking a closure portion only of a container is not included.

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63,for apparatus for causing an explosion in a well.
162+,for a receptacle bodily movable in a well to carry material which may be used to cause an implosion.
247,for a process involving an explosion caused by nuclear energy.
297,for a process including perforating, weakening or separating a pipe wall in a well.
311,for a cleaning process using an implosion caused by creating access to a low pressure area in a container or tubing.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 2+ for processes or apparatus for forming a bore hole by below ground explosion, or perforating or cutting a casing or other bore lining by firing a bullet or exploding a shaped charge in an inaccessible bore.
417Pumps,   subclasses 73+ , for combustion type pumping methods for wells.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 300]    300Chemical inter-reaction of two or more introduced materials (e.g., selective plugging or surfactant):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process comprising placing from above ground level, two or more materials into the well which chemically react with each other in the well or earth.
(1) Note. The reaction may be between one introduced material and a product produced by the reaction of another introduced material with a material found in the well.
(2) Note. The word "material" in the definition is intended to mean an unformed or particulate material or a material which has a form for purposes of the process but is not a device such as a tool, pipe, closure disk, or the like, which has an independent function in the well.

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59,for apparatus comprising a burner in the well.
260,for an in situ combustion process comprising introducing fuel or a catalyst into the pores of the formation.
262,for an in situ combustion process in which there is a solid fuel in the well.
270,for a process involving input and output wells and in which there is a chemical interreaction in the pores of the formation of material introduced into the input well.
276,for a process of forming a porous, cementitious material to form a filter.
283,for a process for fracturing a formation, said process having a specific low fluid loss feature and including braking a low fluid loss compound or composition.
292+,for a cementing, plugging or consolidating process involving chemical reaction of introduced materials.
299,for a process involving a chemical reaction which produces an explosion.
309,for a process for producing foam or gas in a well by reaction of a foam or gas producing material with material already in the well.
311+,for a cleaning process in which the material being removed has been introduced before the cleaning process starts.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclass 64 for processes of boring including a chemical reaction with the earth formation or a drilling fluid constituent.
  
[List of Patents for class 166 subclass 301]    301Freeing stuck object, grappling or fishing in well:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.1.  A process for (1) releasing an object in the well from a condition which prevents it from being moved, (2) grappling for an object in the well or (3) retrieving a small, loose object from inside the well.
(1) Note. A process under part (1) of this definition must involve more than merely disconnecting two parts, severing a part so as to leave a stuck portion in the well and free the severed portion or unsetting a device like a packer; a special procedure must be used to free a member held fast in the well by a condition such as corrosion or cave-in of the formation. A process under part (2) of this definition relates to a process for using the grapple apparatus found in Class 294, Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements, especially subclasses 86.1+; a process for merely affecting a pipe joint or coupling is not included, such process when used in a well being classifiable in subclass 315. A process under part (3) of the definition relates to a process for using the fishing means found in Class 294, especially subclasses 86.1+, or in Class 166, subclass 99.

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55+,for apparatus for separating a pipe section from an adjacent section at an unprepared point.
98,for apparatus comprising a grapple and a well anchored lifting means.
99,for apparatus with junk retrieving means.
178,for apparatus with jar means for releasing a stuck part.
297+,for a process of freeing a pipe section by separating it from an adjacent section at an unprepared point.
311+,