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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class  60]   CLASS 60,POWER PLANTS
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the residual class concerned with the driving of a load by the conversion of heat, pressure, radiant, or gravitational energy into mechanical motion. It includes a motor in combination with its energy supply or its exhaust treatment. It also includes the motors, per se, combinations of motors, and elements specialized for use in such energy conversion that are not specifically provided for elsewhere.

(1) Note. The mere nominal inclusion with the motor of an element or machine driven by the motor is not generally considered sufficient to exclude the patent from the class.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

Unless specifically provided for elsewhere, a combination of plural motors of types that would, per se, be classified in different classes is classified in Class 60.

Combustion products generators in which steam or water are added to the combustion zone are classified in Class 60, Power Plants, where it is the sole disclosure that the products of combustion are to be used to produce useful work. See Class 110, Furnaces, and Class 431, Combustion, for combustion products generators of general utility where steam or water is supplied to the combustion zone. Combustion products generators, per se, using solid fuel, having high pressure generator structure peculiar to the generation of high pressure fluid for motive power, are classified herein. Combustion chamber structure of general utility, and structure for fuel preparation and fuel feeding to a conventional combustion chamber not provided for in other fuel preparation classes, as Class 241, Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration, are classified in Class 110, Furnaces.

Combustion product generators in which hazardous or toxic waste is used as the fuel to produce useful work. See Class 588, Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment, subclasses 300-415 and 249-260 for the processes of chemical destruction or containment of hazardous or toxic waste.

LINE WITH CLASS 91 AND CLASS 418

See (4) Note of the class definition of Class 91, for a statement of the line between Classes 60 and 91, the same line being maintained between Classes 60 and 418.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for a measuring and testing device in which the measuring or testing means uses pressurized motive fluid that drives an indicator.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 16 for power tables or strands comprising portable power units.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclass for a fluid motor or a combination of such motors that has no more than a nominal pressure fluid source or nominal exhaust means. See (4) Note of the class definition of Class 91 for the line between Class 60 and Class 91.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclass for an expansible chamber device or plural expansible chamber devices. See (4) Note of the class definition of Class 92 for the line between Classes 60 and 92.
122Liquid Heaters and Vaporizers,   for a liquid heater or vaporizer that generates hot fluid. The minimal inclusion of a motor as the source or utilizer of the treated fluid does not prevent classification in Class 122.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   appropriate subclass, for an internal combustion engine, per se. A combination of internal combustion engines or an internal combustion engine with an exhaust treating or handling means is in Class 60.
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   appropriate subclass for subject matter directed to driving or impacting a tool when such subject matter includes combined features peculiar to tool driving, but which does not include features limiting the subject matter to a specific tool art, such as specific shape of the work contacting portion of a tool, related tools, or an opposed work support. A combination of plural motors of the same or different types, one of which causes or controls tool advance and the other drives or impacts a tool is classified in Class 173.
185Motors: Spring, Weight, or Animal Powered,   appropriate subclass for a spring, weight or animal powered motor and for plural or composite motor combinations consisting solely of arrangements of such motors. See the notes in the class definition of Class 185 for a statement of the line between Classes 60 and 185.
237Heating Systems,   appropriate subclass for a power plant combined with a heating system.
252Compositions,   appropriate subclasses particularly subclasses 67+ and 71+ for power transmission compositions. Patents are placed in Class 252, Compositions, (1) claiming admixtures of ingredients, or claiming an old compound, limited to use as a hydraulic or other type power transmission fluid, (2) processes of power generation claimed broadly and distinguished solely by the composition or compound used, and (3) power plant apparatus distinguished by the composition of compound therein, i.e., where characteristics of apparatus structure are not claimed. The preceding are placed in Class 252, Compositions, even though freezing or boiling points, temperatures of use, or amount of power transmitted are specified.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   appropriate subclass for the combination of a motor and an electric generator in which is included (1) any detail of the generator; (2) any relationship between a generator part and a motor; and (3) any control of the motor by part of the electricity produced by the generator. A motor electric generator combination in combination in which the electric generator is merely a nominal load driven by the motor is not precluded from Class 60.
303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake Systems,   appropriate subclass, for the distribution of fluid to brake motors. See the notes to the definition of subclass 533 of Class 60 for a detailed statement of the line between Classes 60 and 303.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   appropriate subclass for an electric motor, per se.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   appropriate subclass for a system of electrical supply or control for one or more electrical motors. A residual system comprising an electrical and a nonelectrical motor is in Class 60.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 187+ for temperature measurement in which the expansion or contraction of a sensing material drives an indicator.
415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclass for (1) a rotary kinetic energy motor, per se, or one with a merely nominal load, motive fluid supply, or exhaust structure; (2) for a plurality of such motors. See the detailed statement of the line between Classes 60 and 415 in the class definition of Class 415, particularly the search class notes to Class 60 in References to Other Classes.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   appropriate subclass for a motor comprising an unconfined impeller driven by a flowing working fluid, e.g., windmill etc.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclass for an expansible chamber fluid motor or a combination of such motors. See Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, above, for the line between Class 418, Class 60, and an additional class.
588Hazardous or Toxic Waste Destruction or Containment,   subclasses 313 through 320for the destruction of hazardous or toxic waste by combustion in a power plant. Class 60 takes the use of hazardous or toxic waste as a useful fuel for power production.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.01]    39.01COMBUSTION PRODUCTS USED AS MOTIVE FLUID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Plants or processes having means to generate combustion products, either continuously or intermittently, whereby said products are usable, at least in part, to perform useful work.
(1) Note. Combustion products generator a device including essentially a chamber in which a suitable fuel and an oxidizer are burned or exploded to produce hot products of combustion, together with accessory means to mix water, fuel and oxidizer, to spray or feed water, fuel, or oxidizer, to ignite the fuel charge, to periodically operate the inlet and exhaust valves, or other means accessory to such chamber.
Continuous combustion type this refers to the operation of a combustion products generator, without cyclically actuated inlet or outlet valves, in which the fuel and oxidizer are supplied to permit combustion to proceed in an unbroken or uninterrupted manner to produce a steady stream of combustion products. This type is also known as a "constant pressure" type.
Intermittent combustion type - this refers to the operation of a combustion products generator, usually having inlet or outlet valves, or both, or their equivalents, in which a fuel charge is periodically exploded or burned to discharge a pulsating stream of combustion products. This type is also known as an "explosion" or "constant volume" type.
(2) Note. This subclass and the indented subclasses include subcombinations peculiarly adapted for power production or solely disclosed for such purpose, unless classification is provided therefor in some other existing class and subclass.
(3) Note. See Lines With Other Classes in the class definition for line between Class 60 and Classes 110 and 431.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

272+,for internal-combustion engines which discharge exhaust gases under pressure suitable for use in a motor, in combination with means to act upon the exhaust gases, such as means to store or to conduct such gases, or to add a fluid thereto, or to burn fuel in said exhaust gases.
597+,for plants in which the combustion products are generated by burning a fuel in the expansible working chamber of an internal combustion engine.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclass 202 for means for igniting a missile propellant.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.08]    39.08With lubricators:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants in combination with means to supply a lubricant to movable parts thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 196 for lubrication means for internal-combustion engines.
184Lubrication,   appropriate subclass, for lubrication in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.091]    39.091With safety device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants in combination with a safety device in the form of means to prevent the creation of dangerous or objectionable operating conditions, or to sense and to relieve such conditions.
(1) Note. The conditions referred to do not ordinarily occur during normal operation of the power plants.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.13,for plants wherein the operation of the generator is stopped and started in response to pressure changes in an accumulator receiving products of combustion.
773,for a process where combustion products are used as motive fluid having power output control.
793through 39.3, for a process where combustion products are used as motive fluid combined with regulation of power output feature.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 198 for safety devices designed for use with internal-combustion engines.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.092]    39.092Debris anti-ingestion preventer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.091.  Plants wherein the safety device comprises structure designed to prevent the inflow of foreign material into the air intake or other sensitive structure of the power plant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

55Gas Separation,   subclass 306 for debris anti-ingestion means for use on aircraft engine inlets not combined with significant engine structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.093]    39.093Ice preventer or deicer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.091.  Plants wherein the safety device comprises structure designed to either prevent the formation or eliminate the accumulation of frozen water on components of the power plant.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.094]    39.094Fuel flusher or drainer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.091.  Plants wherein the safety device comprises structure designed to either purge a portion of the fuel system of the power plant or to remove areas of abnormally accumulated fuel in the power plant.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.1]    39.1Excess pressure relief:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.09.  Plants in which the safety means senses an excess pressure in the system, and relieves such excess pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 455+ for valves which respond to changes in line condition.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 89.1 through 89.4for frangible or fusible diaphragms which burst or melt to relieve excess pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.11]    39.11Flame screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.09.  Plants in which the safety means includes screens or equivalent means to prevent the flash-back of the flame.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   subclass 192 for safety devices for preventing, localizing and confining explosions in a gas distributing system.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 434 for safety devices used in connection with charge-forming devices of internal-combustion engines.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 88.1+ for flame guards for receptacles.
222Dispensing,   subclass 189.01 for flame guards for dispensers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.12]    39.12With combustible gas generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants in combination with means, distinct from and independent of the combustion products generator, to generate a combustible gas that is delivered to the combustion products generator to be burned.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.69,for combinations wherein the generator of the combustible gas is not distinct from the combustion products generator, but functions merely as a pre-combustion chamber.
39.71,for means to vaporize a liquid fuel by heat incidental to the operation of the combustion products generator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   appropriate subclasses for combustible gas generators, per se.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 3 for combinations of an internal-combustion engine and a combustible gas generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.13]    39.13Automatic starting and stopping of combustion products generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including means to start and stop the operation of the combustion products generator in response to pressure change in a storage vessel.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.24+,for plants in which the operation of the combustion products generator is varied, but not stopped, in response to pressure fluctuations in the combustion products accumulator.
281,for combinations of internal-combustion engines and exhaust gas accumulators.
786through 790, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid combined with a starting feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.15]    39.15Multiple fluid-operated motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants having a plurality of distinct motors, at least two of which are operated by a fluid under pressure.
(1) Note. Distinct motors include (1) two or more turbine rotors on a common shaft receiving combustion products, in parallel, from a common combustion products generator, or each rotor being supplied by a separate combustion products generator; (2) two or more expansible chamber cylinders supplied, in parallel, from a common combustion products generator where the cylinders are more than mere duplicates of each other; (3) a plurality of motors, on separate shafts, which may or may not deliver power to a common output shaft; (4) a plurality of turbine stages in a common housing, or in separate housings, wherein the combustion products pass through the stages in series, involving some treatment of the combustion products between stages; and (5) two or more turbines with means whereby the turbines are selectively operable to rotate power output shaft in either direction. The means whereby the turbines are selectively operable may include one or more clutches or equivalent means to connect the turbines to the power output shaft.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.22,for plants in which an auxiliary motor controls the cycle frequency of an intermittent combustion type of combustion products generator.
698+,for motors having several modes of operation, each classifiable in different motor classes, or for multiple motors of the same class other than combustion products types.
786through 790, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid combined with a starting feature.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for plural or multiple-stage gas turbines, per se, that does not involve combustion products generation means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.162]    39.162Counter-rotatable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 791.  Plants in which two motors rotate in different directions.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.163]    39.163Selectively connectable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 791.  Plants having at least two motors which may be selectively interconnected to provide a common power output.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.17]    39.17With treatment between stages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 791.  Plants including means to treat the combustion products between successive stages of expansion, as, for example, by heating, cooling, or by the addition of fuel air, water, steam or more combustion products.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

643+,and 662, for multiple stage motor plants using mixed fluids other than products of combustion, having means for admitting fluid between expansion stages from some source other than the next preceding stage while fluid is being admitted from the preceding stage.
648,677, 679, and 684, for multiple stage motors using motive fluid other than products of combustion, including means affecting the motive fluid between stages, as, for example, (1) tapping fluid for external use, (2) reheating, or (3) separation of condensate.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 8+ for multiple expansion type expansible chamber motors having means for permitting a subsequent pressure stage to receive motive fluid other than that discharged from the immediately prior stage, said prior stage also receiving motive fluid and at least ultimately discharging it into said subsequent stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.181]    39.181Different fluids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.15.  Plants in which unlike motive fluids are utilized in the several motors, at least one of such motive fluids being composed of combustion products.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

786through 790, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid combined with a starting feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.182]    39.182Steam and combustion products:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.181.  Plants having at least one motor operating on steam and one motor operating on combustion products.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.183]    39.183Air and combustion products:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.181.  Plants having at least one motor operating on air and one motor operating on combustion products.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.19]    39.19Different fluids:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants having a single motor in which two or more unlike motive fluids are simultaneously employed without being mixed in the motor, at least one of the motive fluids being composed of combustion products.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

486,and 674, for power plants simultaneously using two or more different motive fluids in a single motor, the motive fluids being other than combustion products.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.21]    39.21Plural generators, selectively operable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 793.  Combinations in which the quantity of the motive fluid is regulated by varying the number of combustion products generators in operation, viz., by cutting in and out one or more, but not all, of a plurality of combustion products generators.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.09,for combinations in which the operation of all combustion products generators is discontinued upon the creation of, or to prevent the creation of, dangerous operating conditions.
786through 790, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid combined with a starting feature.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 52 for systems for disabling some of the cylinders of an internal-combustion engine in order to vary the power output.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.22]    39.22Varying cycle frequency relative to prime mover speed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 793.  Combinations in which the quantity of the motive fluid is regulated by varying the cycle frequency of operation of an intermittent combustion type generator relative to the speed of the prime mover, i.e., the power output motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.13,for an independent motor for feeding a combustion products generator, the motor being started and stopped in response to the pressure in an accumulator receiving the combustion products.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.23]    39.23With variable oxidizer control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants having means to vary the rate of flow of oxidizer to the combustor, either for regulating the combustion process or for regulation of the engine power output.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

794through 795, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid combined with automatic regulation of a power output feature by control of an oxidizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.24]    39.24Automatic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 793.  Combinations including means to sense a change in condition of power plant operation, wherein the means to vary the rate of power output is under the control of such sensing means.
(1) Note. Control means responsive to (1) pressure and/or temperature of air or combustion products at any point between entrance into the compressor and discharge from the power plant; or (2) rate of flow or quantity of (a) air passing through the compressor to the combustion products generator or (b) products of combustion has been regarded as responsive to a change in condition of power plant operation.
The following has not been deemed significant power plant structure; control means responsive to (1) power plant speed; (2) carburetor or compressor inlet pressure; (3) air inlet temperature to carburetor or compressor; (4) pump speed; (5) fuel inlet or discharge pressure, velocity or volume; (6) altitude.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.09,for combinations of power plants with means to discontinue the supply of oxidizer, fuel, water, or motive fluid in response to some undesired or dangerous condition of operation.
233+,for a means controlling the thrust of a thrust producing device responsive to a motor condition such as speed, thrust, acceleration, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 16+ for a residual prime mover control system.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   subclasses 14 and 15, for automatic furnace control.
431Combustion,   subclasses 18+ for a residual automatically controlled device specialized to combustion and disclosed for use for purposes other than for external power.
701Data Processing: Vehicles, Navigation, and Relative Location,   subclasses 99 and 100 for indication or control of power plants, particularly gas turbine compressors.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.25]    39.25Motive fluid to prime mover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.24.  Combinations wherein the means to vary the rate of power output regulates the rate of flow of motive fluid to the prime mover, i.e., external power output motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.15+,for plants having a plurality of distinct motors wherein means are provided to vary the rate of flow of motive fluid to one or more motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.26]    39.26Oxidizer, fuel and water or steam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.24.  Combinations wherein the means to vary the rate of power output regulates the quantity of oxidizer, fuel and water or steam, comprising the ingredients to produce the motive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.27]    39.27Oxidizer and fuel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.24.  Combinations wherein the means to vary the rate of power output regulates the quantity of oxidizer and fuel, separately or as a fuel-oxidizer mixture, comprising the ingredients to produce the motive fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 319+ for speed regulators for internal combustion engines.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.281]    39.281Fuel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.24.  Combinations wherein the means to vary the rate of power output regulates the quantity of fuel comprising an ingredient to produce the motive fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 350+ and 378+ for regulation of fuel to internal combustion engines.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.282]    39.282Torque sensor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.281.  Combinations wherein the means to sense a change in condition of power plant operation is specially designed to sense the turning moment or turning force of a component of the power plant.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.3]    39.3Water or steam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.24.  Combinations wherein the means to vary the rate of power output regulates the quantity of water or steam comprising an ingredient to produce the motive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.34]    39.34Rotating combustion products generator and turbine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including one or more rotating combustion products generators and a turbine. The combustion products generator or generators may be an integral part of the turbine, or may form a separate member rotatable in the same or opposite direction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclasses 20+ for combustion products generators carried by propeller blades, the rotation being effected by the discharge of the products of combustion through reaction nozzles.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.35]    39.35Continuous combustion type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.34.  Plants in which the combustion within the combustion products generator or generators proceeds in an uninterrupted or continuous manner.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 39.01 for definition of "continuous combustion type".
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.37]    39.37Plural combustion products generators in ring coaxial with turbine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants in which a turbine is fed with combustion products from a plurality of combustion products generators lying in a ring whose axis is coaxial with the turbine shaft.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

35.6,for combinations wherein plural combustion products generators in a ring coaxial with a turbine deliver exhaust gases to a jet reaction nozzle.
39.34+,for rotating combustion products generators and turbine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.38]    39.38Intermittent combustion type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.37.  Plants in which the combustion products generators operate in a cyclic manner to intermittently produce and discharge combustion products.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 39.01 for definitions of "intermittent combustion type".
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.39]    39.39Common rotary distributing valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.38.  Plants in which the inlet and/or discharge ports of the combustion products generators are opened and closed by a common rotary valve member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.38,for plants in which the turbine or compressor rotor is provided with one or more solid portions which cooperate with ports in the combustion products generators to perform valving function.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.4]    39.4Common cam member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.38.  Plants in which the inlet and/or discharge valves of the combustion products generators are actuated by a common cam member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.41]    39.41With exhaust pump for combustion products generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including a movable pumping means connected with the combustion products generator to withdraw all or a part of the combustion products. This pump may deliver the combustion products at an increased pressure to a receiver or prime mover, or may serve to scavenge the combustion products generator or to draw in a new fuel charge or air.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.56+,for jet pumps for mixing steam and combustion products.
39.7,for jet pumps wherein the combustion products from one generator scavenge the combustion products from a cooperating generator or draws a new fuel charge or air into said cooperating generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.42]    39.42With reversible turbine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants having a single turbine rotor with blade structure and flow passages whereby the turbine rotor may be selectively operable in either direction, usually by providing separate forward and reverse blading on the rotor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for gas operated reversing turbines, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.43]    39.43With dual function turbine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants wherein the turbine rotor, in addition to its usual function as a power producing element, also serves, at the same time, to compress an oxidizer, fuel, or a fuel charge, for use in the power cycle.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

801through 803, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid is convertible or combined with a feature other than a combustion products generator or motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   subclasses 175+ and 177+ for turbines carrying fan blades for the circulation of a cooling medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.44]    39.44With closed pocket turbine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including a turbine of the so-called "closed pocket" type. The motive fluid, introduced into these pockets, is trapped therein, and while so trapped is incapable of exerting any useful energy release by expansion, impulse, or reaction. Turbines of this type are considered to be inoperative to produce useful power.
(1) Note. To be classified herein, the patent, in addition to disclosing a closed pocket turbine, should claim the turbine more specifically than merely as a "turbine" or "rotor", or similar broad language.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.45]    39.45With gear, pressure exchanger, or screw-type compressor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including a compressor utilizing interengaging impellers, a liquid or gas under pressure which directly contacts a gas to be compressed, or a rotating helix or screw, to compress the air, fuel, or fuel charge used in the plant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   appropriate subclasses for rotary pumps and compressors, per se, and see the search note to Class 60, References to Other Classes of the Class 415 Class Definition for a statement of the line.
417Pumps,   subclass 64 for a gas pressure pump using a rotary cellular conveyer; and 65+ for pumps of the type having one fluid pumped by another.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 166+ for a rotary expansible chamber device of the moving cylinder type having intermeshing peripheral surfaces and subclasses 191+ for rotary expansible chamber devices of the interengaging rotating member type.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.461]    39.461Using special fuel or oxidizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants using other oxidizer or fuel than air, oil or gasoline, in which parts of the plant are modified to utilize such other oxidizer or fuel.
(1) Note. See Lines With Other Classes in the Class Definition for the line with Class 110.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

44Fuel and Related Compositions,   subclasses 300+ for liquid fuels for various uses.
110Furnaces,   see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.462]    39.462Monofuel type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.461.  Plants using a single component fuel which is decomposed into its constituents to form a high pressure working fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.463]    39.463Plural distinct fuels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.461.  Plants which use two or more different fuels.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.464]    39.464Solid, slurry, emulsive or suspensive type fuel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.461.  Plants which use a fuel that is either: (a) a substance or material having a definite volume and shape, i.e., a solid; (b) a relatively dense mixture of a particulate solid and liquid, i.e., a slurry; (c) a mixture of liquids in which the liquids are indissolvable in each other, i.e., an emulsion; or (d) a mixture of a particulate solid dispersed in a liquid and in which the solid is indissolvable in the liquid, i.e., suspension.

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516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   for colloid systems or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, especially subclasses 9+ for continuous liquid phase (emulsions, slurries, suspensions), subclasses 98+ for continuous or semicontinuous solid phase (gels, pastes); in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.465]    39.465Gaseous fuel at standard temperature and pressure:
 Plants under 39.461 which use a fuel that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure.

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39.12,for plants which include means to generate a gaseous fuel.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.47]    39.47Solid fuel containing oxidizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.46.  Plants in which the motive fluids or products of combustion are produced by the combustion of a solid fuel which carries sufficient oxidizer incorporated therein to provide at least the major portion necessary to burn the fuel.

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632,for one shot explosion actuated expansible chamber type motors.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 530+ for pressure gas generating cartridges.
149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   appropriate subclasses for thermic or explosive compositions, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.48]    39.48With fluid pressure feeding of oxidizer, fuel or water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including means to apply fluid pressure against oxidizer, fuel, or water, in a receiver, either directly or through a separating member, to forcibly feed a combustion products generator.
(1) Note. By "separating member" is meant a flexible diaphragm or piston follower which functions to transmit the pressure of a fluid to the oxidizer, fuel or water.

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222Dispensing,   subclasses 394+ for fluid pressure discharge in dispensing devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.49]    39.49With air injection by fuel or steam jet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants in which air is delivered to the combustion products generator through a jet type pump, the motivating fluid for the jet type pump being fuel or steam vaporized by the heat in the system.

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39.12,for plants in which air is fed into the system by combustible gas generated in a combustible gas generator distinct from and independent of the combustion products generator.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 398+ for a discharge distributor including means to mix a plurality of fluids, even though the distributor is disclosed as burner.
417Pumps,   subclass 158 for jet pumps in combination with means to generate motive fluid therefor, the motive fluid generator, in many cases, comprising means to vaporize a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.5]    39.5With exhaust treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including means to act upon or re-use the motive fluid after its discharge from the power elements, as, for example, by cooling, compressing, mixing with another fluid, or recirculating it in the power cycle.

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272,for exhaust treating devices in combination with internal-combustion engines.
654,672, 681, 683, and 685+, for exhaust treatment of steam driven motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.511]    39.511Regenerator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.5.  Plants in which means are provided to transfer heat from the exhausted motive fluid to the air prior to the delivery thereof to the combustion products generator.

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96,for air cooling of the exhaust from a steam driven motor.
320+,for air cooling of the exhaust gases from an internal-combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.512]    39.512Rotary heat exchanger:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.511.  Plants including rotatable heat exchange structure.

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165Heat Exchange,   subclass 8 for rotary heat exchangers in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.52]    39.52Exhaust gas recycling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.5.  Plants in which some or all of the exhaust gases are returned to the circuit to form a portion of the motive fluid.

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39,and 40, for combinations in which a portion of the exhaust is mingled with live motive fluid between the generator and motor, no combustion products fluid being involved.
39.43,in which a portion of the combustion products or exhaust gases is recycled incidental to the dual function of the turbine.
654,672, 681, 683, and 691, for combinations of a motor with means for returning the exhausted motive fluid, without dissipation of the heat content remaining therein, to the place where energy was originally imparted thereto.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 568.11+ for devices to mix a portion of the exhaust gases with the fuel charge.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.53]    39.53With addition of steam and/or water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including means to add water and/or steam to the motive fluid before its discharge from the prime mover, or to the oxidizer or fuel delivered to the combustion products generator, which fuel and oxidizer are burned to form the motive fluid.

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39.3,for plants including means to automatically regulate the water and/or steam.
775,for a process where combustion products are used as motive fluid including introduction of water or steam.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.54]    39.54Added in prime mover:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.53.  Plants in which the steam and/or water is added to the motive fluid within the working space of the turbine or expansible chamber motor.

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39.17,for multiple expansion motors in which steam and/or water is added to the products of combustion between successive expansion stages.
39.58,for plants in which the steam and/or water is added in the turbine nozzle.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 25 for internal-combustion engines with means to supply water or steam to the working cylinder to mix with the products of combustion therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.55]    39.55Added in combustion products generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.53.  Plants in which the steam and/or the water is added to the products of combustion within the combustion chamber of the combustion products generator.

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39.49,for injectors utilizing steam to feed air into a combustion products generator.

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110Furnaces,   subclasses 199+ , 296 and 297+ for feeding steam and/or water to furnaces.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   appropriate subclasses for a fluid discharge distributor system even though disclosed as a burner, especially subclasses 128+ for means to heat the fluid or the system, and subclasses 398+ for means to mix a plurality of fluids prior to, at or subsequent to discharge.
431Combustion,   appropriate subclasses for combustion apparatus not disclosed solely for utilization in a prime mover in which water or water vapor is fed to interact with fuel and oxidizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.56]    39.56Mixed in space above water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.53.  Plants in which the union of steam and/or water with products of combustion takes place in a zone above a standing body of water, the water being heated by the products of combustion.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.57]    39.57Combustion products pass through water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.56.  Plants in which the products of combustion are discharged below the surface of the water in order that they may bubble through the water to the mixing zone.

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126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 360.2 for a submerged fluid fuel burner other than a top-accessible liquid heating vessel having direct contact of the liquid by exhaust.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.58]    39.58Added in mixing nozzle or in turbine nozzle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.53.  Plants in which the steam and/or water is united with the products of combustion in a mixing nozzle between the combustion products generator and motor or place of utilization, or is united in a turbine nozzle.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.59]    39.59Added in separate mixing chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.53.  Plants in which the combustion products and steam and/or water are united in a receiver distinct from the boiler or combustion chamber of the combustion products generator.
(1) Note. The "boiler", as used above, refers to a receiver for a standing body of water in which the steam is generated, and having a space above the water for the collection of the steam.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.6]    39.6External-combustion engine type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants including a prime mover comprising a motor of the expansible chamber type, the motor being in communication with an external-combustion products generator by means of a periodically opened transfer valve or equivalent means, to admit products of combustion into the working space on the power stroke of the motor piston. In an intermittently fired combustion products generator, ignition must be initiated prior to the opening of the transfer valve or equivalent means.

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632+,for one shot explosion actuated expansible chamber type motors.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   appropriate subclasses, for prime movers of the expansible chamber type having a combustion chamber separated from the working space by a periodically opened transfer valve or equivalent means, the transfer valve or equivalent means being open at the instant of ignition. Note subclasses 253+ .
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.62]    39.62With plurality of combustion products generator per cylinder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.6.  Plants in which a power cylinder receives combustion products alternately from two or more consecutively fired intermittent type combustion products generators.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.63]    39.63Continuous combustion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.6.  Plants in which the combustion within the combustion products generator proceeds in an uninterrupted or continuous manner.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 39.01 as to definition of "continuous combustion type".
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.64]    39.64Alternate cycle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants in which an intermittently actuated motive fluid generator discharges combustion products, and alternately therewith, in a regular cyclic manner, also discharges distinct volumes of a different motive fluid, such as heated air or steam.

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39.18+,for internal-combustion engines having separate fluid pressure expansion strokes.
801through 803, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid is convertible or combined with a feature other than a combustion products generator or motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.76]    39.76Intermittent combustion type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 722.  Combustion devices, having valves or equivalent means operating in a cyclic manner to intermittently produce and discharge combustion products.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 39.01 for definition of "intermittent combustion type."

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39.38+,for plants including a plurality of intermittent combustion type generators arranged in a ring coaxial with a turbine shaft.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 657 for combustion chambers for internal-combustion engines.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.77]    39.77Resonating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.76.  Combustion devices in which a resonating or pulsating condition within the combustion products generator, due to the cyclic combustion of a fuel charge, is utilized to effect the exhaust of the products of combustion and the suction and compression of air or a fuel charge.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.78]    39.78Rotating, oscillating, or reciprocating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.76.  Combustion devices in which rotating, revolving, reciprocating, or oscillating combustion device cooperates with ports in a stationary or relatively movable valve member to control the cyclic events of the intermittent combustion cycle.

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39.34+,for rotating combustion products generator and turbine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.79]    39.79With fluid actuated valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.76.  Combustion devices in which the combustion air, fuel charge, fuel feeding or exhaust valve is cyclically actuated by a fluid under pressure the application of such fluid under pressure being periodically controlled by a valve or similar means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.8]    39.8With pressure actuated valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.76.  Combustion devices in which the combustion air or fuel charge inlet valve, or the combustion products outlet valve, is cyclically actuated by the pressure at which the air, fuel charge or combustion products are delivered to or discharged from the combustion products generator.

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39.7,for combustion products generators in which the valves in one generator are operated by pressure fluctuations in another generator.
39.77,for pressure actuated valves in resonating combustion products generators.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.81]    39.81With fuel metering valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.76.  Combustion devices in which the fuel or fuel charge inlet valve is provided with means to cyclically feed a measured supply of fuel or fuel charge into the combustion device when actuated.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.821]    39.821With ignition device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 722.  Combustion devices in combination with an ignition device in the form of means to provide a source of heat to initiate combustion of a fuel charge or to maintain combustion within a combustion products generator.

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776through 777, for a process where combustion products are used as a motive fluid having ignition or fuel injection after starting.
786through 790, for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid combined with a starting feature.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 143+ for igniters for internal-combustion engines.
431Combustion,   appropriate subclass for a residual fuel burner having an ignition means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.822]    39.822Catalytic type:
 Combustion devices under 39.821 wherein the ignition device comprises structure in the form of a substance that increases the rate of chemical reaction of reactants brought into physical contact with the structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.823]    39.823Pyrotechnic squib or charge type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.821.  Combustion devices wherein the ignition device comprises structure composed of explosive-type materials but which has been modified or designed to burn rather than to explode.
(1) Note. The devices of this subclass are very similar to common fireworks and in particular firecrackers which have been ruptured or otherwise modified to cause the device to burn rather than to explode as in normal operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.824]    39.824Hypergolic type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.821.  Combustion devices wherein the ignition device comprises structure designed to bring into contact fuel components which ignite spontaneously upon contact with each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.825]    39.825Single shot liquid type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.821.  Combustion devices wherein the ignition device comprises structure specially designed to deliver a discrete quantity of liquid fuel in to a combustion chamber during a specified time period.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.826]    39.826Pilot or torch type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.821.  Combustion devices wherein the ignition device comprises a small jet designed to continuously supply gaseous fuel which either remains constantly burning or is otherwise ignited when desired.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.827]    39.827Spark type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.821.  Combustion devices wherein the ignition device comprises structure designed to produce an electrical discharge through normally insulative material, e.g., through air or similar atmospheric substances.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.828]    39.828Incandescent type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.821.  Combustion devices wherein the ignition device comprises structure which either, (a) is capable of being made incandescent prior to and to produce initial combustion operation of the combustion device, or (b) is capable of being raised to and maintained for a sustained period of time in an incandescent state wherein the ignition device is raised to this state during an uninterrupted period of combustion of the combustion device.
(1) Note. A typical example of the type of ignition device provided for in (a) above would be an electrical filament through which an electrical current is passed causing the filament to become heated and incandescent. Similarly, a typical example of the type of ignition device provided for in (b) above would be a ceramic structure which upon being heated by combustion heat retains this heat for a very long time and therefore can be used to re-ignite a combustion device in which combustion has ceased.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 39.83]    39.83Cooling of auxiliary components:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.01.  Plants having means to cool engine components other than those specifically provided for in preceding subclasses.
(1) Note. Patents classified herein include cooling of the engine casing, auxiliaries (e.g., starter motor, fuel pump, generator), and bearings not specifically disclosed or claimed as integral components of the compressor or turbine element.
(2) Note. An engine shaft is considered an element of either the compressor or motor, and coiling therefor is classified under the appropriate compressor or motor classification. However, cooling of a shaft bearing would be included herein.

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39.5,for cooling of the exhaust structure.
39.82,for cooling of the igniter.
726+,for cooling of the oxidizer compressor and associated shaft.
740+,for cooling of the fuel injector.
752+,for cooling of the combustor liner.
806,for a power plant where combustion products are used as motive fluid including a combustion products generator having a turbine and cooling.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 200.1]    200.1REACTION MOTOR (E.G., MOTIVE FLUID GENERATOR AND REACTION NOZZLE, ETC.):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus or process for producing a useful thrust in one direction by the expulsion of a motive fluid therefrom in a opposite direction comprising a means for or step of producing said motive fluid and a means for or step of ejecting said motive fluid.
(1) Note. See (1) Note in subclass 205 for a glossary of terms used in the titles and definitions of subclass 200.1 and indented subclasses.
(2) Note. This definition includes electronic propulsion devices commonly known as "ion motors" wherein a thrust is obtained in one direction by the ejection in the opposite direction of ions accelerated electronically or by other means and expelled into the ambient.
(3) Note. The "means for or step of producing said motive fluid" in the definition may be, for example, any means for imparting energy to the motive fluid such as a heating means, an ion accelerating means, a combustion chamber, a source of such motive fluid such as a tank or merely a pump, and the "means for ejecting said motive fluid" may be merely a pipe, though it is usually a nozzle.
(4) Note. Apparatus under this definition is usually used to cause motion of a vehicle to which it is attached but it may be used to cause merely a thrust without producing movement. Many apparatuses inherently cause a thrust while accomplishing some other function and comprise a pressure fluid producing means and a fluid ejecting means. Such apparatuses are not classified under this definition but in appropriate other classes based on the disclosed function, e.g., Class 239, Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing, would be the locus for a system comprising a pump connected to a nozzle used primarily to spray water and not to produce a thrust. On the other hand, a device comprising merely a pump and an output pipe which would normally be classified in Class 417, Pumps, or Class 418, Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices, is classifiable under this definition if the disclosure is limited to the use of a device as a reaction motor, e.g., to drive a boat. An exception to the above described use classification is made in the case of those power plants classifiable in Class 60, subclasses 39.01. Even if the sole disclosure of such a power plant is to produce a thrust it is not classifiable under this definition unless the nozzle is specifically described in the claim.
(5) Note. This class provides for the combination of a reaction propulsion device and a vehicular device wherein no more structure of the vehicular device is claimed than is necessary to mount the propulsion device. Any additional significantly claimed vehicle structure will require classification in the proper vehicle class.
(A) In the following instances, the structure of the vehicle was considered not to be significantly claimed: (a) The vehicle is included in the combination by name only (e.g., the vehicle is not modified, other than that required to accommodate the reaction motor, or identified as to any designation of the general class to which the vehicle belongs. (b) The location of the reaction motor or any part thereof, on the vehicle is defined merely by stating a relationship between the vehicle, as a unit, and the reaction motor (e.g., the motor is located at the front, rear, right, left, top, bottom, within or outside the vehicle, bow, stern, at the water line, center of gravity, or center line.
(B) In the following instances, the structure of the vehicle was considered to be significantly claimed: (a) The location of the reaction motor or motors or any part or parts thereof on the vehicle is defined by stating a plurality of relationships, anyone of which alone would be considered insignificant (e.g., one reaction motor on each side, or a reaction motor mounted within the vehicle rearwardly of the center of gravity). (b) The location of the reaction motor or any part thereof, on the vehicle is defined by stating a relationship between a specific part of the vehicle and the motor (e.g., motor located on the wing, keel or rudder of a ship). (c) The structure of the vehicle is modified to an extent greater than that required to position or support the reaction motor or its parts (e.g., claiming the shape of the hull of a ship). (d) The vehicle is provided with means for guiding, deflecting, or reacting with the propulsion fluid subsequent to its discharge from the nozzle of the reaction motor (e.g., the motor is located in an open channel or adjacent a rudder of a ship).
(6) Note. A component part of an apparatus under this definition necessary for its operation often is a motor, which, for example, may drive a compressor furnishing air to a combustion products generator which supplies motive fluid to a means (nozzle) for ejecting the fluid. Such motor may have a shaft output for an external load and the load on the shaft, e.g., a propeller, may even be nominally claimed and the apparatus will still be classified under this definition. However, if an apparatus under this definition has combined therewith an added motor used only for an external load, the whole apparatus is considered a combined reaction motor and other type motor for classification in subclasses 200.1+.
(7) Note. Under this definition the motive fluid generating means, as claimed, may itself be a motor having a transmission means and a nominal load.
(8) Note. Dual Use Disclosure Patents which claim an apparatus having means to pressurize a fluent and a means through which the pressurized fluent may be ejected and which disclose a dual use for said apparatus, one of the uses being to produce a thrust, (e.g., pump a fluid and produce a thrust) are classified as follows: If the apparatus, in addition to the thrust producing use, is disclosed as used as an electrical energy discharge device, classification is in Class 60. Otherwise, patents are placed in Class 60 only if the sole disclosed use of the apparatus claimed is to produce a thrust or wherein combustion products are generated for use as motive power. Classification of apparatus, for example, which may be used to produce a thrust and also used as a pump is in Classes 415, 416, 417, or 418, or if also used to produce hot gas by a means which burns a fuel in Class 431, or if also used to distribute a hot gas is in Class 239.

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39.01+,for power plants employing combustion products as the motive fluid and disclosed as being used with a reaction nozzle means to produce a thrust but not specifically claiming the nozzle means.

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44Fuel and Related Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for a solid or liquid fuel composition including petroleum fuels, such as gasoline, admixed with other materials. The lines between Class 44 and this class are: (1) A patent containing a fuel composition claim and a claim to broadly creating propulsion by burning the fuel is classified in Class 44 and cross-referenced to this class. (2) A patent containing only process claims even if they merely recite burning a definite fuel to broadly produce thrust is classified in this class.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 112.01 for turbine engine testing and subclass 147 for wind tunnel; aerodynamic wing and propeller study.
86Ammunition and Explosive-Charge Making,   subclasses 1 and 20 for apparatuses and processes for filling or loading a casing with propellant.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   for devices disclosed as explodable projectiles having an explosive or explosive carrying compartment and having a propelling charge. See in particular subclasses 347+ for skyrockets having explosive charges to give visual effects, flight control means, ground support illuminating means, etc., subclasses 374+ for projectiles having jet reaction propulsion means, subclasses 334 and 366+ for shells adapted to emit an incendiary or smoky substance during flight, subclasses 200+ for fuses, primers and igniting devices, subclass 458 for tracer shells and subclasses 283+ for the shape or structure of powder grains, sticks or bars of an explosive substance arranged for the purpose of modifying the rate or manner of burning or exploding.
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 26 for jet propelled rail vehicles.
110Furnaces,   for a combustion chamber structure of general utility or a method of operating the same with means to burn a solid fuel or solid fuel with auxiliary gas or liquid fuel and with or without means to feed said fuel to the burner means. These furnaces may also convert from a solid fuel burner to a gas or liquid fuel burner.
114Ships,   subclasses 20+ for self-propelled torpedoes, and subclasses 150+ for ships having steering means involving fluid pressure and jet means.
137Fluid Handling,   for fluid distribution systems for control of a motor means. Control of a reaction motor disclosed as the type classified in Class 60 would be classified in Class 60 if the reaction motor is claimed specifically or broadly. To claim, for example, merely a housing or chamber for a reaction motor would not preclude classification from Class 137. However, patents claiming specific motor structure and fuel control means for said motor, structural means interconnecting a motor and fuel control means, or a fuel control means broadly or specifically responsive to a motor condition are classified in Class 60. See subclasses 15.1+ for jet engine intake means, per se, having means to handle fluid therein.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   for tubular members of definite or indefinite length and especially subclasses 40+ for pipes having variable or nonvariable means (e.g., reaction motor diffusers) to restrict the flow of fluid therethrough, subclasses 89+ for a pipe with a closure and subclasses 111+ for plural ducting in a single pipe.
149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   appropriate subclasses for propellant compositions containing a fuel and an oxidizer. The lines between Class 149 and this class are: (1) A patent containing a propellant composition claim and a claim broadly creating propulsion by burning the propellant is classified in Class 149 and cross-referenced to this class. (2) A patent containing only process claims even if they merely recite burning a definite propellant to broadly produce thrust are classified in this class.
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 51+ for heat exchangers associated with an engine.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 11+ and in particular subclass 14 for devices for boring earth in situ employing a combustion product generator and a nozzle means to accelerate said products. Also see Note V of the class definition of Class 175 particularly as it refers to Class 125, Stone Working.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 7 for a motor vehicle having a special device (e.g., a reaction motor for propelling it; and subclasses 116+ for a motor vehicle having means for maintaining a working fluid mass between a surface of the vehicle and a reaction supporting surface.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 581+ for a high-pressure-gas tank, subclass 13 for receptacles having water jackets and subclasses 265+ for containers having frangible type closures.
222Dispensing,   subclasses 251+ for means to dispense material with discharge assistant means (e.g., impeller, pump, etc.).
227Elongated-Member-Driving Apparatus,   for means to cause engagement between an elongated member and another member.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   appropriate subclass for a terminal flow modifying means, e.g., nozzle for a fluid, especially subclasses 127.1+ and 265.11+ for a reaction motor discharge nozzle, per se, or such nozzle claimed in combination with a mere combustion chamber or other means imparting energy to a fluid in the absence of specific details of the energy imparting means or a specific relationship between the means and the terminal means. Devices claiming specific means by which combustion products are produced in a combustion chamber to be used solely in a motor or thrust device (e.g., fuel injector, solid fuel and, etc.), or specific means by which a pressure is maintained on a stored fluid (e.g., contractible chamber) together with a nozzle for the production of a thrust are, however, classified in Class 60. Condition responsive means controlling flow through a nozzle is classified in Class 239 regardless of the parameter sensed.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   appropriate subclasses for machines adapted to be sustained by air or propelled through air, and devices such as air foils which react with the atmosphere for controlling or sustaining flight. See in particular subclasses 3.1 through 3.3for an aerial missile (including a projectile) with means to stabilize or affect the trajectory or course of the missile, subclasses 7, 12.1-12.6, 14, 15, and 23 for aircraft using jet reaction devices principally to assist in vertical lift, subclass 52 for aircraft having jet reaction devices for steering and propulsion, subclasses 73 and 74 for aircraft having jet reaction propulsion means, and subclass 113 for aircraft provided with jet reaction means to retard motion and subclass 171.1 -171.5 for a spacecraft having a propulsion system that includes a power plant of the type found in this class (60) having a significant relationship to the spacecraft.
248Supports,   subclasses 637+ for machinery supports.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses, for the oxidizer and fuel mixing subcombinations of reaction motors.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclass 14 for processes involving the use of a fluid unconfined jet stream to comminute hard material (e.g., rock) in situ.
415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   subclasses 80+ for a motor runner having a reaction type jet discharge for causing rotation about an axis.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   for vehicular propulsion devices having significantly claimed propeller structure and broadly recited reaction nozzle means distinct from the propeller for the production of a reaction thrust. On the other hand, the combination of a nominally claimed propeller and a reaction motor is classifiable under this definition. When the propeller and a reaction motor are significantly claimed and the reaction motor produces a thrust which does not drive the propeller, the device is considered a combined type power plant for Class 60, subclasses 6+ However, where the propeller and jet reaction device form a unitary structure or are otherwise structurally related so that substantially all of the output of the reaction device directly or indirectly rotates the propeller, classification is in Class 416, see in particular subclasses 20+.
417Pumps,   for pump details, and particularly subclasses 73+ for pumps of the type in which fluid is pumped by the combustion of a motivating fluid in contact with the pumped fluid, and subclasses 321+ for motor driven pumps, including those in which the pump output is disclosed but not claimed as being delivered to the drive motor (e.g., supercharger) and those wherein the compressor output is claimed as being delivered to the motor and is tapped for use externally of the motor-pump combination, and also pumps having an output which is disclosed as being discharged for a purpose other than that of producing thrust.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   for rotary expansible chamber devices, per se.
431Combustion,   for combustion products generators not disclosed for any particular use or disclosed for use other than for external power purposes. A claimed means controlling a Combustion products generator which is responsive to a combustion products actuated motor condition such as speed, thrust, acceleration, etc., is considered to be tantamount to claiming the motor and causes classification in Class 60 rather than in Class 431. See also (8) Note under this subclass concerning dual use disclosures.
440Marine Propulsion,   subclasses 38+ for a boat or ship propelled or steered by a reaction motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 201]    201Rotating or cyclic movement during axial thrust:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus or process arranged so as to turn about an axis or having any kind of cyclic movement while producing a coaxial thrust component when in operation.
(1) Note. The motors included in this subclass are usually intended to turn or spin continuously about an axis at constant or variable rates in the nature of that necessary to obtain stabilization in flight or for other reasons. Motors having thrust direction modification means which momentarily causes the motor to rotate or turn about an axis, but which is not intended to impart continuous rotation is found below, for example, in subclasses 228+.
(2) Note: Motors in this subclass may be provided with motive fluid ejecting means to produce rotation thereof. However, motors having means such as an air foil which causes the motor to rotate solely as a result of reaction with ambient air are classified elsewhere, as for example in Class 244, Aeronautics and Astronautics, subclass 3.23. See also Class 102, subclass 350 for pyrotechnic rockets having means to cause rotation of the rocket by gas discharge.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.01+,especially subclass 39.34 for a power plant in which the motor rotates about an axis without producing an axial thrust.

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415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   subclasses 80+ for a motor runner having a reaction type jet discharge for causing rotation about an axis.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclasses 20+ for an impeller driven by a fluid reaction jet on the working member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 202]    202Ion motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus or process in which charged particles are ejected by application of an electrical force, e.g., an electromagnetic force.

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219Electric Heating,   subclasses 121.36+ for means for heating a workpiece by directing to said workpiece ionized particles which had been created by an electrical arc drawn between two electrodes.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 281+ for mass spectroscopy methods and apparatus which ionize the particles through an electrostatic or magnetic field for separation of certain of the particles, subclass 396 for electron or ion beam deflection of focussing methods or apparatus and subclasses 423+ for ion generation methods and apparatus.
310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 11 , for dynamo-electric machinery employing a plasma to exert a mechanical force.
313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   subclass 62 for electrical space discharge devices provided with magnetic means for confining the path of the particles discharged and accelerating said particles; subclasses 359.1+ for discharge devices provided with means for generating and accelerating positive ions; subclasses 153+ particularly subclass 161, for space discharge devices having a magnetic field designed to influence a space discharge; subclasses 231.01+ for discharge devices having fluent material supply or flow directing means.
315Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices: Systems,   subclasses 111.01+ for a discharge device having means to supply a fluent material to a discharge area between discharge electrodes.
322Electricity: Single Generator Systems,   subclass 48 for plasma generating means.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 300+ for means by which a substance may be ionized and the ionized particles moved through a magnetic field for observation so that the substance may be identified.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 100+ for processes and devices that utilize a gaseous or light element fuel material, the particles of which are electrically charged or excited to the point where they become highly ionized and the forces of repulsion of like nuclei are overcome to the end that thermonuclear fusion of such like nuclei is obtained or sought to be obtained.
417Pumps,   subclasses 48+ for electrical (e.g., ionic) or getter type pumps.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 203.1]    203.1Electric, nuclear, or radiated energy fluid heating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.  Apparatus or process in which the motive fluid is heated directly or indirectly, through a heat transfer medium, by electrical energy, by radioactive decay, or by radiated energy (e.g., solar radiated energy, radio wave energy, etc.).

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219Electric Heating,   subclasses 628+ and 772 for transferring heat to a fluent material by an inductively and capacitive dielectric heated member.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 317+ for propulsion systems or processes powered directly or indirectly by induced nuclear reactions.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 204]    204Method of operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Processes.
(1) Note. Subject matter under this definition includes methods for maintaining reaction motors in operative condition.
(2) Note. Methods of making reaction motors are classifiable in appropriate process classes. A patent having a claim to a reaction motor as an apparatus and also a claim to a method of making said motor is classifiable as an original in the appropriate subclass for the apparatus and cross-referenced to the appropriate process class.

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208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   subclasses 15+ for a petroleum fuel, such as gasoline, subclasses 22+ for an asphalt tar, pitch or resin mineral oil composition and subclass 39 for making, treating and recovery of asphalt, tar, pitch or resin.
502Catalyst, Solid Sorbent, or Support Therefor: Product or Process of Making,   appropriate subclass for a catalyst composition or a process of making or regenerating such composition.
(1) Note. Terms or phases used in titles or definitions are set forth at the end of this subclass with the meaning each is to have in this group of subclasses (205+).
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 205]    205By chemical reaction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Processes directed to producing thrust in a reaction motor by ejecting the products of chemical reaction of propellant material.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses take (1) processes involving injecting propellant material into the reaction zone in one or more streams, reacting the material and expelling the reaction products to produce thrust; (2) processes involving reacting propellant material in the reaction chamber and expelling the reaction products to produce thrust.
(2) Note. The lines between this and indented subclasses and Class 44, Fuel and Related Compositions, Class 149, Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges, Class 208, Mineral Oils: Processes and Products, Class 260, Chemistry of Carbon Compounds, and Class 423, Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds and Class 585, Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Compounds, are as follows: (1) patent containing a propellant material claim and a claim to broadly creating propulsion by merely broadly reacting the propellant material are classified in the appropriate material class and cross-referenced to this and indented subclasses. (2) A patent containing only process claims which merely recite reacting a definite propellant material to broadly produce thrust are classified in this and indented subclasses.
(3) Note. The processes of this and indented subclass include operating the reaction motor in such media as water, air and vacuum.

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44Fuel and Related Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for a solid or liquid fuel composition. The lines between Class 44 and this class are: (1) A patent, containing a fuel composition claim and a claim to broadly creating propulsion by burning the fuel is classified in Class 44 and cross-referenced to this class. (2) A patent containing only process claims even if they merely recite burning a definite fuel to broadly produce thrust are classified in this class.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 530+ for sky-rockets, subclasses 374+ for a projectile having a charge which discharges to propel the projectile after leaving the gun, subclasses 334 and 366+ for shells adapted to emit an incendiary or smoky substance during flight, subclass 458 for tracer shells and subclasses 283+ for inventions in the shape or structure of powder grains, sticks or bars of an explosive substance usually arranged for the purpose of modifying the rate or manner of burning or exploding.
114Ships,   subclasses 20.1+ for fish or automobile torpedoes, the power or propulsion being self-contained.
149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   appropriate subclasses for propellant compositions containing a fuel and an oxidizer. The lines between Class 149 and this class are: in particular, see subclass 109.2 for a collection of gas generation and propulsion methods using compositions not provided for elsewhere in the class, subclass 109.4 for a collection of monopropellant compounds, subclass 119 for a collection of oxidizer compounds and subclasses 120+ for a collection of high energy fuel compounds. (1) A patent containing a propellant composition claim and a claim to broadly creating propulsion by burning the propellant is classified in Class 149 and cross-referenced to this class. (2) A patent containing only process claims even if they merely recite burning a definite propellant to broadly produce thrust are classified in this class.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   subclasses 15+ for a petroleum fuel, such as gasoline, subclasses 22+ for an asphalt tar, pitch or resin mineral oil composition and subclass 39 for making, treating and recovery of asphalt, tar, pitch or resin.
252Compositions,   subclasses 186+ for oxidizing compositions.
440Marine Propulsion,   subclass 45 for devices causing explosive jets of the nature of those used in air and gas engines used for propelling a vessel.
502Catalyst, Solid Sorbent, or Support Therefor: Product or Process of Making,   appropriate subclass for a catalyst composition or a process of making or regenerating it.
585Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Compounds,   for certain fuel compositions containing only hydro-carbons and processes for making them.
 
 GLOSSARY
 BIPROPELLANT
 

A reaction motor propellant consisting of two separate substances (usually liquid) fed into the reaction zone separately. One of the substances is a fuel (e.g., hydrazine); while the other is an oxidizer (e.g., fluorine).

 CHEMICAL REACTION
 

The transformation of the molecules of one or more substances into other kinds of molecules.

 FUEL
 

A single substance or a mixture of substances which react with another substance (called the oxidizer) to form at least one new substance in which at least a portion of the fuel forms at least a portion of the more positive (electron donor) portion of the new substance. e.g.

H2 + Cl2→ 2HCl

Hydrogen is considered the fuel.

CH4 2O2→ CO2 + 2H2O

Methane is the fuel and oxygen in the

oxidizer.

BE + F2→ BeF2

Beryllium is the fuel and fluorine in the oxidizer.

 HYPERGOLE
 

A substance (fuel or oxidizer) which ignites spontaneously on contact with the other member of a hypergolic mixture. For example: aniline is hypergolic with nitric acid.

 INJECTING
 

Forcing into the reaction zone one or more streams of material which enter into the action which produces thrust. Extruding a solid or semi-solid into the reaction zone, spraying a stream of finely divided particles into the reaction zone and jetting a liquid or gas into the reaction zone are illustrative but nonlimiting examples of the scope of the term.

 METAL
 

The term includes a free metallic element (e.g., lithium), an alloy of two or more metals (e.g., 25% Na 75% K), and intermetallic compound (e.g., A1Ni) or a mere mixture of particles of two or more metals.

 MONOPROPELLANT
 

A material which contains within itself all of the components which enter into the chemical change which occurs in producing thrust in a chemical reaction motor. A monopropellant may be a pure compound, such as hydrazine, or a mixture of two or more substances which react under the conditions of the reaction chamber.

 MOTIVE FLUID
 

Used in this definition this term means a stream of moving particles, either gaseous or liquid, as it exists in the area in the motor where it is accelerated, pressurized or otherwise caused to become unstable up to and including the point where it exits the end of the ejecting means, e.g., nozzle, through which it is ejected into the ambient to cause thrust.

 OXIDIZER
 

A substance (element or compound) which reacts with another substance to produce at least one new substance in which at least a portion of the oxidizer furnishes at least part of the more negative (electron acceptor) portion of the new substances. e.g.

BH3 + NH3 → BN + 3H2

ammonia is considered the oxidizer

2LiH + F2 → 2LiF + 2HF

fluorine is considered the oxidizer

CH4 + 2O2 → CO2 + 2H2O

oxygen is the oxidizer

 PROPELLANT
 

The generic term for any or all of the components of the supply of materials which may be converted (by expansion, combustion or other means) into motive fluid.

 REACTION ZONE
 

The space in which the propellant material undergoes chemical change to produce new substances and heat which heat raises the temperature of the new substances. The ejection of these heated substances from the reaction motor produces thrust or propulsive force.

  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 206]    206Utilizing indirect heat exchange:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Process directed to utilizing indirect heat exchange within the system.
(1) Note. To come within the purview of this subclass the patent must specifically claim transferring heat within the system from one fluid to another through a solid material, such as using the incoming fuel to cool the discharge nozzle. The latter is being heated by the products of chemical reaction.

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252Compositions,   subclasses 71+ for a composition designed for use in heat exchange.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 207]    207Utilizing plural reaction zones within a system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Process directed to utilizing a plurality of chemical reaction zones in the system.
(1) Note. Such diverse processes as utilizing a main reaction zone and an afterburner zone and utilizing a plurality of reaction zone in parallel within the same system are within the purview of this subclass.
(2) Note. A process for hydrogenating the fuel and then oxidizing the is within the purview of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 208]    208Injecting air into the reaction zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Process directed to injecting atmospheric air into the reaction zone of the reaction motor.
(1) Note. This and indented subclasses are limited to operating air breathing reaction motors.

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211+,for a process in which liquid oxygen or liquid ozone is injected into the reaction zone as an oxidizer component and subclass 220 for a process in which a modifying fluid is injected into a reaction zone containing solid propellant material.

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44Fuel and Related Compositions,   subclasses 300+ for a liquid fuel mixture which may be used in air breathing reaction motors.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   subclasses 15+ for liquid hydrocarbon mixtures such as: gasoline or kerosene.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 209]    209Including using additive material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Process directed to using an additive material other than air and fuel.
(1) Note. To be classed as an additive the material must be used in a minor amount with respect to the fuel or the air.
(2) Note. Such substances as: (1) a catalyst, (2) a substance hypergolic with air or the fuel, (3) a substance which forms with the fuel and air a multicomponent hypergolic mixture are within the scope of this and indented subclasses.

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212,for utilizing an igniter aid with separately injected fuel stream and oxidizer stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 210]    210Injected separately:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.  Process directed to injecting the additive material into the reaction zone as a separate stream.

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213,for a process of injecting an igniter aid into the reaction zone in a separate stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 211]    211Injecting separate streams of fuel and oxidizer (e.g., hypergole, etc.) into the reaction zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Process directed to injecting into the reaction zone separate streams of fuel and oxidizer.
(1) Note. The injection of separate streams of at least two different substances which react to produce products which are useful to generate thrust is considered injecting separate streams of fuel and oxidizer. The two substances may ignite on contact (hypergolic reaction) or they may be caused to react by various means, such as; a catalyst, an electrical discharge, heat, a substance which is hypergolic with either reactant or the reactant mixture.
(2) Note. For purposes of this and indented subclasses red fuming nitric acid, white fuming nitric acid, fuming sulfuric acid and aqueous hydrogen peroxide are arbitrarily considered pure substances.
(3) Note. For purpose of this and indented subclasses a solution of an amine base in an oxidizing acid is considered a pure substance regardless of the ratio of amine to acid.

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149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   especially subclass 1 for a propellant composition including a normally gaseous material which is in the liquid state, subclass 36, for a propellant composition containing hydrazine and subclass 74, for a propellant composition containing oxides of nitrogen or nitric acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 212]    212Using igniter aid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Process directed to utilizing an extraneous material to aid the ignition of the fuel and oxidizer mixture in the reaction zone.
(1) Note. The igniter aid includes (1) a coating in the reaction zone which catalyzes the reaction between the fuel and oxidizer, (2) a hypergole added to the oxidizer or the fuel for starting or (3) a material separately injected into the reaction zone.
(2) Note. A patent which claims a material as a pure fuel and as a part of a fuel mixture even if it improves the ignition characteristics of the main fuel is classified in subclass 211 and cross-referenced to subclass 215.

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209,for a process of utilizing an additive material in an air breathing reaction motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 213]    213Injected separately:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Process directed to injecting the igniter aid into the reaction zone as a separate stream.

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210,for a process of injecting a separate stream of an additive into the reaction zone of an air breathing reaction motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 214]    214Oxidizer in the form of a mixture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Process directed to injecting into the reaction zone a plurality of oxidizing substances in the form of a mixture.
(1) Note. See Notes under subclass 211 for oxidizers which are arbitrarily classified as a pure compound instead of a mixture.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 215]    215Fuel in the form of a mixture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Process directed to utilizing a fuel which is composed of a plurality of materials.
(1) Note. Gasoline, kerosene and the like are mixtures of numerous hydrocarbons and are considered fuel mixtures for this and indented subclasses.

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44Fuel and Related Compositions,   subclasses 300+ for liquid fuels composed of a plurality of materials.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   subclasses 15+ for mineral oil fuels.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 216]    216One component free metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Process in which the fuel contains a free metal.
(1) Note. The term "metal" includes free metal (e.g., calcium), an alloy of two or more metals (e.g., 90% Al,10% Mg), an intermetallic compound (e.g., AlNi) or a mixture of particles of two or more metals (e.g., mixture of Mg shot, Fe powder and Al turnings).
(2) Note. Processes within the scope of subclasses 205+, utilizing fuel slurries which are classified elsewhere should be cross-referenced to this subclass.

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149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   subclass 22 for an explosive composition containing elemental boron, subclasses 37+ for an explosive composition containing a metal and an inorganic oxide, and subclass 87 for an explosive in which the fuel component contains free metal and a hydrocarbon or halohydrocarbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 217]    217Injecting mixture of fuel and oxidizer into the reaction zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Process directed to injecting into the reaction zone a stream composed of the fuel and the oxidizer.

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208+,for a process in which a mixture of fuel and air is injected into the reaction zone.
219+,for a process in which solid propellant material is contained in the reaction zone.

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149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   appropriate subclasses for a specific propellant composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 218]    218Decomposing a compound in the reaction zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Process directed to decomposing a single compound in the reaction zone.
(1) Note. To come within the scope of this subclass a single compound must be broken down or rearranged to produce products which will have additional reaction effect. For example, decomposing hydrogen peroxide to produce steam and oxygen gas. For patents claiming the apparatus for producing a motive fluid which is principally steam see subclass 227.

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423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   appropriate subclasses, for inorganic compounds, per se. Note especially subclasses 289+ for binary boron compounds, 407+ for hydrazkine and 584+ for hydrogen peroxide.
568Organic Compounds,   subclasses 943+ for a nitroalkyl compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 219]    219Using solid material in reaction zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Process directed to reacting solid material in the reaction zone.
(1) Note. Producing thrust (1) by burning a cast monopropellant in the reaction zone, (2) by jetting a fuel onto solid oxidizer in the reaction zone, (3) regulating reaction rate of the solid propellant material in the reaction zone by injecting a fluid to change the pressure in the reaction zone are nonlimiting examples of processes within the scope of this and indented subclasses.

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217,for a process in which a solid propellant material is extruded into the reaction zone.

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44Fuel and Related Compositions,   appropriate subclasses for specific fuel compositions, especially subclasses 265+ for a solidified liquid fuel.
102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 283+ for powder forms of specific size or shape.
149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   subclasses 3+ for an explosive or thermic composition having a specific structure or arrangement of a component or the product.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 220]    220Including injecting modifying fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Process directed to injecting a modifying fluid into the reaction zone.
(3) Note. Injecting a modifying fluid into the reaction zone (1) to change the fluid pressure therein to control the reaction rate of the solid propellant material and (2) to react with the solid propellant therein are nonlimiting examples of the scope of this subclass.

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208+,for a process in which air is injected into the reaction zone and subclasses 211+, for a process in which solid material and a fluid are injected into the reaction zone in separate streams.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 221]    221Motive fluid principally liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus wherein the motive fluid, as it leaves the ejecting means, substantially consists of a liquid.
(1) Note. The fluid leaving the ejecting means is considered to come under this definition if a substantial and important thrust component thereof is a liquid. A fluid not coming under the definition, for example, would be a gas containing a liquid mist. For such a fluid see subclass 264 for motive fluid treated with liquid, and subclass 227 for motive fluid which is principally steam.
(2) Note. The devices classified under this definition are usually boat propulsion devices in which the motive fluid leaving its ejecting means is disclosed as acting against an ambient liquid.

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114Ships,   subclass 315 for reaction motor devices adapted to operate under water having means adapted to be secured to a human for the propulsion thereof through the water.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   for a device having an impeller for moving a fluid and an outlet through which the fluid may be discharged wherein the function of the discharged fluid relates to sprinkling, spraying, etc.
417Pumps,   for devices not otherwise classified operable to move a liquid, however, devices claiming liquid pumping means having a disclosed use as a reaction motor is classified in Class 60.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   for rotary expansible chamber devices, per se. However, devices claiming liquid pumping means having a disclosed use as a reaction motor is classified in Class 60.
440Marine Propulsion,   subclass 38 for reaction motors which propel or propel and steer a ship, and see in particular the note (5) in the definition of subclass 200.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 222]    222Plural discharge outlets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Apparatus having more than one means through which motive fluid from a common source may be ejected.

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229,for motors having a plurality of selectively usable motive fluid outlets for discharging a fluid for the purpose of modifying the thrust direction.
263,for motors having plural outlets for discharging fluid.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 265.25+ for reaction motor nozzles, per se, comprising plural controlled fluid discharge outlets.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 223]    223With destruction sensing and preventing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having means sensing an abnormal condition which might destroy the apparatus and functioning to take corrective action against the destructive condition.
(1) Note. This definition does not include a device which senses a normal variation in conditions to effect a control function, even though such device might be capable of sensing a suddenly presented abnormal condition. For example, a fuel control device responsive to motive fluid temperature to maintain a predetermined power output would not be classifiable under this definition but would be classified in subclasses 233+. However, a fuel control device designed to function only when the motive fluid temperature reaches a temperature above which it would be destructive to the apparatus would be classifiable under this definition.

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220Receptacles,   subclasses 89.1 through 89.4for containers having frangible or fusible pressure responsive blow out devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 224]    224Interrelated reaction motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  A plurality of apparatuses, each, interrelated (1) by a single means to which two or more responds, or (2) by a means or condition in one of the apparatuses upon which another apparatus is dependent for its operation.
(1) Note. A plurality of apparatuses under this definition must each include an individual means for placing its motive fluid under pressure and an individual means for ejecting said fluid. However, a device, e.g., a fan jet, having a unitary device employed to pressurize fluid for two or more ejecting means comes within this definition provided the fluids for each said ejecting means are distinguishable and not intermixed as they are being pressurized or before entering said ejecting means.
(2) Note. Concentric nozzles are not considered plural individual means for ejecting fluid if fluid from one nozzle is discharged within the confines and upstream of the discharging extremity of another of the nozzles.
(3) Note. This definition includes one reaction motor which is controlled in response to the output of another reaction motor.
(4) Note. This definition includes devices in which a component of one reaction motor is effective to operate a component (e.g., compressor) of another reaction motor.
(5) Note. A reaction motor having means by which ambient air is conducted to cool a motor part (e.g., air conducted to cool a combustion chamber, and thereafter discharged to the ambient through a nozzle, and wherein there is no disclosed indication that the coolant air may produce a thrust) is not subject matter for this subclass. Such devices may be found below particularly in subclass 266.

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229,for reaction motors wherein motive fluid from a common source may be ejected selectively through one or more of several ejecting means.
244,for devices having a single exhaust nozzle for sequentially ejecting motive fluid produced by diverse motive fluid producing means.
262,for a device having plural means each forming a compressed gas stream, e.g., a fan-jet, wherein at least two of the streams are combined before being discharged through a common ejecting means.
263,for devices in which the fluid from a single motive fluid pressurizing means is separated into several paths of fluid, wherein two or more of said paths are each ejected through separate ejecting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 225]    225Sequentially operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.  Apparatus wherein one of the apparatuses is started after another one of the apparatuses.
(1) Note. This definition includes devices wherein one apparatus is a ram jet which is considered inoperable (i.e., incapable of producing thrust) when static, and therefore may be started only after having been given motion by another motor. These devices may be arranged serially (e.g., rocket and ram jet) having distinctive motive fluid ejecting means for each. The motive fluid ejecting means may be in the form of concentric nozzles arranged so that one may be detached from the other when one motive fluid producing means, e.g., for the rocket, is terminated to provide a new nozzle configuration for the ejection of the motive fluid from the next motive fluid producing means to be activated.

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246,for reaction motors having diverse means arranged to sequentially produce a motive fluid to be discharged through a single nozzle.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 226.1]    226.1Air and diverse fluid discharge from separate discharge outlets (e.g., fan jet, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.  Apparatus wherein at least one of the motive fluids is air.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 226.2]    226.2Having thrust reverser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.1.  Apparatus in which the air discharge outlet is supplied pressurized airflow from an fan, and in which a device or mechanism is provided for at least partially reversing the flow direction of the fan airflow to thereby reduce or reverse the thrust of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 226.3]    226.3Having means to effect a variable bypass ratio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.1.  Apparatus in which the air discharge outlet is supplied pressurized airflow from a fan, and wherein a device or mechanism is provided to change the relative flow ratio between the air discharge outlet and the diverse fluid discharge outlet.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 227]    227Motive fluid principally steam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus including means for producing a motive fluid which substantially consists of steam to be ejected from the apparatus.
(1) Note. This subclass includes steam generators of the type having catalytically decomposed hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a nozzle wherein the resulting products discharged through the nozzle being predominantly steam (i.e., H2O+O). For patents claiming the process of decomposing a compound in the reaction zone see subclass 218.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 228]    228With thrust direction modifying means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having means which may so direct all or a portion of the motive fluid that the direction of thrust produced by the motor is altered.
(1) Note. Subject matter under this definition includes plural reaction motors having means for controlling them so as to cause a change in the direction of their resultant thrust.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 265.19+ for reaction motor discharge nozzles with means to control the direction of the discharge stream.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 12.1 , 23 and 29 for aircraft sustained by the thrust of a reaction motor and subclasses 15, 52 and 73+ for aircraft propelled or steered by reaction motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 229]    229With plural selectively usable motive fluid ejecting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus having means whereby motive fluid from a common source may be selectively exhausted through one or more of several ejecting means so that a variation in the direction of the resultant thrust component may be effected.

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222,for motors in which the motive fluid is principally liquid and which have a plurality of ejecting means.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 265.25+ for reaction motor nozzle means in which the discharge stream is directed by means of plural controlled outlets.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 230]    230Jet stream deflecting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus having a means which causes the motive fluid to change direction of flow relative to the ejecting means thereby to cause a change in direction in the resultant thrust of the motor.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 37+ for means within a pipe for changing the direction of flow of the fluid and subclass 109 for pipe shaped at the end portion to control the direction of flow of fluid before it is discharged.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 52 for aircraft spoilers in combination with jet motor discharge fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 231]    231By secondary fluid injection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Apparatus having means whereby a fluid is injected into the motive fluid stream to change the direction of flow of said motive fluid.
(1) Note. Normally devices under this subclass have a secondary fluid injected into the motive fluid at a point upstream of the nozzle outlet. However, the subclass may also include patents disclosing means to inject secondary fluid into the motive fluid downstream of the nozzle outlet if the disclosure states that the deflected motive fluid is effective to alter the direction of thrust.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 803+ for means to divert or vary the flow of one stream relative to a steam receiver (1) direct contact with at least one other stream or (2) by application of an energy field directly to a stream. Devices known in the art as "fluid amplifiers" and which act to control or vary high energy flows by relatively low energy flow or fields are here included.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 265.23 for reaction motor discharge nozzles in which the main discharge stream is deflected by a redirected portion of said stream, and subclass 127.3 for mixing a secondary fluid in the main stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 232]    232Motive fluid outlet movable relative to motor part:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus having means whereby the motive fluid ejecting means, per se, may be moved to modify the direction of the entire discharge stream which passes through the ejecting means.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 265.35 for a reaction motor nozzle in which the discharge stream is directed by adjustably aiming the nozzle.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 233]    233Condition responsive thrust varying means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus in which the thrust of the apparatus during operation may be varied by means which senses a change in (1) the static condition of the ambient or in the relationship between the apparatus and an ambient condition, or (2) a condition of an apparatus part, motive fluid or propellant of the apparatus being controlled, or (3) a condition of a motor other than a reaction motor the output of which is itself controlled responsive to a sensed change in the condition of the ambient or an internal condition.
(1) Note. Apparatus providing means which does no more than to permit the flow of fuel to a combustion chamber for starting after a certain condition has been attained, such as a certain fuel pressure or motive fluid temperature or pressure has been established, so that the motor thereafter may be fully operational, is not classified in this or indented subclasses. Such apparatus is classified below. This and indented subclasses include starting devices, however, if they further control the flow of fuel in accordance with the definition.
(2) Note. Means (i.e., for controlling fuel flow, nozzle area, etc.) controlled positively in response to a manually actuated device through a mechanical fluid linkage are not included under this definition. For example, a nozzle control responsive to fuel pressure which is controlled by manual means only is not considered to be condition responsive. Devices with such controls are classified on other features.

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39.24+,for plants having combustion products generators having automatic means controlling the fuel or oxidizer flow thereto.
224+,for interrelated reaction motors wherein the control of one reaction motor may be responsive to the condition of another reaction motor.
244,for a reaction motor having diverse means for the production of combustion products wherein one is activated only as a result of a sensed condition of another or of a sensed ambient condition where the diverse combustion products producing means are not employed specifically to obtain a variation in thrust.
245,for reaction motors having diverse means for the production of combustion products wherein one means is activated as a result of the depletion of the fuel supplied to another means.
250,for reaction motors having discrete fuel supplies one of which is activated upon the depletion of another.
761through 766, for a reaction motor having an afterburner.

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431Combustion,   subclasses 18+ for the control of a residual combustion device responsive to burner or ambient parameters. However, if fuel or oxidizer, as claimed, is controlled responsive to a condition of a disclosed but not claimed motive fluid ejecting means classification is in Class 60, Power Plants, on the basis that the structure claimed is incomplete and an ejecting means is required to complete it.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 234]    234Solid propellant depletion control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Apparatus having a solid propellant and means to initiate or terminate the consumption thereof responsive to the condition sensing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 235]    235Motive fluid outlet area and fuel flow control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Apparatus in which the condition sensing means controls both the rate of fuel flow to combustion chamber means in the apparatus and the cross sectional area of a motive fluid ejecting means.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are apparatuses having a fuel control means and a nozzle area control means each responsive to different sensed conditions, or both responsive to the same sensed condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 236]    236Plural spool motor-compressors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus having more than one unit each of which consists of a rotary compressor means for pressurizing the motive fluid, turbine means actuated by the motive fluid and shaft means by which the turbine means may drive the compressor means, wherein the shaft means for at least two of the units are concentrically arranged.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 237]    237Outlet area sensed to control fuel or oxidizer flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus having means to sense the area of the motive fluid ejecting means, and in response thereto, control the fuel or oxidizer flow rate for the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 238]    238Motive fluid temperature sensed to control fuel flow or outlet area:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus in which either the fuel flow to combustion chamber means in the apparatus, or the area of the motive fluid ejecting means, or both of these together, are varied in response to a sensed change in the motive fluid temperature.
(1) Note. See glossary under subclass 205 for the definition of "fuel".
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 239]    239Compressor or turbine speed sensed to control fuel flow or outlet area:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Apparatus in which the apparatus includes a combustion chamber, a turbine and a compressor driven thereby and either the fuel flow to the combustion chamber, or the area of the motive fluid ejecting means, or both of these together, are varied as a result of a sensed change in the compressor or turbine speed.
(1) Note. See glossary under subclass 205 for the meaning of "fuel".
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 240]    240Oxidizer and fuel flow control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Apparatus in which the condition sensing means characteristic of the apparatus including means, responsive to a sensed condition change, to control both the flow of a fuel and a combustion supporting oxidizer (e.g., air).
(1) Note. Means to alter the flow of oxidizer include, e.g., air inlet control as by a diffuser having a variable opening, variable flow retarding baffles, air bleed means, liquid oxidizer valve means or pump control means, or compressor vane setting control means. Means which controls fuel flow or an exhaust nozzle opening, resulting in a change in compressor speed and thus a change in oxidizer flow is not included in this definition. For condition responsive fuel flow and exhaust nozzle area control see subclasses 235+, 241 and 243.
(2) Note. See glossary under subclass 205 for meaning of fuel and oxidizer.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 241]    241Plural burners in series:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Apparatus having more than one fuel burning means arranged in the motive fluid stream so that one of the fuel burning means reheats the motive fluid stream issuing from another of the means and the fuel flow to a plurality of said burning means is controlled in response to a sensed condition.
(1) Note. See glossary under subclass 205 for the meaning of fuel.

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243,for a disclosure of burners in series but wherein the fuel flow to one of the burners only is controlled in response to a sensed condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 242]    242Outlet area control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Apparatus having means to vary the thrust characteristic of the apparatus during operation by varying the area of the opening through which the motive fluid may be ejected in response to a sensed condition.

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235+,for motive fluid ejecting means with condition responsive means to vary the area thereof.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   appropriate subclasses for fluid ejecting nozzles, per se, having means controlling the nozzle area for control of volumetric flow and pattern of flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 243]    243Fuel flow control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Apparatus in which the condition sensing means acts to vary the thrust of the apparatus by controlling the fuel flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 244]    244Motive fluid from diverse generators alternatively ejected through outlet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus (A) which by relative rearrangement or adjustment of its parts or by the addition or omission of a part is so changed as to become (1) basic subject matter of this class as defined in subclass 200.1 of a different character or having a different mode of operation or (2) basic subject matter of another class, or (B) in which the apparatus as defined in subclass 200.1 is combined with means, which means if claimed, per se, would be classified in another class and which is not merely a part or subcombination of the apparatus.
(1) Note. In this subclass, for example, are apparatus having means by which motive fluid may be produced by two or more diverse producing means and ejected through a single ejecting means, and having means by which motive fluid from any one of the diverse producing means may be ejected through the ejecting means to the exclusion of the motive fluid produced by another diverse motive fluid producing means.
(2) Note. A mere fuel or ignition control means by which one motive fluid producing means may function to the exclusion of another diverse fluid producing means is not included in this definition. .
(3) Note. The following are examples of diverse motive fluid producing means: ram air fed combustion products generator (athodyd), mechanically compressed air fed combustion products generator, resonating combustion chamber, pulsating valve controlled combustion products generator; mechanically compressed air, non-air breathing combustion chamber, ion acceleration, electrical or wave energy heating means, sublimation, etc.
(4) Note. Motors having plural means for the production of a motion fluid for ejection through a single nozzle wherein one means may not function to the exclusion of another of the means are found elsewhere.

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224+,for devices considered to be interrelated motors which may comprise a single casing housing diverse motive fluid producing means but employing distinct exhaust nozzle configurations for the motive fluid issuing from each motive fluid producer.
250,for a reaction motor having plural propellants that burn sequentially.
262,for a reaction motor having an air passage that bypasses a combustion chamber.
761through 766, for a reaction motor having an afterburner.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 245]    245Propellant supply used in one operation reduced before starting another:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 244.  Apparatus having means to initiate the production of motive fluid by one means after the propellant supply usable by a diverse motive fluid producing means has been reduced to a predetermined level.

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250,for a motor having a plurality of sequentially combustible fuels which does not change its principle of operation as one or the other fuel is burned.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 246]    246Turborocket:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus in which the means placing the motive fluid under pressure comprises a compressor driven by a turbine which is driven by combustion products egressing from a non-air breathing combustion chamber.

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244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 4 , for reaction motors having human body attaching means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 247]    247Intermittent combustion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus in which the means for producing the motive fluid comprises an intermittently operating combustion chamber having means permitting unidirectional flow of oxidizer or fuel to said chamber.
(1) Note. Under this definition the fuel may be caused to burn intermittently either by control of the fuel flow itself or the ignition thereof, or by intermittently admitting into the combustion chamber the air or other oxidizer which supports combustion.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 657 for combustion chambers for internal combustion engines.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 248]    248Air bypass passage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Apparatus having conduit means by which ambient air may flow exteriorly of and from a point before to a point after the combustion chamber.

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224+,for interrelated motors wherein air being supplied to one motor may first flow around the combustion chamber for another motor.
262,for motors having means to flow air exteriorly of and from a point before to a point after its combustion chamber forming means.
264,for motors having means to introduce air into the exhaust gas stream.
266,for motors which may be cooled by an air stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 249]    249Aerodynamic valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Apparatus in which the unidirectional flow permitting means comprises a passage means which prevents flow of combustion products therethrough from said chamber in a reverse direction due to its designed configuration and without a physical valve.
(1) Note. The unidirectional flow permitting means which offers minimum resistance to flow of fuel or oxidizers into the combustion chamber but substantially prevents reverse flow therefrom is normally a fixed orifice type restriction which presents a tortuous path to fluid attempting to leave the combustion chamber. Motors having this type of unidirectional flow permitting means are known in the art as "Valveless pulse jets".
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 250]    250Plural propellants to burn sequentially:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having two or more separately contained propellants or two or more solid propellant charges having the same or distinct burning characteristics arranged so that one of said propellants may be partially or completely consumed prior to another during the operation of the reaction apparatus.
(1) Note. A solid propellant rocket having an igniter which inherently produces some thrust during ignition, is not included under this definition. See subclass 256 for devices used to ignite solid propellant charges.
(2) Note. Under this definition a plurality of solid propellant charges having the same burning characteristics would include an arrangement of individually formed masses of propellant either in physical contact with each other or separated from one another.
(3) Note. See (1) Note subclass 205 for the meaning of "propellant".

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225,for a plurality of reaction motors which are interrelated and which may be operated sequentially.
245+,for reaction motors changeable to operate by one principle of operation from another.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 251]    251Solid and fluid propellant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus in which the motive fluid is produced by the combustion of a solid propellant and a fluid propellant.
(1) Note. A gelatinous propellant is considered to be a solid and to come within this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 252]    252Gel propellant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus wherein the propellant from which the motive fluid is produced is a gelatinous precipitate.

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44Fuel and Related Compositions,   subclasses 265+ for fuel which is normally liquid but rendered solid or semi-solid for better handling and transporting.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 253]    253Solid propellant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus in which the propellant from which the motive fluid is produced is a solid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 254]    254Including means to terminate or regulate motive fluid production:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Apparatus having means to control the consumption of the propellant.
(1) Note. This definition does not include rockets wherein the fuels are packed in a particular manner or inserted with combustion enhancing or inhibiting means to produce a particular burning rate or characteristic. These apparatus are found in subclass 253.
(2) Note. This definition does not include reaction motors employing a plurality of charges which may be sequentially ignited. These devices are found above in subclass 250.

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224,and in particular subclass 225 for interrelated reaction motors one of which may employ a solid propellant.
234,for motors having condition responsive means to regulate the consumption of a solid propellant.
244+,for motors having a means to change its principle of operation and which, at one time, may employ a solid propellant.
250+,for motors having plural propellants which burn sequentially one or more of which may be a solid.
251,for motors having diverse reactants one of which is a solid.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclasses 283+ for shapes or mechanical structures of grains, sticks, or bars of explosive material arranged to modify the manner of burning.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 255]    255Including propellant support means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Apparatus having means to position, hold or support the propellant.
(1) Note. A mere wall or casing without any special modification for positioning, holding or supporting the propellant is not included. See Class 239, Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing, subclass 302.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 256]    256Including ignition means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 253.  Apparatus having means to initiate propellant combustion.

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102Ammunition and Explosives,   subclass 202 for means for igniting a missile propellant.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 257]    257Liquid oxidizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus in which thrust is produced by the combustion of (1) a monopropellant or (2) an oxidizer and a fuel, the oxidizer being supplied to the combustion zone in a liquid state.
(1) Note. This definition is intended to provide an art collection of nonair breathing motors (i.e., rockets) employing an oxidant supplied to the motor in a liquid state. However, no special structure need be claimed for classification in this subclass. Patents whose disclosure or claims relate to the described art group are considered to come under this definition.
(2) Note. A broad disclosure that liquid oxidizer, two or more liquid propellants or liquid monopropellant are used in the motor or that the motor is of the "liquid propellant or liquid reactant" nonair breathing type is classifiable under this definition.

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240,for motors having oxidizers stored as a liquid with sensed condition responsive means for controlling oxidizer flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 258]    258Including injector means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Apparatus having means to inject the oxidizer into the combustion zone where it is to be consumed during the combustion process.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 259]    259Including pressurizing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Apparatus having means to increase the pressure of the oxidizer or monopropellant so that it may be introduced into the motive fluid producing area (e.g., burner).
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 260]    260Including heating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Apparatus having means by which a liquid oxidizer or monopropellant may be heated before it is introduced into the motive fluid producing means.

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267,for motors having a means to exchange heat between a solid body and a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 262]    262Air passage bypasses combustion chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus in which an air stream is compressed and led into a combustion chamber in which motive fluid is produced, comprising a passage for causing a portion of the air, after it has been compressed, to avoid entry into the combustion chamber and be led back into the stream of motive fluid from the combustion chamber before it is ejected into the ambient.

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224,for devices having means to cause a portion of a compressed gas stream to bypass a combustion chamber or other component acting upon the stream together with separate ejecting means for each of two or more of the streams formed.
246,for a device having a compressed air stream bypassing a nonair breathing combustion chamber.
248,for a device having an air passage which bypasses an intermittent combustion chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 263]    263Plural motive fluid generating means or plural outlets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having (1) two or more motive fluid producing means, means to combine the motive fluid issuing from said producing means, and either single or plural ejecting means through which said combined motive fluid may pass or (2) two or more motive fluid ejecting means receiving motive fluid from a single motive fluid producing means.
(1) Note. Concentric nozzles are not considered plural if fluid from one nozzle is discharged within the confines and upstream of the discharging extremity of another of the nozzles.

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201,for reaction motors arranged to turn about an axis when in operation and having a plurality of motive fluid ejecting means.
224+,for a plurality of reaction motors which are interrelated either because one is responsive to a condition of another or two or more reaction motors are responsive to a single means.
229,for motors having plural selectively usable motive fluid ejecting means to vary the thrust magnitude.
262,for motors having plural combustion chambers but wherein passage means is provided for the ambient air supply for one combustion chamber which extends from a point before to a point after another combustion chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 264]    264Including motive fluid treating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having means whereby a physical characteristic of a stream of pressurized motive fluid may be changed by the introduction of a substance into said stream to react or mix therewith.

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231,for motors having thrust direction modifying means employing a means to inject a fluid into the motive fluid ejecting means.
246,for motors having means to mix pressurized air from the effluent from a nonair breathing combustion chamber.
248,for reaction motors having means to bypass air around an intermittent combustion chamber and to mix said air with combustion products issuing from said combustion chamber.
261,for a motor having means to add oxidizer or fuel to an atmosphere of previously formed combustion products to promote further burning.
265,for motors having means to flow a film of fluid on a motor component surface between said surface and the motive fluid to cool the component, and means whereby the fluid may ultimately combine with the motive fluid.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 127.3 for means to mix a cooling fluid with the main discharge stream in a nozzle of a reaction motor, and subclass 265.17 for a means to add a secondary fluid to the main stream upstream of the nozzle outlet.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 265]    265Means to flow film on surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having means by which a fluid film, other than air, may be caused to sweep a surface of the apparatus between said surface and the motive fluid presented to said surface.
(1) Note. Included in this definition is a fluid film formed by ablatable material on a motive fluid engageable surface.

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257through 260, for a reaction motor using a liquid oxidizer, especially 258 for an injecting means, that could include the liquid oxidizer flowing along walls of a combustion chamber.
761through 766, for a reaction motor having an afterburner that could include the fuel flowing along walls of a combustion chamber.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 265.15 for reaction motor nozzles having an erodible, frangible or fusible part.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 266]    266Including heat exchange means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having means to enhance the transfer of heat between a solid body and a fluid flowing in contact therewith.

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246,for turborockets having means to bypass air around a nonair breathing combustion chamber.
248,for an intermittent combustion motor in which bypassed air may be used as a coolant.
262,for motors in which a part of the compressed gas may be bypassed around a motor part to cool said part.
264,for motors having a substance to be mixed with the motive fluid but which may also be used to cool a part of said motor.

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52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclass 232 for a structural component having chemically reactable layers or components which may change physically or chemically with variations in ambient conditions such as heat or moisture.
62Refrigeration,   subclasses 467+ for apparatus comprising means to cause a cooling effect by producing a change in the condition or state of a material.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 127.1 for reaction motor discharge nozzles having cooling jackets.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 117 for aircraft having an ablatable surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 267]    267For a liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Apparatus wherein said fluid is a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 268]    268Including counter rotating rotors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus having a plurality of rotary means two or more of which rotate in opposite directions, each rotary means having a means to compress a propellant and a means driving said rotary means.

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236,for reaction motors having counter rotating turbine rotors with condition responsive means which may control the fuel supply and motive fluid ejecting means opening.

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415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   subclasses 60+ for counter rotating rotors in a device of the type there classified.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclasses 128+ for oppositely rotating impellers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 269]    269Including mechanical air compressor or air flow inducing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 200.1.  Apparatus wherein the pressure of air is increased by mechanical means or by means of a pressurized fluid, said air being used as a propellant or as the motive fluid.
(1) Note. Included in this definition are reaction motors which include an impeller for moving a fluid and having an outlet for discharging said fluid having a sole disclosed function to produce a thrust.

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221+,for reaction motors having shrouded impellers wherein water is the medium moved.
268,for motors having counter rotating turbine rotors driving plural compressor elements.

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239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 265.11 for a device having an impeller for moving a fluid and an outlet through which the fluid may be discharged wherein a function of the discharged fluid relates to spraying, sprinkling, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 272]    272INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE WITH TREATMENT OR HANDLING OF EXHAUST GAS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having an engine in which fuel is burned in an expansible chamber to produce work and in which at least some of the combusted material going to discharge is handled or treated after it reaches a point where the handling or treatment is more than that necessary to remove the material from the chamber.

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39.5+,for the treatment of combustion products making up the exhaust of a gas turbine; subclasses 64+ for the treatment of the exhaust of an engine driven by a single fluid; and subclasses 200+ for a power plant comprising a combustion products generator and a combustion products directing reaction nozzle.
228+,for a reaction motor with thrust modifying means.
595,for a free piston type internal combustion engine, the exhaust of which drives a motor.
597+,for a fluid motor driven by the exhaust or waste heat of an internal combustion engine.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 568.11+ , for an internal combustion engine having a charge forming device that may be heated by exhaust gas; or in which exhaust gas is mixed with the engine fuel; subclass 142.5 for an internal combustion engine in which various parts of the engine exchange heat; and appropriate subclass for a residual internal combustion engine with the exhaust handled or treated as necessary to evacuate the combustion chamber or to modify operation of the engine.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 296 for a motor vehicle having a specific motor-to-body-frame relationship and wherein the vehicle includes means on the motor or body frame for handling exhaust from the motor; subclass 309 for a motor vehicle which includes means for handling exhaust from its motor; and subclass 89.2 for a body for a motor vehicle, which body includes means for handling the exhaust of a motor.
181Acoustics,   subclasses 213+ for a muffler, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 273]    273Methods:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Processes of treating or handling the materials discharging to atmosphere or to an external device from the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine.

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423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 212+ for a process of purifying a gas that is nominally the exhaust from an internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 274]    274Anti-pollution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Processes in which the handling or treatment serves to remove or destroy harmful materials in the exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 275]    275By electrolysis, electrical discharge, electrical field, or vibration generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus in which the exhaust gas is treated by a sonic or super-sonic vibration generator, an electrical field device, electrolysis, or by an electrical discharge.
(1) Note. An electrical igniter is not regarded as an electrical field or discharge type gas treater.

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95Gas Separation: Processes,   subclasses 57+ for processes of gas separation involving an electric or electrostatic field.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 15+ for apparatus for gas separation involving an electric or electrostatic field.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 276]    276Having means analyzing composition of exhaust gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus including structure analyzing the chemical composition of the exhaust gas and exerting a control responsive to the determined value or giving an indication of the determined value.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 23+ for a gas analyzer, per se.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclass 61.03 for a smoke responsive switch.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for apparatus testing the electrical properties of gases.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 83 for gas analyzers.
431Combustion,   subclass 76 for a fuel burner controlled by a means analyzing the composition of its combustion products.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 277]    277Having sensor or indicator of malfunction, unsafeness, or disarray of treater (e.g., fusible link, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus, with means (1) that prevents operation if a necessary state or condition is not sensed or indicated (2) that stops operation if a malfunction or dangerous condition is sensed (3) that takes protective action to protect a system element responsive to a sensed malfunction or dangerous condition (4) or that acts to inform the operator of a dangerous state or malfunction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for electrical automatic condition responsive indicating systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 278]    278Material from exhaust structure fed to engine intake:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus having (1) structure by which a part of the gas discharged from the combustion chamber is returned to become a constituent of the engine feed and another part is handled or treated as it is discharged as exhaust gas or (2) structure by which the combustion chamber discharge gas is cooled, purified or separated; and a part of the cooled, purified or separated engine discharge is returned as engine feed and another part is discharged as exhaust gas.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 568.11 for an internal combustion engine having means to return a part of the exhaust gas switching, therefrom back to the engine intake and wherein no means are provided to treat said gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 279]    279Separated reactive constituent of exhaust fed to engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Apparatus in which the combustion chamber discharge is separated into two streams, one richer in reactive material than the other, the enriched part of the separated combustion chamber discharge being returned to the engine and the stream reduced in reactive components being discharged as exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 280]    280Having auxiliary device mechanically driven by exhaust gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus including a mechanism or structure driven by the flow of the engine exhaust gas serving to perfect the operation of the engine.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

597+,for an internal combustion engine having a motor driven by exhaust from the internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 281]    281Having exhaust gas collection and storage, or use as a pressure fluid source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus in which the handling means includes a collection and storage reservoir, or a flow line maintaining the exhaust pressure and connected to a point using exhaust gases as a pressurized motive fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

613,for an internal combustion engine having a motor driven by its exhaust gases and having means to temporarily store the gases prior to their entry into the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 129 , for a system using exhaust gas to heat and spray an external material.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 282]    282By means producing a chemical reaction of a component of the exhaust gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus having means for chemically reacting at least one of the constituent materials of the combustion products to produce a substance less harmful to living organisms.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 168+ for a chemical or catalytic reactor for treating exhaust gas.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 212+ for a process of purifying a mixture that is nominally the exhaust of an internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 283]    283With means handling crankcase, carburetor, or gas tank vapor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus with structure by which the fumes from the crankcase of the engine, or fuel vapors from the carburetor or fuel tank are handled or treated in conduction with the engine exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 284]    284Automatic or timed reactor purge or heat-up in engine starting operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus in which there is a sequence by which the engine is brought into full operation after start initiation without manual intervention; the sequence including a purge period or operation on the reactor, or a special operation to bring the reactor to an effective reacting temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 285]    285Engine fuel, air, or ignition controlled by sensor of reactor condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus including a means that senses a condition of the reactor and actuates a device controlling the feed to, or ignition of the engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 286]    286Condition responsive control of heater, cooler, igniter, or fuel supply of reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus including a condition responsive device controlling a means heating the reactor, a means igniting the exhaust gas in the reactor, a means cooling the reactor, or a means supplying fuel to the reactor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

284,for an automatic purge or heat-up of an exhaust gas treating reactor in an engine starting sequence.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 287]    287Condition responsive control of reactor feed, pressure, or by-pass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus including a means sensing a condition of the apparatus and exerting a control on a means feeding a fluid to the reactor, of the pressure of the reactor, or on a means by-passing the reactor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

285,for apparatus in which the engine feed or ignition is controlled by a means sensing a condition of the reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 288]    288Exhaust gas diverted from reactor or treating agent mixer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Apparatus in which the condition responsive means control structure selectively directing exhaust from the engine through the reaction device or a device by which oxidizer is entrained for reaction; or through a branch or bypass avoiding such device.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 289]    289Air feed to reactor modulated or diverted by control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Apparatus controlling the delivery of reactive air to the reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 290]    290Responsive to engine speed or intake manifold pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 289.  Apparatus in which the feed of reactive is controlled by a means responsive to the speed of the engine or to the pressure in the intake manifold of the engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 291]    291Of or by pressure in reactor or of engine exhaust:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.  Apparatus in which there is (1) a means controlling the pressure in the reactor or in the exhaust gas being fed to the reactor; or (2) a means sensing the pressure in the reactor or of the exhaust gas being fed to the reactor and controlling an element of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 292]    292Valve at reactor outlet controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Apparatus in which a valve controlling the discharge from the reactor to the atmosphere is actuated by a means sensing the pressure in the reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 293]    293Check valve feeds air to exhaust system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 291.  Apparatus in which a valve responsive to the difference in pressure between that of the reactor and the atmosphere open to feed reactive air to the reactor when the pressure in the reactor is below atmospheric pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 294]    294Reactor control correlated with cyclic or external engine control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus in which a control means that affects operation of the reactor is mechanically connected to the throttle of the engine or to a cyclically controlled element of the engine to be moved along with the throttle or element.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 295]    295Having means for regenerating, replacing, or feeding liquid or solid reagent or catalyst:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus with structure for cleaning, regenerating, replacing or otherwise restoring used, contaminated, or consumed catalytic material or other solid or liquid treating agent or reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 296]    296Flow reversing structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Apparatus in which cleaning or regenerating is accomplished by reversing the flow of fluid through the agent, reactant or catalytic material.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 297]    297Reactor plus a washer, sorber or mechanical separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus having, in addition to the reactor, means to mechanically remove, solid or liquid particles from the exhaust gas; to wash the exhaust gas; or to absorb or adsorb material from the exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 298]    298With means cooling reactor or reactor feed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus having structure by which heat is removed from the reactor or from the feed to the reactor, generally to prevent overheating of the reactor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 299]    299Using a catalyst:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus in which the exhaust gas is passed over or through catalytic material to produce the reaction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclass 168 for a chemical or catalytic reactor for treating exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 300]    300Having a means for heating the catalyst:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.  Apparatus with an external means for supplying heat to the catalyst to raise it to an operative temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 301]    301Reducing type catalyst:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.  Apparatus in which the reaction assisted by the catalyst is of the reduction type, i.e., the removal of oxygen from the substance being treated.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 302]    302Catalyst in engine manifold or at exhaust port:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 299.  Apparatus in which the catalyst is positioned directly in the exhaust manifold or between the manifold and the combustion chamber of the engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 303]    303Having heater, igniter, or fuel supply for reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus in which the reaction of the exhaust gas is initiated or maintained by a heater, an igniter, or a supplemental feed of fuel.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 304]    304Oxidizer feed passage at engine exhaust valve, manifold or port:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus including structure by which air is fed to the exhaust gas at a region immediately associated with an engine exhaust valve or port, whereby the high temperature produced by combustion in the engine produces the reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 305]    305Distributed to plural individual ports or valves:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.  Apparatus in which oxidizer from a common supply structure is fed separately to the exhaust valves or ports of spaced engine combustion chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 306]    306To port zone and downstream of port:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.  Apparatus in which oxidizer is fed both to a region of reaction adjacent the combustion chamber and to a reactor downstream of and spaced from the port region.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 307]    307Pressurizing means feeds reactive air to reactor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus having a pump or other fluid impelling structure feeding air into the combustion products from the engine to react chemically therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 308]    308Exhaust actuated air aspirator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.  Apparatus in which the air is caused to flow by an aspirating effect of the exhaust gas.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 41.64 for an internal combustion engine in which cooling air is aspirated across the engine by a jet pump generally powered by exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 309]    309Having retainer or flow director for exhaust gas condensate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus with structure for receiving or handling liquid condensed from the exhaust gases.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 236+ , for a cyclically operable expansible chamber motor having plural exhaust passages, for example, separate air and condensate discharge passages.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 310]    310Treated by washing, or having liquid contact structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus in which the exhaust gas is treated by being washed by liquid, or is handled by structure within which it comes into contact with liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

181Acoustics,   subclass 235 , for a muffler having an underwater discharge; and subclasses 221 and 260+, for a muffler into which liquid is fed to assist in muffling the sound.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   appropriate subclass for gas and liquid contact apparatus not specialized to handling the exhaust of an internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 311]    311By sorber or mechanical separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus treating the exhaust gases by absorbing or adsorbing one of the liquid or gaseous components; or by separating a liquid or solid component by a filter, a centrifugal device, or a gravitational device.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

299+,for apparatus in which exhaust gas is passed into or through a catalytic bed that may also filter the gas or sorb one of its components.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

55Gas Separation,   appropriate subclass, for a gas separator of general utility.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   for gas separation apparatus, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 312]    312Pulsed, timed, tuned or resonating exhaust:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus correlating, or correlated with the pressure waves or pulses produced by the regular, intermittent discharge from an engine"s exhaust port or ports.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

181Acoustics,   subclasses 277+ , for a muffler, per se, tuned to silence or muffle pressure pulses.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 313]    313Correlated exhausts from plural cylinders:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Apparatus receiving pressure pulses from successively firing cylinders.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 314]    314Two-cycle engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Apparatus in which the waves or pulses aid in the scavenging or charging of a combustion chamber of a two-cycle engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 315]    315Pump draws exhaust gas from engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus receiving exhaust gas from the engine and forcibly moving it toward discharge.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

281,for an exhaust system that collects exhaust gas or uses it as a pressure fluid source.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 316]    316Fluid jet or stream aspirates exhaust gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Apparatus, in which exhaust gases are moved toward discharge entrainment in a separately supplied rapidly moving fluid stream.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 317]    317Exhaust and external fluid mingling structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus having structure in which the engine discharge is mixed with a second fluid prior to emission into the atmosphere.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

282+,for a system in which engine discharge is mingled with a fluid with which it reacts.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

181Acoustics,   subclasses 219 and 259+ for a muffler in which gas is mingled with another gas to muffle the sound by diluting the moving fluid.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclass 129 , for a system in which exhaust gas is the carrier for a material to be diffused.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 318]    318External fluid is steam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Apparatus, in which the material mixed with the exhaust gas is water in the vaporous state.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 319]    319Exhaust aspirates external fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Apparatus in which exhaust gas flowing in the structure entrains and carries along the external fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclass 41.64 for an air cooled internal combustion engine in which the cooling air is caused to move by a jet pump actuated by exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 320]    320Exhaust gas or exhaust system element heated, cooled, or used as a heat source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus having structure for the transfer of heat to or from exhaust gas or to or from exhaust gas handling structure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 41.01+ , for the cooling of the parts of an internal combustion engine other than the exhaust system; subclasses 434+ for a charge-forming system having means for heating the charge or for a device vaporizing oil to form a charge, for a device vaporizing oil to form a charge; and subclass 142.5 for an internal combustion engine having means using heat from one part to heat another part by exchanging heat between the parts.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 19.5 for a stove, oven or heating vessel heated by exhaust gas.
165Heat Exchange,   subclass 52 , for a heat exchange means for transferring heat from exhaust gas to engine feed structure.
237Heating Systems,   subclass 12.3 for an automobile heated by the exhaust of an engine.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   subclass 145 for a gas-liquid contact engine supply device heated by exhaust gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 321]    321Cooled manifold:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 320.  Apparatus in which an element collecting exhaust gas from a plurality of cylinders is cooled.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 322]    322Having vibration attenuating, or expansion and contraction relieving structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus with provision for dimension variation produced by temperature change or having means absorbing, preventing, or limiting the transmission of vibration.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 323]    323Common receiver having inlets from plural cylinder (i.e., exhaust manifold):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus comprising a chamber or flow line fed by branch inlets from a plurality of distinct combustion chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 324]    324Divider, collector, valve means, or boundary layer device controlling exhaust gas flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus having distinct structure dividing, modulating, or providing for nonturbulent flow of exhaust gas.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 37 for a tubular conduit having a flow regulator or baffle.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 325]    325PRESSURE FLUID SOURCE AND MOTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having a means or source capable of flowing or pressurizing a liquid or gaseous motive fluid, and motor means responsive to the pressure of the flow or of the fluid to convert such pressure or flow to useful mechanical work, said motive fluid being capable of transmitting energy from said source to said motor.
(1) Note. See Glossary at the end of this subclass definition.
(2) Note. Except as noted below, this and indented subclasses include those pump-motor combinations in which the pump creates a pressurized motive fluid to be transmitted to the motor to output useful work because of the pressure differential of the working fluid between the fluid inlet to and outlet from the motor.
(3) Note. Expansible chamber motors having a nominal pressure source and an exhaust treating means are classified in Class 60 subclasses 654, 681, and 685+, dealing with motors combined with exhaust treating means, on the theory that the device would be classified in Class 91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, or some other motor class, except for the claimed exhaust treatment feature and would not be classified on the grounds of a motor with a nominal pump combination.
(4) Note. The combination of an internal combustion engine and means to induce or create flow of exhaust gases or to treat exhaust gases from the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engine is not considered to define a motor having a working member actuated by motive fluid. Such a combination is regarded rather as directed to exhaust treatment classified in subclasses 272+.
(5) Note. A fluid motor in which the exhaust thereof passes through a heat exchanger or condenser arranged to induce additional flow in the motive fluid is excluded from this subclass and will be found under subclasses 685+, exhaust treatment.
(6) Note. This and indented subclasses include patents claiming motive fluid pressurizing means combined with means to convert the pressurized motive fluid to useful work.
Output Transmission. In general gearing or linkage may be included as part of the power output means or transmission of the claimed motor means. However, when the transmission includes some part which does not always partake of a given motion in accordance with the motion of the motor working member, such as a selectively engageable clutch, this no longer constitutes subject matter for this class. See Class 74, Machine Element or Mechanism Class 188, Brakes, Class 192, Clutches and Power Stop Control, 475, Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components.
Motive Fluid Source
(1) Pumps
The inclusion in a claim of a pump broadly which provides motive fluid for utilization by fluid motor does not preclude classification in a fluid motor class (See the Search Class notes below.).
The following examples of terminology have been considered to be nominal inclusion of a pump and if so claimed would not preclude classification in a fluid motor class: (a) a pump, (b) a rotary pump, (c) a motor driven pump, (d) a motor driven rotary pump, (e) an internal combustion engine having an intake manifold (as a source of vacuum); (f) a plurality of pumps arranged in parallel; (g) a circuit comprising a pump, pumps, and motor.
The following examples have been considered to be significant inclusion of a pump and if so claimed would cause classification in Class 60 if otherwise appropriate: (a) a pump which is characterized as to type, e.g., centrifugal, eduction, constant displacement, variable displacement, pulsator, etc., (however, see (b) in preceding paragraph) (b) a motor driven pump in which the motor is characterized as to type e.g., turbine, electric motor, internal combustion engine (however, see (e) in preceding paragraph),(c) a pump which has any detail thereof recited as, for example a "piston," (d) a plurality of pumps in series, (e) a particular physical relation between a nominal pump, and (1) a motor supplied thereby, or (2) with a pump, reservoir or tank forming part of the circuit supplying the pump. For example, this particular physical relation may include their relation in space or mechanical interconnection means.
Accumulators A motor having its working chamber in constant communication with an accumulator for pressurized motive fluid is not precluded from a motor class regardless of the specificity with which the accumulator is recited, the accumulator in this case being considered to be merely a part of the expansible chamber.
However, unless the accumulator is claimed so broadly as to amount to a mere conduit, these subclasses of Class 60 take an accumulator combined with a fluid motor in which a control valve is interposed between the accumulator and the motor, if otherwise appropriate.
Also Class 91 subclass 5 takes an expansible chamber type motor having as a part thereof a storage chamber that holds only a sufficient quantity of motive fluid for one stroke and that must be recharged for each succeeding stroke.
(7) Note. When the pump-motor combination is claimed so broadly so that the recitations applicable to either the pump or the motor can not form the basis for classification in a pump or a motor class, then classification is in this class.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

39.01+,for fluid pressure generator-motor combinations wherein the fluid pressure generator is a means for bringing together fluids from different sources or of different qualities and using them in a motor. The motor may be a turbine or an expansible chamber type. (See (7) Note.)
39.01+,for a system in which a combination device is a pressure fluid source feeding combustion products to the motor. (See (5) Note.)
595,for a system in which a free piston type of internal combustion engine is a pressure fluid source for a motor. (See (5) Note.)
597+,for a system in which an internal combustion engine is a pressure fluid source for a motor. (See (5) Note.)
597+,for fluid pressure generator-motor combinations wherein the exhaust from an internal combustion engine means is in fact the motive fluid which is convertible to useful work by the motor means which may be a turbine or an expansible chamber type motor. (See (7) Note.)
643+,for a system in which indirectly applied heat energize motive fluid for a motor. (See (5) Note.)

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
 
 GLOSSARY
 MOTIVE FLUID
 

Includes expansible or nonexpansible fluids, entrained in a system including a pump and motor, or fluents whose characteristics permit a transmission of energy or flow between a pump and motor which is not inconsistent with that of the fluents.

 MOTIVE FLUID RESPONSIVE MEANS
 

Comprises means actuated by the flow or pressure of the fluid or by the absence of such flow or pressure between the pump and the motor.

 WORKING MEMBER POSITION RESPONSIVE MEANS
 

Comprises means positively actuated by the motor working member when it attains a given predetermined position in the working chamber. Such position includes a position of the working member attained after a predetermined number of strokes or revolutions of the working member.

 A VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMP OR MOTOR
 

Includes an expansible chamber and means to vary the volume of fluid admitted to or discharged from the chamber. The means which varies the volume of fluid will be generally either (1) means which physically displaces either the piston or working member or the cylinder or housing of the expansible chamber to vary the effective stroke of the piston or working member, or (2) means which alters the timing of the inlet or exhaust valve with respect to the piston or working member timing to vary the effective stroke of the piston or working member.

  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 326]    326Utilizing a mixture, suspension, semisolid or electro-conductive liquid as motive fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which the fluid medium used to transmit energy from the pump to the motor means is (1) composed of two or more substances which do not dissolve one in the other or otherwise chemically react with each other but which together flow as a fluid, e.g., oil and air, oil and iron particles, etc., or (2) a liquid having a normally high degree of viscosity or electroconductivity such as mercury.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 327]    327Methods of operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Methods.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 328]    328Having a signal, indicator or inspection means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having (1) signals, indicator, registers, recorders, or gauges for indicating a condition or the position of a motor or pump part such as a piston, control member, valve etc., such devices consisting of a relatively movable, changeable or audible information giving parts, or (2) transparent viewing means whereby the motor or pump operation or the condition of some part thereof may be observed.
(1) Note. For classification under part (1) of this definition there must be either an indicia or an audible or visual signal. Relative to indicia, there must be graduation or markings in the disclosure as claimed. Where it is indicated that the mere position of a motor part is indicative of a condition of the motor (e.g., valve handle position corresponds to motor or pump position) classification under this definition does not result unless some cooperating indicia are included.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 232+ for expansible chamber type volume or rate of flow meters and see Lines With Other Classes of the class definition of Class 91, Motors: Expansible Chamber Type, for a general statement of the line between Class 91 and Class 73.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 1 for fluid motors, signals and indicators, and see Search Class 73 note above.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 5 for signals, indicators or inspection windows for expansible chamber devices.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for electrical automatic condition responsive indicating systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 329]    329Condition responsive control means responsive to, or compensating for, motive fluid compressibility, temperature variation or viscosity variation driven master:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having means by which the motive fluid or the apparatus may be controlled or adjusted responsive to a change in the compressibility, temperature or viscosity of said motive fluid to maintain a desired output work rate or to avoid apparatus failure.
(1) Note. Apparatus or motive fluid control means responsive to motive fluid pressure variations, per se, are not included in this subclass even though it may be argued that pressure variations are the result of compressibility, temperature or viscosity variations of the motive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 330]    330Coaxial impeller and turbine unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus comprising means for transmitting torque from a first rotating shaft to a second coaxial rotatable shaft, to which shafts are secured shroud elements, each of which is generally concave (e.g., hemispherical or hemitoroidal) and provided with generally radial vanes secured within the concavity, the elements being capable of forming a spheroidal toroidal enclosure for a mass of liquid material, in which device rotation of the first shaft (and of the vanes carried thereby, i.e., impeller) causes particles of the liquid mass or working fluid to circulate in a small circle that lies in a plane coincident with (or parallel to) the axis of rotation of the shafts and simultaneously circulate in a larger circle that lies in a plane at right angles to said axis, which circulation of the mass causes rotation of the second shaft and the vanes i.e., turbine carried thereby are moved by the fluid.
(1) Note. The devices herein provided for are known in the art under various names including "vortex flow drive", "fluid drive", "fluid coupling", "fly wheel", "torque convertor", "hydrokinetic torque transformer". Such devices generally fall into one of two categories. In one of these (e.g., "fluid coupling") the angular velocity of the driven shroud element referred to in the definition for this subclass cannot be greater than that of the driving element (and is usually less due to slippage); thus the torque is not increased. In the other category (e.g., "torque converter") an additional radially vaned element is interposed in the flow of fluid to modify, direction of movement and velocity in the fluid and thereby change the torque transmitted from the first shaft to the second shaft.
(2) Note. Frequently the devices classified in this and indented subclasses (e.g., fluid couplings, torque converters, etc.) are combined with clutches and/or gearing and/or brakes among other mechanisms.
(A) The line between Class 192, Clutches and Power-Stop Controls, and this class (Class 60) is not intended to be changed as a result of the establishment of this subclasses (330+). Class 60 (subclasses 330+) is intended to be the locus of patents to a vortex-flow drive, per se, and may include a brake means which may be applied to an element interposed in the path of fluid in the vortex flow to prevent rotation of said element relative to the input member, output member or a stationary member. The brake means in this situation is of the type found, per se, in Class 188, Brakes. For the combination of a vortex-flow drive and a clutch to connect either element to its associated input or output shaft see Class 192, subclasses 3.21+. Where the clutch is used to connect one of the elements to a stationary member to prevent rotation of said element see Class 192 subclasses 3.34+, but see (B) below.
(B) Class 188, Brakes, (particularly subclass 296) is the locus of patents to a "fluid brake", wherein the structure is superficially similar to a vortex flow drive as described in the definition of this subclass above. However, in the disclosures found in Class 188 subclass 296, one of the elements is fixed to its supporting structure to retard rotation of the other element. But see (A) above.

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327,for methods of operating fluid couplings of the type which are classified in this subclass.
329,for coaxial impeller and turbine units having means to control the unit or the motive fluid in response to changes in compressibility, temperature or viscosity of the motive fluid.
435+,and notes therewith for nonvortex flow transmission units having associated brakes or clutches.
645,prime mover and control for driving fluid drive and gearing.
655,fluid drive is included as part of internal mechanism of a single gearing unit.
677,where the fluid drive either divides or combines the plural power paths to or from a planetary gearing system.
687+,for devices in which a fluid coupling is included in one of plural power paths to or from a planetary gearing.
710,for fluid drives which either divide or combine alternate plural paths to or from a nonplanetary gearing.
720,where a fluid coupling is included in one of plural power paths to or from a nonplanetary gearing.
730+,fluid drive combined with gearing.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   for the locus of patents claiming a fluid drive in combination with nonplanetary gearing.
475Planetary Gear Transmission Systems or Components,   for the locus of patents claiming a fluid drive in combination with planetary gearing.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 331]    331Reversible turbine or turbine system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus wherein turbine means is provided with means by which it may be rotated so that the driven member may be rotated in either clockwise or counter-clockwise direction with respect to the direction of rotation of the driving member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 332]    332Having pitch control or motive fluid flow guide or reaction blade means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Apparatus wherein rotational direction of the turbine means may be controlled because of the ability to change the pitch of the vanes associated with either or all of the impeller means, turbine means or guide means in the motive fluid circuit.

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342,for units having means to change the pitch of a flow directing guide in combination with a means to brake said guide against relative rotation with one of the parts of the unit.
354+,for hydrokinetic units having means to change the pitch of flow directing guide means in order to vary the power output of the unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 333]    333Having means to brake or free flow guide means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Apparatus wherein rotational direction of a turbine means may be altered by either releasing for free rotation or braking or otherwise securing against rotation certain vane means which may rotate about the axis of the unit and which is effective in the motive fluid path.

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341+,for means to brake a rotating part of a hydrokinetic unit to control the speed of rotation thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 334]    334Having means to remove or insert flow guide means from or into motive fluid flow path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Apparatus having vane means which may be inserted into or removed from the motive fluid circuit to effectively change the direction of the motive fluid flow and thus the rotational direction of the turbine means.

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353,for a hydrokinetic unit having motive fluid guide vane means transferable axially of said unit into or out of the motive fluid flow path to control flow of said fluid other than to cause the driven member to reverse rotational direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 335]    335Having plural individually actuatable units:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Apparatus having plural hydrokinetic units with means whereby one or another of the units may be activated and thus establish the rotational direction of the driven member.

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363,for plural impeller-turbine units.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 336]    336Having filtering, de-aerating, cleaning or bleeding structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus having means by which air or other foreign matter may be removed from the working fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 337]    337Having heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus including means whereby the temperature of any of the components of the apparatus may be changed other than as a result of the normal functioning of any of said components.

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329,for hydrokinetic transmission units having means to vary the temperature of the working fluid responsive to the sensed temperature of said working fluid either by adding or withdrawing working fluid to or from the system or otherwise exchanging heat with said working fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 338]    338Having shock, vibration or surge control structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus having means to dampen, attenuate or otherwise control any shock surge or vibration which may develop in the transmission unit or its supporting means as a result of starting, stopping or continuous operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 339]    339Having lubricating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus having means by which any part of said transmission unit may be lubricated.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 340]    340Plural turbines drive relatively movable output members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus wherein a plurality of turbines are provided in a system which may comprise a plurality of separate or separable motive fluid circuits, and wherein the turbines of each of the units are adapted to be connected to separate output members, which members may be driven at different speeds.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 341]    341Having brake or clutch controlling movement of a flow guide located in the impeller-turbine flow path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus having guide vane means, other than the impeller or turbine vane means, located in the circulatory flow path of the fluid to give a certain direction of flow to said fluid, being axially rotatable with and independently of the impeller and or turbine, and having brake or clutch means whereby said guide vane means may be held against relative rotation with respect to the turbine, impeller or a stationery member.
(1) Note. The brake or clutch found in this subclass may be of the type which are found, per se, in Class 188, Brakes, and in Class 192, Clutches and Power-Stop Control. For the line between this subclass and Classes 188 and 192 see the notes to subclass 330 above.

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333,for hydrokinetic units having means to brake or retard rotation of one of the vane means located in the motive fluid flow path whereby the direction of rotation of the turbine means may be reversed.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 342]    342With means adjusting blade orientation or blade exposure in flow path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Apparatus having additional means to vary the pitch or otherwise vary the exposure of one or more of the members to flow of the motive fluid in its flow path.

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332,for fluid couplings having means to control the pitch of the vanes of any of the impeller, flow guide or turbine units to reverse turbine rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 343]    343Speed or fluid condition responsive brake or manually adjustable brake:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Apparatus having a condition responsive or manual means operable to adjust the clutch or brake means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 344]    344Braked casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 343.  Apparatus in which at least part of the casing, which houses the members in the motive fluid flow path or which is integral with one or more of said members, may be held against rotation in order to alter a characteristic of the flow of the motive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 345]    345One-way clutch between the movable guide, an impeller, turbine or a second movable guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Apparatus having a clutch means which permits relative rotation in one direction only between any two or more of the rotatable members which are in the operative path of the motive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 346]    346Plural movable guides, one having a one-way clutch to frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 341.  Apparatus having a plurality of rotatable guide members in the operative path or the motive fluid and which are not impeller or turbine members, and having clutch means to permit rotation thereof in one direction only relative to the casing or frame means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 347]    347Having condition responsive or manually settable control means to regulate unit output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus having manual means or means actuated in response to a condition to actively regulate or control the output of the unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 348]    348Distributes motive fluid between plural units, stages or guides:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Apparatus in which a plurality of hydrokinetic units are axially spaced from each other, wherein the rotating members of the units rotate about the same axis and have means to selectively control the flow of motive fluid to the units.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 349]    349Adjusts impeller or turbine axially:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Apparatus wherein the output of the unit is controlled by adjusting the turbine or impeller means or both relative to one another in a direction parallel to or coaxial with the axis of rotation of the turbine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 350]    350Variable face clearance:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus wherein the output of the unit is controlled by moving the turbine and/or impeller unit relative to one another in a direction of the axis of rotation to thereby vary the axial spacing between the turbine and the impeller members.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 351]    351Controls scoop operation for removing liquid from rotating casing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Apparatus having means which may be moved into or out of contact with the working fluid through which means the quantity of said working fluid circulating in the unit between the impeller and turbine members may be varied.

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357+,for additional means whereby the quantity of working fluid in the transmission unit may be varied.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 352]    352Of means within an impulse, reaction or energy transfer flow path being adjustable to modify flow of motive fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Apparatus wherein the output of the unit is controlled or regulated by means placed in the motive fluid circuit to alter the flow, either in rate or direction, which said motive fluid would otherwise assume.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 353]    353Motive fluid guide vane transferable axially into or out of motive fluid flow path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Apparatus wherein at least one guide vane designed to act upon the motive fluid to change its normal direction of flow in the motive fluid circuit may be moved axially of the impeller and turbine units to a position wherein the effectiveness of said guide vane on said motive fluid is reduced or eliminated.
(1) Note. The rotating members include the impeller, turbine and guide or reaction members positioned between the impeller and turbine.

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331,for a reversible driven turbine with adjustable flow diverting means.
349,wherein the turbine or impeller may be axially adjusted.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 354]    354Pitch or orientation of flow directing guide or blade controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Apparatus wherein the pitch of any or all of the vanes associated with the impeller, guide or turbine means of the transmission unit may be changed to alter the angle of incidence between said fluid and said vanes to vary the power output of said unit.

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332,for units having means to vary the pitch of the flow guide or reaction blade means to the point where the rotational direction of turbine component may be reversed.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 355]    355Speed responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Apparatus having means which will, in response to sensed speed of a component of the transmission unit, set the pitch of said vane means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 356]    356Motive fluid pressure responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Apparatus having means which will, in response to sensed pressure of said motive fluid of the transmission unit, set the pitch of said vane means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 357]    357Of means adjusting the mass of level of motive fluid at the impeller energy transfer zone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Apparatus having means whereby the quantity of motive fluid employed in quantity the fluid transmission may be varied.

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351,for transmission units having a scoop means insertable into the working fluid through which a quantity of said working fluid may be removed from said unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 358]    358Including continuously driven auxiliary pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 357.  Apparatus including a pump means which is in continuous operation to pressurize a fluid, not for the purpose of transmitting power to the work output member, but instead to pressurize said fluid to the point where it may be added to or subtracted from the fluid employed as the motive fluid in a fluid transmission unit and thereby control the power transferred through said unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 359]    359Exhaust valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 357.  Apparatus having valve means whereby a quantity of motive fluid may be extracted from the transmission to reduce the quantity employed thereby and thus reduce the power output from the transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 360]    360Motive fluid pressure responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 359.  Apparatus having means to control the valve means in response to a sensed fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 361]    361Having separate guide or reaction means in circuit including impeller and turbine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus having other vane or vane like means located in the circulatory flow path of the motive fluid to give a certain direction of flow to said fluid, and wherein said other vane means is disassociated from said impeller and or turbine and act independently therefrom.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 362]    362Rotatable guide or reaction means coaxial with the impeller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 361.  Apparatus wherein said other vane means may rotate independently of said impeller or turbine but coaxially therewith.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 363]    363Plural impeller-turbine units:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus having plural distinct fluid transmission units interconnected to output torque to a single output shaft.
(1) Note. A fluid passage may interconnect the working fluid of the various units to equalize levels in the units.

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335,for plural impeller-turbine units with means to activate one or another of them in order to change the rotational direction of the driven member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 364]    364Impeller or turbine integral with unit housing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Apparatus wherein either the turbine or the impeller component of the fluid transmission unit is an integral part of the housing enclosing the components which react within the motive fluid circulatory path.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 365]    365Fluid deflecting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Apparatus having means associated with any component of the unit and being designed to react in a special way with the motive fluid to give it a distinct flow direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 366]    366Toroidal impeller and turbine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Apparatus wherein the impeller and turbine components of the fluid transmission unit are shaped so that the motive fluid will assume a toroidal flow path in its operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 367]    367Having core or ring member at interface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Apparatus wherein both the turbine and impeller components are provided with motive fluid flow confining means cooperating at the interface of the two components which creates a core or void in the circulating path of said fluid which lies in a plane at right angles to the axis of rotation of the transmission unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 368]    368Control by independently operated punch card, tape, digital computer, counter, template, or programmer cyclic control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including means separate from the motor or pump to cause or permit the pump or motor to operate or not to operate for a period of time and then act to start, stop or change the mode of operation of the motor or pump; or, cause the motor or pump to operate through a given cycle of operation, the operation of said means being independent of and not controlled by the operation of the motor or pump or a pressure or flow condition of the motive fluid supplied to or exhausted from the motor or pump and not requiring the intervention of a human operator.
(1) Note. The means is not considered to be independent of the motor or pump and is not included under this definition if its operation is initiated by the motor or pump.
(2) Note. The means separate from the motor or pump may not be another motor or pump which produces power for external use such as the first stage of a multiple expansion engine or pump.

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700Data Processing: Generic Control Systems or Specific Applications,   subclasses 286 through 298for the application of power generation or distribution which includes turbine or generator control. Note, where significant power plants structure is recited, classification is in the appropriate art device class.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 369]    369Cyclically operable reciprocating or oscillating motor or output stroke device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having a pump or other means, not otherwise provided for, to place a gaseous or liquid motive fluid in a condition so that subsequently it may be expanded or contracted or otherwise cause the activation of a transducer or motor means having (1) a cyclically operable oscillatable or linearly reciprocable work output member and (2) means to control the flow of said motive fluid to cause said work output member to do work cyclically.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 370]    370Pneumatic motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus wherein a gaseous working fluid is employed for at least a portion of the cyclic movement of the motor means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 5 , for a self-cycling expansible chamber motor having as a part thereof a storage chamber that holds only a sufficient quantity of motive fluid for one stroke and that must be recharged in the cycle for each succeeding stroke.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 371]    371Having means to store and release energy usable to energize motor work output means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus comprising means to store some of the energy available to activate or output from the motor means during part of the time while the motor working member is in motion whereby said stored energy may be released to motivate the working member during another part of the time when it is in motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 372]    372Pneumatic counter-balance of gravity load on motor (e.g., deep well pump rod, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 371.  Apparatus wherein the energy resulting from the gravitational force on the load is stored during a part of the cycle of operation of the motor means for release to aid in the activation of the working member during another part of the cycle of operation of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 373]    373Progressive change of stroke length in successive strokes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus having means controlling a pump and/or a motor means whereby the stroke of a motor working member is caused to change in length from one stroke to another.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 374]    374Correlated independently movable output members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus having a plurality of fluid motor output means wherein the cyclic movement of one is coordinated with the cyclic movement of another.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 170+ , for fluid motors having relatively movable working members with one having motive fluid controlled by, moveably interconnected with or moved by another.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 375]    375Correlated power input pumps and/or pressurized fluid sources:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus having a plurality of motive fluid pressurizing means operable in concert or individually to motivate the output means of a fluid motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 376]    376Motor control means having timer or time delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus having means to cause the speed of the working member of the output motor means to cyclically vary in its cycle of operation either before or after it has begun to do work but subsequent to the activation of the means provided to initiate operation of the apparatus in the first instance.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 377]    377Provides dwell or press period at end of stroke:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 376.  Apparatus wherein the output motor delay is caused to occur at that point in the cycle of its operation between the point where the work stroke of the motor working members has been completed and the return stroke of the working member is begun.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 378]    378Having purging, surge accommodating, or leaking handling or replenishing structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus having means accommodating the motive fluid required for efficient operation of the apparatus such as, means to purge the motive fluid of excess fluid air or other ingredients, means to attenuate shocks or surges in the motive fluid, or means to manage from the motive fluid system of motive fluid in system.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 379]    379Having condition responsive cycle abort means or means for manual control of motor output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus wherein control of the motive fluid may be usurped from the motive fluid control means which causes the motor means to operate cyclically by a means either responsive to a predetermined condition being sensed or by means for manual take-over of the cyclic or other motive fluid control means to actively control the motor actuation.
(1) Note. Manual means to merely activate or stop the motor means, even if means are provided to return the motor means to a retracted or some other predetermined position when a manual stop means is activated, is not included under this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 380]    380With means to shut down system after a complete to and fro cycle of the motor means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus in which a working member of the motor means operates from a given position through a forward stroke and a return stroke to the starting position, the motor having control means which when operated causes the working member to move through the forward and return stroke and then stop even though the control means is maintained in the operated position.

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368,for devices which control motor operation upon sensing a predetermined number of output strokes of the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 381]    381Having condition responsive control of variable displacement pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus wherein the motive fluid is pressurized by a variable displacement pump means which is controlled in response to a sensed condition of the motive fluid or to the position of the motor means activated by said motive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 382]    382Cam or gear carried by stroke device varies displacement pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Apparatus wherein the pump displacement is controlled through a cam or gear means actuated by the end directly and responsive to the position of the motor means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 383]    383Automatic or cyclic means provided plural distinct motor speeds in cycle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Apparatus having means either in the form of pump control means, motive fluid flow control means to the motor, motor exhaust control or other means to cause the output speed of the motor to be varied during its normal cyclic operation.
(1) Note. Means provided to cause a reciprocating motor to gradually decelerate and/or accelerate at the end of the stroke are included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 384]    384Expansible chamber type volumetric responsive measuring device in series with or driven by output motor operates the motor controller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including a source of pressurized motive fluid for driving an output motor and having a distinct expansible chamber device: (1) in series with the output motor actuating a control terminating the flow of motive fluid when it has passed a selected volume of fluid; (2) in series with the output motor establishing the rate of flow through the motor by externally operating the displacement device to pass fluid at a selected rate; or (3) connected to be driven by the output motor to measure the movement of the motor, the displaced liquid actuating a means controlling operation of the motor.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 388 , for an expansible chamber motor having a fluid operated feedback to the motive fluid controller responsive to the working member position.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 385]    385Manual pump pressurizes fluid to position output motor motive fluid control valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including a source of motive fluid, an output motor, a reversible servo-motor controlling the flow of motive fluid to the output motor and a reversible manually operated pump that supplies actuating fluid to drive the servo-motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 386]    386Manual pump supplies motive fluid to output motor when power motive fluid pump is inactive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 385.  Apparatus in which the output of the manually operated pump is supplied to and drives the output motor in the absence of input from the source of motive fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 387]    387Distinct structure metering and dispensing a stroke length determining volume of motive fluid to the motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having means whereby the motive fluid may be pressurized or transmitted to or admitted to the motor means in volumetrically definable charges which may be varied in magnitude at will to produce a predetermined increment of movement of the motor output member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 388]    388Full range correspondence of position of external manipulator and motor positioned member effected by feedback linkage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having output motor; an externally operated manipulator means movable over a range for causing the motor to position an output member in a corresponding position along a selected path or in a selected area; and an electrical or mechanical connection between the output member and the manipulator correcting any discrepancy between the position assigned by the manipulator and that attained by the output.

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384,for a system in which a fluid means measures the movement of the output and gives a feedback to the motor controller.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 358+ , for a motor having working member position feedback to the motive fluid controller.
172Earth Working,   subclass 465 , for an earth working tool having a tool lifting motor with follow-up controls.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 132+ for a motor vehicle provided with steering gear of the fluid power assist type, which may involve feedback.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 389]    389Positioned member is displacement controller of second motor pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 388.  Apparatus in which the manipulated output motor is an auxiliary that positions a displacement adjustor of a main pump or motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 390]    390Electrical feedback means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 388.  Apparatus in which electrical means are used in the discrepancy sensing linkage.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 391]    391Feedback linkage controls variable displacement pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 388.  Apparatus in which movement of the manipulator initiates the delivery of motive fluid to the output motor from a variable displacement pump by changing the displacement from zero, the linkage from the output member returning the displacement to zero upon the attainment of the selected position.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 392]    392Feedback includes plural movable valve parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 388.  Apparatus in which movement of the manipulator moves one surface of a valving means to initiate flow of motive fluid to the output motor, the movement of the output motor to its selected position moving or carrying the other surface of the valving means to a position stopping the flow of motive fluid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 374+ , for a motor having working member feedback to motive fluid control having plural movable valve parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 393]    393Manipulator for motive fluid control valve having load feel or motor pressure feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including an attendant actuated controller biased in one direction and having structure by which a force indicative of a motor condition or motor pressure reacts on the controller usually to give the operator a feel of the load on the apparatus.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 385+ , for a motor having a working member position feedback to motive fluid control having a bias type of input and feedback signal means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 394]    394Having apparatus control by timer or delay means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus whereby the time in which, or length of time taken to perform an operation is controlled.

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376,for a self-cycling reciprocating output system having a timer or time delay means.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 35+ , for a motor controlled by a timer, delay, pattern or cyclic control.
417Pumps,   subclass 12 , for the control of a pump motor by a timer or delay means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 395]    395Control relative to independently driven oscillator, speed standard or pacer device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which the difference between (A) criteria or condition of a motor, pump, motor-pump system, or another self-sufficient device, a condition of a motive fluid in said motor, pump or motor-pump system, or a means driven by said motor, and (B) the criteria or condition of a comparable functional counterpart of a separate motor, pump, motor-pump system or separate self-sufficient device, its output or motive fluid, is continuously or intermittently detected whereby a means responsive to the detected difference acts to control the motor, pump, etc., in a sense or direction to decrease the difference.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 396]    396Utilizing lubricant, starter motor, cooling fluid, or fluid used for combustion in an internal combustion engine:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having an internal combustion engine as a part of the pressure fluid source and which uses in its operation the lubricant, cooling fluid, or combustion air of the engine or which drives the system pump by the starter motor of the engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 397]    397Vacuum generated by internal combustion engine intake manifold powers motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 396.  Apparatus in which air is withdrawn from the output motor by the suction of the intake manifold of the engine.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclass, in which the motive fluid is moved through the motor by a nominal "internal combustion engine having an intake manifold." See (4) Note, B, (1) e of the class definition of Class 92.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 398]    398Utilizing natural energy or having a geographic feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Apparatus physically related to some feature of the earth or in which pressure or kinetic energy of nature energizes motive fluid.
(1) Note. This subclass includes devices providing a head of liquid that furnishes pressurized motive fluid to a motor.

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495+,for a motor driven by a buoyant working member;
639+,for a motor actuated by accumulating and dumping liquid or fluent material;
641,for a device in which natural heat energizes motive fluid.

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415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   subclasses 2.1+ , for a rotary kinetic fluid motor* or pump* with means for controlling casing* or flow guiding means in response to natural fluid current force or direction.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclass 6 , for an impeller driven by waves or impulses and subclasses 9+, for an unencased impeller adjustable in a fluid current.
417Pumps,   subclasses 330+ , for a pump driven by a tide or wave motor; 334+, for a pump driven by a fluid current motor; and 337, for a pump driven by a buoyant motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 399]    399Unsafeness, unreadiness or disarray prevent manual change or operative state:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which a precedent condition must be sensed or indicated as satisfied to permit the operator to change the operative state of the system.

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368,for a system controlled by a programmer to provide a series of operations in a desired order.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 400]    400Selective or simultaneous power and manual energy inputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having a manual energy input and a nonmanual energy input.

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428,for a system having an automatic control means and a plurality of separately operable pumps or other pressure fluid sources.
486,for a residual system having plural energy input means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 401]    401Fluid motor and directs manual drive of output device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Apparatus having structure by which the manual energy means may be mechanically linked to the output member to move it by direct mechanical action.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 391 , for a motor having means for alternative manual manipulation of the load.
100Presses,   subclasses 269.01+ , for a reciprocating press having fluid pressure actuation combined with mechanical actuation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 402]    402Separate manual and motor driven pumps supply motive fluid to output motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Apparatus in which the output means is moved by a motor supplied with motive fluid from a manually driven pump and from a separate power driven pump.

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386,for a system in which a manual pump driving a control actuating servo-motor furnishes the motive fluid to drive the main motor when the main pump is inactive.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 403]    403Apparatus having means responsive to or ameliorating the effects of breakage, plugging, mechanical failure or power failure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus with (1) means that reacts to a condition of the system produced by breakage, plugging, or mechanical failure of an element; or to power failure, and exerts a control that tends to lessen an undesirable effect of the malfunction or power failure; or (2) distinct, normally inactive means operable to lessen harmful effects of malfunction.

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399,for a system in which unsafeness, unreadiness, or disarray prevents a manual change of the operative state of the system.
400+,for a system operable selectively by power or manual energy inputs.
459+,for a system having a safety valve relieving excessive pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 404]    404Stand-by stored energy means activated responsive to malfunction or power failure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Apparatus including structure holding a standby reserve of energy that is released upon sensed malfunction of the normal energy supply means.

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408+,for a pneumatic system in which expansible fluid is alternately compressed into a storage reservoir and expanded from the reservoir to run a motor.
413+,for a system having structure controlling the release of stored work driving energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 405]    405Second motive fluid supply means takes load responsive to failure of first:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Apparatus comprising (1) an output motor, (2) one source of motive fluid for normally driving the motor, (3) a second source of motive fluid; and (4) a means responsive to a failure of the first source of motive fluid feeding motive fluid from the second source to the motor.

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386,for a system in which a manual pump driving a control actuating servo-motor furnishes the power to drive the main motor when the main motive fluid pump is inactive.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 406]    406Output means locked, positioned or released on failure of motive fluid supply means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Apparatus in which an output means is locked, braked, released or moved to and retained in a desired position responsive to power failure, or loss of motive fluid supply or pressure.

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460,for a system having a holding or braking valve in the exhaust line effective upon discontinuance of motor feed pressure to lock the motor in position.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 407]    407Pneumatic motor with gas supply or removal device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which a gas is the motive fluid driving the motor and in which the gas is supplied to or removed from the motor by a pump or some other structure that is more than a mere feed or discharge line.

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370,for an air driven self-cycling stroke device.
397,for a motor driven by the air being drawn into the intake of an internal combustion engine.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 408]    408Convertible motor-pump device selectively charges and is driven by gas from storage vessel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Apparatus having a storage vessel serving as the gas supply or removal device and a unit usable as either a motor or as a pump, the unit at one time serving to charge the vessel and, at another time being driven as a motor by gas from the charged storage vessel.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 409]    409Having automatic control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Apparatus with structure sensing an external condition or a condition of the apparatus and controlling the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 410]    410Responsive to condition in gas storage vessel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Apparatus in which an element of the apparatus is actuated responsive to a change in a condition in or of a vessel in which a store of gas under pressure or vacuum is selectively accumulated or released.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 411]    411Suction pressure on motor regulated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Apparatus in which the suction on one side of a motor element having atmospheric pressure on the other is controlled in response to a sensed condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 412]    412Having pump device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 407.  Apparatus in which the gas supply or removal device is a pump.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 413]    413With control means for structure storing work driving energy (e.g., accumulator, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including structure that stores energy to be used to move the load and a manual or condition responsive means (1) controlling the input of energy to the storage means or (2) controlling the discharge of energy from the storage structure to the output motor of the apparatus.

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404,for a system having a stand-by stored energy means activated responsive to malfunction or power failure.
469,for structure accommodating pressure or volume surges that does not have means controlling the input or discharge from the structure.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 5 , for an expansible chamber motor having as a part thereof a storage chamber that holds only a sufficient quantity of motive fluid for one stroke and that must be recharged for each succeeding stroke and subclasses 361+, for an expansible chamber motor having an electrical working member position feedback to motive fluid control.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 414]    414Energy of braking or of reversed load on motor stored:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 413.  Apparatus so arranged that energy taken from the output in reducing its speed, lowering its load or resisting over-run is controllably stored for future use.

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408,for a system using air as the motive fluid and having a convertible motor-pump device selectively charging or being driven by gas from a storage vessel.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 415]    415Accumulator pressurized by gas pump or external gas supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 413.  Apparatus in which a store of compressed gas is produced by a pump acting on the gas or in which the storage vessel is charged with compressed gas from an external source.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 416]    416Plural accumulators:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 413.  Apparatus having more than one accumulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 417]    417Stroke device driven by successively operated energy input structure and stored energy structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 413.  Apparatus including a storage vessel for compressed gas and a motive liquid pump both arranged to deliver motive liquid to an output motor; and a manual or automatic controller that selects the energizer or combination of energizers to produce both a rapid and a slow movement in a stroke operation such as a slow press and rapid retraction or a rapid advance to contact the work and a slow press.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 418]    418Control by sensor of accumulator condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 413.  Apparatus including a means sensing a condition of an accumulator or of a fluid in the accumulator and exerting a control.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 419]    419Motor driven by motive fluid of system drives pump pressurizing motive fluid of system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which a pump that furnishes pressurized fluid to an output motor is driven at least in part by a motor operated by pressurized fluid of the system.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 420]    420Having condition responsive control in a system of distinct or separately operable outputs or output drive units:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having a plurality of separately operable motors, motor pistons, motor rotors or means delivering energy externally of the apparatus and including a control for the apparatus responsive to a condition of the system or to an external condition.

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340,for a coaxial impeller and turbine system in which plural turbines drive relatively movable output members.
374,for a self-cycling system having a plurality of correlated independently movable output members.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 421]    421With plural pump or motive fluid source relationships selected by multiway valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Apparatus including plural motive fluid generating pumps and plural output motors and in which an externally operated multiway valve or a valve network controlling motive fluid flow provides for different interconnections of the pumps and motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 422]    422Independently actuatable outputs with condition responsive means insuring sufficiency of feed of motive fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Apparatus with selectively operable motors and including means responsive to a condition of the apparatus that insures that the demand for motive fluid of a favored one of or group of motors of the plurality of motors is satisfied before any of the motive fluid from the generator is fed to any less favored motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 423]    423Including means for controlling or for reversing input pump drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Apparatus including manually or automatically operable structure for controlling or providing for the reversing operation of a motor driving a power input pump.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 424]    424Serially connected motors controlled to establish parallel operation or to by-pass a motor means of the series:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Apparatus in which motor means are connected in series in one condition of operation and in which the control means is effective to open a by-pass around one of the motor means or to cause one of the motors to be connected in parallel with another to serve as a by-pass for the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 425]    425Condition responsive means establishes number of motor sections driving a common output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Apparatus having an output member, a plurality of motors or motor sections and a condition responsive means that in response to the sensed condition, makes all or less than all of the motor or motor sections effective in driving the output member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 426]    426Speed of, pressure in, or position of one output motor or motor section controls another:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Apparatus in which one motor or motor section is modulated or actuated separately from a second motor or motor section by a means sensing the speed, pressure in, or position of the second motor or motor section, or the relative condition of the sections.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 511+ , for plural motors the motive fluid for one working member being controlled responsive to a condition relating to another.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 427]    427With manual control or selection of motor, motor speed or motor load:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Apparatus including an external control means for selecting or controlling one or several of the plurality of motors separately from others of the plurality.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 428]    428Having condition responsive control in a system of separately operable power input pumps, pump motors, pump cylinders or pressure fluid sources:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including plural motive fluid pressurizing structures or pressure fluid sources including one, the delivery or output of which may be varied relative to that of another; the apparatus including a means responsive to a condition of the apparatus or to an external condition.

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375,for plural correlated pumps in a system including a self-cycling reciprocating output device.
402,for a system in which separate manual and motor driven pumps supply motive fluid to the output motor.
405,for a system in which a standby motive fluid supply means takes the load responsive to the failure of the main supply means.

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417Pumps,   appropriate subclass for the condition responsive control of a pump system.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 429]    429With externally operated multiway valve changing the relationships of the motive fluid pressurizing or supplying means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 428.  Apparatus including a multiway valve that is externally manipulated to provide different operative relationships of the pressurizing means or pressure sources.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 430]    430Pressure or volume responsive means shifts the relationship:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 428.  Apparatus in which the relationship of the plural pump or source means to each other is changed by a means sensing a change in pressure or volume in a part of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 431]    431Condition responsive control of or by input to input pump drive means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including a prime mover driving a motive fluid pump, there being a control in the apparatus (1) responding to a change in a condition of energization of, or of the feed to the prime mover; or (2) effecting a control of the feed to or energization of the prime mover.

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405,for a safety system in which a second motive fluid supply means takes the load responsive to the failure of the first.
423,for a system of plural motors with an automatic control including means for controlling a drive of the motive fluid pump.

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417Pumps,   subclasses 1+ , for a pump having a condition responsive control of the pump drive motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 432]    432Pump drive means deactivated responsive to position of output stroke device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Apparatus in which energy input to a motive fluid energizing pump is initiated by an externally operated means and terminated by a means sensing that the stroke device has reached a selected position in its stroke.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 433]    433Having correlated or joint actuation of controller of input to motive fluid pressurizer and of controller of motive fluid floow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including means for pressurizing motive fluid the arrangement having structure interlinking or correlating the actuation of a motive fluid flow control element and a controller of the pressurizing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 434]    434Interlinked pump drive controller and manipulator of stroke device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Apparatus in which the control means for a motor driving a motive fluid generating pump is connected for actuation along with a motive fluid flow controller that positions a stroke device.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 435]    435Having a mechanical clutch or brake device in the power train:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including a releasable device for mechanically securing together or resisting relative movement of two parts of the power train of the apparatus or for mechanically connecting an output member to an input member for direct drive of the output.
(1) Note. A brake or clutch that is operated by the output member of the pressure fluid source motor system is regarded as merely a nominal load for the system and does not make the organization classifiable in this subclass.
(2) Note. A clutch connecting a prime mover to a motive fluid pump has been treated as part of a means controlling input to the pump. See subclasses 423, 431, 433+, etc.
(3) Note. In the absence of a significant pump or other pressure fluid source the combination of a fluid motor and a clutch or brake device is classifiable in Class 91 or 192 in accordance with the line established between these classes by the search notes in Class 91, subclass 41. It is noted that a pump and turbine making up a vortex flow device combined with a brake or clutch, is classified as indicated in the search notes to subclass 330.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 436]    436Correlated control of device and motive fluid flow controller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 435.  Apparatus including structure by which an actuator controlling the device and structure controlling motive fluid flow are caused to move together or in a fixed relationship.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 41+ , for a motor with correlated control of motive fluid and locking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 437]    437Selective fluid and mechanical drive of output from input:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 435.  Apparatus in which the device includes means by which an input drive member may be directly connected to mechanically drive the output structure.

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401,for a system having selecting or simultaneous fluid motor and direct manual drive of the output.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 391 , for a motor with alternative actuation of the load.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclass 3.32 , for a vortex-flow drive and clutch providing alternative fluid and direct drive of the output.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 438]    438Condition responsive selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 437.  Apparatus in which the direct connection is made responsive to a condition of operation without manual intervention.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 439]    439Device acts on intermediate reactive rotor to modify speed ratio or direction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 435.  Apparatus including a motive fluid control member in the assembly that can rotate independently of the pump or motor of the system and its rotation being controlled by a clutch or brake device attached to the frame to permit or prevent rotation, the release or immobilization of the member being effective to change the speed ratio of the pump to the motor or to reverse the direction of the motor.

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341+,for a coaxial impeller turbine unit having a brake or clutch controlling movement of a flow guide located in the impeller turbine flow path.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 440]    440Condition or direction responsive device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Apparatus in which the device controlling the rotation of the independently rotatable member is controlled by a condition sensor or comprises a one way brake or clutch.

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343+,for a condition responsive brake controlling the movement of an intermediate flow guide in a coaxial impeller turbine unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 441]    441Condition or direction responsive device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 435.  Apparatus in which the device is actuated by structure responsive to an external condition, a condition of the system or a position of an element of the system.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 442]    442Device holds output in adjusted position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 435.  Apparatus in which the device secures an output device against movement.

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406,for a system that locks the output means responsive to breakage, plugging, mechanical failure or power failure.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 41+ , for a motor with correlated control of motive fluid and mechanical locking means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 443]    443Servo-motor having externally operated control valve sets motor or pump displacement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which the displacement of the input pump or output motor of a pressure fluid source-motor system is adjusted by an externally operated servo-motor.

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389,for a displacement controlling servo-motor having feedback linkage to the manipulating lever.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 444]    444Having auxiliary pump or external source of motive fluid supplying servo motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Apparatus in which the servo-motor has an external source of operating fluid or an auxiliary pump so that it is independent of the operation of the controlled pump or motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 445]    445Condition responsive control of pump or motor displacement;
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having means by which the amount of motive fluid displaced for each stroke or revolution of a pump or motor device can be adjusted and having structure sensing a condition or position controlling the adjusting means.

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423,for a system in which variable delivery to a motor is produced by automatically combining in different ways the outputs of plural pumps or pump sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 446]    446Pump displacement varied responsive to position of motor or output device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus in which the displacement adjusted is that of the pump and the adjustment means is responsive to the position of a motor element or of an output member.

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381,for a condition or position responsive control of pump displacement in a self-cycling reciprocating output device.
391,for a system in which the displacement controller of a pump is moved a selected distance from "no delivery" to start a stroke of selected length and moved back to "no delivery" by a linkage to the motor or output when the selected stroke has been completed.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 447]    447Control actuated by a servo-motor fed by a speed indicating auxiliary pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus in which the displacement controller of the motive fluid pump or motor is driven by an adjunctive fluid motor receiving its pressurized fluid from an adjunctive constant displacement pump, the output of which is directly proportional to its speed.

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444,for a system in which the displacement is adjusted by a manually controlled servo-motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 448]    448By means sensing rotational speed of output motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus in which the controlling structure is actuated by a sensor measuring the rotary speed of a rotary output motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 449]    449By means sensing rotational speed of prime mover or pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus in which the controlling structure is actuated by a sensor measuring the rotary speed of a rotary input pump or of an input prime mover driving the input pump.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 450]    450Choke in motor feed or discharge line establishes displacement control pressure (e.g., rate of flow responsive, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus in which a pressure actuated displacement controller responds to a pressure directly established by a means restricting the flow of motive fluid in a motor feed or discharge line.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 451]    451Controlled by torque of motor or motor discharge pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus in which the displacement varying structure responds to changes in the twisting force of the motor or to pressure of motive fluid being removed from the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 452]    452Pump displacement controlled by pump discharge or motor feed pressure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Apparatus including a variable displacement pump the displacement of which is controlled by structure responsive to the pump discharge pressure.

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417Pumps,   subclasses 212+ for a pump having a condition responsive displacement adjusting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 453]    453With means purging, cleaning or separating undesirables from motive fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including structure for the separation or absorption of entrained impurities from the motive fluid; for discharging such impurities from the system; or for cleaning a part of the system.

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336,for a coaxial impeller and turbine unit having filtering, deaerating, cleaning or bleeding structure.
378,for a cyclically operating reciprocating stroke device having purging structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 454]    454Solids from liquid separator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 453.  Apparatus in which the structure separates a solid impurity from a motive liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 455]    455Having leakage collecting structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including structure for collecting motive fluid leaking or escaping through a seal or passing through an intended fluid retaining part of the apparatus.

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378,for a cyclically operating reciprocating output device having a leakage collector.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 456]    456Having distinct cooling or lubricating structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus with (1) distinct structure for lubricating a part of the apparatus; or (2) distinct structure for cooling motive fluid or a part of the apparatus.

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329,for a system having a condition responsive control of the temperature of the motive fluid.
337,for a coaxial impeller and turbine unit having heating or cooling means.
339,for a coaxial impeller and turbine unit having lubricating means.
396,for a system using a part of the lubricant or cooling fluid of an internal combustion engine as motive fluid.

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165Heat Exchange,   appropriate subclass, for a heat exchanger, per se.
184Lubrication,   appropriate subclass, for a lubricating system, per se.
417Pumps,   subclass 228 for the condition responsive control of the lubricant or coolant of a pump, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 457]    457Collapsible joined device having fluid trapping valve in joint:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus that is foldable to a collapsed position and having valving means in the joints used in folding the device that are closed by the folding to hold the motive liquid in place in the collapsed apparatus.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 58.1 for a knockdown expansible chamber device.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 458]    458Having assembly or repair structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having means designed to facilitate the removal, replacement or repair of a part of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 459]    459Condition responsive control of motive fluid flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus having structure sensing a condition of the apparatus or an external condition and effecting a control of a flow or condition of the motive fluid of the apparatus.

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369,in which motive fluid is controlled to produce an oscillating or reciprocating cycle of a stroke device.
403+,for a system with means responsive to breakage, plugging, mechanical failure or power failure.
420+,for a condition responsive control in a system having plural motors.
428+,for a condition responsive control in a system having plural pumps.
431+,for the joint control of motive fluid flow and of the input to a motor driving the pump.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 392+ for a motor with a working member responsive motive fluid control means; and 418, for a motor having a motive fluid control valve.
417Pumps,   subclasses 279+ for a pump with condition responsive pumped fluid control.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 460]    460Holding or braking valve in motor exhaust line controlled by pressure in motorfeed line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus that controls a valve restricting or preventing exhaust from a motor and said valve being responsive to the pressure of motive fluid being fed to the motor.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 404+ for a motor having an exhaust valve controlled responsive to the working member position.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 461]    461Discharge from contracting cylinder of double-acting motor controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus including a flow directing or modulating means controlling the flow of motive fluid being removed from an expansible chamber of a stroke device during its contraction; said means being responsive to a condition of the apparatus.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 420 for a motor in which the exhaust valve of the contracting chamber is controlled by the expanding chamber pressure or flow.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 462]    462With externally operable multiwasy valve means directing flow to a stroke device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus including a stroke type motor having an externally operated multiway valve for manipulating the device, and a device controlling flow of motive fluid in the apparatus responsive to a condition of the apparatus resulting from an external adjustment of the valve.

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392,for a system in which a follow up linkage from the output motor or member closes an externally opened valve.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 463]    463Sensor of external condition controls valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 462.  Apparatus in which the externally operated multiway valve is actuated by a means sensing a condition of a substance or structure that is not a part of the means supplying motive fluid of the motor, or of the interconnecting lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 464]    464Of motive fluid transfer between a reservoir and a recirculating path of a pump motor loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus in which condition responsive structure controls the supply of motive fluid to or its discharge from a recirculating system made up of a pump, a motor and interconnecting flow lines; the transferred motive fluid being taken from or supplied to a reservoir out of the recirculating path.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 465]    465Having externally operable means for setting motor or pump displacement or direction of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus in which the displacement of a variable displacement pump or motor is set by external means and flow of motive fluid in the apparatus is controlled by a means sensing a condition of the apparatus resulting from the external adjustment of the displacement.

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389,for a displacement controller positioned by a servo-motor having follow-up linkage assuming full range correspondence of the displacement adjuster and the manually set actuator;
443+,for a servo-motor setting a displacement controller.
445+,for a condition responsive displacement adjuster.
487,for a system with no automatic control having a manual displacement adjuster.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 466]    466Of braking or holding valve in motor discharge line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus having a means sensing the pressure or rate of flow of motive fluid in a motor discharge line and effective to shut-off or restrict the discharge of the fluid from the motor.

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460,for a holding or braking valve in a motor exhaust line controlled by the pressure in the motive feed line.
461,for a system in which the discharge from the contracting cylinder of a double acting motor is controlled.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 47 for a motor having constantly applied motive fluid with controlled venting; and 404+ for a motor having a working member position exhaust control.
188Brakes,   subclasses 293+ for a brake driven in which the braked element drives a pump forcing brake fluid through a restriction.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 467]    467Stroke cylinder open to exhaust responsive to position of output member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus including a motor moving an output device along a path, there being structure that diverts the motive fluid driving the motor back to a container from which the motive fluid pressurizer is supplied upon the output device reaching a selected point in its path.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 400+ for a motor in which the expanding chamber is vented responsive to the position of the working member of the motor or of the output.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 468]    468Of by-pass of motor, pump or flow control element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Apparatus in which the flow of motive fluid through a passage by-passing a motor, pump or restriction in a motor feed or discharge line is controlled by a condition responsive means.

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424,for serially connected motors one of which has an automatically controlled bypass.
456,for a bypass arrangement including cooling structure.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 399 , 400+, and 407 for motors having bypasses responsive to the position of the working member.
137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 108+ for a self controlled branched flow system.
417Pumps,   subclasses 307+ for a pump having a pressure responsive relief or by pass valve.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 469]    469Having means controlling or attenuating shock vibration, sticking or chattering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus with a structure (1) ameliorating or suppressing the efforts of shock or vibration, (2) preventing sudden movement or release of pressure or load or (3) controlling noise or sticking.

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338,for a coaxial impeller and turbine unit having shock, vibration or surge control structure.
371,for a resilient means storing and releasing energy in the cycled reciprocation of a stroke device.
413,for a structure for controllably storing and subsequently releasing of energy.
461,for automatic means controlling the discharge from the contracting cylinder often to prevent chattering, jumping or shock.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 399 , for a double acting motor cushioned at the end of a stroke by the opening of a bypass between the expanding and contracting chamber; subclasses 405+, for a working member position responsive cushioning valve in a motor exhaust; and subclasses 429 and 430, for a motor having an anti-sticking motive fluid control valve.
417Pumps,   subclass 312 , for a pump with a muffler acting on the pump fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 470]    470Externally operated multiway valve or interconnected control elements control motive fluid for a limited stroke to-and-fro device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including structure controlling flow of motive fluid between a pressure fluid source and an output device to move the output member between plural positions, the structure comprising a multiway valve or a system of valves mechanically or electrically interlinked for correlated action under the control of an operator.

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388,for a motor positioning manipulator with a feedback linkage providing full range correspondence of the position of the manipulating handle and the output.
393,for a system having structure to impress a feel of the load or pressure in the motor on the manipulating handle to give a feel of the load.
429,for an automatic system having a multiway valve changing the relationship of separately operable input pumps.
434,for a system in which a pump drive controller is connected for joint operation with the valve manipulating handle.
462,for a stroke device controlled by an externally operated multiway valve and that has condition responsive structure.
463,for a system in which a multiway valve manipulating a stroke device is responsive to an external condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 471]    471Having plural distinct or separately operable output means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 470.  Apparatus including (1) two outputs one of which may operate separately from the other or in a diverse manner; or (2) two distinctly identifiable outputs.

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421,for a system having automatic control means in which a manually operated multiway valve selects various combinations of plural pumps or motive fluid sources.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 508+ for a motor system having plural working members and a single member that selectively controls the motive fluid for each working member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 472]    472Flow to opposed expansible chambers having a common output reversed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 470.  Apparatus in which the output member is carried by two opposed expansible chamber devices mechanically connected thereto; the connection being such that an increase in pressure in one chamber moves the output member in the opposite direction from that caused by an increase of pressure in the other chamber and the control structure acting to select the chamber to which pressure fluid is supplied.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 462+ for a double acting motor with a motive fluid control valve arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 473]    473Pump means moves motive fluid from one chamber to an opposite chamber of opposed expansible chambers having a common output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including a single to and fro output member driven by opposed expansible chambers and a pump for transferring motive fluid from one chamber to the other, to drive the output.

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369,for a reciprocating output driven in a repeating cycle by opposed expansible chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 474]    474Valve or restriction controls gravity or spring return of output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 437.  Apparatus in which the pump moves the piston in one direction only, its return being produced by gravity or stored energy and controlled by a valve or restriction means adjusting the rate of flow of motive fluid between the chambers.

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461,for a double acting motor having a condition responsive valve controlling the discharge from the exhausting expansible chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 475]    475With means compensating for charge leakage or volume difference between discharging and receiving chambers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 437.  Apparatus in which fluid is moved between two cylinders, one of which is increased in size while the other is decreased in the to and fro operation of an output member, the system having a structure that compensates for the difference in volume of the two cylinders or which corrects for any unbalance caused by leakage between parts of the system.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 463 for a double acting motor with means to provide unequal flow rates to or from opposed working chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 476]    476Reversible delivery from pump means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 437.  Apparatus with means by which the pump or its delivery may be reversed to reverse the direction of movement of the to and fro device.

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472,for a double acting motor manipulated by a multiway valve means or by interconnected control elements that control the flow between the opposed chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 477]    477Ram driven by fluid pumped from reservoir:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus comprising an output motor of the piston-cylinder type, the motor being caused to produce a pull or thrust by pumping motive liquid from a reservoir into or from the cylinder.

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369,for a cyclically operated reciprocating ram.
387,for a ram with distinct structure metering and dispensing a stroke length determining volume of motive fluid.
432,for a ram device in which the motor driving the motive fluid pump is deactivated responsive to the position of the ram.
437,for a ram device in which one side of the piston is the reservoir from which motive fluid is pumped to the power cylinder.
462,for a ram having coordinated manual and automatic controls.
467,for a ram cylinder opened to exhaust or reaching the end of its stroke.
470,for a ram controlled by an externally operated multiway valve or interconnected control elements.

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254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclass 93 for a pushing or pulling implement including a ram driven by fluid pressure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 478]    478Having means pressurizing, vacuumizing or venting reservoir:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 477.  Apparatus having structure by which motive liquid in the reservoir is kept at a pressure above or below atmosphere or has distinct structure providing for the flow of air into or out of the reservoir as the volume of liquid in the reservoir varies.

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464,for an arrangement in which a compressed gas accumulator supplies energy to the body of motive fluid driving the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 479]    479Having selective or variable pump displacement or pump drive leverage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 477.  Apparatus with structure by which the amount of motive fluid discharged from a pump means toward the ram for each revolution of the pump or for each equal length stroke of a pump handle may be selected or adjusted.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 480]    480Telescopic ram:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 477.  Apparatus in which the ram is made up of concentric cylinders that move axially relative to each other under the pressure of the pumped fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 481]    481Having fluid trapping means with a manual release or by-pass holding ram:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 477.  Apparatus in which the fluid pump into the ram is retained therein by structure that must be released or by-passed manually for retraction of the ram.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 482]    482Release valve and pump actuated by a common handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 481.  Apparatus having a common handle for actuating the pump and the ram release structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 483]    483Having selecting means distributing motive fluid between plural motors or cylinders rotatating a common output shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which a plurality of motors, motive sections or motor cylinders are arranged to rotate a common shaft, and having manually operable means to modify the relative operation of the motors, motive sections, or motor cylinders relative to each other.

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425,for a condition responsive means establishing the number of motors or motor sections driving a common output.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 476+ for a rotary output device driven by three or nine cylinders with separate motive fluid control of the delivery of motive fluid from a nominal source to each working chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 484]    484Having plural energy outputs (e.g., plural motors, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus which the energy put into apparatus from the pressure fluid source is discharged from the system by more than one means; e.g., plural motors, a motor and a pressure line, etc.

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374,for correlated independently movable output member in a cyclically operable stroke cycle.
419,for a system including an output motor and a motor driven by the motive fluid driving a pump raising the pressure of the motive fluid in a branch line.
420,for a system of distinct or separately operable outputs or drive units including a condition responsive control.
471,for a system of plural motors including a ram device manipulated by a multiway valve or interconnected control elements.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 508+ for a system of plural expansible chamber motors with a merely nominal source of motive fluid.
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 96.2 for railway rolling stock having a fluid transmission driving a wheel or axle.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 308 for a motor vehicle which includes a traction motor of the kind driven by a noncompressible fluid received under pressure from a pump and wherein each surface-engaging member which is powered for driving the vehicle is provided with such a motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 485]    485Unit having coaxial rotary output shafts and pump means in a common housing (e.g., automobile differential, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 484.  Apparatus having a pump as the pressure fluid source and two rotary motors, the motors being coaxial and the pump and two motors being in the form of a compact unitary assembly.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 486]    486Having plural energy input means, pumps or diverse pump outlets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus in which (1) there are plural pressure sources, (2) in which the pressure source includes separately operable pump means; or (3) a pump means driven by separately operable energy input devices.

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375,for correlated power input pumps and/or pressurized fluid cyclically operated in driving a reciprocating stroke device.
386,for a power boosted manual pump system.
397,for a motor operated by the intake manifold of an internal combustion engine with a means for furnishing extra energy to the motor.
400,for a system having selective or simultaneous manual or power energy inputs.
405,for a safety system in which a second motive fluid supply means takes the load responsive to the failure of a first supply means.
413,for a system with means for controllable feeding stored energy to the motor.
419,for a system in which motive fluid in the system is pressurized by a pump driven by the motive fluid of the system.
421,for a system with an automatic control including plural motors and plural pumps or motive fluid sources with relationships selected by a multiway valve.
428,for a system of separately operable power input pumps, pump cylinders or pressure fluid sources that has automatic control means.
444,for a system including a nonpower pump supplying control pressure to a displacement adjusting servo-motor.
447,for a system including a run-power pump supplying pressure proportional to spread to a servo-motor controlling the displacement of a power pump or output motor.
464,for an automatically controlled motive fluid replenishing arrangement for a recirculating power pump and motor loop.

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417Pumps,   subclasses 199+ , for an assembly of diverse pumps; subclass 374, for motor driven pump having a manual or diverse drive; and subclasses 426+, for plural pumps with individual or relative control.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 487]    487Input pump and rotary output motor system having displacement varying type of direction or speed selector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus comprising a pump feeding a rotary motor, either the pump or motor including externally settable internal structure by which the amount of motive fluid moved therethrough on each cycle or revolution may be selected or by which the direction of flow therethrough may be reversed.

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389,for a system in which a displacement adjuster is positioned by a servo-motor having a feed-back linkage.
443,for a system in which a displacement adjuster is positioned by a manually controlled servo-motor.
445,for a system in which a displacement adjuster is positioned by a condition responsive means.
465,for a system having a manual displacement adjuster in combination with a condition responsive motive fluid flow controller.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 488]    488Including auxiliary system feed pump:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.  Apparatus having an additional pump that delivers motive fluid from a reservoir to replenish or augment the motive fluid being circulated between the energy input pump and the motor.

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455,for a system including structure for collecting leakage.
464,for the automatic control of motive fluid transfer between a reservoir and the recirculation path of a pump-motor loop.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 489]    489Having valve means controlling flow between pump and motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.  Apparatus having in addition to the displacement varying structure an adjustable flow controlling means in a flow line of the circuit including the rotary pump and motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 490]    490Both motor and pump have displacement adjustment means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 487.  Apparatus in which the displacements of both the motor and pump are variable.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 491]    491Having common or intercontrolled adjuster actuating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 490.  Apparatus including a mechanism that simultaneously or in a desired sequence adjusts the displacements of both the pump and the motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 492]    492Motor swash plate and pump swash plate intercontrolled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 491.  Apparatus in which both the pump and motor are of the swash plate type.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 493]    493Valve means reverses flow from pump to reversible rotary motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus including a pump supplying motive fluid to a rotary motor and having valve structure between the pump and motor to change the direction of flow through the motor to reverse its direction of rotation.

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369,for a cyclically reversed to-and-fro stroke device.
472,for a valve means reversing the flow to and fro a stroke type motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 494]    494Including by-pass or restrictor controlling flow circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus with structure by which the flow of motive fluid may be adjustably retarded or be apportioned between branches.

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459+,for the condition responsive control of fluid flow.
470,for a multiway valve or interconnected control elements reversing flow to, stopping and starting or by passing a stroke type motor.
493,for a valve reversing flow from a pump to a reversible rotary motor.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 418+ for an expansible chamber motor with a motive fluid valve.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 495]    495MOTOR HAVING A BUOYANT WORKING MEMBER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having a working member which may be made buoyant or which is buoyant in a fluid and which may be caused to be moved by the fluid, because of the difference in specific gravity between the member and the fluid, to have a vertical component of motion and thereby adapted to do work, through a mechanical output means, either (1) because of a means which may make said buoyant member more or less buoyant so that it may be moved either against or by the pull of gravity in said fluid, or (2) though its specific gravity remains constant, the buoyant member may be given a vertical component of motion as a result of the rise and fall of the surface of said fluid.
(1) Note. The rise and fall of the surface of the buoying fluid may be the result of a natural phenomenon or under the control of other means.
(2) Note. The buoying fluid may exist in nature as a stream or ocean, or it may be confined wholly within a container wherein the flow to or from the container from any source of supply may be controlled, or it may be partially confined in a means which permits constant or controlled communication with a naturally existing body of fluid.

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398,for devices employing tide or wave actuated devices which elevate or pressurize a fluid so that it may be usable as a motive fluid to actuate a fluid motor.
495+,for tide or wave motors combined with a spring or weight motor to wind or supplement said spring or weight motor.

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185Motors: Spring, Weight, or Animal Powered,   subclasses 27+ for motors in which kinetic energy is derived from the movement of a mass by virtue of the effects of gravity.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclass 11 , for fluid flow regulators actuated by energy from a variation in buoyancy of a body.
290Prime-Mover Dynamo Plants,   subclass 53 for dynamos including a tide or wave motor.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   for devices for and methods of controlling water in open channels or reservoirs, and subclasses 75+ for means to modify fluid directing channel means for the utilization of the water flowing therethrough to operate some form of motor.
415Rotary Kinetic Fluid Motors or Pumps,   subclass 7 for means buoyantly sustaining rotatable runner means in a confined stream of liquid.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces, i.e., Impellers,   subclasses 84 , 85+ for impellers which float and which operate by the impact resulting from the horizontal waves or flow of an unconfined stream of water.
417Pumps,   subclass 100 for liquid piston pumps operated by tides or waves and 330+ for fluid pumps actuated by tide or wave motors.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 496]    496With means to vary buoyancy of working member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 495.  Apparatus wherein the working member may be actuated in a buoying fluid by either adding to or withdrawing a substance from the confines of said working member to change its specific gravity relative to the fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 497]    497Working member actuated by the rise and fall of a surface of a body of fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 495.  Apparatus having a buoyant working member which is actuated by the vertical rise and fall of the surface of a body of fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 498]    498Having tide responsive working member positioning means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus operable in a body of fluid whose surface rises and falls both in cycles of short periods, e.g., ocean waves, and in cycles of long periods, e.g., oceanic tides, said device having separate means responsive to each of said cyclic movements to cause said working member to move.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 499]    499Having means responsive to lateral impulse of fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus having means whereby mechanical work also may be produced from the lateral movement of a flowing fluid or the lateral movement of a wave on the surface of a body of fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 500]    500Having articulated buoyant members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus having at least two buoyant working members adapted to be moved relative to one another by the vertical movement of the surface of a body of fluid and said members being pivotally interconnected to each other whereby mechanical work may be performed as a result of the relative movement of said members only.
(1) Note. Classification in this subclass includes only those relatively movable interconnected buoyant members which produce work because of their relative movement, per se. For devices having relatively movable working members wherein work is produced as a result of relative movement between one or more of the working members and a stationary means secured to or supported by the earth see subclass 504 or 505.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 501]    501Motor is free floating unit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus having a unitary buoyant member having means actuated in response to the relative movement between said member and a means supported entirely by said member.
(1) Note. The device may be in the form of a free hanging weight carried within the buoyant member, or it may be a means in the form of a sea anchor, or other means, which is suspended from the member outside the member or in the fluid (not in engagement with the earth) to dampen the movement of the means given it by the member so that work may be produced as a result of the relative movement between the member and the means when the member is caused to change its vertical position responsive to the vertical movement of the free surface of the fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 502]    502Having fluid flow or wave controlling, confining or directing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus together with at least one surface means which is designed to (1) restrain, direct, or control the flow of a body of fluid or a portion thereof or restrain or direct the movement of waves traveling on the surface of said body of fluid, or (2) confine a portion or all of a body of fluid so that the surface of said fluid may change its vertical position.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 503]    503In which the control means is variable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 502.  Apparatus having means whereby the fluid flow, the surface wave movement or amplitude, or the volume of confined fluid may be variably controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 504]    504Having flexible strand working member motion transmitting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus having a flexible means which engages or is engaged by the buoyant member to transmit motion of said member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 505]    505Having relatively movable working members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus having a means supporting a plurality of buoyant working members so that they may move relative to each other and to the supporting means.

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500,for articulated buoyant working members.
504,for motors having a plurality of relatively moving buoyant working members having flexible means to transmit the motion of members.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 506]    506Working member pivotally supported:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus wherein the buoyant working member is supported to pivot about an axis.

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507,for other buoyant motors having one way clutch type devices as part of the power transmission means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 507]    507Having one-way clutch power transmission means, e.g., ratchet, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Apparatus having means to transmit movement of the buoyant working member as it moves in one vertical direction and permit the member to move free of the transmitting means as it moves in another direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 508]    508FLUID WITHIN EXPANSIBLE CHAMBER HEATED OR COOLED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a motor having a working chamber and a working member therein with means affecting the temperature and thus the pressure of fluid after being supplied to and isolated within the working chamber to actuate the working member.
(1) Note. The motor working chamber and member includes a cylinder and piston or its equivalent.
(2) Note. See Class 92, Schedule, section II for a definition of a working chamber and member for an expansible chamber type motor.
(3) Note. See Class 415 for a definition of a Rotary kinetic fluid motor.
(4) Note. An indeterminate motor (Black box) having internal generation not classified elsewhere is classified under this subclass.

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516+,for motors activated by expanding and contracting a confined mass by means changing the temperature of said mass.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   for motors wherein unburned hydrocarbons are cyclically introduced into an expansible chamber device, isolated therein and then ignited to increase the pressure of said isolated material. See Class 123 subclass 22 for motors which may operate as an internal combustion engine or a hot air motor, of the type herein classified, alternating between the two modes of operation either selectively or as the result of a predetermined cyclic operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 509]    509Special motive fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Apparatus of a motor whose working member is actuated after the introduction of unburned vapors, of liquids other than water, into the working chamber and the change in temperature and therefore pressure of said vapors caused by vapor heating or cooling means within said chamber.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 510]    510Air rarefied by combustion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Apparatus of a motor in which air and burning gases are admitted into the working chamber wherein the combustible components of the air are consumed or the hot products of combustion cooled so that a vacuum is produced within the working chamber by the resultant rarefied gases and the working member is actuated.

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515,for a cooling jacket disposed about a cylinder with means to control fluid flow through the jacket.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   for motors wherein, cyclically, unburned hydrocarbons are introduced into an expansible chamber device isolated therein and then ignited to increase the pressure of the isolated material.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 511]    511Fluid mingling (e.g., condensation):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Apparatus of a motor comprising a working member and a working chamber having a first fluid therein and means to introduce a second fluid into said first fluid to produce a change in pressure of said first fluid whereby the change in pressure actuates the working member.
(1) Note. Usually water is injected into the working chamber to condense steam therein and the resultant reduced pressure actuates the working member due to a higher pressure on the opposite side of the working member, usually atmospheric pressure.
(2) Note. A fluid such as hot water or hot air may be introduced into the working chamber to superheat the motive fluid therein and the change in pressure actuates the working member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 512]    512Having means within the working chamber to effect the pressure of fluid therein:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Apparatus of a motor with means located within the working chamber to change the temperature of the working fluid subsequent to isolation therein to affect the pressure of the fluid therein so that the change in pressure produced thereby is utilized to actuate the working member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 513]    513Electric heating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Apparatus wherein the means within the working chamber is a resistance element heated by the passage of an electric current therethrough to heat the working fluid therein and thus increase the pressure of the working fluid.
(1) Note. The fluid within the working chamber may be air or steam which is to be heated or superheated or the motive fluid may be a liquid as water which is introduced into the working chamber and instantaneously flashes into steam upon contact with the electric coil or plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 514]    514Concurrent fluid supply and vaporization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Apparatus of a motor comprising a working member and a working chamber having liquid supplied thereto with means to vaporize the liquid concurrently with its introduction into the working chamber whereby the pressure produced actuates the working member.
(1) Note. Two or more fluids may be introduced into a preheated working chamber so long as at least one fluid is a liquid to be vaporized (e.g., air and water, water vaporized; oil and water, both vaporized).

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511,for motors wherein a second fluid is injected into a working chamber having a first fluid therein to result in a change in pressure in said chamber.
512,for means within the working chamber to affect the pressure of the fluid therein.

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123Internal-Combustion Engines,   for motors in which a combustible material is burned with a chamber and the pressure produced thereby is converted into work, and subclass 22 for internal combustion engines having working chamber into which air, per se, may be introduced and expanded to do work as a result of its contact with the hot walls of the chamber either as a step in the cycle of the internal combustion engine chamber or during a time when the chamber is converted to act as a hot air engine from internal combustion engine operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 515]    515Having control means for heating or cooling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 508.  Apparatus of a working chamber having means exterior of working chamber heat exchange therebetween and means to control the rate of BTU transfer to the chamber.
(1) Note. The means disposed exteriorly the working chamber may include a jacket spaced from the working chamber or a coil which may be an electrical resistance element or a pipe having fluid flow therethrough for the purposes or heating or cooling.
(2) Note. The control means includes a valve which controls the flow of fluid through the jacket or coil or an electrical control for the resistance.
(3) Note. A working chamber disposed within the furnace chamber is properly classified under 515 where a control for the furnace is disclosed.

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92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclass 144 for an expansible chamber type motor in which the working chamber is jacketed for heat transfer therebetween but where there is no control valve for either the motor or the jacket fluid.
123Internal-Combustion Engines,   subclasses 41 , 72+ and 195 for a jacketed cylinder or end closure therefor for receiving circulating heat exchange liquid to cool the operating parts of an internal combustion engine. A specific disclosure that a jacketed cylinder or end closure therefor is to form a part of an internal combustion engine is sufficient for classification in Class 123.
165Heat Exchange,   appropriate subclasses for a heat exchange modifying space or jacket of general utility. Class 165 takes a nominally claimed cylinder or working chamber forming member of an expansible chamber device, where the claim is otherwise directed to a surrounding space or jacket designed to modify the heat exchange properties of the cylinder or member.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 592.01+ for a receptacle having means to maintain its contents above or below ambient temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 516]    516MOTOR OPERATED BY EXPANSION AND/OR CONTRACTION OF A UNIT OF MASS OF MOTIVATING MEDIUM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus having means which may heat, cool or otherwise cause a defined unit of matter as a working medium in the gaseous liquid, or solid state to expand and contract cyclically to do useful work.
(1) Note. The confined matter may change state during expansion or contraction thereof.
(2) Note. The distinction between the plants in this subclass and the plants in subclasses 508+, where a motive fluid is introduced into an expansible chamber and heated or cooled therein to expand or contract said chamber, is that in the latter a definable mass is not isolated as a motive fluid which is subject to heating and cooling and thus expansion and contraction for more than one cycle.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

62Refrigeration,   subclass 6 for "Stirling" cycle refrigeration producers, and subclasses 498+ for compressor-condenser-evaporator circuits for refrigerator producers.
236Automatic Temperature and Humidity Regulation,   subclass 68 , for temperature regulators which include a thermal expansion and contraction device whose operation is effected by a heater set into operation by a heat responsive initiator.
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclass 11 , for heat motor actuated valves.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 100+ , for thermometers, especially subclasses 187+ where an ambient temperature is measured using a solid or fluid having known properties of expansion or contraction in response to given changes in temperature.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 517]    517Unit of mass is a gas which is heated or cooled in one of a plurality of constantly communicating expansible chambers and freely transferable therebetween:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 516.  Apparatus in which the unit or working medium is a gas which is confined to circulation between two communicating expansible chambers, one of said expansible chambers is a working chamber wherein said gas expands or contracts to energize a working member to do useful work, and the other of the expansible chambers acts as a displacer or transmitting means for said working medium.
(1) Note. Engines which operate by the principle set forth herein have been known variously as: Air Engine, Caloric Engine, Compressor Engine, Compressed Air Engine, Hot Air (Gas) Engine, Stirling Cycle Engine.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

62Refrigeration,   subclass 6 , for "Stirling Cycle" refrigeration producers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 518]    518Having means to change operational phase relationship of working member and displacer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus having means to change the cyclic phase relationship between the power or working member and the displacer mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 519]    519Expansible chamber having rotatable or oscillatory displacer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus in which at least one of said expansible chambers is provided with a member which either rotates or oscillates about an axis so that said chamber either expands or contracts as a result of motion of said member.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 520]    520Having free floating displacer or transfer piston:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus wherein at least one of said expansible chambers is provided with a piston which is freely movable therein, and without connection to any other means, having the function to cause the working medium to flow from that chamber to another of the expansible chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 521]    521Having means to increase or diminish quantity of motivating mass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 516.  Apparatus having a particular means whereby gas may be added to or withdrawn from the unit of gas employed as the working medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 522]    522Having means to control rate of flow of mass between chambers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus provided with means adapted to control the rate of flow of said gas from one to another of the expansible chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 523]    523Having electrical heating means for mass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus wherein heat is supplied to one of said expansible chambers as a result of the conversion of electric current to heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 524]    524Having means to control temperature of heating or cooling chamber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus having condition responsive or manually controlled means to vary the temperature of a chamber in which the working gas is heated or cooled.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 525]    525Motor having plural working members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus having more than one chamber in which expansion or contraction of said gas is converted into useful work.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 526]    526Motor having regenerator for mass:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Apparatus having means in the path of flow of said working gas as it passes back and forth from a cooling chamber to a heating chamber whereby heat is removed from said gas as it passes therethrough in one direction and then returns said heat to said gas as it passes back through said means in the opposite direction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

62Refrigeration,   subclasses 115+ for processes for compressing, condensing and evaporating a refrigerant.
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 4+ for regeneration, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 527]    527Mass is a solid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 516.  Apparatus which the unit of matter is a solid.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents which employ a mass which is in a solid state during at least a portion of a cycle of its operation. During other portions of the cycle of its operation, a given mass (e.g., wax) may change to a liquid state, or another mass (e.g., metallic hydride) may change to a gaseous state.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electrical Generator or Motor Structure,   subclass 26 for magnetostrictive motors wherein a magnetic field is employed to cause a material to expand and contract to do work.
337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclasses 333+ and 382+ for switches actuated by the expansion or contraction of bimetallic or other metallic members.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclass 187 for temperature measurement in which the expansion or contraction of a sensing material drives an indicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 528]    528Mass heated because of resistance to flow of electric current:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 527.  Apparatus wherein the solid is arranged to conduct an electrical current whereby said solid may be made to expand or contract in proportion to the current flow therethrough.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 117 for a motor comprising a member that undergoes a substantial change of shape when heated and means for heating it electrically.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 529]    529Mass is bimetallic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 527.  Apparatus in which the mass consists of at least two interrelated pieces of material each characterized by a different coefficient of expansion.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

528,for devices having bimetallic members through which an electrical current is passed which either expands or contracts because of the resistance to the flow of current therethrough.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 530]    530Mass is a liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 516.  Apparatus in which the working medium is a liquid during at least a portion of a complete cycle of the operation of the motor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

527,for apparatus employing a mass which is in a solid state during a portion of its cyclic operation and which may or may not change to a liquid state during another part of its cyclic operation (e.g., wax).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

337Electricity: Electrothermally or Thermally Actuated Switches,   subclasses 306+ for switches actuated by thermally expanded or vaporized fluid.
374Thermal Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 201+ for temperature measurement in which an expanding or contracting fluid drives an indicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 531]    531Liquid is vaporized:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 530.  Apparatus having means whereby said unit of matter is a fluid which is vaporized so that through the device, work may be accomplished.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 532]    532Shock or resonant wave type of energy transmission:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Subject matter in which the input energy is transmitted to an output through a mass of fluid in the form of a compressional wave or a series of such waves moving at the speed of sound.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   subclasses 137+ for a residual mechanical sonic or supersonic generator for wave transmission through media.
366Agitating,   appropriate subclass for a stirring or agitating device utilizing a sonic or super sonic vibrator.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 533]    533Pulsator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 325.  Apparatus comprising (1) a system including structure to trap a definite volume of motive fluid between two expansible chamber devices for movement back and forth, one expansible chamber device functioning as a transmitter or master to pressurize the fluid and the other as a receiver or slave actuatable in response to the pressurization of such fluid, wherein any movement of a working member of one device results in movement of the working member of the second device and the systems provides (a) at least two different cross-sectional areas through which the pressurized fluid must pass or (b) the volumetric displacement of the master and slave are unequal; or (2) subcombinations specialized to such system not specifically classified elsewhere.
(1) Note. The output of the pulsator must be the final output of the organization claimed and not merely an intermediate link, or ancillary to a larger organization.
(2) Note. The following are examples of specialized subcombinations of pulsators classified in Class 60: (a) An expansible chamber type motor device for which the claimed nominal load is an expansible chamber solely disclosed as the master of a pulsator; (b) An expansible chamber device having an associated holder for a reserve supply of liquid and solely disclosed as the master of a pulsator, i.e., master cylinder; (c) A piston or diaphragm device disclosed in a pulsator line acting to limit the travel of fluid between the master and slave to a back and forth movement equal to the displacement of the diaphragm or piston; (d) A pressure responsive unit disclosed in a flow line between a master and slave that first passes fluid from the master toward the slave and then, responsive to pressure, acts as a master driven by the first master to drive fluid toward the slave.
(3) Note. A glossary of terms related to this and indented subclasses is at the end of this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 583 for a residual machine element for transmitting motion by push and pull movement including a trapped body of fluid.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclass 280 for a motor having a pulsator cyclically distributing motive fluid to the motor; subclass 384 for a pulsator feeding back a working member"s position to a motive fluid controller; subclass 460 for a motor having a pulsator controlled valve; and appropriate subclass for a valved expansible chamber motor per se, or driving a merely nominal load. However if a claimed nominal load is solely disclosed as the master of a pulsator the combination is classifiable in Class 60 subclasses 533+.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 61+ for a system of plural expansible chamber devices of the Class 92 type not in a master-slave relationship. (See Paragraph A of (4) Note of the Class 92 definition for a statement of the line); and appropriate subclass for a master or slave device, per se. See (3) Note, above for exceptions to this line between Classes 60 and 92 (e.g., relating to a master cylinder etc.).
188Brakes,   subclasses 151+ for a specific motion stopping or retarding means operated by a fluid pressure system and subclasses 266+ for an internal resistance motion retarder (e.g., hydraulic shock absorber, dash pot etc.).
251Valves and Valve Actuation,   subclass 57 for a valve actuated by a fluid link or column (e.g., pulsator, etc.).
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 118+ for a fluid type spring device. Class 267 takes a device comprising a chamber provided with a movable wall (e.g., piston and cylinder) and adapted to contain a fluid designed to contact and exert a force against said movable wall, or an element of such device (e.g., piston) when there is a disclosure that such device is used as a spring device.
303Fluid-Pressure and Analogous Brake Systems,   appropriate subclass for a system specialized to the distribution of fluid in a brake system. The line between Class 303 and subclasses 533+ of Class 60 as to pulsator structure in a brake system is as follows:
(1) A pulsator with structure specializing it for use in braking; or in which the output of the pulsator includes more than nominal brake structure is in Class 303. The following are examples of features in a pulsator device specializing the pulsator for use as a brake system for Class 303. (a) A valve controlled by the inertia of an element braked. (b) A structure responsive to the load on the vehicle to modify the brake action. (c) A distributor not itself a master, that apportions fluid between differently loaded brake cylinders. (d) A device responsive to the disconnection of a trailer from a tractor for actuating the trailer brakes.
(2) A complete pulsator comprising a master and slave not specialized as in 1 above; or in which the slave drives merely a nominal brake is in Class 60 subclasses 533+. The following terms are examples of brake recitations which are considered to be nominal and will not preclude classification in subclasses 533+. (a) Wheel cylinder; (b) Brake means; (c) Brake cylinders; (d) Hydraulic vehicle brakes; (e) Vehicle brakes (f) Disc brakes; (g) Brakes (h) front and/or rear wheel brakes; (i) Dual brakes.
(3) Class 60 subclasses 533+ will take a master subcombination of a pulsator that is of the type specified in above and in the search class references to Classes 92 and 417 even though disclosed as a part of a brake system.
(4) Class 303 takes fluid brake systems or subcombinations thereof not classifiable elsewhere; e.g., an air brake system or a specialized distributing valve, per se, etc. See the reference to Class 137 in the class definition of Class 303 for the line between classes 137 and 303.
417Pumps,   subclasses 321+ for a residual motor driven pump not solely disclosed as a master and subclasses 383+ for a pump that is more than a mere nominal load driven by a pulsator.
 
 GLOSSARY
 MASTER
 

An expansible chamber device which provides a contracting volume to expel fluid from the chamber or to place the fluid therein under pressure. All valve means or chamber means associated with the expansible chamber device are included under this definition.

 MASTER CYLINDER
 

An art term applied to a unitary assembly of a master and its associated holder of a reserve supply of make-up fluid.

 MOTIVE FLUID
 

Fluid that acts to drive a motor. The term is generic to "pulse" fluid and "power" fluid.

 OUTPUT MEMBER
 

An element of the system by which driving or loading force is delivered for utilization by means other than the system itself.

 POWER FLUID
 

An externally energized fluid that powers a pulsator system. Pulsator circuit: The combination of elements in which the pulse fluid is trapped.

 PULSATOR SYSTEM
 

An organization of which a pulsator circuit is merely a part.

 PULSE FLUID
 

The definite volume of fluid trapped in the pulsator.

 SLAVE
 

An expansible chamber device which provides an expanding volume to receive pressurized fluid or a pressure transmitted through a passage connecting the slave to the master transmitter. The slave includes all valve means or chamber means associated therewith.

  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 534]    534Having signal, indicator or recorder of apparatus condition:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Apparatus including (1) as indicating, registering, signalling or claim means for conveying information about a condition of the apparatus or (2) means that permits an inspection of normally hidden parts or operating fluid of the apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 227 for a nonelectrical liquid level indicator of general utility.
200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclass 82 for a fluid pressure switch actuated by a piston.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 450+ , 451+ for an electrical system indicating the condition of a fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 535]    535Responsive to leakage of pulse fluid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 534.  Apparatus including a signal or alarm responsive to means sensing a loss or insufficiency of pulse fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 536]    536Plural correlated pulsators transmitting unlimited rotary input to unlimited rotary output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Apparatus in which a plurality of noncommunicating master-slave units have their input members interconnected to be driven by a common rotating device and their outputs interconnected to drive a common rotary device, the arrangement being such that both devices are capable of continuous rotation in one direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 537]    537Programmed, self-cycled or self-pulsed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Apparatus including means (1) to cause the apparatus to operate through a given cycle of diverse operations repetitiously; (2) operative upon initiation to perform a series of diverse operations and return to a starting position; or (3) continuously oscillate an output means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

532,for a pulsator transmitting energy by shock or resonant waves; and subclass 545 for an apparatus including a pulsator driven or controlled by electrical means.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

100Presses,   subclasses 269.01+ for a reciprocating press having fluid pressure actuation.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 538]    538Including electrical control or actuation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus in which the apparatus or its control has an electrically operated element.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 539]    539Cam drive of plural masters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus in which a plurality of pulsator pumps are operated in a program or cycle by cam means.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 540]    540Including timer or time delay means the cycle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus in which a step in the cycle is controlled by a period establishing device or a time of day clock.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 541]    541Having means terminating cycle at parking or holding position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus including structure effective to bring the apparatus to rest at a fixed standby position upon a shutdown of operation of termination of the cycle.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 542]    542Pneumatic device having pulse air bleed or supply means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus in which the pulsator fluid is air and having structure by which air is fed to or removed from the system.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

173Tool Driving or Impacting,   subclass 116 for an impacting device driven by a pulsator.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 543]    543Self-operated pulse fluid purge or quantity adjustment structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus including structure by which fluid is transferred automatically during the cycling of the apparatus into or out of a master-slave unit or between two master-slave units.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

417Pumps,   subclasses 385+ for a pump driven by a pulsator, the pulsator having structure by which it is supplied with pulse fluid or vented.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 544]    544Continuously acting self-pulsing master with manually settable slave release or output control valve:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Apparatus including a continuously reciprocating master pump connected to feed a slave unit, there being (1) a manually settable means to inactivate the slave while the pump continues to reciprocate; or (2) a settable valve in the pulsator fluid to control the output of the slave.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 545]    545Having electricity or magnetically operated structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Apparatus utilizing an electrical or magnetic element as a part of the apparatus, as a part of the power source driving the apparatus, or as a part of a circuit controlling the apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

538,for a programmed, self cycled, or self pulsed pulsator system having an electrically operated element.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 546]    546Pulsator synchronizes movement of plural outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Apparatus having two distinct output members each having an expansible chamber driving or being driven by its output member, the two chambers being connected to form a pulsator that serves to enforce a definite relative movement of the two outputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 547.1]    547.1With control of or by a separate power fluid, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 533.  Apparatus in which a motor driving the working member of a master is operated by a power fluid separate from the pulse fluid, the apparatus including structure controlling flow of the power fluid or responsive to a condition of the power fluid.
(1) Note. A power circuit and a pulse circuit that are replenished from the same supply and regarded as separate of the fluids of the two circuits remain operatively separate.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclass for an expansible chamber motor per se or driving a nominal load. Howeverthe combination of a expansible motor and its driven expansible chamber device disclosed solely as a master is in Class 60, subclasses 547+ .
188Brakes,   subclasses 355+ , for a power operated fluid pressure system actuating a specific motion retarding device.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 547.2]    547.2By pressure responsive valve dividing flow between motor and an auxiliary load:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.1.  Apparatus in which the structure controlling flow of the power fluid or responsive to a power fluid condition includes a valve having a face exposed to fluid pressure, the valve being movable in response to pressure variation for dividing power fluid flow between motor driving the working member and a separate motor driving an auxiliary load (e.g., power steering, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 547.3]    547.3By manually operated valve dividing flow between motor and an auxiliary load:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.1.  Apparatus in which the structure controlling flow of the power fluid or responsive to a power fluid condition comprises a valve which is manually moved for dividing power fluid flow between the motor driving the working member and a separate motor driving an auxiliary load (e.g., power steering, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 548]    548Flow in recirculating circuit controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  Apparatus in which fluid in the power circuit is constantly moved during standby through a closed recirculating system and the master is driven by the diversion or restriction of the circulating fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 60 subclass 549]    549Master structure provides non-overlapping periods of pressurization of diverse pressure ranges in distinct pulsator circuits:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 547.  Apparatus in which the system is provided with structure providing for pressurization of distinct output circuits such that (1) there are periods when only one of the circuits is being pressurized or (2) the pressures in the distinct circuits vary in relative magnitude.