This class accommodates certain products of manufacture which
are not provided for in classes devoted primarily to manufacturing
methods and apparatus. The bulk of the documents are directed
to stock material composites, that is, materials
having two or more distinct components which are more ordered than
a mere random mixture of ingredients.
Certain finished articles, generally of an ornamental
or readily disposable nature, are placed herein when this class
specifically provides for them. Unfinished articles, e.g., blanks
requiring further significant shaping to be suitable for ultimate
use, and stock materials from which an indefinite number
of usable portions may be cut, are placed herein unless
specifically provided for elsewhere. The determination
whether a product is a finished article or a stock material is made
on the basis of the amount of structure included in the body of
A patent for this class is placed herein generally without regard
to the process by which it is made, for example, without
regard to whether the plural layer product was formed by extrusion, coating, or
assembly of preformed layers.
Therefore, unless otherwise clearly stated, the
term "coating" or "layer" will
include a preform as well as a layer formed by covering a base with
a fluent material which then solidifies. A comprehensive
search for processes of making the products of this class will be
found in the manufacturing classes listed below.
An asterisk has been applied to certain terms throughout this
bulletin to indicate that these terms have specific definitions
in the Glossary, which should be consulted.
The asterisk has been applied to identify the term in the first
appearing definition which must be considered for the desired subclass
It should be noted that there are two sections for the glossary.
The first one applies generally to the structural areas of the schedule; the
second applies to materials (e.g., compound, composition, etc.).
It should further be noted, however, that the
structural areas of the class also include some subclasses directed
Both sections of the glossary should be consulted.
This is the residual class for:
A. Stock material in the form of a structurally defined web*, sheet*, rod*, strand*, fiber*, filament*, cell*, flake*, particle* not
B. Stock material in the form of a web*, sheet*, mass* or
layer* which consists of or contains a structurally defined
constituent* or element* not provided elsewhere.
C. A nonstructural laminate defined merely in terms
of the composition of one or more layers* not provided elsewhere.
D. An article* of manufacture not provided
E. An intermediate-article* which
is not provided for elsewhere and from which a final article is
to be made.
F. A process for applying an impregnating material
to a naturally solid product such as a wood beam, a sheet
of leather or a stone, or for applying a coating to a base, and
which process includes no significant method step. Such
a patent is placed in the schedule on the disclosed product produced, whether
structural or nonstructural. See section VI, C, 6, below, reference
to Class 427, Coating Processes, for guide lines
which are to be followed in determining whether or not a process
step is significant, for classification in Class 427, or
not significant for placement in Class 428.
FRAMEWORK OF THE CLASS
This class comprises several major subclass groups which can
be identified by reading down the first-line indent subclasses, and
a special category for metallic* materials which parallels
the arrangement provided for nonmetallic* materials, insofar
as this arrangement is applicable. These major groups
and parallel metallic* groups are:
A. Subclasses 1 through 39 and 576 provide for special articles* generally
defined in all three dimensions, for which there is no
provision elsewhere, and subclasses 542 and 577+ provide
B. Subclasses 40 through 84, 571 through
575 and 586 through 591 provide for a special web* or sheet*.
C. Subclasses 85+ for special surface characteristics
of the pile or nap type.
D. Subclasses 98+, 357+, 544-570, 592-604, 606-614, and
687 provide for stock material either in the form of a web* or
sheet*, or an element* (e.g., rod*, fiber*, filament*, particle*, flake*, etc.), respectively, which
of and by itself is structurally defined as claimed.
Some examples of a structurally defined web* or sheet* are: (1) particular
shape, particular size, or other physical configuration. (2) including
an external mechanical fastener so as to be attached to another
object. (3) components* or elements* arranged
relative to each other or to a surface. (4) components* having
same characteristic but in different degree. (5) a
discontinuous coating, impregnation or bond. (6) variation
in thickness or in planarity. (7) attachment
of components* by stitching and bond or coating. (8) apertures. (9) surface
finish. (10) any recitation of a measurable
extent, no matter how wide, (e.g., "up
to .075 mil", "between 10 and
25 microns", etc.).
Some examples of structurally defined elements* are:
(1) particular size or shape or other physical
configuration (see above). (2)
nonlinearity of a fiber or filament (e.g., crimped
or coiled, etc.). (3) specific
depth of impregnation of a fiber or filament.
Note. As a special case, even though not structure, a
coated or bonded fiber, filament, rod, strand
is placed in subclasses 357+.
E. Subclasses 221+ provides for a web* or sheet* in
which one component* or element* (e.g., fiber, filament, strand, particle, etc.) is
structurally defined as claimed.
Some examples of defined structure are: (1) size
or particular configuration or shape, either absolute or
relative (e.g., weight* per unit
area). (2) interengagement
of strands* or filaments* which means mechanically arranging
one strand* or filament* alternately over and
under other strands*, perpendicularly or angularly
related thereto. If all strands* in one direction
are on only one side of the strands in the other direction, this
is not interengagement. Looping, intertwining, interweaving, intertangling
are also included in the term interengaged.
(3) a composite* web* or
sheet*, at least one component* being
porous or cellular. (4) a composite*, web* or
sheet* having the outermost layer of adhesive characteristics
so as to be adhered to another surface.
F. Subclasses 411+ and 615+ provide
for a composite* web* or sheet* which
is characterized solely by the composition of the layers*.
G. Subclasses 539.5 and 540+ provide
for stock-material* having a continuous phase of
one material interengaged with a continuous phase of a different
material, usually made by permeation or saturation.
See the definitions and notes of these subclasses.
In addition there are provided in subclasses 900-941
cross-reference art collections of product patents based
on use or particular characteristics indicated in the titles and definitions
thereof. These collections of disclosures are not exhaustive
but are intended as aids to a search based on ultimate function
or use, as a supplement to a search in this class, or
as an indication of further related fields of search inside or outside
SCOPE OF CLASS
The scope of this class is defined by the residual state thereof
as set forth in above.
It must be clearly understood that all patents to stock material
products have not been removed from all those classes which provide
for such products on the basis of their ultimate function, See
below for an exemplary listing of such classes.
As to composites (subclasses 411+ and 615+), the
disclosures of this collection of art (i.e., adhered
bodies defined in terms of their respective compositions or compounds) are
subdivided generally on the basis of pairs of contiguous bodies (conveniently
referred to as "layer"*).
Thus, for instance, a laminate composed of layers* A, B, C, in
that order, is visualized as comprising the pairs A-B
and B-C, the laminated, A, B, C, D
as comprising pairs A-B, B-C, and
C-D-- and so on. This arrangement
is conceived of as facilitating the search for any multi- layered
product, particularly for patent examination purposes. Whereas
a search for substance A joined to substance C by an intervening
layer* of B, in a system based on paired layers*, may produce
a disclosure of A-B in one document and of B-C
in another, or may retrieve a disclosure of A-B-C
in one document, it is thought that all such disclosures
should be available to the examiner for his consideration, whether
in a single document or a combination of documents. The
utility of such as approach is apparent in the search for products
including five, six, seven, or more layer* pairs
Additionally, it is believed that this concept of
laminates as consisting of pairs of layers* may be incorporated
readily into a machine retrieval system. Having in mind the
ubiquity of layer* interfaces in modern technology--appearing
in both laminated and molded plastics, protective and decorative
finishes, wood and paper products, metal stock--the
technique of subdividing into layer* pairs all disclosures
in the voluminous literature of interfacial bonding, is seen
to offer an effectual starting point for the development of a schedule
of descriptors or a dictionary of terms for mechanical search.
It is an essential part of the considerations on which this
paired-layer* schedule is based, that
no weight is given to the alleged nature of any particular layer* as
adherent or base. The disclosure of two particular layers* in
mutual contact will be available for the searcher"s consideration
regardless of whether either, both, or neither
is taught as being adhesive, bonding material, glue, impregnant, etc.
CRITERIA FOR PATENT PLACEMENT WITHIN THIS CLASS
The general procedure for placement of a patent in a class
is set forth on in the Manual of Classification (note the
exception set forth in the last paragraph of this section). Briefly, the
basic principles which determine placement of the original copy
of a patent in this class are:
A. Only claimed subject matter is relied upon, when
comparing coordinate "first-line indent" subclasses (e.g., subclasses
98 and 221), for placement of a patent.
B. In subclass 1 through 223, 292.1 - 301.4, and
304.4 - 410,
1. the original copy of said patent will be placed
in the first-occurring "first-line indent" subclass (of
this class) which provides for the claimed subject matter:
However, where said "first-line indent" subclass has
a further indented subclass which specifically provides for either
the claimed or disclosed more specific subject matter, the "original" copy
will be placed in said further indented subclass;
2. as between coordinate subclasses (e.g., subclasses
156 and 174) which are indented under a "first-line
indent" subclass, the original copy of a patent
will be placed in the first-occurring of the coordinate
subclasses which provides for (a) the claimed subject
matter, or (b) the disclosed subject matter (in
the absence of a claim drawn to the more specific subject matter
as provided for in such coordinate subclasses);
3. further, the original copy of a patent
will be placed in an indented subclass where the unclaimed but disclosed
more specific subject matter is provided for in said indented subclass.
C. In the subclasses relating to specified physical
dimension (e.g., 215+, 220, 332+, etc.), a
range thereof qualifies even though the work "absolute" may
Further, in a subclass which specifies the upper
limit of a dimension, for example, subclass 334, in
which the upper limit is specified as 5 mils (or equivalent), a
range which transcends this limit is excluded therefrom and is placed
in the appropriate higher subclass. Thus, for
example, a composite* sheet* in which
the coated layer* is recited as being in the range of 3
mils to 7 mils, is excluded from subclass 334 and is placed
in subclass 332, unless reason exists for placement in
D. In subclasses 544+, the original
is placed strictly on the basis of the claims. Where an
indented subclass is provided, the original is placed in
the indented subclass only when all of the claims have the limitations
of that indented subclass.
E. The procedure for placement of a patent directed
to a nonstructural laminate or composite will be that procedure
now employed in the classification of classes of chemistry and is
set forth under the definitions of subclasses 411 and 615 of this
class (428). Procedures applicable to
patent placement in the experimental "Markush"-type
subclasses 643, 656, 661, 664, 669, 671, and 678
are given in the definition of subclass 643.
Once placement of the original copy of a patent has been determined, a
cross-reference copy of the patent is mandatory in every
subclass in this class or any other which provides for other claimed
subject matter, except in instances where the subclass
which would normally receive such cross-reference copy
contains a search class note to the subclass in which the original copy
has been placed, in which case only exemplary cross-references
are provided. Cross-reference copies may be placed
in any subclass where the disclosed subject matter is considered
to render the document as useful reference.
When the original of the patent is placed in the article* or
structural subclasses, a cross-reference copy
will be placed in subclass 411, or subclasses 615+, where
the disclosed subject matter is considered to render the document
as useful reference. Similarly, when the original
copy of a patent is placed in subclasses 323+, a
cross-reference thereof will be placed in a superior subclass
where the disclosure warrants.
CLASSES HAVING A DEFINED RELATIONSHIP WITH THIS CLASS
Completed articles* of manufacture, except for
those expressly provided for in the schedule, are excluded
from this class. However, in many cases the claims
of a patent are directed only to "nominal" articles, that
is, articles claimed only in terms of the composition or
stock-material* from which they are made.
It is the present policy of the Patent and Trademark Office to classify article
patents, wherein the claims mention the article by name
only and define it only in terms of the composition or material
of which it is composed, in the appropriate composition
or material class. The collection of these patents and
reclassification thereof into the composition or material classes
is under way, and as a corollary thereto, patents
claiming a composition or material for an art use heretofore classified in
the art classes are also being transferred to the appropriate composition
or material class. For articles* provided for
in other classes, attention is directed to the "Index to
Classification", and to LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES,
AN ART INDEX OF COMMON TERMS AND EQUIVALENT TERMINOLOGY USED
IN THE SCHEDULE.
The first appearing term, i.e., to
the left of the colon, is the name used in the document and
the term to the right of the colon is the corresponding name employed
in the subclass titles of the schedule. The list provides
an index to the schedule for laminates which are identified by trade
names, trade marks and other terminology not employed in
the schedule. The symbols # and 0 indicate that
the term, on the right in the glossary, is an
abbreviated form of that found in the subclass titles.
# = aldehyde or keytone condensation product
0 = addition polymer from unsaturated monomers.
"A" Stage: = aldehyde# (phenolic); ABS, acrylonitrile-butadiene-stryrene:= unsaturated° (polyene) Acrylate, acrylic: = unsaturated° Airplane
fabric = cloth*;Alkyd: = polyesterAnimal
fiber or hair: = polyamide;Animal
glue: = polyamide; Artificial silk: = cellulosic (regenerated
or modified); Asbestos: = silicon
containing; see definition; Asphaltic: = bituminous
"B" Stage: = aldehyde# (phenolic); Balata: = natural
rubber; Balsam: = natural gum; "Beetle", "Beetleware": = aldehyde#;Birdlime: = natural
Canadian Balsam: = natural gum; Caoutchouc: - natural
rubber; Casein: polyamide; Carbon Particles: = inorganic; "C" Stage: = aldehyde# (phenolic); "Cellopane":
cellulosic (modified); "Celluloid": = cellulosic (modified); Cement: = silicon
containing; Ceramic: = silicon containing; Chloroprene: = unsaturated° (polyene); Clay: = silicon
containing; Cotten seed pitch: = bituminous
or tarry residue.; Coumarone, coumarone-indene: = unsaturated° (heterocyclic); Creosote: = bituminous
Dextran: = carbohydrate; Dextrin: = carbohydrate; Dope (airplane): = cellulosic, (modified)
Enamel (not otherwise specified) - pigment varnish: = natural
oil or gum; Enamel, porcelain: = silicon
containing; Enamel, synthetic: = see
under the appropriate synthetic resin; "Ethoxylene": = epoxy ether
"Factice": = natural
oil (modified); Fiber (animal): = polyamide; Fiber (vegetable): = cellulosic; Fish
glue: = polyamide; "Kel-F": = fluorinated
addition polymer; Fish paper: = polyamide; Fleece: = nap
surface; Flour paste: = polyamide unless
specified as starch, which see; "Formica": = aldehyde; Friction
tape: = bituminous or tarry residue; FR-S: = unsaturated° (polyene); Furfural: = aldehyde; Fur: = polyamide;
Gelatin: = polyamide; "Geon": = unsaturated° (halide); Glass: = silicon
containing; see definition; Glass, water (i.e., waterglass): = silicon
containing; Giladen (protein): = polyamide; Glue: = polyamide; Glue, Fish
or Animal: = polyamide; Glue, Synthetic: = usually
aldehyde; Goldbeaters skin: = animal
membrane; Graphite: = inorganic; GR-S: = unsaturated° (polyene); Gum
plastic, ABS: = unsaturated° (polyene); Gutta
percha: = natural rubber; Gypsum: = calcium
Hair: = polyamide; Haloprene: = unsaturated° (polyene) "Hetron": Hexamethylenetetramine
as a source of formaldehyde: = aldehyde#
Ivory: = polyamide
"Kodel": = polyester; "Koroseal": = unsaturated° ; "Kynar": = fluorinated
Latex: = natural rubber; Latex
paint: = unsaturated° (either
ester or polyene); "Leatheroid" (paper-rubber-sandarac): natural
rubber; Lecithin: = waxy; #aldehyde or
ketone condensation product 0 addition polymer from unsaturated
monomers.; "Lexan": = polycarbonate; Linoleum: = cork
with natural oil, gum or rosin; Lycopodium: = natural
oil or gum
Maleic acid or anhydride (used as a reactant): = unsaturated (anhydride
is heterocyclic); Maleic acid ester (from
polyhydric alcohol): = polyester (crosslinked); Maleic acid
ester (from monohydric alcohol): = unsaturated° (ester)#; Melamine: = aldehyde; Mica: = silicon
containing; Modacrylic: = unsaturated (halide); "Mylar": = polyester; Neoprene: = unsaturated° (polyene)
"Neothane": = poly(amido-ester); Nitro cellulose: = cellulosic (ester
or modified); Nylon: = polyamide; Oil
cloth: = see structural area (cross
"Orlon": = a cyrylic (unsaturated° )
Paper: = a water laid web or interfelted natural
celluloses fibers; Phenolic(s): = aldehyde; Pitch: = bituminous; "Plexiglas": = unsaturated° (ester); "Pliofilm": = natural
rubber; "Plioflex": = unsaturated° (polyene); Polyamine: = aldehyde# (unless
otherwise specified); Polyethylene: = unsaturated°; Polypropylene: = unsaturated°; Polyurethane: = see
urethane; Porcelain: = silicon containing; Porcelain
enamel: = see enamel, porcelain; Portland
cement: = silicon containing; Protein: = polyamide; PVA (Polyvinyl
acetate):° =unsaturated (ester); "Pyrex": = glass;
Pyroxilin: = cellulosic (modified)
Quartz: = silicon containing
Rayon: = cellulosic (regenerated) (in strand
or fiber form); Refractory: = see definition
above; Rubber, pore: = natural rubber; Rubber, synthetic: = unsaturated° polyene; Rubber, synthetic, sulfide: = polythioether
SBR: = unsaturated° (polyene); Sand: = silicon
containing; Sandarac: = natural gum; "Saran": = unsaturated° (halide); Silk: = polyamide;
Soya bean oil: = polyamide; Starch: = carbohydrate; Stone: = silicon
containing; Stone Wood: = cellulosic (wood); Suede: = Pile
or nap surface; Synthetic glue: = usually
aldehyde#; Synthetic rubber: = unsaturated° polyene; Synthetic
rubber: sulfide: = polythioether
Talc: = silicon containing; "Telflon": = fluorinated
addition polymer; "Terylene": = polyester ; Urethane: = poly(amido
Varnish: = natural oil or gum, lac; Varnish, phenolic:
aldehyde#; Varnish, synthetic: = aldehyde
or cellulosic (as disclosed); Vegetable
ivory: = cellulosic; Vinyl: = unsaturated°; Vinyon: = unsaturated° (halide); Viscose: = cellulosic (modified); Vitreous:
glassy, silicon containing; Vulcanized fiber: = cellulosic (modified)
Water glass: = silicon containing; Water soluble
thermosetting resin: = aldehyde#;Wheat
paste: = polyamide, unless specified as
starch (which see); Wood: = cellulosic; Wool: = polyamide
Zein: = polyamide; Zylonite (celluloid): = cellulosic; "Zytel" (nylon): = polyamide
SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS
The organization of this section is as follows:
A. INTERMEDIATE ARTICLES* - 1.
Packages, 2. Blanks, etc.
B. COMPOUNDS AND COMPOSITIONS
C. ARTICLES* AND STOCK-MATERIALS* - 1. Life-science
related; 2. Textiles and related materials (a. Fibers, strands, rods, etc.; b. Interengaged
fibers or strands; c. Belts, etc.; d. Associated
fabrics; e. Textiles and their manufacture in
general) 3. Static objects and materials (a.
Receptacles, chambers, etc., b.
Other hollow subject matter, c. Structures related
to radiant or wave energy, d. Other structures
and static objects); 4. Electric and
magnetic elements, 5. Mechanical elements (a. Joints, b. Cutting, separating
and related elements, c. Friction elements, d. Other
machine elements); 6. Coating and coated
products, 7. Assembling and/or shaping, 8. Other
manufacturing and treating, 9. Miscellaneous devices
D. CLATHARATES AND INTERCALATES
In section II, the symbol # is used at the
end of the definition to designate a class or part of a class which
provides for certain stock-material*.
Here follows the number and full title of classes which have been
discovered as having a defined relationship with this class, as explained
below in Subsection INTERMEDIATE-ARTICLES*, and
in the subclass definitions:
1. Packages, Class 206, provides, in
general, for mercantile units in which a plurality of articles* are
held together by an extraneous element which is discarded before
the article is used. A plurality of articles which are
not yet detached from each other, being held together by
material intrinsic to the material of which the articles are made, generally
is classified in this class (428); however, Class
59, subclass 77 provides for a series of staple blanks
which are partially shaped and integrally connected. Class
229, subclass 75 provides for a plurality of envelope blanks
integrally connected in strip form. A package designed
to be used or disposed of in toto is generally classified herein; see
subclasses 2 and 576. See also the references to Class
252 in part B, below.
Stock material in roll or coil form, or wound in
the form of a coil, will be classified in Class 428; however, any further
limitations as to the roll, or coil or package, as for
example, an overlapping roll edge, an edge or
convolution taped or secured to an under layer*, or
a detail as to the mandrel, etc., is
considered to be significant structure for the roll and placement
in Class 206, subclasses 389+ is indicated.
A separate and distinct interliner or sheet* wound
into the convolutions and which is not ordinarily part of the stock
material is considered to be significant roll structure for Class
206. A liner sheet adhered to a portion of a composite* sheet* or
web* and rolled together therewith and removable is considered
to be part of the stock material and proper for Class 428.
Generally, a product or stock material falling within
the definition of this class (428) and further
modified by the bare recital that such product or material (a) is
in the form of a roll, reel, drum, coil, stack, pile, bale, etc., or (b) is
within a container or in the form of a package is classified in
this class (428).
For purposes of classification in Class 428, the
coil, packaged or wound form is disregarded and placement is
on the basis of the web*, sheet*, or
other form of product or stock material.
See Class 206, subclasses 45.31+ for
a pouch adapted to receive an identification card (unless
of the paper envelope type, see Class 229, Paper
In regard to wall structure of Class 206-type receptacles, see
part C,3,a, below.
A wound strand package is in Class 242, subclasses 159+, which
also has a search note setting out its line with Class 206.
An intermediate-article* so shaped as to
be suitable for handling is in this class (428); however, a
claim to a pile or stack of such articles, when it does
not form a work-piece* which is subsequently worked
as a unit, is in Class 214, subclass 10.5.
2. Blanks, etc.
A claim, even though stated to be a "blank" which describes
or is readable on the structure of a completed article* is
classified with the article*, for such a claim
is either generic to both the blank and the article, and, therefore, considered
to be best classified with the completed article, or is
to a subcombination which is best classifiable within an appropriate
subcombination class, or, if none, in
the article class.
Class 2, subclass 143 provides for blanks which are
to be used in making collars for garments.
Class 10, subclasses 11+ provide for bolt
blanks, and subclass 62 provides for spike blanks.
Class 24, subclasses 20+ provide for a package
tie which is a metal band which is to be bent, cut, or
formed up to make a connection.
Class 36, subclasses 47+ provide for blanks
used in the production of shoe uppers.
Class 59, subclasses 8, 12 and 35 provide
for chain blanks, subclass 62 provides for horseshoe blanks, and subclass
77 provides for staple blanks which are partially shaped and integrally
Class 63, subclasses 15+ provide for a finger-ring
blank which already is a ring.
Class 76, subclasses 101.1+ provide
for a metal tool or implement blank.
Class 101, subclasses 404.1+ provide
for blanks for printing plates and printing members.
Class 138 provides for tube and ring blanks which are tubes
which can hold fluid.
Class 150, subclasses 127+ provides for
blanks used in making pocketbooks.
Class 220, subclasses 62+ provides for a
can or other metallic receptacle blank.
Class 229, Envelopes, Wrappers, and
Paperboard Boxes, subclasses 100+ for a blank
for forming a paperboard box.
Class 248, subclass 248 provides for a blank from
which a sheet-material supporting bracket can be made.
B. Compounds and Compositions
A patent claiming a single layer*, film, filament*, or fiber*, or
a mass*, with a limitation to the material(s) of which
it is comprised, but with no recitation of significant
structure, will be placed in the appropriate compound or
composition class. The following are considered to be
1. An external configuration which is not planar
or cylindrical, e.g., aperture, fold, varying
2. The recitation of a numerical dimension or designation
of metal as a foil or leaf
3. A product composed of at least three layers*.
4. A coated strand, wire, fiber, filament, rod
5. An interconnected void structure.
6. Porosity in a nonparticulate metal.
The following are not considered to be significant structure:
1. Random distribution of elements* such
as fillers or reinforcements (e.g., fibers*) within
a product or randomly disposed pores or cells (i.e., no
particular pattern or arrangement) in a porous, cellular
or foamed product, wherein the overall structure is neither
limited nor influenced by these elements*, even
though the elements* or pores themselves may have structural
2. Internal characteristics, such as crystalline
form, molecular orientations, etc., when
such characteristics have no relation to the shape of the product.
3. The presence of the composition as a coating on
an unnamed substrate.
A product described by a functional or chemical name only (e.g., table, wood, etc.) is
not considered to have significant structure; however, limitations
such as plywood (indicating layers*), tables
with legs, etc., are considered to define
Also, a patent for a product where the presence of
structure (e.g., cellular) or
the degree thereof is a mere manifestation of the material or composition
will likewise be placed in the appropriate material or composition
class. Further, a product defined in terms of
its properties (e.g., tensile
strength, elongation) is not considered a "structurally
defined" product, as provided for in this class.
In regard to a patent which has a claim to a product which
is classifiable in this class (428), subclasses
411+, but which recites no significant structural
limitations, and a claim to a coating material compound
or composition which is included in at least a part of the claimed product, and
claim to a significant process of coating, the patent is
classified according to the coating material.
The rules for determining Class placement of the Original
Reference (OR) for claimed chemical compositions are
set forth in the Class Definition of Class 252 in the section LINES
WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS, subsection COMPOSITION CLASS
SUPERIORITY, which includes a hierarchical ORDER OF SUPERIORITY
FOR COMPOSITION CLASSES.
The enumeration of classes below, in general, follows the
priority list of Class 252 and covers some additional classes. Thus, this
enumeration is not authoritative insofar as priority of classes
is concerned. The definitions of these classes should
be studied to determine the proper placement of patents therein.
Class 504, subclasses 116+ provide for plant
growth regulating compositions and subclasses 101+ provide for
a fertilizer containing an insecticide, fungicide, or deodorant.
Class 424 provides for drug, bio-affecting
and body-treating compositions. Subclasses 1.21, 1.25, 1.29+, and
400+ provide for some articles* and stock-materials* which
contain a composition of that class. A stock-material* suitable
for this class (428), containing a Class 424
composition to preserve the stock material itself from biological
attack, is in this class (428).
Residual methods for preserving, disinfecting or sterilizing
stock-materials are in Class 422.
Class 426 provides for food, beverages and other
edible compositions, and certain edible articles* and
Class 71, provides for fertilizers.
Class 208, subclasses 14+ provide for compositions made
up exclusively of mineral oil components.
Class 585, subclasses 1+ provides for compositions made
up exclusively of hydrocarbons or a hydrocarbon with a preservative, etc.
Class 149 provides for explosive and thermic compositions
and charges, subclasses 2+ providing for one in which
at least one ingredient has a particular shape or structure, and
subclasses 14+ for one having at least two separate and
distinct superimposed or contiguous layers or forms of different
components or of components having different properties.
The layers must be in direct contact and not be separated by a space
or by a nonexplosive or nonthermic body.
Class 508, subclasses 100+ provide for shaped
lubricants and massive rigid solid bodies, including bearings, which
carry a fluent lubricant, and subclasses 110+ provide
for lubricant compositions generally.
Class 44 provides for fuel compositions and some combustible
fuel articles* and stock-materials*.
Class 148, subclasses 240+ and 22+ provide
for certain compositions for treating solid metal, and
subclass 400.1 for certain stock-materials* and
compositions produced by a process of that class (148).
See the references to this class in parts 4 and 6, below.
Class 75, subclasses 228+ provide for consolidated metal
powder compositions, in subclasses 251+ for loose
metal powder compositions, and in subclasses 95, 256
and 257 for certain additives for molten metal.
This class (428), subclass 576
provides for a shaped article* to be melted in a metallurgical
Class 252, in subclasses other than those listed
above or below, provides for special utility compositions.
In most cases, Class 252 provides for compositions having a
random mixture of components, while stock-materials* are
classified in this or another stock-material class. However, it
is noted that some subclasses in Class 252 provide for more than
mere compositions; for example, subclass 176 provides
for packages and heterogeneous arrangements of water-softening
and related-function compositions.
Class 510 provides for cleaning compositions and auxiliary
or perfecting compositions therefor, while certain subclasses
therein, such as subclasses 404, 438+, etc., provide
for packages or heterogeneous arrangements, while subclasses
445+, etc., provide for solid, shaped macroscopic
articles or structures.
Class 106 provides for a composition which is in fluent or
solid noncoherent form which is adapted for coating or impregnating
and for change to a less fluent form, or solid coherent
form, by setting (e.g., concrete, plastic, etc.), by
chemical reaction, by removal of solvent, by solidification
from a molten state, etc. In a patent directed
to a filler or pigment for a coating composition, the recitation
of size or structure of the constituent* particles or fibers
is not sufficient to exclude said patent from Class 106. See
especially subclasses 36, 117, 235, 241, 251, 253+, 266, 272, 275, 276, 280, 281+, 288+, 636, 784, and
Class 51 provides for abrading composition or some stock material; see
especially subclasses 294, 295, and 297 for other
abrasive stock material, or for a method of making abrasive
material such as "sandpaper."
Class 451 provides for abrading materials in usable form, as
a "tool" under that class definition.
For example, subclasses 526+ provide for "sandpaper."
Class 260, subclasses 2+ and 520 Classes
provide for a synthetic resin or Natural Rubbers (spinnable, film-forming, etc.), and
Class 260, subclasses 709+ provide for a vulcanizable
natural gum (e.g., rubber).
Under certain circumstances, the relation between
Class 260, 520 Classes and Class 428 shifts between combination
and subcombination. For example, the subcombination
of a resin composition is in Class 260 and 520 Classes; a
layered product structurally defined and containing the resin composition
as a layer is now a combination which is classified in Class 428.
However, the combination of the layered product and a resin, when the
layered product is used as filler for the resin is again classified
in Class 260 and 520 Classes as a resin composition.
Class 252, subclasses 299.01+, 625+, 363.5, 367.1, 372+, 378, 182.11+, and
183.11+ provide for compositions on a nonfunctional
Class 423 provides for inorganic compounds, and in subclasses
265+ provides for compositions having an inorganic compound
and an agent which improves the general utility of the compound.
Class 430, Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition, or
Product Thereof, appropriate subclasses for stock material
and products which are radiation sensitive and limited to use in
imagery and a finished imaged article chemically defined.
A claim to a finished picture or photograph is classified in Class
Class 520 provides for synthetic resins, natural
rubbers, compositions and modifications thereof.
C. Articles* and Stock-materials*
1. Life-sciences related materials.
Classes 3, 47, 433, and 449 take
articles*, but not stock-materials*.
A cut, natural plant, treated to prolong the characteristics
of life, is in class 47, and that class (47) provides
for the combination of a receptacle and a cut plant either treated
or with means to prolong the characteristics of life.
Class 128 is the locus for a patent directed to a stock-material* product
when (1) solely disclosed to be worn by, or
attached to, the body (e.g., sanitary
napkin, diaper, etc.) and to
be a receptor for a body discharge (2) solely
disclosed as a shield or protective device to be worn on, or
attached to, a body member or part (e.g., bandage, dressing, etc.) and
having a therapeutic use or (3) a patent to a
stock-material* product whose disclosure includes
a Class 128 utility as set out above or in the class definition
thereof, and a general utility for Class 428, but
in which one claim is specific to the Class 128 disclosed use.
2. Textiles and related materials
Certain textile manufacturing classes provide for their own
products, and Classes 2, 5 and 245 provide for products
only, while some other textile products are provided for
in this class.
a. Fibers, strands, rods, etc.
Class 19, subclasses 144+ provide for a
process of, or means for, assembling fibers* together
into a lap, sliver or web*, with some
other material. Stock-material* products
of a Class 19 process are classified in this class (428).
Class 52, subclasses 720.1+ provide
for a miscellaneous article* which is an elongated, rigid
structure. See also the reference to Class 52 in part
Class 57, subclasses 200+ provide for a
stock-material* strand* consisting of, or
comprising, a claimed twisted or twined constituent*; or
for a stock-material* product (e.g., web*, sheet*, etc.) distinguished
only by such twisted or twined strands* (as claimed) employed
in the manufacture thereof, or a stock-material* product
comprising coated or impregnated strands* in which the coating
or impregnation took place prior to assembly of said strands* to
form the product, no matter how the twist was made, whether
by a Class 57 process or apparatus or otherwise.
The "twist" or its equivalent term is applicable
either to plural fibers* or filaments* which are
twisted about each other, or to a monofilament which is
turned or twisted about its longitudinal axis. A crimped
fiber is classifiable in Class 428, the crimp being out
of the plane of the fiber.
This class (428) does not exclude a yarn, strand*, or other
constituent* unless the claim recites at least a "twist" or
its equivalent; or a property due to, or resulting
from, twisting a fiber* or filament*.
There are certain terms which have been accepted as denoting a twisting
fiber* or filament*, and, if
used in a claim, classification in Class 57 is indicated, provided
all other requirements therefor are met. Some of these
i. plying, doubling, twining, twisting (all
such terms are considered to be synonymous) and indicate
turning about the longitudinal axes of the fiber* filament
or yarn or bundles of yarns;
ii. filament looped upon itself;
iii. turns of twist per inch;
iv. false twist;
v. twist to treat, followed by untwisting;
vi. spun staple fiber yarn e.g., wool, cotton, etc.;
vii. "Z" or "S" twists
In the event of a disclosure which includes (1) "twisted" strands, fibers, filaments
for Class 57, and (2) nontwisted elements
proper for Class 428, the following guidelines are to be
followed in accordance with the claims:
1. A claim generic to both modifications will be
classified in Class 428 as an original with a cross-reference, if needed, to
2. A claim specific to either the twisted or nontwisted fibers
will be classified in Class 428 or Class 57, respectively, with
a proper cross-reference to the other class as needed.
3. A claim to the twisted Class 57 modification and
a claim to the nontwisted product will be classified as an original
in Class 428 with the proper cross-referencing.
Class 84, subclasses 199 and 297+ provide
for strings for musical instruments.
Class 256, subclasses 6+ provide for barbed-strand fence
stock-material*, and in subclass 46 for
analogous nonbarbed stock-material*.
Class 464, Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible
Couplings for Rotary Shafts, subclasses 51+ provides
for flexible shafting; and subclasses 179+ provides
for rigid shafting.
b. Interengaged fibers or strands
Class 59, subclasses 78+ provide for a chain
formed of linked elements.
Class 66, subclasses 69+ provide for a knitted
article or stock-material*, and especially
subclasses 190+ for stock-material* including
knitted material with nonknitted material held in its loops.
Class 87, subclasses 1 through 13, provide
for (1) stock-material* which
consists of, or includes, a braid, net, or lace
component, or (2) a product resulting
from an operation(s) within the scope of that
class (87), which product is either coated
or combined with a material which is the product of an operation
beyond the scope of Class 87 (e.g., lamination, etc.).
Class 131, subclasses 321+ provide for stock-material* specified
as being a filter and of indeterminate shape (e.g., mass), or
approximating the shape (e.g., coil, tube, cylinder, rod*, etc.), of
the article or appliance with which it is intended to be used, requiring
no further treatment than tearing or cutting to proper size* stock-material* of
any other shape, recited so that some shape modification
is required, is classified in Class 428.
Class 139, subclasses 383+ provide for a
single or plural layer* woven stock-material* product
made only by a Class 139 process and no other operation.
A patent directed to a woven product possessing deformed, coated
or impregnated strands will be placed in Class 139 where the sole
disclosure is that a coating, impregnation or deformation
of the constituent strands took place prior to the weaving.
Two layers woven together are classified in Class 139. Two
woven layers adhered together are classified in Class 428, one
layer of woven material next to a layer of nonwoven material is
classified in Class 428.
Class 162 provides for a nonstructural (1) single-layer* waterlaid
fibrous product, (2) plural-layer* product including
a layer* of fibers* applied to a second layer* by
a process provided for in that class (162), or (3) paper homogeneously
impregnated throughout, even after the web* is
formed, and note particularly subclasses 141-181.1+, which
include any nonstructural fiber* (or fiber-containing) product (e.g., particular
blend of fibers*), whether waterlaid
or not. Also, see notes in Class 162, referring
to Class 428, e.g., Class 162, subclasses
141 and 150 for examples of structural fibers. This class (428), subclass
596, provides for metallic wire cloth formed by welding
plural all-metal wires at their points of intersection; in
subclass 605 for a mass of metal fibers, including plural
layers of wire cloths joined by mechanical compression and sinter
bonded into a fibrous mass, and in subclass 608 for a mass
which includes metal wires, strands or strand portions
mechanically intertangled, interwoven or interlooped, coated with
a metal or a layer of metal or nonmetal fibers located between two
Class 245 provides for a wire fabric* which is the
product of a bending or analogous wire-working operation.
Class 256, subclass 5 provides for barbed-fence
fabric*, and in subclass 45 for analogous nonbarbed
Classes 289, subclass 1.2 provides for an
interlacement (knot) of portions of one or more
elongated flexible elements (e.g., strand, rope) forming
a tie or fastening and including any bend or hitch.
c. Belts, etc.
Class 198, appropriate subclasses provide for an
endless conveyor belt or a stock material* disclosed solely
for use as a conveyor belt.
Class 474, appropriate subclasses provide for an
endless power transmission belt or a stock material* disclosed solely
for use as a power-transmission belt.
Class 162, subclasses 348+ provide for a
flexible endless band-type paper-making mold of
the Fourdrinier variety.
Class 400, subclasses 237+ provides for
an inked typewriter ribbon.
d. Associated fabrics
Class 2 provides for a stock-material* product
of that class, and especially subclasses 244 and 274, respectively, for
an apparel trimming or binding, and 260 for coated stays
Class 5, subclass 500 provides for a stock-material* product
solely disclosed for use as an underpad or cover pad for a mattress, and
which protects the mattress by receiving discharges of the body, for
example, infants or hospital patients. Those
cover pads are usually made of absorbent material.
Class 112, subclasses 400+ provides for
sewn stock-material*, except for sewn
stock-material* which includes a discrete mechanical
fastener(s), a coating, or an
adhesive bond, for which see subclasses 102+ of
this class (428).
e. Textiles and manufacture thereof in general
Class 8 provides for a process of (1) dyeing
or bleaching stock-material*; (2) treating
hides, skins, feathers, or animal tissue
with chemicals or fluids; (3) improving the
felting properties of fibers*; (4) treating
textile* fabrics* or fibers with fluids, with
or without chemical modification of the treated material; or (5) a
product resulting from any of the processes above, where
not specifically provided for elsewhere. Structured stock
is classified in Class 428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, or
other appropriate class.
Class 26 provides for mechanical, nonliquid treatment of
textile* fabrics* (e.g., napping), subsequent
to fabrication, which is not provided for elsewhere. Stock-material* products
of a Class 26 process are provided for in this class (428).
Class 28, subclasses 72+ provide for a mechanical
textile* process not elsewhere provided for, a
combination of such a process with another textile* operation
or with a nontextile* operation provided for in some other
textile* class with a nontextile* operation where
such combination is not specifically provided for in the other textile* class. Stock-material* products
of a Class 28 process are provided for in this class (428).
Class 140 provides for processes of wire-working, e.g., uniting, shaping
or deforming, but generally not for the products thereof.
For the line between Class 140 and the other textile classes, see
the main class definition of Class 140.
3. Static objects and materials.
a. Receptacles, chambers, etc. Articles* in
the form of receptacles or chambers are provided for in a number
of classes and portions of classes, the most important
of which are listed below. Those which also provide for sheet* or
web* material, claimed in terms of significant wall
structure, are indicated by the symbol "#".
Significant wall structure includes seam structure (not
merely the composition of the seam and adjacent portions), spaced
wall components, etc. Also significant for placement
in the classes marked "#" is specified
wall structure in relation to the container (e.g., inside
or outside). Thus, a coated or laminated
wall in which the composition of a layer is recited as being on
the inside (or outside) of a container is considered
to be significant wall structure and placement in classes marked "#" is
See reference to Class 138 in this section for examples of
wall structure which would also be considered to be significant
for placement in such classes, and for example which would
not be so considered.
Class 123 provides for certain chambers in an internal combustion
Class 126, subclasses 19+ provide for ovens.
Class 164, subclasses 349+ provide for sand
molds, and subclass 374 for a flask section to be used
in a metal-casting operation.
Class 206 provides for a special receptacle.
Class 215 provides for bottles and jars.
Class 217 provides for wooden receptacles.
Class 220 provides for receptacles in general, and
for metallic receptacles in particular. See subclasses
23.9, 62.21, 574.3, 495.01+, and
908.1+ for a receptacle having a liner.
Class 229 provides for paper receptacles. See especially subclass
71 for a paper-like display envelope for receiving an identification
card, and other appropriate subclasses for receptacle structure
as provided for therein; a coated wall structure, where
the coating is specifically defined to be either on the inside or
outside of the bag or receptacle will be considered receptacle structure
and will indicate placement in Class 229. This coating
may be for the purpose of acting as a vapor barrier, waterproofing
layer, or antislide means, etc., and
is especially related to the contents of the bag or receptacle.
Class 249 provides for articles* which are static
Class 266, subclass 39 provides for articles* which
are receptacles for treating molten metal.
Class 432, subclass 247 provides for an article* which
is a heating or heat-retaining chamber.
b. Other hollow subject matter.
Class 89 provides generically for an article* which
is a gun, shield or gun mount.
Class 138 provides for an article* which is a tube
and for tubular stock-material* in which the claims
include a limitation regarding wall structure. A claim
which recites a particular composition as being the inside or outside
wall of a tube is considered to be significant wall structure and
placement in Class 138 is indicated. However, a
claim which recites a tube or conduit having two or more layers* and
then recites the compositions of the layers*, but
does not specify which layer is inside or outside, is not
considered to include significant wall structure and will be placed
in Class 428. Examples of significantly recited coated
wall structure for classification are:
1. A tube having a wall comprising a layer of metal
and on the outer (or inner) surface thereof a
layer of polypropy lens.
2. A tube having a laminated wall of three layers, in order
from the inside to the outside, comprising polyethylene, epoxy, and
Examples of coated or laminated wall structure which are not
significantly claimed and which indicate classification in Class
1. A tube having a wall structure comprising a layer
of metal and a layer of polypropylene.
2. A tube having a laminated wall of three layers
comprising, in order, polyethylene, epoxy, and
Class 239, subclasses 548+ provide for a
unitary plural-outlet means, and subclass 589
for a rigid fluid-confining distributor for ejection of
fluents and slurries by slinging, sloshing, centrifugally
throwing, etc., such material in the
form of fog, mist droplets, etc.
384, Bearings, subclasses 276+ provide
for an article* which is a bearing sleeve, or
liner. See also the reference to Class 508, above.
Class 406, subclass 191 provides for conduits for
c. Structures related to radiant or wave energy
Class 181, subclasses 33+ provide for an
article* or a stock-material* with particular
claimed structure (either internal or external) for
the purpose of deadening, attenuating, or amplifying
Class 250, subclass 515.1 provides for an
article* which is a radiation shield.
Class 274, subclasses 41+ provide for a
stock-material* having significant structure disclosed
for receiving records of sound or having such records formed therein or
Class 333 provides for an article* of use in an electrical wave
transmission line or network.
Class 343 provides, especially in subclasses 741+, an article*, e.g., an
antenna, used in radio-wave communications.
Class 359, subclasses 36+ provides for a
liquid crystal device, per se, which controls
light direction or intensity by (1) deforming
or relatively displacing portions of, or changing the shape
or size of an optically reflecting or transmitting medium, surface
or interface, or (2) changing the composition, internal
structure, or the physical or chemical properties of such
a medium, surface or interface, and in subclasses
838+ for a mirror having claimed optically significant
structure, e.g., concave, convex, polarizing, selectively
absorbing, optically critical thickness, etc. A
plural layer product, one layer of which merely acts as
a support or base for a coating which affects the transmission of
light therethrough, which one layer is uniformly opaque
or transparent or translucent, is excluded from Class 359, and
will be found in the appropriate subclasses of Class 428, see especially
Class 369 provides for a record of information which is to
be reconstructed dynamically by other than magnetic means. See, in
particular, subclasses 272+. A disc
with/without grooves which does not include recorded information
is classified in Class 428, subclasses 64.1; and see
especially subclass 908 for a collection of stock materials having
an impression retention layer. Class 430 provides for
a finished photograph which is chemically defined. See
the note to Class 428 in the main class definition of Class 430.
Class 422, Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or
Sterilizing, appropriate subclasses for certain receptacles
and chambers in which a chemical reaction takes place.
d. Other structures and static object.
A patent to a rigid laminate or stock-material* merely
defined as a building component, e.g., floor, wall, stile, etc., will
be placed in Class 428.
Class 40, subclasses 39+ provide for a fluid-operated, rotatable-changeable
exhibitor which may resemble a special occasion ornament for Class
428, and subclasses 7+ and 156 for a frame, as
defined therein, with or without an identification card
therein, and not having any specific printed indicia thereon; see
also the reference to Class 283, below.
Class 49, subclasses 440+ provide for a
channel guide of stock-material* with specific
structure to facilitate securing it to a support, and subclasses
475+ for a closure seal or striker gasket of stock-material* provided with
means for attachment to a support.
Class 52, provides for a product in the form of a
web* or sheet* generally employed as a portion
of a building structure and including (1) a stiffener
or edging extending along a face thereof, or (2) means
facilitating securement of the web or sheet to a support, e.g., a
flange at the edge of a panel for receiving a nail, or
fastener apertures at the edge of a panel. Class 52 also
provides for: a composite panel formed of separate sheets
which are secured together by a mechanical fastener; a
composite panel having spaced facing sheets with inturned, opposed
flanges that form an edge of the panel; and a panel which
interfits with a support such as a frame or shaft. See, particularly, subclasses
98+ for a fracturable building component, subclass
105 for a component with indicia, subclass 177 for a component
having a specified wear or friction surface, subclasses
311.1+ for an ornamental or decorative component, subclasses
393+ for a yieldable component, subclasses 474+ for
a panel held by a preassembled or prepositioned frame or shaft, subclasses
596+ for a stone-like module, subclass
631 for a bent component, subclasses 633+ for
an openwork component, subclasses 656 for a frame, per
se, subclasses 716.1+ for an in situ
attached-type channel or trim member, and subclasses
782.1+ for a composite laminate with a disparate
edging or an imperforate face.
Class 109 provides for safes and components thereof, bank
protection and related devices, and in subclass 495 provides
for a shield or protector for preventing a projectile, or
knife or sword, or bomb fragment from contacting a person
or thing. This could be a portable device or one which
attaches (i.e., has attaching
means such as belts, straps, etc.) to
a bomb for containing the fragments.
Class 160 provides for a panel structure for use in a flexible
or portable closure or partition, especially in subclasses
385+ for fabric having a modified edge (e.g., loops) for
attachment to an elongated support.
Class 180, subclass 68.6 provides for an
article* which is a motor vehicle radiator protector.
Class 228, subclass 56 provides for a metal article* useful
as filler material in a metal fusion bonding operation.
Class 238 provides for an article* which is a railroad rail.
Class 248, subclass 248 provides for an article* which
is a shelf support made from a single blank. The blank itself
is classified in this class (428).
Class 283, subclasses 74+ provides for an
identification card having printed matter thereon.
Class 404 provides for a road or pavement which has structure
peculiar for pedestrian or vehicular traffic. A laminated
or layered* product with no structure which peculiarly
adapts it for use for vehicles or pedestrians, such as
a crown, grading, contour, etc., is
classifiable in Class 428.
Class 405, subclasses 276+ provide for metallic
Class 425, subclass 470 provides for a shaping or
casting surface for nonmetal material.
Class 588, Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment, subclasses
249-260 for permanent containment of hazardous or toxic
waste, particularly subclasses 252+ for solidification, vitrification, or cementation.
4. Electric and magnetic elements. The classes
listed below, with the exception of those marked with the
symbol "#", do not provide for
electric or magnetic stock-materials*.
The marked classes or portions of classes provide for stock-material* only
when such material has a claimed internal or external structure
which makes the material of utility only in a single class.
In general, an electrode is either an article* for
the classes listed, a stock-material* for
this class (428), or a composition for a
composition class, notably Class 75, or Class
252, subclasses 500+.
Class 136, subclasses 236+ provide for thermocouple junction
Class 148, subclasses 33+ provide for P-N
junction stock-material* made by a process of
Class 174 provides for stock-material* in
the form of an electrical conductor with a covering of dielectric
material wherein the conductor includes structure disclosed to be
specially designed to conduct electricity, or the dielectric
includes structure disclosed to be specifically designed to space
the conductor from ground or from a device of otherwise different
Class 191, subclass 22 provides for conductive articles* specifically
designed to transmit electricity to vehicles.
Class 200, subclasses 262+ provide for electric
switch contact elements which go beyond stock-materials*, e.g., by
having two spaced conductors, etc.
Class 204, subclasses 194+ for articles
which are elements of an electrolytic apparatus.
Class 219, subclasses 145+ and 552+ provide
for articles* which are electric heating elements.
Class 257, Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State
Diodes), provides for electronic devices or components
that are made up primarily of semiconductor materials which operate
by the movement of charge carriers - electrons or holes - which
undergo energy level changes within the material and can modify
an electrical input to achieve rectification, amplification
or switching action. A mere named combination of doped semiconductor
materials where the sole use of the device is disclosed as an active
solid state device results in classification in Class 257.
Recitation of electrical contacts or leads is not necessary to classification
in Class 257.
Class 310, subclasses 248+ provide for articles* which are
electric generator or motor brushes.
Class 313, appropriate subclasses, especially
subclass 326, provide for electrode structure for electric
lamps and other discharge devices which are defined by their structure
for in such devices. A mere recitation of a wire, rod, strip, cylinder, etc., is
not considered to be structure for Class 313, nor is a
recitation only of the electrode composition or of a base and/or
coating. Nonmetallic* rods, strands, fibers, etc., which
are structurally defined, but do not include structure
for use as electrodes for lamps, are found in Class 428, subclasses 357+; note
especially subclasses 375+ for coated rods, strands, fibers, etc.
A plurality of electrodes, unless specifically related
structurally to each other or to other structure, for use
in a lamp or discharge device will be found in Class 428, appropriate
Class 317 provides for articles* of use in electrical applications
not provided for elsewhere.
Class 318 provides for articles* used in electric-motive power
Class 335, subclasses 296+ provide for a
magnet or magnetic material (including structure, e.g., lamination of
work at least two magnetic layers disclosed for use as a source
of magnetic flux for performing external work).
Class 336, subclasses 233+ provide for a
core or magnetic body comprising superimposed bundles or layers of
magnetic material in the form of sheets, rods, or wires, and
for single sheets, punchings, rods, or
wire which have such configuration that they have no utility except
in building up of a core or coil for use in an inductor device within
the class definition (e.g., transformer, etc.).
Class 337, subclass 379 provides for an article* which
is a bimetallic element of a thermally actuated switch. This
class (428), subclasses 616+ provide
for bimetal thermostat stock-materials*.
Class 338 provides for electrical resistor stock-material* which
is claimed in terms of its resistance characteristics.
Class 340 provides for articles* used in electrical
Class 360 provides, especially in subclass 131 for
a product, which may be layered or otherwise structured, which
is particularly or uniquely designed or arranged to store or record
information by a change or variation in the magnetic state of the
device. The line between Classes 360 and 428 is as follows:
Class 379 provides for article* used in telephony.
1. A product recited as magnetic tape or storage
will not suffice to place a patent in Class 360 in the absence of recitation
of structure of the overall product or internal structure of the
material, or function, unique to magnetic memory
2. Layered products of general utility or otherwise
not provided for utility are classified in Class 428.
A patent disclosing both a Class 360 and a Class 428 function, and
in which the claims are generic to both disclosures on which has
a claim specific to the Class 428 disclosure will be placed in Class
428 as an original.
Note. The following examples are set out to serve
as guidelines in determining placement of patents:
improved adhesion of magnetic layer to base, greater
tensile strength of the layer (s) abrasion lubricated
surface, improved flexibility, etc., are
not considered to be be structure or properties peculiar to information
recording or structure;
structure which is directed to improved signal-to-noise
ratio, signal stability, nondestructive readout (N.D.R.O.), nonprint through
of signal, signal identity, hysteresis loop, orientation
or packing density of magnetic signal is significant for Class 360, and
patents claiming such structure or function will be so classified.
Class 429, subclasses 129-147 and 247-255 for
a battery separator or retainer, subclasses 209-246
for a battery electrode, subclasses 233-245 for
a battery grid, subclasses 484-489 provide for
solid electrode fuel cells having specified electrode materials, and
subclasses 523-534 provide for electrode structure or compositions
for use in fuel cells.
Class 439 provides for articles* which are electrical
connectors. See the introduction to part 5 a, below.
5. Mechanical elements
a. Joints. Those classes or portions of classes
which provide for joints and connections, viz, Class
160, subclass 42, Classes 277, 285, 403, and
439 take a connection or seal between two or more members at substantially
a single locus where the structure or shape (e.g., ring, flange, angular
relationship, etc.) of at least one of the
members is specifically recited. For a mere joint or connection
between two members defined merely by the compositions of the members, see
this class, appropriate subclasses, particularly
subclasses 630+ and 426+ where glass is one of
Class 15 provides, in appropriate subclasses, especially
subclasses 208+ for stock-material* product
disclosed solely for use as a wiper, dauber or polisher
for brushing, scrubbing and general cleaning.
Class 29, subclasses 76.1+ provide
for an article* which is a file or rasp, and subclasses
95+ provide for an article* which is a cutter.
Class 30 and Class 83 provide for articles* which
are cutting implements appropriate to each class.
Class 51 is referred to in part B, above.
Class 55 and 210 provide for filters, especially
subclasses 522+ of the former and 500+ of the
latter for such filter product manufactured of or including a specific material (e.g., fiber*, coating, etc.), or
possessing specific structure (e.g., weave, knit, etc.).
Class 55 takes its own stock-material* when it
specifies that a gas separation takes place or is about to take
place. In Class 210 there must be claimed structure, internal
or external, restricting the stock-material* to
filter use. A filter generic to Classes 55 and 210 is placed
in Class 210.
Class 131 is discussed in part C, 2, b, above.
Class 241, subclass 95 provides for a stationary
comminuting surface having openings.
c. Friction elements
Class 188, subclasses 250+, and
Class 192, subclasses 107+ provide for a product
with a frictional property, where said property is enhanced
by claimed structure (external, such as disc surface
configuration, or internal, such as discrete zones
of friction material, particular arrangements of strands, fibers
or layers), where the sole use disclosure is as
a brake for Class 188, or as a clutch or brake for Class
192. Where the use of the product goes beyond these classes, or
there is no claim to brake or clutch/brake features, placement
in Class 428 is indicated. See also the reference to Class
52 in part C, 3, d, above.
d. Other machine elements
Class 101 provides for a product which is disclosed as a printing
plate and has significant structure for printing (see subclass 395), or
a nonuniform (e.g., hydrophylic-hydrophobic) coating
only for printing purposes (see subclasses 453+), or
a hectographic surface (see subclass 473).
Class 152, subclasses 151+ provides for
a resilient tire, subclasses 548+ for such tire formed
of a particular material(s), and subclass
367 for a tire patch.
Class 346, subclasses 134+ provide for a single
or plural layer web or sheet which is disclosed as a record receiver
solely for use with apparatus provided for in (1) and (2) of
the definition of that class.
(1) Note. A web or sheet disclosed
as a record receiver of general utility, or for multiple
uses, at least one of which is other than for a recorder
apparatus provided for in Class 346, is classified in the
appropriate subclass in Class 428, with a cross-reference
to Class 346, if appropriate.
(2) Note. A web or sheet which
has chart graduations thereon will be assigned to Class 346, subclass
135.1, regardless of its disclosure.
Class 411 provides for expanded, threaded, headed, or
Class 416, subclasses 223+ provides for
an article* which is an impeller or turbine blade.
Class 492, Roll or Roller, provide for rolls and
rollers which claim enough of the surface and support structure
to rotatably mount the roller. Hollow cylindrical rollers follow
the line specified with regard to Class 138 in part C, 3, b, above.
6. Coating and coated products.
Class 148, Metal Treatment, subclasses 206-238
provide for processes of carburizing, nitriding, or
both (e.g., carbonitriding, etc.) of
solid metal, and subclasses 316-319 for the resulting
Class 204, Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy, provides
for the manufacture of stock-material* products
by chemical processes involving electrical or wave energy, and
except for products classifiable in this class (428), subclasses
544+, for a stock-material* product
disclosed solely as made by a process which, per se, would
be classified in Class 204. A multiple disclosure that
the product can be manufactured by either a Class 204 process or
another process (e.g., spray
coating, electroless-depositing, etc.) indicates
original classification in another class (e.g., 428, etc.), with
a cross-reference, as needed, to Class
Class 420 provides for alloys and compositions having a ontinuous
phase of metal.
Class 427 provides for the method of applying a coating or
impregnation to a substrate.
In relation above, the following guidelines are to
be followed in determining whether a process step is significant
for determining the classification of a patent containing only process
claims in either Class 427 or Class 428:
(a) Any pretreatment or post treatment of
a base or applied coating is significant, e.g., curing, drying
or smoothing of the coating, or cleaning, drying
or heating of the base, etc. General statements
such as applying, impregnating, coating, covering, etc., or allowing
to cure, allowing to dry, etc., are not
considered to be significant method steps.
(b) Any specific recitation of the manner
in which the coating material is applied, e.g., brushing, dipping, padding, spraying, immersing, is
(c) Any limitations regarding the thickness of
a coating or nonuniformity of a coating resulting from a process
is considered to be significant.
(d) Specific recitations as to the condition of
the coating material being applied are significant, except
for the following: (1) Any condition
also included in an independent composition or material claim, such
as p4 concentration, etc.; (2) A
general reference to the state of the coating material as molten, in
solution, in an organic or inorganic solvent, etc., unless
accompanied by specific limiting conditions such as time or temperature (even
though recited as ordinary temperature or room temperature, etc.). However, specifically
recited solvents such as benzene, carbon tetrachloride, sulfuric
acid, etc., are considered to be significant.
Any patent having only process claims in which at least one
significant limitation is recited, examples of which are
given above, is placed in Class 427. All process
claims having no significant limitation recited will be placed in
Special Note in relation to Class 427:
As a general rule, specific subclasses in Class 427
are not pointed out as pertinent fields of search. Class
427 should be considered, in all instances, for
the disclosure of a product made by the process in the appropriately
7. Assembling and/or shaping.
In general, the products of the following classes which provide
for assembling and/or shaping methods are not classified
in these classes, but in this class (428), or
other appropriate product class: Classes 29, 65, 72, 76, 79, 82, 125, 156, 164, 219, 228, 264, and
8. Other manufacturing or treating.
Class 261, subclasses 94+ and 100+ provide
for apparatus under the class definition, including a porous
mass* or porous sheet*, respectively, for
providing intimate contact between a gas and a liquid.
9. Miscellaneous devices.
Class 16, subclasses 221+ provide for hinges
of indefinite length.
Class 33, subclasses 12+ provide for stock-material* fabrics* with
pattern lines (guide or gauge lines) thereon, and
subclass 567 for a plural layer product disclosed solely for use
as a gauge block.
Class 36 provides for an article* which is specifically
shaped or contoured to be part of a boot, shoe, or
legging, e.g., heel, innersole, vamp, etc.
Class 102 provides for an article* which is an explosive
or ammunition device.
Class 116, subclass 22 provides for an article* which
is an animal frightening device.
Class 165, subclass 185 provides for an article* which
is a heat transmitter.
Class 267 provides for an article* which is a spring
Class 269 provides for an article* which is a work
Class 280, subclasses 11.18 and 28 provide for
an article* which is a runner or runner base for a land
Class 288, subclasses 51-55 provide for articles* which
are soldering irons.
Class 374, subclasses 529+ provide for articles* modified
over and above the material or composition thereof, to
produce motion as the result of changes in the thermal condition
of the devices or structures, and subclasses 205+ provide
for articles* combined with additional structure to form an
arrangement which provides an indication produced from motion resulting
from changes in the thermal condition of the articles*.
Class 376 provides for an article* which is a nuclear
element and for stock-material* of such element
having a unique adaptation for such use. For example, a
jacketed material having passages for the escape of fission products
is a unique adaptation, but a merely sheathed material
Class 446, Amusement Devices: Toys, subclasses
217+ for spinning type toys which are similar in construction
to special occasion ornaments for Class 428, subclasses
Classs 473, Amusement Devices: Games, subclasses
316+ for an article* which is a golf club shaft.
ART TERM INDEX TO THE CLASS
The following Search This Class, Subclass references
are provided for convenience in locating the principal subclasses
containing patents related to certain terms generally employed in
D. CLATHRATES AND INTERCALATES
Clathrates and intercalates (inclusion compounds), per
se, are classified hierarchically and subject to the limitations
set forth in the compound (element) classes based
both on the encapsulant and encapsulate. For example, a
clathrate of urea and hydrogen peroxide is classified in Class 564, subclass
32, urea and an organic compound in Class 564, subclass
1.5, dextran and iodine in Class 536, subclass
112, etc. Where a patent does not state that a
material is either a clathrate or an intercalate, the assumption
is made that the material is either a coated or encapsulated product
classified in Class 428, subclasses 402+.
SECTION III - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS
For art terms relating to nonstructural laminates - see section
II, Glossary of Terms, Part B.
Glossary terms below are characterized as either A. Structural
or B. Nonstructural or Composition. The terms
are identified as such.
Terms or phrases used in titles and definitions either repeatedly
or in a special and limited sense are set forth below with the meaning
each is to have in this class. For economy of space, an
asterisk (*) following a word indicates
that reference should be had to this glossary for the specific meaning
thereof while an asterisk following an hyphenated phrase, (e.g., strand-portion*, etc.) indicates
that the entire hyphenated term, as such, has
been defined in this glossary.
Note. Where appropriate throughout the definition, the alternatively
singular or plural forms of a noun have been indicated by the addition
of (s) immediately following the noun, (e.g., layer(s) to
mean a layer or layers, etc.).
ADDITION POLYMER FROM UNSATURATED MONOMERS
Any multiunit chain which is the product of the reaction of
unsaturated bonds in the units. The product may be the
result of interaction of molecules of the same compound (as
polyethylene) or of different compounds (as acryronitrile-styrene).
Vinyl acetate and methyl methacrylate are included within the scope
of the term because the monomeric units are linked through the reacted
unsaturated bonds and the ester groups are pendant - i.e., the
units are not linked through the ester groups. (Nonstructural
ALDEHYDE OR KETONE CONDENSATION PRODUCT
A resin resulting from the reaction of an aldehyde or
a ketone and a polyfunctional active hydrogen containing compound, which, with
the elimination of water, produces a chain of alkylidene
units alternating with the residue of the hydrogen supplying compound. Phenol formaldehyde, urea
formaldehyde and polyamino (e.g., melamine) aldehyde
or furfural resins are within the scope of the term. (Nonstructural
Material derived from an animal and found there originally
in film or layer form, e.g., bladder,skin
or scale. Glue or gelatin in a film form is not included
here because neither exists in the animal as a layer or foil. (Nonstructural
Antiferromagnetism occurs when the exchange interaction
between neighboring atoms cancel each other, so the net
magnetic moment is zero. Examples of antiferromagnetic
materials are (Pt, Ir, Cr , and
Pd) Mn alloys, and select transition metal oxides.
A native magnesium calcium silicate. Asbestos
is not considered to be included in the term "metal compound" for
purposes of this class, but is included in silicon containing, unless
specifically stated otherwise in a title or definition. (Nonstructural
A discrete determinate three dimensional thing substantially
in its ultimate use form, as distinguished from stock material (e.g., sheet, etc.) from
which such articles may be manufactured. These articles
are limited to subclasses 2 through 34.1, part
of subclass 542 and subclass 576. (Structural)
That substance or material which has been covered or saturated
or permeated, either partially or completely by another
material. This term is synonymous with Substrate. (Structural)
BITUMINOUS OR TARRY RESIDUE
A composition or compound having the characteristics of
a tar or pitch no matter what the origin. This term includes
all asphalts, bitumens, pitches and tars from coal, mineral
oil, cotton seed pitch and the residue from the destructive
distillation of wood, and natural oil distillations. Carbohydrate
1) polyhydroxy mono-aldehydes and polyhydroxy
mono-ketones, generally having the formula Cn(H2O)m
and substances which are hydrolized to these. The term
includes cellulose, starch dextran, dextrin, sugar, and
lignin. (Nonstructural or Composition)
Note. Wheat paste, which contains gluten, is
See definition of intermediate-article*. (Structural)
A relatively large piece of material whose thickness
is many times that of a web* or sheet* compared
with its width. (Structural)
Inorganic material. (Nonstructural
A carbohydrate material derived from the structural matter
of plant life, usually from the stems. The term includes
lignocellulose (e.g., wood and
bark) relatively pure cellulose (e.g., cotton
and linen) and chemically modified forms of cellulose as
cellophane, pyroxylin, viscose and rayon. While
pyroxylin may be plasticized with minor amounts of camphor and/or
castor oil, for purposes of classification, pyroxylin
is considered cellulosic. (Nonstructural or Composition)
Clay containing, therefore silicon containing. (Nonstructural
The outer bark of cork oak. The cork may be
in the form of slabs or may be used as a filler in finely divided
form. (Nonstructural or Composition)
A hole or a hollow place in a body. (Structural)
A closed cavity (which may be empty or full) in
a component*. (Structural)
A fabric* which for purposes of this class is
considered to be made of mechanically intertwined, interlooped, interwoven, or
intertangled strands*, strand-portions* or strand
like strips*. See Class 442, class definition.
A distinct unitary element of a composite stock material* which
is longitudinally coextensive therewith and which, if separated
from the remainder of such stock material*, would
be recognized as a web*, sheet*, rod*, strand*, tube
or block by itself. A component may consist of plural layers* as
in the folded component shown in Figure 1. See also (2) Note
under A, above. (Structural)
A stock-material* comprising a plurality
of components*. (Structural)
A product having a plurality of constituents* or
elements, none of which are in a defined spatial or ordered relationship
to each other or to the surface or shape of the body in which they
are contained, that is, a random mixture of elements. (Structural)
A discrete element* (e.g., strand*, fiber*, particle*, etc.) of
a component* or product.
intermediate portion of a composite* product.
In a composite web* or sheet*, a core
lies between two other components*; in a rod* or
strand* or filament*, a core is the inner
portion covered with another layer. If a core is claimed, per
se, it is to be assumed for purposes of this class that
the other layer(s)* or component(s)* are included. (Structural)
See definition of constituent*. (Structural)
A compound which is identical to that obtained by the replacing
of a hydroxy hydrogen of an alcohol or a phenol with an acid radical. (Nonstructural
The chemical grouping obtained by replacing the hydroxy
hydrogen of an alcohol or a phenol with an acid radical. (Nonstructural
A web*, sheet* or film disclosed
as used in the manufacture of household furnishings (e.g., draperies, upholstery, etc) shoes, etc., roofing, clothing, tires, etc. and
is claimed as a textile*, cloth* or fabric.
See Class 442, class definition. (Structural)
Ferrimagnetic materials exhibit exchange interaction between
neighboring atoms leading to adjacent moments; however, the
magnetic moments are unequal and opposite in direction.
The magnetic properties of ferrimagnetic materials are strongly
temperature dependent and are characterized by their Curie temperature. Examples
of ferrimagnetic materials are rare earth-transition metal
amorphous alloys, such as GdFeCo, TbFeCo, and
select granular transition-metal alloys.
Ferromagnetic materials exhibit exchange interaction between
neighboring atoms leading to adjacent moments. Ferromagnetism
is temperature dependent and field strength dependent. Typical
ferromagnetic materials include transition metals such as Fe, Ni, and Co
and their alloys.
A relatively short, slender, flexible
element of macroscopic size and finite length and having a width
and thickness of the same order of magnitude. A fiber
is generally of staple length to facilitate its being spun, twisted
or otherwise secured together into a composite strand but may be
of shorter length requiring bonding, felting or matting
to form a strand or layer. It may be of animal (e.g., wool, rabbit
hair), vegetable (e.g., cotton, jute, hemp), or
mineral (e.g., asbestos, glass, metal) origin
and may be either natural, modified or synthetic. See
also Filament. (Structural)
A fine threadlike body or structure whose width and thickness
are of the same order of magnitude. See also fiber. (Structural)
A small thin mass having a width or length greater than its
thickness. The term flake is considered to denote structure
and is classified accordingly. (Structural)
An amorphous, hard, brittle, often
transparent material comprising a fused mixture of the silicates
of the alkali and alkaline earth, or heavy metals.
Glass is not considered to be included in the term "metal
compound" for purposes of this class, unless specifically
included in a title or definition. (Nonstructural
Inorganic material as is carbon. (Nonstructural
See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac
below. (Nonstructural or Composition)
A fully shaped article, all three dimensions
of which are definite, even though one or more of these
dimensions may be negligible. The article is not suitable
for functional use in the claimed condition, but must be
subjected to one or more further significant shaping steps to do
more than merely occupy space. The following operations
have been regarded as not involving a further significant shaping: (a) Assembling
or uniting the article with other parts. (b) Distorting
the article during an assembly operation to cause the article to
conform to discrepancies in the size or shape of a coacting part. (c) Bonding
or distorting those portions of the article which are to function
as means for fastening the article to a coacting part, as, for
example, the bending of ears or tabs. (Structural)
See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac
below. (Nonstructural or Composition)
A single thickness of material(s) in
the form of web* or sheet*, or a plurality
of any of these in side-by-side coplanar relation; or
particulate material arranged in continuity to constitute a distinct
stratum. A layer may include a plurality of components* as
in Figure 2. See also (2) Note under
A, above. (Structural)
A material exhibiting the inherent property of magnetism, which
is dependent on the electronic configuration of the atom, crystalline
and molecular structure, and coupling between electrons
arising from the orbital and spin magnetic moments of the nucleus
and electrons. A material is considered magnetic for the
purposes of this class if it exhibits a nonzero magnetic moment, such
as in paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and ferrimagnetism.
A body of material of indefinite or indeterminate shape. (Structural)
A material having a continuous phase of any element of the
periodic table except hydrogen, a noble gas, a
halogen, a chalcogen (oxygen, sulfur, selenium, tellurium), nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon
and boron. Elemental silicon is considered to be a metal, but
a silicon compound is not considered to be a metal compound on the
basis of silicon content. The term "metal compound" in
a subclass title does not include glass or asbestos, unless
specifically included by title or definition. The metal
may be a pure metal or an alloy as defined in Class 75, Specialized
Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated
Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate
Mixtures, subclass 122, (1) Note. An
intermetallic compound of two or more metals, e.g., a
metal silicide, aluminide, etc., is
considered to be an alloy. (Nonstructural or Composition)
Composed entirely of metal* or having adjacent
metal components. Since autogenous bonding of two metallic parts
is thought to involve inherently either a diffusion or alloying
between constituents of the two parts, this diffusion or
alloy layer, even though of appreciable thickness, does
not prevent the undiffused or unalloyed regions from being considered. (Structural)
NATURAL OIL OR GUM, ROSIN OR LAC
Any oil, gum or resin that occurs in nature, as
cottonseed, linseed and castor oils, rosin, mineral
oil and the exudation of insects known as lac. These three
classes of oil; drying, semidrying and nondrying
oil are included within the scope of the term. (Nonstructural
Containing the natural gum, know as caoutchouc, gutta percha, or
balata obtained from the latex or sap of "rubber" trees. The
word "rubber" standing alone is considered to
denote natural rubber. (Nonstructural or Composition)
Those metals not readily oxidized, i.e., silver, gold, platinum, polladium, mercury, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium. (Nonstructural
The surface of a web, sheet, layer
or component on which both its length and width may be measured.
See Figure 3. (Structural)
See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac, above. (Nonstructural or
Unless otherwise specified, is a sheet or web
of waterlaid felted cellulosic fibers. May also be made
of asbestos, mineral or synthetic fibers or blends of fibers, but must
be so disclosed solely, or must be so claimed for placement
in a subclass other than cellulosic or paper. (Nonstructural
Paramagnetic materials have magnetic moments not completely
canceled because of electronic configuration and exhibit a resultant
moment. Paramagnetic susceptibility is strongly temperature
dependent. Examples of paramagnetic materials are CoCr
alloys at specific Cr concentrations and materials exhibiting specific
size ranges of either the magnetic grains or particle dimensions.
A very small quantity of matter, so small as
to be considered without magnitude although possessing inertia and
the force of attraction. (Structural)
A polymeric compound containing amide groups through
which the monomers are linearly linked, except urea-aldehyde (for
which see alddhyde or ketone condensation product). The
term includes 1, the reaction products of polyamines and
polybasic acids or 2, the polymer of amino acids (e.g., nylon, peptides
and proteins). The manner in which the amide groups
linearly link the monomers or moieties, of which the chain
is built is graphically indicated by the below: (Nonstructural
Note. Wheat paste, which contains gluten, is
considered to be a polyamide.
Note. Polyamide also includes polyimide.
Note. Urea-aldehyde condensation product is
not included within the definition of polyamide since the product
is significantly different from other polyamide resins and are similar
to phenol-aldehyde resins. Hence, urea-aldehyde
products are placed in the subclass providing for aldehyde-ketone
A compound which is a polymer of linearly recurring amide
and ester linkages. The monomers do not have to have an
equivalent number of amide and ester groups and they do not have
to occur in a regular pattern. The products of (1) a) polybasic
acids b) polyhydric alcohols and c) polyamines
or, (2) a mixture of hydroxy acids and
amino acids or (3) polybasic acids and hydroxy
amines are within the scope of the term. (Polyurethane
is exemplary): The manner in which the ester and
amide groups linearly link the monomers or moieties, of
which the chain is built, is graphically indicated by the
below structure. The ester groups need not be carboxylic
esters but may be, e.g., sulfate
ester groups. (Nonstructural or Composition)
A polymeric compound containing ester groups through which
the monomers are linearly linked to each other. The manner
in which the ester groups linearly link the monomers or moieties, of
which the chain is built, is s:graphically indicated
by the below structure. The ester groups need not be carboxylic
esters but may also be, e.g., sulfate
ester groups. (Nonstructural or Composition)
Included within the term polyamide. (Nonstructural
A tiny opening, usually microscopic, through
which certain fluids may pass. Generally, the
pore opening is of such irregular direction that light will not
pass through it. (Structural)
A mass of particles, that is, portions
of matter so small that they are not ordinarily handled as individual
units. According to Metals Handbook, 8th Edition, 1961, volume
1, page 28, powders currently used in powder metallurgy
had a particle size within the range of 0.1 to 1000 microns
in their largest dimension, as determined by screens or
other suitable instruments. Powder particles generally
are distinguished from filamentary particles in that their shape
and length-to-diameter ratio are such that in
the dry state the particles will not hold together as a massive
article without the application of pressure or heat. (Structural)
A fused silicon dioxide (silica). (Nonstructural
Various materials, but usually clays or other
cementitious or silicon containing. Consider to be silicon
unless clearly disclosed otherwise, as for example alumina. The
refractory metals are those in Groups IVB, VB and VIB of
the Periodic System. (Nonstructural or Composition)
See natural oil, gum, rosin or lac. (Nonstructural
A relatively rigid and slender element having a width and
thickness of the same order of magnitude, a length which
may be either indeterminate or finite, and a cross-section
which may be of any shape. (Structural)
A portion of web* material of finite length, whose
width is greater than its thickness, and which may be of
any perimetric shape (e.g., triangle, circle, etc.). (Structural)
A sheet*, web*, rod*, strand*, tube
or block, mass or layer. (Structural)
A relatively slender and flexible element* having
a width and thickness of the same order of magnitude and a length
which is either (a) indeterminate or (b) coextensive
with the length or width of a sheet* or layer* with which
it may be associated. A strand may be a monofilament or
it may include either a plurality of filaments* or fibers* disposed
in parallelism (e.g., tow) or
constituent fibers* and/or filaments* knitted, plaited, braided, twisted, interlaced, interlocked
or otherwise secured together to form a unit such as roving, thread, yarn, cord, rope
or cable. (Structural)
A strand* of finite length; or an unsevered
but determinate length of a strand. (Structural)
A web* or sheet* or relatively narrow
ribbon-like material. A strip which is interwoven
or intertangled with other strips or with strands, in the
same manner as a strand, will be termed a "strand-like
See Base*. (Structural)
A fabric* which, for purposes of the
class is considered to be cloth*. See Class 442, class
WAX OR WAXY
A compound described as a wax (e.g., beeswax) or
having the physical characteristics of a wax or is a recognized
wax (as carnauba). (Nonstructural
A portion of material having length and width each greater
than its thickness and with at least its longitudinal dimension
indeterminate. A web may comprise (a) a single
thickness of material or (b) a plurality of portions of
a single piece of material folded on each other longitudinally or
transversely, or (c) a plurality of individual web
components* joined together in longitudinally coextensive
face or edge contact to form a composite web. (Structural)
Note. Unless clearly disclosed or claimed otherwise (e.g., as
a rod*, mass*, filament*, etc.) a
product will be placed in the appropriate web* or sheet* subclass.
Note. Included under the definition of component* or
layer are the following: (a) The skin
formed on a porous layer* by curing (e.g., a
foam, etc.). (b)
The "layer*" formed by impregnating a
substrate to a defined depth which must be recited either relatively
to the entire thickness or as an absolute dimension. (c) Either
of a pair of layers* of the same material cohered or adhered
together by their own forces, if disclosed as plural separate
Note. For purposes of this class, paper* is limited
to a waterlaid web* of interfelted cellulose* (natural) fibers*.
A waterlaid web* of resin, polymer or modified
cellulose* (e.g., cellulose
acetate) fibers is excluded from the paper* subclasses
and will be classified on other features (e.g., composition, etc.).
Note. Where a subclass title includes a "coating" or "coat" or "coated
layer*", a bonded or adhered component
or layer* is intended to be included within the scope thereof.
Thus, a product formed by laminating or adhering two separate
and distinct layers* is considered to be the equivalent
of a product made by applying a coating of a material onto a base* or
The material of trunks and branches of trees or bushes, excluding
bark. This term includes lumber and finely divided wood
chips, fibers or flour. "Fiber board" from wood
fibers or pulp will be considered wood or paper depending on the
disclosure of the document in which this expression occurs.
Fiber board formed by compression of wood fibers with or without
a binder (and utilized as wood) is considered
wood. Fiber board which is water laid (and, used
as cardboard or paste board) is considered paper. (Nonstructural
A stock-material* not suitable for
functional use in the claimed condition, but requiring
one or more further significant shaping steps to do more than occupy
space. Usually it is the cross-sectional configuration
which is to be further shaped. See the definition of intermediate-article* for
a list of operations not considered to be significant shaping.
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.3. Subject matter wherein the viewing layer includes a chemically
identified material polarizer, a material causing light ray or other
radiation to vibrate in a pre-defined pattern, or a dye, a material
imparting color or to.
This subclass is indented under subclass 1.1. Subject matter wherein a chemically identified material
forms a layer or film functioning to join layers together or add
an intermediate layer to the display.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product comprising the material usually discarded from a
residence (e.g., table scraps, empty food packages, etc.) or from
a business establishment (e.g., rags, paper, etc.) and which has
been densified into a mass and handled as a unitary element.
Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),
subclasses 103+ for an earth supported type monument, and 316 for
an ornamental surface of a building type structure formed by relief
or intaglio deformation of a surface.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* which comprises (1) ribbon or strand material
doubled on itself about a transverse line of bend and knotted, or
otherwise fastened to maintain the resultant looped structure; or
(2) feather or filamentary material formed loosely into a tuft or
ball; or (3) material gathered, pleated or looped about a central point
or axis suggestive of the petals of a flower seen in plan view
but lacking sufficient floral fidelity or similarity to constitute
a simulated or artificial flower; or (4) plural strands, or portion
of a single strand, knotted together.
Note. A patent to a bow, pom-pom rosette or knot combined
with another article (i.e., as an embellishment thereon) is to be
placed with patents to such other article.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* comprising an embellished, treated or
simulated feather or a group of feathers not elsewhere provided
Note. This subclass includes patents directed to (a) a reconstructed
feather, i.e., a composite of feather element portions arranged
to produce a desired configuration, (b) a simulated feather comprising
artificial fibers or natural feather flues each extending laterally from
a quill part; or (c) a cut of fur pelting in simulation of a feather
or a group of feathers in the shape of a panache.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* which has as its intended function only
the temporary embellishment or adornment of a place or thing in
connection with a particular event (e.g., Halloween, birthday party,
Note. A patent directed to a disclosure of an obvious abstraction
of a simulated or modified natural article (e.g., planar paper cutout,
etc.) may be found in this or an indented subclass.
Note. The occasion may be festive or somber.
Note. Wreaths are considered to be special occasion ornaments
for indented subclass 10.
Note. This subclass is the locus for artificial Christmas
trees unless provided for in an indented subclass.
Note. A patent directed to an occasion ornament in the form
of a web* or sheet* (e.g., festoon, streamer,
etc.) will be placed in the appropriate stocks material subclasses
of this class (428).
Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting, appropriate subclasses, for related structure generally
used in an advertising display; and see
subclasses 446+ thereof, for a display ornament including a mobile
This subclass is indented under subclass 7. Ornament which is either articulated, or foldable, or inflatable
and deflatable, or telescopic, for purposes of structural compactness
(as for storage) and wherein said parts when so disposed retain
a structural unity.
Note. Adjustability that achieves another display form only
(e.g., a figurine, the arm of which may be exhibited in either an
extended or crooked position) is not considered to include the characteristics
Textiles: Spinning, Twisting, and Twining,
subclasses 200+ , for a twisted or twined textile strand; especially
subclass 203, for chenille type; see class definition, section VI,
reference to Class 57.
(a) approximates a sphere or spheroid; or (b) is an inverted
deep cup, typically having a recurving brim and simulating a bell;
or (c) comprises radially disposed points (e.g., geometric starpolygon)
or lines (e.g., asterisk) which constitute the conventionally accepted pattern
suggestive of the luminous heavenly body- "star".
Note. This subclass includes, for instance, the vari-shaped
Christmas tree "ball".
Games Using Tangible Projectile,
subclasses 52+ for a ball adapted to be used in the game of billiards
or pool, subclasses 125+ for a ball adapted to be used
in the game of bowling, and subclasses 569+ for a game
ball, per se.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* comprising parts which are either articulated,
or foldable, or inflatable and deflatable, or telescopic, for purposes
of structural compactness (as for storage) and wherein said parts
when so disposed retain a structural unity.
Note. Adjustability that achieves another display form only
is not considered to include the characteristic of collapsibility.
Article* under the class definition in the form
of an exhibit piece which is:
(a) enclosed within a surrounding peripheral enclosure (separate
or integral); or (b) encased, either loosely or embedded, in a self-sustaining,
light transmissive enclosure: or (c) a three dimensional scenic
representation including an article of commerce and/or
a product of nature or a replica thereof.
Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting, appropriate subclasses, for an advertising display; and
subclasses 700+ , for a picture mount where the picture is not an
essential structural element of the combination.
Article* under the class definition wherein the
primary structure is:
(a) a replica of an article of commerce or a product of
nature; or (b) a product of nature which is modified but retains
the general structure and appearance of such a product.
Note. For placement herein, and indented subclasses, the
disclosure of an article in the form of a reproduction does not
require exactness of duplication; but a disclosure of a pictorial
representation of a natural product, or a mere imitation of a material
finish (e.g., grain, etc.), is excluded from this subclass.
Plant Husbandry, appropriate subclasses for a cut plant treated to prolong
the characteristics of life, and especially
subclasses 41.01+ for the combination of a receptacle and a cut plant
either treated, or with means, to prolong the characteristics of
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Article wherein the product simulated or treated is at least
part of the woody portion of a woody perennial plant, which plant
is generally distinguished by a substantially sized single or main
trunk with attached branches and foliage.
Note. A patent restricted to a bush or shrub type plant is
not considered to be directed to a tree structure.
Note. A patent to a simulated tree trunk or branch is included
in this subclass, but not one to a tree leaf alone (for which see subclass
Note. An artificial or natural tree used for a special occasion
(e.g., Christmas, etc.) is considered to be a special occasion ornament
and will be found in the appropriate subclass above.
This subclass is indented under subclass 18. Tree, either (a) in combination with a decorative article
thereon or with an attachment whose function is to support another
article (e.g., card or confectionery holder, etc.); or (b) embodying
integral tree structure (such as a curved branch) specifically designed
to function as an article supporting means.
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Article including; (a) any simulation of a fruit, or (b)
an extended ribbon-like structure having a leafy configuration along
a longitudinal edge thereof and intended to embellish a food display.
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Article constructed, at least in part, of a material which
is a product of nature (animal, vegetable or mineral) and which
at least broadly retains a form characteristic of such product.
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Plant form either (a) in combination with means (e.g., base
or suspension structure) to support same other than an integral
framework around which the plant form is constructed; or (b) a plurality
of such forms e.g., bunched, etc.).
This subclass is indented under subclass 24. Flower fabricated from: (a) textile* fabric*, including
ribbon; or (b) any of the paper* materials (e.g., crepe,
Kraft, etc.); or (c) from any of the moldable, high molecular weight compounds
whether manufactured by synthesis or chemical modication of naturally
occurring high polymers (e.g., cellulose* acetate, polyvinyl* chloride,
phenolformaldehyde resins, rubbers and urethane* foams,
Note. For a definition of paper, see the definition of Class
This subclass is indented under subclass 17. Means restricted to the requisite structural skeleton integral
with and around which a composite* floral-piece, or element* thereof,
is or may be constructed.
subclass 27.8 , for a support, per se, for a completed wreath,
spray of flowers, etc. The framework onto which the natural or artificial
vegetation is fixed, is proper subject matter for Class 428, subclass
27; however, such a framework combined with a hook for use in supporting
the finished wreath, etc., or legs, which maintain the finished
wreath off the ground is proper subject matter for Class 248, subclass
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* which is, or includes, an element* of
decoration utilized in structural design to denote a termination
of the structure to which it is applied, and which decoration is disposed
on an end or at an edge of such structure.
Note. The final or pendent ornament may have a utilitarian
(1) a picture or design at least part of which is in an
invisible or dimly visible state and is so constructed as to become,
by intended use, preceptible, or more clearly so, upon appropriate treatment;
or (2) material intended to present apparent visible changes in
an incorporated design or image when: (a) subjected alternatively
to reflected or transmitted light; or (b) viewed on a single face
thereof, along different sight lines; or (c) viewed alternatively
on each face, and the included image or design is either completely
light pervious or substantially identical on each such face.
Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,
subclasses 106.51+ for a display including an illusion of motion;
subclass 137, for a sign with a changeable reading; and other appropriate
subclasses, for a latent image in a display device.
Radiation Imagery Chemistry: Process, Composition,
or Product Thereof, appropriate subclasses for radiation imagery compositions,
a latent radiation image, and a process of developing an exposed
This subclass is indented under the class definition. An article* which is to be placed on a vehicle
to provide a decoration or embellishment therefor.
Note. So-called "trim" panels, usually used
in upholstering and/or decorating the inside of vehicles,
are not included under this definition of article. Such "trim" panels
will be found below on other features, see for example, subclasses
156+ (embossed sheet material) or 355+ (sheet
with cover or casing).
Note. Included herein, for example, are automobile hood ornaments,
streamers or other similar devices to be attached to a vehicle body
for embellishment thereof.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. An article* comprising as a portion only thereof,
(1) a strand*, strand-portion* or strip* wound
or coiled around the article or (2) a plurality of strands* or
strand-like materials mechanically interlooped, interlaced, or intertwined
on the article*, each of (1) and (2) above serving to ornament
or embellish the article*.
Note. Examples of articles found in this subclass are; sword
hilts or scabbards which are ornamented with the woven, braided
or wound strands*.
Note. Excluded from this definition is a filament, rod or
other indeterminate length and non three dimensional element having
a wound or wrapped coating.
for a web* or sheet* having components* which
are twisted or folded about one another, or a component* which
is arranged in a series of mutually parallel convolution along the longitudinal
axis of the web* or sheet*.
for a rod*, strand* or filament*,
or a coating therearound, helically wound or twisted about an axis
extending longitudinally thereof, the axis, in the case of the coating,
being that of the core*, filament*, rod* or
INK JET STOCK FOR PRINTING (I.E. STOCK BEFORE PRINTING):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter for use as a receiver for ink jet printing
and that includes a top ink receptive layer, a support for the top
ink receptive layer, and sometimes includes a specialized layer
on the back of the support for protecting the support or providing
specialized characteristics (e.g., antistatic, etc.).
Note. An ink receptive layer is defined as an involved layer
or region of a layer that will absorb, fix, or permeate all or any
component of the originally applied ink composition. Thus, a layer
that fixes the pigment component of the applied ink or a layer that
absorbs only the solvent component of the applied ink will be considered
ink receptive for the subclasses hereinunder.
Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,
subclass 100 for fibrous products of Class 162 processes not
elsewhere provided. Class 162 processes relate to depositing fibers
from a liquid suspension thereof to form an interfelted fibrous
product (paper), and combinations of such fiber depositing steps with
other treatments of the deposited fibrous product prior to the final
drying thereof not elsewhere provided. Class 428 provides for coated
fiber containing sheets that are coated after the wet water laid
sheet has been dried at least to room equilibrium moisture level.
Lacking an indication to the contrary, it will be assumed that
a coated fiber containing sheet is proper for Class 428, if it is
a non-structural laminate or has sufficient structure according
to theClass 428 definition.
Recorders, for making a record of the movements of machines or instruments
whose movements are desired to be recorded and at least temporarily preserved,
making a record of any phenomenon capable of being detected either
quantitatively or qualitatively and recorded for at least temporary
preservation, the record making means and its immediate actuating
means as a subcombination of either, and watchmen"s and
workmen"s time-recorders and time stamps. See Class 346,
subclass 134 record receivers and/or driving means
therefore for the material on which the record of the machine movement
in response to mechanical stimulus (e.g., vibration, rotation of
machine, etc.) is made. Thus, if the machine operates as a result
of computer direction as in an ink jet printer or thermal printer, the
receiver is proper for Class 428.
Incremental Printing of Symbolic Information, for processes and apparatus for conveying information by selectively
creating on a medium a visibly distinguishable symbol or mark composed
of a plurality of portions. Particularly note Class 147
subclass 105 for subject matter including means specific to
the medium and its processing wherein the receiving medium has a
special characteristic such as fluid receiving layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.1. Subject matter wherein ink jet receiving layer is intended
to act as a receiving layer for the ink which will be transferred
to another substrate in a subsequent step.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.1. Subject matter wherein the ink image to be formed will
be viewable from either side of a transparent support and capable
of being projected by light onto a screen.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.18. Subject matter wherein a physical property of a paper
support made from wood pulp is expressed as (a) the degree of uniform
evenness and flatness of a paper surface or (b) as a rate at which
water drains from a stock suspension through a wire mesh screen
or a perforated plate.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.1. Subject matter wherein there is a layer having specialized
characteristics (e.g., antistatic, anticurl, adhesive, antifriction,
etc. located on the opposite side of the support from the ink receptive
layer (i.e. not next to the ink receptive layer).
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.1. Subject matter wherein the ink receptive layer has reacted
with a reactant that increases or interconnects polymer chains,
or the ink receptive layer is referred to as hardened.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.1. Subject matter wherein the ink receptive layer contains
a proteinaceous (i.e., polypeptide) gel derived usually derived
from a naturally occurring animal product (e.g., collagen, etc.)
by boiling in water.
Note. Lacking an indication to the contrary, the use of gelatin,
per se, will be assumed to meet the definition of this subclass.
However, it is possible to have a material identified as a gelatin
that is not proteinaceous (e.g., starch, pectin, polyamide resin,
etc.) and does not meet this subclass definition.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.1. Subject matter in which the ink receptive layer contains
a mordant which will combine with an applied dye-containing ink
composition to form an insoluble color precipitate on the substrate,
(e.g., dye plus metal chelating agent, etc.).
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.31. Subject matter in which the physical property is expressed
as the ability of the ink receptive layer to reflect light specularly
from the surface thereof.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.34. Subject matter in which a physical property of the particles
(e.g., oil absobitivity, surface area, pore size, etc.) present
in the ink receptive layer is given
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter that relates to a substrate onto which a
non-chemically reactive color layer will be selectively conveyed
from a thermal transfer donor through application of heat and direct
contact to set a pattern thereon.
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.39. Subject matter that additionally includes a product for
thermally forming a record that includes (a) a non-chemically reactive
color transfer layer of which a portion is selectively conveyed
through application of heat and direct contact to set a pattern
on a receiver, (b) a non-transferable support (i.e., carrier) for
the transfer layer, and (c) also may include on the support specialized
non-transferable layer(s) having characteristics that promote easy
handling of the support or removal of the selectively transferred
THERMAL TRANSFER DONOR (E.G., RIBBON, SHEETS, ETC.):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Subject matter that relates to a product for thermally forming
a record that includes (a) a non-chemically reactive color transfer
layer of which a portion is selectively conveyed through application
of heat and direct contact to set a pattern on a receiver, (b) a
non-transferable support (i.e., carrier) for the transfer layer, and
(c) also may include on the support specialized non-transferable
layer(s) having characteristics that promote easy handling of the support
or removal of the selectively transferred portion.
Record Receiver Having Plural Interactive Leaves
or a Colorless Color Former, Method of Use, or Developer Therefor, for material which is used to form a visible record
by a reactive or interactive, usually chemical or physico-chemical,
phenomenon or a method of using such a material to form a record.
The formation phenomenon is one of the following: (a) The chemical
decomposition of a colorless substance to form a substance having
color; (b) the chemical combination of two or more colorless chemical
moieties to produce a substance having color; (c) The further chemical change
of (a) or (b) above, to form a color different from an original
color; and (d) The chemical or physico-chemical complementarity
between the bottom surface of one sheet of a record receiver and
the top surface of an adjacent sheet with which the first sheet
for a composite having a component wherein a constituent
is claimed as a liquid ink that is contained within the pores of
a carrier material (i.e., generally extrudable from the pores by application
This subclass is indented under subclass 32.81. Subject matter wherein the release enhancing non-transferable
layer contains a low melting mixture of organic materials or a compound
of high molecular weight which is solid at room temperature similar
to fats and oils except containing no glycerides and referred to
Subject matter under 32.6 wherein the transfer layer contains
a low melting mixture of organic materials or a compound of high
molecular weight which is solid at room temperature similar to fats
and oils except containing no glycerides and referred to as wax.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* comprising a plurality of portions arranged
with complementary areas to enable attachment of the portions to
make different shapes, and to permit detachment of the portions
Note. The portions herein are similar to jigsaw puzzle pieces
and can be assembled and disassembled at will. If any tool must
be used, or a portion permanently deformed so as to be further unusable,
the article is excluded from this subclass and will be found below,
or elsewhere, on other features.
for a nonstructural laminate including a layer* of
glass and especially 438+ for automobile safety glass in
which an intermediate layer*, usually of cellulosic material,
bonds two sheets* of glass, thus leaving no space therebetween.
Static Structure (e.g., Buildings),
subclasses 171.3+ for a residual transparent panel with treating
means, subclass 204.52 for a double pane panel with an open vent
or plugged vent and subclasses 783.1+ for a sandwich or hollow
panel and see section VI, C 3d of the class definition of this Class 428.
HOLLOW OR CONTAINER TYPE ARTICLE (E.G., TUBE, VASE, ETC.):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* having an opening therethrough or having
a cavity which may or may not be filled with another material.
Note. This subclass is the locus for patents which claim
a tube or a container merely by name with no details recited of
structure associated therewith such as wall structure, openings,
etc. For articles of this type which are more specifically claimed,
see VI, C., 3 a., in the main classification definitions where significant
wall structure is discussed as it relates to patent placement in
other "container or tube" type classes. Also
see search notes below.
Note. Since the classification lines between Class 428 and
Classes 138, 206, 215, 220, 229, and 383 are not always clearly
defined, it is suggested that a search for a coated tubular object
or container include pertinent subclasses in all of the above classes.
Note. Subclass 38.1 includes but is not limited to vessels,
trays and annular articles not elsewhere provided for.
subclasses 41.01+ for a receptacle, per se, which has structure or
means for growing a live plant (e.g., drain hole, watering wicks, etc.)
or for the combination of a receptacle and a freshly cut plant, treated,
or with means, to prolong the characteristics of life.
Pipes and Tubular Conduits, appropriate subclasses, for a tube or conduit which
is defined in terms of its wall structure (e.g., spiral seam, coating
on inner or outer wall, etc.) and not merely by its composition.
See also section VI, B, of the definition of this Class 428, reference
to Class 138.
Bottles and Jars, appropriate subclasses, for a glass article of this
type which is claimed specifically as a bottle or jar by reciting
details thereof such as the wall structure, neck, specific orientation
of a coating on the inside or outside of a wall, filling opening,
Receptacles, appropriate subclasses, for a container of the type which
is claimed specifically as a receptacle by reciting details thereof
such as wall structure, side, bottom, filling opening, or specific
orientation of a coating on the inside or outside of a wall; see
especially Class 220,
subclasses 62.11+ .
This subclass is indented under subclass 34.4. Article* which contains fabric*, fibers,
particles, or filaments which are composed of glass, ceramic, metal
oxide or metal carbide, or some other inorganic compound.
Note. Included are fiber glass, mineral fibers, sand, graphite,
carbon, glass chips, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 34.4. Article* which has two or more distinct layers.
Note. This subclass does not include as "multilayer",
discontinuous layers (i.e., designs on a vase or nonwraparound label
on a container), slightly overlapping single sheet or film, or a
coating on the seam, edge, or rim only of a tubular article or container.
A glass container with a sleeve around a segment of or around the
whole container can be found in this subclass. An impregnated single-layered
article is considered multilayered only if the depth of impregnation
is defined (see the class definition, Glossary, "Web" Note
(2)). See subclass 34.4 for placement of articles not meeting the
definition requirements of this subclass as stated herewith.
Note. If unable to determine whether the article is single
or multilayered from the claims or the specification, place the original
classification in the first appropriate subclass which will take
either single or multilayers and generally cross to the specific
subclass for single layer or multilayer, whichever is available.
This subclass is indented under subclass 34.1. Article* which has the characteristic of being shrinkable
or already shrunk by exposure to a special treatment.
Note. Treatments may include a temperature increase, the
addition or removal of a solvent or other agent, or removal of a restraint
holding the article or a part of the article in an expanded or unnatural state.
for self-supporting or rigid tubular object. If
unclear from the claims or specification whether the tubular object
is nonself-supporting, place the original in subclasses 35.7+ and
generally cross to subclasses 35.2+.
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.2. Article* which contains a claimed vapor or gas barrier
property and/or contains a polymer of vinyl chloride and/or
vinylidene chloride, or a polymer containing a vinyl alcohol unit.
Note. If unclear as to whether vapor and gas barrier properties
are present from the claims, but the specification recites the presence,
place the original in the appropriate subclass according to the claims
and generally cross to this subclass.
This subclass is indented under subclass 34.1. Article* which contains a cellular material derived
from a plant or animal source, but excludes fossilized matter.
Note. Cellular material includes naturally occurring material
which still retains a certain amount of the original tissue structure
of the plant or animal. Such material includes wood, wool, cotton,
bark, cork, leather, hair, etc.
Note. In the absence of information to the contrary, a cellulose,
cellulose derivative, or protein is presumed devoid of cell structure
unless indicated otherwise.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36.1. Article* of ... which has a textile, fabric, cloth or
pile layer sandwiched between two distinct layers of a material
unlike the textile, fabric, cloth, or pile.
Note. An embedded textile, fabric, cloth, or pile is not
considered to be a sandwiched layer. It is considered a single
layer and therefore is subclass 36.1 subject matter. Also considered
subclass 36.1 subject matter is a multilayered article where the
layers on either side of the textile, fabric, cloth, or pile layer
are identical to the textile, fabric, cloth, or pile layers.
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.7. Article* of ... which contains a fiber or multiple
fibers which are wound around each other as in a braid or yarn or
are wound or wrapped around a core or in such a way to form a self-sustaining
structure or shape.
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.7. Article* of ... which contains fibers, filaments, particles,
or flakes which are in random contact or random disarray with each
Note. The fibers, filaments, particles, or flakes do not
themselves give the claimed article a structure. They can, however,
be oriented in a given direction. These fibers, etc., are usually included
for reinforcement or as fillers.
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.7. Article* which contains a vapor or gas barrier property,
contains a polymer derived from vinyl chloride and/or vinylidene
chloride, and/or contains a polymer with a vinyl alcohol
Note. See subclass 35.4, Note (1) for cases where it is unclear
from the claims whether vapor and gas barrier properties are present.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36.6. Article* where the vapor or gas barrier, the polymer
derived from vinyl chloride or vinylidene chloride, or the polymer
containing a vinyl alcohol unit is found in a layer sandwiched between
two other separate and distinct layers.
This subclass is indented under subclass 35.7. Article* which is tubular or cylindrical, has openings
at both ends, and which can hold its own structure without the aid
of a filler or support.
Note. The difference between the products in this subclass
and a hollow strand*, fiber* or filament in subclasses 364+ is
as follows: the present subclass 36.9 is the locus for a conduit
type article through which a fluid passes and is generally of substantially
larger size (e.g., 3-dimensional) than the strand*, fiber* or filaments
found in subclasses 364+. If it is difficult to determine
from the disclosure whether the article is of the type which should
be classified in this subclass or in the latter, all doubts should
be resolved in favor of the strand*, filament*,
or fiber* and placement made in those subclasses.
subclass 412 , for parallel strands*, or strand-portions*,
jointed to each other by sewing. a receptacle, per se, which has
structure or means for growing a live plant (e.g., drain hole, watering
wicks, etc.) or for the combination of a receptacle and a freshly
cut plant, treated, or with means, to prolong the characteristics of
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* comprising at least two parts, the former
permitting passage of light therethrough and the latter, preventing
passage of light, forming a closed continuous frame or border on
at least a portion of the former part.
Note. This subclass is the locus for an artificial or natural
stained glass window and for a safety glass auto windshield having
a frame therearound.
Note. "Continuous" in the above definition
is intended to include a frame or border made of separate and individual parts
but abutting with each other to eliminate any space between the
Note. Included in this definition is a light transmissive
single or plural layer* sheet* having an opaque
area forming a frame or border around a small portion of the sheet*.
Fabric (Woven, Knitted, or Nonwoven Textile or
Cloth, etc.), for a product in which the opaque frame or border
comprises a netted or open-mesh component and there is no light transmissive
or translucent mass.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product which is assembled from a plurality of discrete
parts which, taken together, give the appearance of, or representation
of, a real object and is at least partially the result of the outline
and contrast of the parts.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product comprising a composite*, web*, or
sheet* having layers* or components* which
are removable one from the other and one of which has an outermost
coating comprising adhesive, exposed when the layers* or components* are
separated, so as to enable the adhesive coating to be adhered to
This subclass is indented under subclass 40.1. Subject matter wherein the layer or component contains a
polymer derived only from ethylenically unsaturated monomer(s),
i.e., wherein the monomer contains a c=c which undergoes addition
polymerization to form long c-c chains.
This subclass is indented under subclass 40.1. Subject matter wherein the layer or component contains a
polymer derived from at least one of the following reactants: R
CH2=C-C=N,R X/// CH2=C-C-OR
and wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium)
and R is hydrogen or alkyl.
This subclass is indented under subclass 40.1. Subject matter wherein the layer or component contains a
bond inhibiting material or parting material used to prevent adhesion
between lamina in areas that might otherwise bond in the absence
of the material.
This subclass is indented under subclass 40.1. Subject matter in which the layer or component contains
a material that has an appearance or other psychological effect
which conveys information or is designed to be esthetically pleasing.
This subclass is indented under subclass 40.1. Product in which the layer which is removable comprises
a plurality of components which are noncoextensive with either the
length or the width of the other layer.
Note. This subclass contains for example a web or sheet on
which there is positioned a plurality of serially arranged adhesively
coated labels which are removed and then adhered to a surface.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product comprising a sheet*, web* or layer* having
a portion thereof made less strong so as to permit easy separation
at this portion through the thickness portion either longitudinally
or transverse or at an angle to the plane of the product.
Note. Examples of weakening are - perforating, scoring, or
dissolving a portion of the web, sheet or layer.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product containing a single layer* of at least
three separate, discrete and identifiable parts both laterally and
longitudinally associated (i.e., in a nonthickness direction) so
that it is impossible to draw a single straight line through the
geometric center of all the parts of the single layer*.
Note. Excluded under this definition is a web or sheet having
a perimeter structure which appears to meet the definition. The
identifiable parts in this subclass do not have any additional structure
at the perimeter thereof. A floor of tile squares is exemplary
of the subject matter in this locus.
This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Product comprising a part or layer which permits light to
Note. Any layer or section may be transparent or translucent
for purposes of this subclass, e.g., the sectional layer may be made
of completely transparent sections or an opaque sectional layer
may be adjacent to a continuous layer which is transparent.
This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Product in which the sectional layer is adjacent to a unitary
web* or sheet* which extends outwardly in both
lateral and longitudinal directions up to or beyond the boundary
of the sectional layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Product in which the layer is made of parts at least two
of which are united by a distinct mechanical connection extending
over the edges thereof and so arranged as to permit movement between
Note. The motion may be due to (1) freedom in the mechanical
connection between the fastener and the part or (2) free or lost
motion in the fastener itself.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product comprising at least three sheets* or webs*,
all lying in a single plane and each connected to another by an
edge portion which comprises at least two different planes and having
means joining the sheets* or webs* together.
Note. The means for joining or securing may be either mechanical
or chemical (i.e., adhesive, etc.).
Note. The different planes may be either in thickness, i.e.,
the top image or or along a nonthickness surface*, i.e.,
the lower image below.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product formed of at least three parts joined at an end,
forming a layer* in which the parts extends longitudinally,
the longitudinal extent of each part being less than the overall length
of the product.
Note. In the absence of a clear indication that the sections
of the sectional layer are longitudinally coextensive with the longest
dimension of the product, the sectional layer will be presumed to
be longitudinally sectional for this and indented subclasses.
This subclass is indented under subclass 54. Product wherein the layer of joined parts is contiguous
to a unitary web or sheet which extends outwardly in both directions
(1) up to or (2) beyond the boundary of the layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 58. Product comprising a plurality of sheets or webs connected
to each other and each sheet or web comprising a plurality of hills
and valleys extending parallel to each other.
Note. The connection may be through the intermediary of a
planar sheet associated with the hills and valleys, or the hills
of one sheet may be directly connected to those of the other.
Note. An example of the products found herein is corrugated
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product which comprises an article*, sheet* or
web* which has an aperture or indentation and material
covering the aperture or fitting the indentation so as to attempt
to restore the article, sheet or web to its original condition.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product whose outer boundary is that of a single curved
line every point of which is substantially the same distance from
a point at the center thereof.
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.1. Subject matter wherein the circular sheet or circular blank
is a tangible object upon which an information signal is to be stored,
the object having a characteristic which is, or may be, modified
at positional increments in accordance with the time variation of
information which is to be stored thereon.
Note. The recording medium or carrier for purposes of these
subclasses need not be the specific layer that is intended to contain
the information signal. All layers of the medium or carrier are
considered to be the recording medium or carrier.
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.2. Subject matter wherein the recording medium or carrier is
designed to undergo a chemical or physical change; e.g., irradiating
the medium with a laser beam to alter the optical characteristics
of the medium or carrier in the irradiated area, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.5. Subject matter wherein the tellurium containing recording
medium or carrier is covered by a resistant layer; e.g., resistant
to heat, cold, oxidation, pollution, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.4. Subject matter wherein the recording medium or carrier contains
a polymer derived from at least one of the following reatants: R
X R R X | | | S
S XCH2=C-C-N-R, CH2=C-CbN, or CH2=C-C-OR
and wherein X is chalcogen (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium)
and R is hydrogen or alkyl.
Brakes, appropriate subclasses, for a product having frictional
properties where said property is enhanced by claimed external structure
(e.g., disc shape, surface configuration or internal structure such
as discrete zones of friction material or particular arrangements
of strands*, fibers* or layers* and where
the sole disclosure is that the product is used as a brake.
This subclass is indented under subclass 64.1. Subject matter wherein the circular sheet has an appearance
or other psychological effect which conveys information or is designed
to be esthetically pleasing.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article* comprising a base* or substrate* and
set within the surface thereof, or into an opening or depression
therein, at least one element* which is larger than the
size usually attributed to that of a particle* or granule*,
the element* being visible and resulting in a composite* product
or a mosaic*.
Note. Excluded from this subclass is a roofing felt containing
a layer of granules or particles which may be embedded in the felt.
Such a product will be found below on other features; see search
Note. Excluded from this subclass is a product in which the
embedded element is completely enveloped; see search notes, below.
Note. Excluded from this subclass is a product in which the
element is "visible" only because it causes a
variation in thickness, not because it is actually seen in the substrate.
Note. Included in this subclass are articles such as jewelry,
mosaics, faucet handles having decorative inlays, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 68. Product which contains a nonliquid fluid which is (1) other
than the usual atmosphere or (2) at less than normal atmospheric
Note. Foamed or expanded materials produced by introduction
or in situ production of gas other than air will be placed in this
subclass only when there is a specific disclosure or claim that
the gas remains in the final product and has a desired useful function
This subclass is indented under subclass 68. Product in which the sheet comprises noninterengaged strands* in
the form of a self sustaining bat or mat (e.g., felt, etc.) or in
the form of loose or free flowing or fluent material.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product wherein one or more sheet* is attached
to a nonthickness surface* of a base sheet* or
web* in face to face relationship, the base sheet or web
being of greater length than the attached sheet.
Note. Excluded from under this definition is a print, design
or indicia or other similar discontinuous or differential coating.
The present subclass (77) is intended to take only complete sheets with
the adjacent base.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product comprising a web*, sheet*, layer* or
element* from the surface of which and attached thereto
or integral therewith, extends looped or free ended filamentary* material,
resulting in a bristly, fuzzy or resilient surface.
Note. Animal skin in which the fur remains intact is considered
to be pile or nap surface and will be placed in this group of subclasses.
This subclass is indented under subclass 85. Product in which the free ended or looped filamentary material
is completely embedded in a layer or component* or is disposed
between layers or components*.
This subclass is indented under subclass 85. Product wherein (1) there is variation in the height, angles
or type of the pile in different areas of the web or sheet, (2)
spaced or interrupted arrangement of pile areas define a figured
or sculptured design effect; or (3) the pile or nap structure at
an edge of the web or sheet differs from the structure which exists
over the remainder of the web or sheet.
Note. A patent to a product wherein the base web* is
embossed so as to product a nonplanar pile surface will be placed
in this subclass.
Note. Variation in type of pile may be based on use of different
materials or the same material varying in a physical property (e.g.,
coarseness of fiber, etc.). Mere difference in color will not be
considered a difference in type of pile.
Note. A mere random variation in height or angle of pile
which does not product a figured or sculptured design effect will not
support placement of a patent in this subclass and will be classified
below on other features.
This subclass is indented under subclass 88. Product in which (1) the height of the filamentary material
from the surface of the web or sheet or layer is different in spaced
areas or (2) the filamentary material differs in physical property
(e.g., coarseness, proximity of filaments to each other, etc.) in
different areas of the web, sheet or layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 85. Product wherein the free-ended material comprises individual
fibers*, either integral with a fibrous or fiber-containing
base and extending outwardly therefrom, or randomly distributed and
adhesively retained on a base.
Note. A patent for a fabric* having pile which has
been treated additionally so as to separate individual fibers of
the pile strands from each other will be placed here.
This subclass is indented under subclass 92. Product in which the filamentary material comprises either
reversely bent discrete strand-portions* or continuous
strands* secured to the web or sheet at bights which engage
the strands* or strand portions*.
This subclass is indented under subclass 93. Product in which the filamentary material comprises an indeterminate
length or a continuous strand and is joined by an adhesive or cement to
the web, sheet or layer or to another part associated with the web,
sheet or layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 85. Product in which is defined the arrangement or constituents
of (1) the web, sheet or layer to which the filamentary material
is attached or (2) an additional part attached to or associated with
the web, sheet, or layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 85. Product in which the claim defines (1) the elements* or
constituents* which form the filamentary material or (2)
the ingredients which compose the adhesive associated with the web, sheet
Note. Only a single ingredient or constituents* need
be recited to qualify for this subclass, but must be specifically recited.
Thus: a synthetic fiber* is not sufficient for placement
in this subclass, but polyamide* or polyester* is
sufficient; cement* or glue* does not qualify, but
casein adhesive does.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product comprising a single or plural layer* web* or
sheet* in which (1) the overall web* or sheet* has
a particular size, shape or other physical configuration; (2) components* or
constituents* thereof are arranged in an orderly fashion
relative to a surface of the product; (3) the product comprises
at least two layers* or components*, each claimed
as possessing a particular characteristic which is different from
the other (e.g., hardness, density, etc.); (4) the product includes
a particular characteristic claimed in relation to a surface thereof;
(5) there is a nonuniform thickness, planarity, surface, coating,
impregnation or bond; (6) there are apertures; (7) any other characteristic
is present by which the overall web* or sheet* may
be identified as having a particular structure or configuration.
Note. A patent directed to a plural layer stock material
product identified solely in terms of the composition of at least one
layer thereof will be placed in subclasses 411+ of this
Note. See the Class Definition, Criteria for Patent Placement
in thei Class, first paragraph, for subject matter excluded from
this class (428).
Note. Although a naturally occurring fibrous material such
as wood is considerd to have "grain" direction
(see subclasses 105 and 114) such material is not considered as
a fiber-containing material in this or any indented subclass.
Note. Included under this definition of "significant
size" is any recitation of a measurable extent or range
thereof, no matter how wide (e.g., "up to .075 mils, etc.").
Note. Included under this definition of physical size is
a recitation of a weight unit (e.g., grams, pounds etc.) spread over
a unit of area (e.g., square feet, square meters, etc.). See also
the class definition, Framework of the Class for other examples
for a structurally defined rod*, strand*,
fiber*, particle* or other element* or
constituent* thereof, or a mass thereof, and especially
subclasses 364+ for a product having a width substantially
equal to the thickness thereof (e.g., rod*, strand*, fiber*,
filament*, etc.) and claimed in terms of its particular
shape or size or the shape, size or arrangements of its constituents.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product in which the web or sheet has means secured thereto
or integral with a surface or edge thereof for attachment and detachment
at will to a surface or support or to cooperating fastening means.
Note. A buttonhole, nail hole or similar aperture is not
considered an external fastening means within the definition of this
Note. This subclass is the residual locus for a web or sheet
including an external fastener.
subclasses 406+ for a separable fastener secured to a base web
or sheet by stitching; subclass 431 for a sewn buttonhole including
a floating strand around its edge; and subclass 437, for a sewn
This subclass is indented under subclass 99. Product in which the fastener comprises a part which (1)
is curved or otherwise bent back towards itself and has a free end
on which another part may be caught or held or (2) has a point curving
or projecting backwards therefrom and onto which another part may
be caught or held.
Note. The hook or barb may be part of a fiber or filament
or strand in a component so made as to catch or hold onto another
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein layers or components are arranged in overlying
relation and are permanently connected in such manner as to permit relative
translational movement between them (i.e., in one plane only, vertical,
horizontal or oblique).
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein the web or sheet is embellished by, or has
portions joined, reinforced or held in position by, a strand* so
disposed within the product that it must have been introduced therein
by an eyed needle, and also has at least some portion thereof (1)
held in position by a separate and distinct mechanical connecting
member(s) (2) covered or saturated with extraneous material, or
(3) joined to another portion by adhesion or cohesion.
Note. A patent for a product which includes individual stitch
fastening elements, such as short pieces of wire, will be placed
in this subclass.
Note. Needling is not considered to be a mechanical connection
or a discrete fastener; therefore a patent to a product wherein
portions are joined by sewing and needling (i.e., interlocking of
fibers) will not be placed in this or the indented subclasses, but
will be found below on other features, see Class 442, subclasses 402+,
This subclass is indented under subclass 102. Product wherein the coating, impregnation or bond occurs
in spaced zones, or over an area which is substantially less than
the total area of the composite web, or is of a different character
in different areas of the web.
Note. A patent for a product wherein a narrow tape is adhered
over a line of stitching will be placed in this subclass.
This subclass is indented under subclass 103. Product wherein the coating, impregnation or bond is limited
to the areas where the stitches penetrate the web and, optionally,
the area immediately adjacent thereto.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product including a plurality of layers or components wherein
at least two of said layers or components include substantially
parallel, narrow, elongated elements* (such as strands*, strips* or
fibers*), with those of one layer or component being arranged
at an angle to those of another.
This subclass is indented under subclass 105. Product which comprises layers or components of wood, wherein
the elongated elements are fibers forming the natural grain of the
wood, with the grain of one layer arranged at an angle to the grain
of another layer.
Note. This is the locus for sheets of plywood.
This subclass is indented under subclass 105. Product in which the elemental structures are strands* or
Note. A patent for a product comprising distinct layers of
strands crossed and bonded at their junctions will be placed in
this subclass, but where the angularly related strands are interengaged
(e.g., interwoven, etc.) the patent will be placed in the subclass
defining interengaged strands, etc. such as for example, subclasses
175+ and 196+, and Class 442, subclasses 181+,
depending on the claimed features.
This subclass is indented under subclass 107. Product in which there is at least one layer of material
in addition to the layers or components which contain the strands
or strand portions in angular relation.
This subclass is indented under subclass 109. Product in which there are at least two such additional
layers, at least one of which is positioned on each side of the
two layers of components which contain the strands or strand-portions
in angular relation.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product including a plurality of layers or components having
distinctly oriented elemental constituents (such as strands*,
strips* or fibers*) all arranged in the same general
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product having a plurality of strand-portions* or
strand* loops extending freely in individual or grouped
arrangement from an edge of the web, sheet or component.
Note. Excluded are fringed manufactures which are the result
merely of a simple textile fabrication, such as weaving or braiding.For
placement in this subclass, a patent must be directed to a product
whose manufacture transcends the function of the textile producing apparatus
(such as a loom or a knitting machine).
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product comprising a layer or component including either
discrete elements (e.g., tubular constituents) or components which
form or cooperate to form, cavities the longitudinal axes of which
are at an angle to the plane of the web or sheet.
Note. An integral layer (e.g., molded or apertured layer)
including curvilinear or polygonal through openings therein is not
considered to fall within the definition of this subclass. See
particularly subclasses 131+ below.
for a web or sheet embodying an apertured component
(e.g. layer with through openings, expanded metal, etc.) and particularly
indented subclasses 132+ where such component comprises
for a web or sheet embodying a component of varying
thickness (e.g., layer with open cavities) and especially subclass
161 for such component cooperating with a second component to form
Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),
subclasses 783.1+ for a sandwich or hollow panel having a discrete
interlaminar fastener, and subclass 60 for a honeycomb-like layer
not having mechanical connecting means between components.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product having one or more components or sheets disposed
with nonthickness surfaces* thereof at right angles to
a nonthickness surface* of the composite product and nonintegral therewith.
Note. A patent for a product comprising a plurality of relatively
narrow sheets or components assembled with their respective nonthickness
surfaces in face-to-face contact and their edges forming the nonthickness
surfaces of the composite web or sheet will be included in this subclass.
Note. A patent directed to a product wherein the components
lie in parallel planes which are at an acute angle to the nonthickness
surfaces of the composite product will be placed in subclass 112.
Note. A patent directed to a product comprising a component
having a portion integral with and disposed perpendicular to a second
portion (e.g., L-shaped, channel shaped, etc.) will be placed
in subclasses 121+ on the basis of a particular edge feature.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein a portion if the web or sheet, or of a component
thereof, is turned out of the plane of the web or sheet along a
longitudinal axis thereof and at a longitudinally extending marginal
portion of the web or sheet.
Note. A corrugated web or sheet comprising a corrugation
pattern which involves a fold at an edge thereof will be placed
in subclass 179*.
Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,
subclasses 383+ for a web or sheet with a folded edge to accommodate
fastening to an elongated element (e.g., frame, etc.) and especially
subclass 387 for a hem in such a web or sheet.
This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Product wherein the folded component is a relatively narrow
trough-shaped strip with the walls thereof embracing a longitudinal
edge of at least one other component of the web or sheet.
This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Product wherein the web or sheet is composite* and
a longitudinally extending portion of a surface component is turned
back upon itself or around an edge or a second component of the web.
This subclass is indented under subclass 124. Product in which the folded portion of the surface component
has a free end enclosed within the body of the web out of contact
with the exterior surface of any face layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Product in which the reversely folded component is part
of an enveloping means which forms the complete (or substantially
complete) exterior of the web or sheet.
This subclass is indented under subclass 121. Product wherein the turned out portion has particular structure
(e.g., perforations, shape, serrations, etc.) or is dimensionally
related to an exterior of the composite web or sheet component.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein the web or sheet or a component thereof,
has one or more discrete through openings with the peripheral wall
or walls of each opening defined by either a line or closed loop
passing through the thickness of the component while following a
unidirectional or multidirectional rectilinar path.
Note. Reticulation (a form of apertures), may be mechanically
or chemically produced (e.g., spinning a polymer in a net-like or
web-like form, etc.).
Note. The periphery of said loop may vary in size while passing
through the component or the loop may pass through the component
edgewise to form a slit.
Note. A product including a component with openings the walls
of which are defined by loops following a nonrectilinear (e.g.,
tortuous or haphazard, etc.) path through the thickness dimension
of the component will be placed in subclasses 304+.
Note. A patent wherein the apertures are solely for the purpose
of passing a stitching thread through the web will be found in Class
112, Sewing, subclasses 402+ and especially subclass 591.
Note. Woven, knitted or netted products are excluded under
this definition of aperture, unless it is the intent that apertures
be specifically provided, other than the usual and normal openings
between the strands due to the nature of the weave, knit or mesh.
Generally a woven, knitted or netted product encompasses strands
which lie above and below other strands in the same layer. Apertures
must be deliberately made to meet the definition of this subclass.
Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),
subclasses 633+ for an "openwork" product for
that class, and especially subclass 660 for a "lattice" type
product (grating, foraminous reinforcement, grille) primarily of
use as a rigid component of a building structure and structurally
similar structures of more general application. See the search
notes in subclass 660 for other classes providing for fabric or
lattice openwork structures.
Acoustics, appropriate subclasses for a web or sheet with either internal
or external structure wherein said structure is disclosed to be
provided for the purpose of deadening or amplifying sound, and especially
subclasses 284+ where said structure is provided for the purpose
of muffling or filtering sound.
Seal for a Joint or Juncture, for a packing element comprising a web or sheet having
(a) a definite peripheral shape, (b) a modified service opening, or
(c) a configuration or feature particularly adapting the element
as a packing,
subclasses 935+ for a seal made of a particular material.
This subclass is indented under subclass 131. Product wherein the web or sheet, or a component thereof,
has one or more portions which project or protrude from a nonthickness
surface of the component and form at least a part of the periphery
of a through opening therein.
This subclass is indented under subclass 132. Product in which the component with struck-out portions
is within a layer or the struck-out portions of said component extend
into, interlock with, enmesh or clench an adjacent layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 134. Product in which the aperture is shaped as (1) a four sided
closed figure in which two opposite angles are acute and the other
two are obtuse or (2) a six sided closed figure.
This subclass is indented under subclass 139. Product wherein the apertured component is disclosed between
two components with portions of each of said two components entering the
aperture or wherein the apertured component is completely embedded
within the thickness dimension of a layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product in which an area of the web or sheet has a structure
which extends substantially across the area but which is made up
of pits, depressions, furrows or other such irregularities of no
regular design or pattern, so as to give the surface a design or
pattern, so as to give the surface a desired feel or texture and which
area may be (1) exposed or (2) covered with a layer designed to
permit light to pass therethrough and render the area visible or
(3) covered with a material which is opaque but designed to protect
the area from injury.
Note. The difference between this subclass and 156+ is
that in the latter, the layer is desired to vary in thickness, while
in the present subclass there is no substantial variation in thickness
except merely that necessitated by virtue of the surface irregularities.
Note. Excluded from this and the indented subclasses are
products which are knitted, braided, woven, etc. The surface characteristics
of such products are considered to be uniform and regular or patterned,
not irregular, as required by subclasses 141+.
Note. Excluded from this and the indented subclasses are
products in which the textured surface is provided solely for bonding
two layers to one another through the textured surface. This will
be classified below on other features such as the compositions of
This subclass is indented under subclass 141. Product comprising an additional layer over the textured
or irregular surface which (1) permits the passage of light so as
to make the surface visible, or (2) guards against marring or spoiling
of the surface.
This subclass is indented under subclass 141. Product in which the irregularities comprise small pieces
or granules of matter.
Note. Included in this subclass are products which are used
as roofing or siding on homes. To complete the search for such
products the appropriate subclasses in Class 52, Static Structures
(e.g., Buildings), should be considered.
This subclass is indented under subclass 141. Product in which the surface irregularities resemble or
are made to be similar to the arrangement of fibers*, particles* or
layers forming the natural lines in lumber or natural animal skin.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein the distance between the nonthickness surfaces
of a web or sheet or a component thereof, deviates from point to
point along the transverse or longitudinal axis of the product.
Note. As implied in the subclass definition, variation in
total thickness (or bulge) caused by overlapping components, is
excluded from the concept of this subclass. See search notes below
to subclasses 88, 174+ and 189.
Note. A patent directed to a component with minute surface
irregularities in the form of very small pits or projections will
be placed in subclasses 141+.
Note. The presence of either a plain or countersunk through
hole in a layer is not considered to provide a variation in thickness
of an otherwise uniform thickness layer. See subclasses 131+.
Note. Under the definition of this subclass, the sheet or
web may be either single or plural layer.
This subclass is indented under subclass 156. Product wherein the difference occurs only at or in the
area adjacent, an edge of the web, sheet or component; or in which
the thickness variation at or adjacent the edge differs substantially
from that which exists over the remainder of the web, sheet or component.
This subclass is indented under subclass 156. Product including a component which contains (1) open or
interconnected voids throughout which have been made by means of
a gas or other agent (blowing agent or heat, etc.) enlarging the
voids or the material of the component so as to occupy more space
or (2) closed cavities (empty or filled).
This subclass is indented under subclass 158. Product which comprises a compound of relatively large molecules
and high molecular weight, whose molecules consist of recurring smaller
chain structural units.
Note. Examples of polymers under this definition are: natural
or synthetic rubber, polyester, polyamide, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 156. Product wherein the component of nonuniform thickness has
a nonplanar surface and a second component is in continuous interfacial
contact with said surface.
This subclass is indented under subclass 161. Product in which the opposite surface of the nonuniform
thickness component is also nonplanar and a third component is in
continuous interfacial contact with such opposite surface.
This subclass is indented under subclass 161. Product in which the nonplanar face of the nonuniform thickness
component is in the form of ridges and/or furrows of substantial
length and width extending along or across the component and in
This subclass is indented under subclass 156. Product, wherein a nonplanar surface of a variable thickness
layer comes into contact with an adjacent layer (or a component
thereof) in such a manner as to define therebetween individual or
interconnected three-dimensional zones, either separate or interconnected.
Note. The spaces may be empty or occupied, in whole or in
part, by a filler material.
This subclass is indented under subclass 156. Product in which the variation in thickness occurs in the
form of parallel ridges and/or furrows of substantial length
and width extending along or across the product.
for a similar product having a component of nonplanar
surface with a nonplanar and a second component is in continuous
interfacial contact with said surface and in which there are also
ridges or furrows extending along or across the component.
This subclass is indented under subclass 172. Product in which an outer surface of the composite* sheet
or web has dents or depressions and there is an extraneous material
in at least one such dent or depression, lying beneath the topmost
rise of the walls defining such dent or depression.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein the web or sheet, or a component thereof,
has nonthickness surfaces* which are (1) defined other
than by two parallel planes and (2) equidistantly spaced at all points.
Note. Excluded from this definition of nonplanar is a roll
or coil of material; the product itself must be nonplanar, not the manner
of packaging or storing.
This subclass is indented under subclass 174. Product comprising a layer, or component consisting of strands*,
strand*portions* or relatively narrow ribbon like
elements, mechanically interwoven, intertangled, intertwined or
Note. This defines a textile or other woven or knitted material
which is then treated to form embossments or other nonplanarities,
but retaining the uniform thickness.
This subclass is indented under subclass 175. Product wherein the nonplanarity comprises integral substantially
flat portions of the layer or component disposed in face abutting
relation or in substantially equi-distantly spaced relation.
This subclass is indented under subclass 174. Product in which the nonplanarity occurs only at or in the
area adjacent, an edge portion of the total product; or in which
the nonplanarity at or adjacent the edge of the product differs
substantially from that which exists over the remainder thereof.
This subclass is indented under subclass 174. Product wherein the nonplanar component (1) is so shaped
as to form closed compartments, either vacant or occupied, the walls
of which are an integral part of said nonplanar component or (2)
cooperates with an adjacent component to produce closed compartments,
which are either vacant or occupied by a material not integral with
This subclass is indented under subclass 174. Product wherein there is a plurality of discrete deviations
of the nonthickness surfaces* of the web, sheet or component
from the parallel plane condition in a repetitive pattern and said deviations
are arranged in one or more rows or are elongated and extend generally
in the same direction.
This subclass is indented under subclass 179. Product wherein the Nonplanarity is in the form of a regular
geometrical pattern of polygonal protuberances and/or depressions,
each having a centrally located flat land portion.
This subclass is indented under subclass 182. Product wherein the peaks of the corrugations are indented
at spaced zones therealong or wherein there are two series of corrugations
in one layer with those of one series crossing or extending between
and at an angle to those of the second series.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein the web or sheet has one or more elongated
hollow spaces of substantially uniform cross-section located between
and lying with their axes substantially parallel to, the nonthickness
surfaces* of the web or sheet and being either open or
closed at their ends.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein at least one side edge of a layer* or
component* of a composite web is laterally offset (in either
spaced or overlapping relation) relative to a corresponding edge
of a second layer* or component* of the product.
Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,
subclasses 123+ for plural hanging or drape type devices hung from
a single support in side by side overlapping relation, subclasses 130+ for
interconnected flexible strips, slats and/or panels and
also for a plurality of rigid strips, slats and/or panels
which are connected for relative motion and form a single unit, and
subclasses 330+ for a sectional fabric which hangs suspended
(e.g., drape, etc.).
This subclass is indented under subclass 189. Product in which one of the components is a cellulosic* material
in any of its natural or chemically modified forms (e.g., wood,
paper, rayon*, viscose*, etc.).
This subclass is indented under subclass 192. Product comprising a layer of material having strand*,
strand-portions* or relatively narrow ribbon like elements
mechanically intertangled, interwoven, intertwined or interlooped.
Note. A product of this type of mechanical interengagement
of such elements is commonly known as a weave, knit or mesh.
This subclass is indented under subclass 192. Product in which the structure at the edge comprises a saturation
of fluid thereinto or an adhesion to another component, which saturation
or adhesion is not continuous along the edge.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Subject matter for product wherein at least one component
or layer has spaced areas, substantially less than the total area
of the involved surface of the layer or component, which are either,
(1) faced or saturated with fluent or plastic material or (2) joined
to other portions of the layer or components or to another layer or
component by adhesion or cohesion; or wherein the facing, saturation
or junctures set forth in clauses (1) and (2) above is of a different
character (e.g., strong bond next to weak bond) in different areas
of the Web or sheet.
Note. A design or printed matter or indicia of any sort will
be considered as a discontinuous coating for this subclass unless
clearly disclosed as uniform.
Printing, appropriate subclasses, especially
subclass 368 for a product having a nonuniform coating thereon when
disclosed solely for use as a printing member. See also definition of
this Class 428 the reference to Class 101 under "LINES WITH OTHER
CLASSES Part A. INTERMEDIATE-ARTICLES Section 2. Blanks, etc".
subclass 1 for a process of providing a print, impression
or pattern of animal skin, (e.g., human fingerprints, etc.) on a
base and subclass 256 for the process of producing a nonuniform
coating on a substrate.
This subclass is indented under subclass 195.1. Subject matter for product in which at least one layer
comprises strands*, strand-portion* or relatively
narrow ribbon like elements which are mechanically intertwined,
intertangled, interwoven or interlooped.
Endless Belt Power Transmission Systems or Components, particularly
subclasses 237+ for a friction drive belt, or for stock material
disclosed solely for use as a drive belt, which may include noninterengaged
strands, such as for reinforcing elements, in the body of the belt.
This subclass is indented under subclass 196. Product in which the strand type component comprises interlocked
loops of strand material and the strand at spaced areas is adhered
or cohered to itself or to another strand forming the loop.
This subclass is indented under subclass 195.1. Subject matter for product in which the discontinuous or
differential coating or impregnation comprises (1) normally nonvisible
indicia or (2) portions which are dissolvable and , in both (1)
and (2) above, when treated in other than normal use, would become
Note. This is the locus for so-called safety or bank paper,
which, when an erasure or eradication is attempted, clearly indicates
This subclass is indented under subclass 195.1. Subject matter for product including a layer which is
activated by an increased temperature to adhere to another surface
or to be removed from cohesion with an adjacent component.
This subclass is indented under subclass 195.1. Subject matter for product in which the component or
layer having the spaced areas of saturation or facing lies between
and adjacent to other layers or components.
This subclass is indented under subclass 201. Product in which one of the adjacent layers lies on the
outermost surface of the web or sheet and is removable from the
web or sheet or is so made as to prevent adhesion to a surface in contact
This subclass is indented under subclass 195.1. Subject matter for product in which one of the layers
contains fused clay* (ceramic*), a fine, white,
translucent hard earthenware (porcelain*), or the fused
mixture of the silicates of the alkali and alkaline earth or heavy
Note. Included under this definition of glass is glassy or
crystalline silica or quartz*.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein two components of a web, sheet or layer
possess the same physical property but in different amount or intensity
and are so claimed.
Note. For purposes of this subclass porosity or cellularity
is not considered to be a physical characteristic; a product having
plural components which differ in this characteristic will be found
in subclasses 304+ see search note below.
Note. For purposes of this subclass, a component in which
the physical characteristics of an element (e.g., fiber*,
filament*, particle*, etc.) is defined and it
is this characteristic which varies in another component, will not
be included in this subclass, but will be found below, see subclasses
292.1+ and 323+.
Note. For purposes of this subclass and its indents, if a
composite sheet is claimed as having the same physical characteristic
(e.g., thickness, etc.) this is considered to be a special case
of "differing" degree and the patent will be classified
in this group of subclasses.
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product in which a physical characteristic of the overall
web or sheet is recited in terms of its weight per unit area of
Note. Since weight per unit area and a physical dimension
are related, cross-referencing between this subclass and the succeeding
one has been minimized. Both subclasses should be considered in
This subclass is indented under subclass 98. Product wherein the size of the overall web or sheet is
claimed as an absolute dimension.
Note. The difference between this subclass and 332+ is
that in the latter the size of only a component* or layer* is claimed*,
whereas in this subclass the size of the overall web or sheet is
Note. The preceding subclass 219 contains many patents in
which the physical dimension of an overall web or sheet is disclosed
and/or claimed. To complete the search for such a feature,
the preceding subclass must be considered since the cross-referencing
between the two subclasses has been minimized.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product comprising a single or plural layer* web*,
or sheet* which contains a component* or an element* (e.g.,
fiber*, strand*, filament*, particle*,
etc.), the size or some structural feature of which is claimed,
(e.g., orientation or relation to another element or component,
bond at intersecting points, weave or knit, cellularity or porosity,
Note. For purposes of this group of subclasses, a disclosed
fabric, textile or cloth will be considered to be included under "structurally
defined element or component".
for a web or sheet (single or plural layer) in which
the web (1) has a particular overall shape, significant size or
other particular configuration such as an edge feature or (2) the
components are arranged in an orderly fashion relative to a surface
of the product or (3) the product comprises plural layers with each
layer thereof claimed as possessing a particular characteristic
such as density or hardness or thickness or (4) the product includes
a particular characteristic claimed in its relation to a surface
or edge thereof, all to an end that the overall web or sheet may
be identified as having a particular structure.
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Product wherein (1) components are twisted or folded about
one another or (2) a web or sheet, or a component thereof, is arranged
in a series of mutually parallel convolutions extending along the
longitudinal axis of the web or sheet.
Note. The product formed by (1) above, must be the result
of twisting or folding (e.g., braiding) of components; where the
product is formed by braiding strands, classification is proper
in Class 87, Textiles: Braiding, Netting, and Lace Making; see
search note below.
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Product in which a plurality of layers or components are
connected by a separate and distinct mechanical connecting member
extending over the edges of and/or into a plurality of
layers or components.
Note. Stitching is not considered to be a mechanical fastener.
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Product wherein a fiber-containing web or sheet comprises
of one or more structurally defined fibers embedded in or on the
surface of a matrix wherein the fibers are not interengaged with
one another or formed into a fabric having structural integrity
prior to association with the matrix material, the fiber-containing web
or sheet being neither paper nor of specified porosity.
Note. Matrix materials containing fiber as a filler material
do not belong in this subclass.
This subclass is indented under subclass 292.1. Subject matter wherein the web or sheet comprises a water-settable
material (e.g., cement, gypsum, etc.) which forms a distinct layer
having fibers embedded therein.
This subclass is indented under subclass 292.1. Subject matter wherein the web or sheet comprises a rubber
matrix, the rubber being natural or synthetic rubber and having
fibers embedded therein or on the surface of the matrix.
This subclass is indented under subclass 295.4. Subject matter wherein the fibers, per se, are specifically
stated to be crimped, sinusoidal, coiled, etc., or the orientation
of the fibers in the matrix material is nonlinear.
This subclass is indented under subclass 298.1. Subject matter wherein the fibers, per se, are specifically
stated to be crimped, sinusoidal, coiled, etc., or the orientation
of the fibers in the polymeric matrix is nonlinear.
This subclass is indented under subclass 297.4. Subject matter wherein the fibers are coated with a material
prior to being incorporated in the polymeric matrix or being affixed
to a surface of the polymeric matrix.
This subclass is indented under subclass 300.7. Subject matter wherein the layers comprise a metal in elemental
or alloy form (i.e., other than in the form of a chelate, salt,
or compound resulting from the chemical reaction of a metal).
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Subject matter which consists of at least two components,
at least one of which has internal spaces either containing at least
a gas and/or devoid of identifiable contents.
Note. This subclass and its indented subclasses have been
established to provide a search field for those inventions in stock
material in which the void-containing nature of a component is the
essence of the invention; thus, to be classified in this group of
subclasses, the void-containing nature of the component must either
(a) be expressed explicitly in a claim, (b) be necessary for a claimed utility
of the product or (c) be disclosed in the specification and be incorporatable
into the claims to resolve an ambiguity in the claims.
Note. The designation of a component as porous, cellular
or permeable will be construed as void-containing.
Note. A porous layer or component having an impervious skin
thereon will be considered to have two components for purposes of
this subclass, the skin being one of the components or layers.
Note. An impregnated material is assumed not to contain voids
and must be disclosed or claimed as still containing porosity in
order to warrant placement in this or indented subclasses. Thus,
paper is not considered to be a void-containing component unless
it is specified as being porous or permeable.
Note. The inclusion in a component of hollow or porous fibers
or particles will be assumed to make the component a void-containing
component only when it is clearly disclosed that the fibers or particles
maintain their hollowness or porosity after being compounded into the
for a mass or single layer of or containing, elements
which may by inherently porous or cellular or wherein the disposition
of the elements renders the product porous or cellular but wherein such
porosity is not claimed.
Compositions: Coating or Plastic, appropriate subclasses for a porous or void-containing
composition of that type, even in the form of a single layer sheet
or web which lacks any other definite structural features. See particularly
subclasses 40+ , 122, 601+, and 672+.
Liquid Purification or Separation,
subclasses 500.1+ for material peculiarly adapted for use as a liquid
separation filter and see Relation to Material or Composition Classes
of the definition of this class (428).
Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,
subclasses 50+ for methods of making a cellular resin product
and such products, even in the form of a single layer web or sheet,
which lack definite structural features.
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter wherein the voids of a component contains
a gas specified to be other than air, nitrogen or carbon dioxide;
or where the void-containing component contains also a material
which is susceptible to a ready chemical reaction in use of the
product, e.g., to decomposition at an elevated temperature, etc.
Note. The chemically effective material often is incorporated
in the product for fire or flameproofing purposes.
Note. Removal of water of hydration from a hydrated compound
is considered to be a chemical reaction.
This subclass is indented under subclass 306.6. Subject matter in which the void-containing component is
identified as a synthetic resin composition and claimed as such,
e.g., polyvinyl chloride, polyurethane, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene,
Note. A synthetic resin is the material described in the
definition of Class 520, subclass 1.
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter wherein an interface between layers of a
composite is claimed in such fashion that a wavy, keyed or otherwise
nonflat function of the layers is required to meet the terms of
the claims or an intermediate layer is created by commingling some
material of two adjacent foam layers, usually in fluent form or wherein
an element of the composite such as a fiber, etc., passes from one
layer to another of the composite.
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter wherein a component has a property, e.g.,
density, composition, pore size, hardness, concentration of ingredients,
etc., which varies gradually from one surface to another surface
of the same component.
Note. The change of property usually is so gradual that no
area within the component can be identified as an interface between
This subclass is indented under subclass 311.11. Subject matter wherein a component of the composite may
be locally disintegrated by the application of a sudden force thereto;
for example, by a typewriter key.
Note. Where the product is designated as having a stencil
sheet, wherein an ink is to pass through the product in its final use,
it is assumed that the nondisintegrated component is porous. See
the definition of subclass 304.4, (1) Note, (b).
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter in which the void-containing component has
a continuous phase of material, e.g, porous cermic, etc., which
is free from carbon atoms or contains carbon atoms only as elemental
carbon, as a carbide, carbonate, cyanide or cyanate.
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter wherein voids of the component result from
the incorporation therein of a filler, aggregate, etc., which itself
is hollow, rather than merely from voids, the walls of which constitute
the material of the continuous matrix.
This subclass is indented under subclass 313.3. Subject matter wherein the preformed hollow element is a
mineral which is naturally void-containing or which has been treated
to create voids, e.g., by heating, etc., such minerals including
expanded vermiculite, perlite, mica, clay, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter wherein the geometric configuration of the
voids, whether regular or irregular, is specified in the claims.
Note. Use of the term "crushed", designated
a foam which has been treated, usually by pressure, to reduce the
size of the foam cells and give the cell walls a broken and/or
irregular configuration, is sufficient to place a patent in this
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter wherein the voids in the void-containing
component are specified as being closed, rather than forming a series
of interconnected voids, e.g., closed-cell foam, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 314.4. Subject matter in which either the thickness of the void-containing
component is claimed in terms of numbers or in relation to the thickness of
another component, e.g., thicker, thinner, etc.), a numerical cell
size (microns, etc.) or density (pounds per cubic foot, etc.) is
This subclass is indented under subclass 315.5. Subject matter in which the thickness of a void-containing
component is claimed in terms of numbers or in relation to the thickness
of another component, e.g., thicker, thinner, etc. or a numerical
cell size is claimed, usually expressed in terms of microns, angstroms,
This subclass is indented under subclass 317.1. Subject matter wherein the adhesive or bonding component
is an outermost layer of the composite, that is, the composite is
designed to be adhered to a material or object outside of the composite.
This subclass is indented under subclass 317.1. Subject matter wherein the bonding or adhesive component
itself contains voids, e.g., a poromeric, cellular, foam, etc.,
component itself is used to bond nonvoid component together.
This subclass is indented under subclass 304.4. Subject matter wherein the composite has a layer without
voids which is claimed in terms of its composition.
Note. A mere statement of that the nonvoid component is "a
substrate", "a layer", "a film",
etc., is not sufficient for placement in this subclass, but identification
of the component as "metal", "organic",
etc., is sufficient.
This subclass is indented under subclass 318.4. Subject matter wherein a void-containing component has,
next to it, a component without voids which varies not more than
about 10% in the proportion of its solid constituents from
the composition of the void-containing component.
Note. Insofar as synthetic resins, per se, are concerned,
the 10% permissible variation is to be applied to the monomer residue
content of the finished polymer; differences in molecular weight,
crystallinity, etc., are not considered to be differences in composition.
This subclass is indented under subclass 318.6. Subject matter in which the nonvoid component is identical
in composition to the composition of the void-containing component
and is formed simultaneously with the void-containing component.
This subclass is indented under subclass 318.4. Subject matter in which the nonvoid component is free from
carbon atoms or contains carbon atoms only as elemental carbon,
as a carbide, carbonate, cyanide or cyanate.
This subclass is indented under subclass 319.3. Subject matter wherein the nonvoid component is a synthetic
resin without cross-linkages, that is, one which softens reversably
under the influence of heat.
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Subject matter consisting of at least two components, at
least one of which contains liquid or has a constituent trapped
inside walls made before combination with the other constituent.
This subclass is indented under subclass 320.2. Subject matter wherein a component contains a material which
is a liquid at ambient temperature or is a liquid at the conditions
under which the product is used.
Note. A liquid for purposes of this subclass is a material
of definite volume which takes the shape of its container at ambient
temperature or temperature of use of the claimed product. It includes collodial
dispersions in which liquid is the continuous or dispersant phase.
This subclass is indented under subclass 320.2. Subject matter comprising an unspecified number, greater
than two, of sheets bonded together, each sheet being of similar
material to the others and having at least one negligible dimension,
each sheet having once been porous but having lost its porosity
by being impregnated with a fluid material before or after assembly
of the stack.
Note. The impregnant usually is a nonfully, polymerized resin
and the bonding usually includes completion of polymerization, i.e.,
curing, of the resin.
Note. The products usually are "decorative laminates",
such as those used for counter-tops, dishes, etc., sold under trade
names such as Formica, Melmac, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 320.2. Subject matter wherein the structure of a foamed material
bridges two or more distinct components, wherein a solidified impregnant permeates
two or more adjacent previously porous components of an assembled
composite or wherein such an impregnant permeates a previously porous
component and also coats an outside surface of the component.
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Product which comprises at least two components, one of
which consists of or includes grains or extremely small pieces or
fragments of material claimed in terms of (1) their particular size
or shape (natural or fabricated) or (2) an orderly arrangement relative
to one another or (3) their particular interengagement within the
component, or (4) their engagement with the material of an adjacent
Note. A web, sheet or layer claimed as having a haphazard
arrangement of its particulate constituents is not considered as
possessing an orderly arrangement of its particulate constituent
within the definition of this subclass.
Note. A composite web or sheet in which its particulate constituents
are claimed as being in an orderly arrangement relative to a surface
of the web or sheet is considered to be a structurally defined web
or sheet and will be found in subclasses 98+.
Note. Coated particles* are considered to be structurally
defined and therefore, a composite web in which one layer or component
contains coated particles will be placed in this or an indented
This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Product in which the particles* comprises any of
the group of mineral silicates commonly called "mica".
Note. The term "mica" will be construed as
connoting flakes of flat configuration and therefore structurally
defined unless the disclosure clearly contradicts such an interpretation;
see (1) Note in subclass 454.
This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Product in which the particles comprise an organic substance
which is synthetically produced by union (polymerization or condensation)
of a large number of molecules of one or more relatively simple
Note. Particles of naturally occurring polymeric material
or reaction products thereof, e.g., carbohydrate, polypeptides and
cellulosic products, are excluded from this definition of polymer
and will be found in other subclasses on other features, e.g., subclass
326 for carbohydrates, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Product in which the particles comprise (1) a free metal* having
a specific gravity or density greater than 4, or (2) the free metal* aluminum or
(3) a compound having the metal* of either (1) or (2) above
in its molecule.
This subclass is indented under subclass 323. Product in which the particles comprise a metal* selected
from the group consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba
(i.e., the alkali or alkaline earth metals) in either the free form
or combined with other elements and forming either an inorganic
or organic compound.
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Product in which the size of an element, constituent, or
component of a web or sheet is claimed.
Note. The difference between 212+ and this subclass
and indents (332+) is that in the former the thickness
of two components* are recited, while in the latter the thickness
of only the base or layer is specified. Where the dimensions of
two components* are specified so that one can be compared
to another, classification in 212+ is indicated.
Note. In this and the indented subclasses a size in units
of length must be specified in the claim. A recitation of weight
per unit area is excluded from this group of subclasses and will
be found in subclasses 340+ below.
This subclass is indented under subclass 332. Product in which the absolute physical dimension specified
is the thickness of a coating layer* and which does not
exceed 5 mils or the equivalent thereof.
Note. Examples of equivalents are: 1 mil=.001 inch=.0254
mm (milli- ter)=25.4 u or mu(micron)=254,000 A (Angstroms).
This subclass is indented under subclass 221. Product comprising a composite* web or sheet in
which an outermost layer is capable of sticking to a surface to
which it may be applied or of being activated to have such capability.
Note. The adhesive layer need not be applied to an extraneous
surface; it could be applied to and caused to adhere to itself or
to another portion of the composite* web or sheet, as in
heat sealable packaging films.
Fabric (Woven, Knitted, or Nonwoven Textile or
subclasses 59+ for a product comprising mechanically interengaged
strands or strand portions, etc., having an adhesive coating or
impregnation associated therewith.
This subclass is indented under subclass 343. Product in which at least one of the components of the composite
sheet has been subjected to a source (1) of ultraviolet radiation,
especially wavelengths of 250-300m u, or (2) energy transmitted
by various mediums.
Note. Examples of irradiation or wave energy devices are:
light or electron emitters, sonic devices, electric glow discharges,
etc. and the term wave energy includes radiations, electromagnetic
waves, neutron, proton, deutron and other corpuscular radiations.
This subclass is indented under subclass 343. Product in which the adhesive is caused to become capable
of adhering to a surface by virtue of having been contacted with
a material which causes at least a portion of the adhesive to be
dissolved or otherwise activated, or by having its temperature increased,
usually by contact with a heated surface.
for a product which comprises a nonuniform (i.e.,
differential or discontinuous) coating and in addition an adhesive
layer which is caused to either adhere or delaminate by means of
increase in temperature.
This subclass is indented under subclass 347. Product in which the adhesive contains a compound which
is described as a wax (e.g., beeswax or paraffin, etc.) or having
the physical characteristics of a wax or is a recognized wax* (e.g.,
This subclass is indented under subclass 343. Product which contains an additional layer or component
of such characteristics that it does not permanently adhere to a
surface (which may be another layer of the product) with which it
may come into contact.
Note. A release or anti-stick coating such is that under
this definition is usually provided on the side of the base* opposite
that which supports the adhesive, in order to prevent adherence
when stacked or rolled.
This subclass is indented under subclass 343. Product comprising a three layered product in which there
is a layer between the adhesive and the substrate, which layer is
used to increase the cohesiveness between the adhesive layer and
Note. The intermediate layer may be called by various names,
e.g., primer or bonding layer, or anchor coat, etc.
This subclass is indented under subclass 343. Product in which three or more layers are claimed either
in the form of plural coatings on a substrate or a laminate of two
or more layers having an adhesive layer therebetween.
This subclass is indented under subclass 343. Product in which the adhesive composition is recited.
Note. For classification in this or the indented subclass,
at least one of the ingredients of the adhesive must be recited
specifically, for example as "gum arabic", "linseed
oil", etc., not nominally, as for example, "oil", "gum",
This subclass is indented under subclass 355. Product in which an ingredient of the adhesive composition
comprises (1) rubber* from a natural source or (2) a metal* in
either its free or combined state.
Note. The term "reclaimed" rubber is considered
to be natural for purposes of this subclass unless it is clear from
the disclosure that a synthetic rubber is intended, in which case
classification in subclass 355 is indicated.
Note. If it is not clear whether natural or synthetic rubber
is intended from either the disclosure or claims, then classification
is in subclass 355 on the basis of synthetic rubber, with a cross
reference, if necessary, to subclass 356.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Product containing, or consisting of, at least one strand*,
strand-portion*, macroscopic fiber*, grain, small
bit of matter, cell*, particle* or any other substance,
claimed in terms of (1) a particular size or shape (natural or fabricated),
(2) a plurality of such elements* claimed in terms of an
arrangement relative to one another, (3) a particular interengagement of
a plurality of such elements* or (4) a coating associated
Note. The molecular orientation or crystalline structure
of a product is considered a mere manifestation of the nature of
the material thereof; accordingly, the recitation of either is not
considered structure within the meaning of that word as used in
Note. A patent directed to a single layers or mass* of
a particular composition which is further defined as "cellular", "particulate" or "porous" (by
name only), will be placed in the appropriate composition class
in the absence of defined structure (see above clauses in the definition
of this subclass).
Note. A patent to a structurally defined particle will be
placed in this, or the appropriate indented subclass as a subcombination
of the subject matter provided for herein, unless specifically provided
Note. Excluded from this or indented subclasses is a rod,
strand, fiber or filament which is merely impregnated with or has
associated therewith a material, without any specified indication
as to the depth of the impregnation, or without any other recited
structure; such a combination is classified on the basis of the composition,
e.g., for Classes 106, 260, 520, etc.
Note. The term "sizing" or "sized" will be
construed to be a coating for this group of subclasses unless it
is clear that only an impregnation is intended; see (4) Note above.
Note. A mass of fibers merely bonded together with no recitation
of structure, is excluded from this Class 428 and will be found
in the appropriate composition class; see search notes below.
Note. The term "flake" is construed as structure,
indicating a flat piece of matter.
Note. Included under this definition of "significant
size" is any recitation of a measurable extent, no matter
how wide (e.g., up to 0.5 mils, etc.).
Compositions: Coating or Plastic, appropriate subclasses, for a composition provided
for in that class (106) which may include structurally defined particles
or fibers; and see II Note under the class definition of that class
(106) with regard to the elements, per se, for use in such composition;
and see (4) Note above.
Fabric (Woven, Knitted, or Nonwoven Textile or
Cloth, etc.), for a textile*, cloth* or fabric* in
which the strands, fibers, or other constituents* thereof
are structurally defined, as set forth therein.