Processes and apparatus for forming strands or fabrics from
yarns, filaments or strands, by braiding, knotting and/or
intertwisting the strands; and the corresponding products or fabrics.
SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS
The line between this Class (87) and Class 428, Stock Material
or Miscellaneous Articles, is that any plural layer product or stock
material which includes a component classifiable in this Class (87)
will be placed in this Class; a plural layer stock material or product
in general with no structure of the Class 87 type will be classified in
Class 428, Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles. See also reference
to Class 87 in the main definition of Class 428, Lines With Other
Classes, Intermediate Articles, and subclass 592 for metallic stock
material having a helical component.
subclasses 3+ for machines and processes of the type found in
this class (87), combined with some additional wireworking apparatus
or process step. Where wires are not interlooped by merely being
placed adjacent each other and then locally twisted to overlie, so
that only the rigidity of the wire holds them together, the patent
is in Class 140, Wireworking.
Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,
subclasses 148+ for the combination of laminating and braiding
and subclass 52 for indefinite length conductor making including
a step of braiding a covering thereon.
Electricity: Conductors and Insulators, particularly
subclasses 121 , 122 and 124 for insulated conductors and see the
class definition, Section II- Lines With Other Classes and Within
This Class, "Miscellaneous" for the line.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Processes involving the applying of a coating or impregnating
material to the product by application to the strand material at
any time (i.e., before, during and/or after) relative to
the mechanical interrelation of the strands; and the resulting products.
through 7 for the incorporation of materials other than coating
or impregnating materials, particularly subclass 6 where the tubular
fabric is formed about a soft core into which it may become embedded.
Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles, pertinent subclasses as determined by schedule review
for a stock material product in the form of a single or plural
layer web or sheet when the strand interrelation for this class (87)
is not recited. See also main class definition of Class 428, Section
II- Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, "Interengaged
Fibers and Strands," for a further statement of the line.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Processes for making the fabric is extensible either longitudinally,
transversely or both due to the presence therein of extensible elements;
and the resulting products.
Note. Fabrics that are merely resilient under compression
are not here included.
This subclass is indented under subclass 3. Processes wherein the meshes of a net or mesh fabric are
formed by intertwisting the strands, the individual strands comprising
one of the two strand sets never being intertwisted; and the resulting
Note. These fabrics are distinguished from braided lace by
virtue of the fact that certain threads, known as warp, spool, beam,
etc., threads, are not intertwisted but may be tied together or
in position at certain points by means of the bobbin threads, with
which they are intertwisted.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Processes claiming steps for incorporating material in the
fabric in diverse ways; and the resulting products.
Note. This may be by combining two or more types of fabric
provided for in this class, or one fabric of this class with other
material incorporated by other characters of operation. The same strands
may be interrelated in two or more different ways.
Note. In general the material incorporated is independent
of the base fabric and does not partake of the fabric forming operations.
Also, it may be material of a different character uniting two or more
fabrics made according to the methods of this class.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Processes involving the braiding of strands together, i.e.,
in which one or more strands pass alternately over or under one
or more other strands; or in which one or more strands half-twist
alternately about two or more adjacent strands; and the resulting
Seal for a Joint or Juncture, pertinent subclasses as determined by schedule review for
a generic sealing means or process;
subclass 537 for a dynamic, circumferential, contact seal for
other than a piston contained or compressed by a gland in a packing
box having braided, woven, or twisted material or construction.
This subclass is indented under subclass 8. Processes involving forming a fabric of the well know open
work or net construction commonly provided with integral surface
patterns or designs, which are formed either by open work differing
from the ground fabric, or by portions more dense than the ground
Note. While these fabrics are inherently variation type, they
are here collected on the basis of pattern or design variation, whereas
those in subclass 11 are classified on the basis of fabric outline
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a pattern mechanism (such as a jacquard,
a pattern sheet, cam mechanism, etc.) is used to control operation
of the machine for any purpose, such as to produce a design on or
to control the shape of a fabric.
Note. For other pattern mechanisms, see the Index to the U.S.
Patent Classification System, the title "Pattern and Pattern
This subclass is indented under subclass 14. Apparatus in which certain braiding carriers may be stopped
in their travel, in predetermined sequence, and then permitted to
resume travel, such stopping and resumption of travel being under
the control of the pattern mechanism.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus provided with means that will sense a condition
or change of condition; and will then effect the operation of some
other device or portion thereof.
Note. An example is where the operation of the machine or
a portion thereof is governed by strand or fabric tension.
This subclass is indented under subclass 21. Apparatus wherein the carrier is provided with a ratchet
or ratchet-like device that prevents unwinding of the supply except
under the operation by the automatic control (usually by tension
of the strand itself).
Note. Discs or drums with pins or holes and holding means
coacting therewith are considered ratchet-like devices.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus having means for applying a coating or an impregnating
material to the strands and/or to the fabric at any time
relative to the production of the fabric.
Note. The coating or impregnating material may be a non-plastic
plasticizeable material which, at some stage of manufacture, or
subsequently, is rendered plastic.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus for producing fabric structure by twisting together
strands and/or intertwisting strands at junction points,
to form mesh, net or lace type of fabric.
Note. These devices for the most part produce polygonal mesh
This subclass is indented under subclass 25. Apparatus including means to incorporate in the product
some material (of strand or other form) in addition to the strands
that are intertwisted to form the fabric.
Note. The intertwisted strand fabric would be complete without
the additional strands.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus for producing fabrics such as tulle, curtain lace,
Note. These machines are of the general type of Levers or
go-through lace-machines. A plurality of thin shuttles or "carriages" containing
shuttles and/or bobbins passed transversely across a plurality
of longitudinal threads including warp, spool, beams, etc. threads.
By a lateral shogging of either the carriages or the warp threads,
one or more carriage spaces between successive carriage passages,
the bobbin threads twist about the warp threads and ties them together
or in place at predetermined points to form the lace pattern. There
is no intertwisting of the longitudinal warp, etc. threads.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including means to incorporate in the product
some material (of strand or other form) which does not partake of
the movements of interrelating of the strands forming the fabric.
Note. In general, the fabric basically produced is complete
without the incorporated material.
Note. Incorporating independent selvage strand in a fabric
is classified here.
This subclass is indented under subclass 28. Apparatus which include means for introducing strands or
other material into a braided fabric, which strands or other material
do not partake of the movements which effect the braiding of the
Note. These strands may be "warps", fillers,
stuffers, independent selvage strands, etc.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus claiming characteristics in addition to the features
necessary to the feeding of the strand material, the interrelation
thereof and the appropriate mechanism for operating the machine;
and not provided for in the preceding subclasses.
Note. For example, here are collected, as originals and cross
references, combinations with gauges, signals or indicators, cutters,
lubricators, dust shields, oil shields, etc.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus for forming strands or fabrics by the operations
commonly known as "braiding" or "plaiting".
Note. Bobbins, or carriers having bobbins thereon, are caused
to travel in predetermined paths and they either pass each other
so as to interlace strands, or strands leading from certain bobbins
are caused to pass other bobbins to cause interlacing of the strands.
Note. The May-pole dance is a well known example of the basic
operation of braiding. Some simple braiding mechanisms are known
as May-pole braiders.
This subclass is indented under subclass 33. Apparatus having means for withdrawing certain carriers
from their normal paths and holding them out of operation, or for
stopping certain carriers during the operation of other carriers.
This subclass is indented under subclass 39. Apparatus in which each carrier operating or propelling
device is provided with an individual clutch device to couple it
to the driving mechanism of the braiding machine.
This subclass is indented under subclass 33. Braiding apparatus in which (1) means are provided for braiding
a fabric having other than uniform characteristics (as by having
different appearance braid in different areas, having specially-formed
apertures, having branches, etc.) or (2) having means to change
the braiding operation to produce braids of different appearance
even though the disclosure is that any single produced fabric is
to be of uniform appearance.
Note. See appropriate preceding subclasses for particular
combinations or types of apparatus within this definition.
This subclass is indented under subclass 33. Apparatus in which all carriers travel in the same directions
about an axis and in which (1) each carrier is additionally moved
in such a path as to travel alternately about two adjacent carriers;
or (2) strands leading from certain carriers are passed alternately
about certain other carriers adjacent to the path of movement of such
Note. The carrier travels about the axis of the fabric twists
all strands about such axis.
This subclass is indented under subclass 33. Apparatus in which the carriers are divided into two or
more sets or groups all traveling in concentric circular orbits
and in which strands from one set are guided in and out about the carriers
of another set, means being provided to permit free passage of such
strands during travel of the carriers.
This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Apparatus in which the carriers of one set are provided
with interrupted rack and gear driving means to permit passage of
threads from another set about such carriers.
This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Apparatus in which the carrier driving means of one set
of carriers is provided with two or more "pushers" alternately
engaging a carrier to propel it and to permit passage of strands about
This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Apparatus claiming the means for deflecting the strands
leading from one set of carriers in and out past a second set of
Note. The organized machine should not be claimed. Where any
features of organization or structure not common to all machines
of this type are claimed, the patent is placed in the appropriate
preceding subclass; i.e., this subclass takes those means providing
for strand deflection, per se, or in combination with a broad statement
of general known types of machine organization.
Note. Since strand deflection is a necessary feature of all
machines of this type, search on this subcombination must be completed
in subclass 44 and the other indented subclasses.
This subclass is indented under subclass 33. Apparatus including means to prevent twisting or to cause
untwisting of a strand leading from a carrier as it is laid into
the fabric (so that, for example, a flat strand may be laid always
with the same side out).
This subclass is indented under subclass 50. Apparatus in which no raceplate or similar fixed guiding
means is provided and the carriers are clutched or clamped to the
propelling devices during travel between points of transfer from
one propelling device to another.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which net or mesh fabrics are produced by tying
knots in strands at their points of juncture.
Note. This subclass is distinguished from subclass 52 in that
those devices are for making a lace-like fabric of predetermined
design while these are for making regular mesh net-like fabrics,
such as, for example, seines.
This subclass is indented under subclass 54. Apparatus designed for use in forming tatting, usually manually
operated, and often provided with hooks and the like to assist the
operator in making loops.
This subclass is indented under subclass 54. Apparatus consisting of manual implements usually provided
with means to hold a supply of strand material and used in forming
seines and other knotted fabrics.
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