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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 528]   CLASS 528,SYNTHETIC RESINS OR NATURAL RUBBERS -- PART OF THE CLASS 520 SERIES
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

Class 528 provides for all processes of preparing polymers from reactants wherein at least one reactant is devoid of ethylenic unsaturation. In addition, Class 528 provides for processes of removing contaminates or undesirable materials from a polymer, for processes of physically treating polymer-material, or for processes of chemically modifying a polymer without the addition of any extraneous material.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

Listed below are rules to be followed in (1) placing patents into Class 528 and in (2) determining the appropriate subclasses to be searched in Class 528.

A. Classification in Class 528, subclasses 1-425 is on the basis of the reactants utilized. Some general rules to be followed in determining such reactants are as follows:

Process claim recites preparing an intermediate which is then reacted in a further step in preparing an additional intermediate

A + BC (Intermediate)

C (Intermediate) + D solid final product.

In this case, the reactants are A, B, and D. If reactant D is first appearing in the schedule array, there is no necessary cross-referencing to A, B, or to the intermediate C; however, if A or B is first appearing then a cross-reference should be placed in the subclass providing for C.

B. Process claim starts with intermediate C (i.e., no positive preparation step claimed for intermediate C). Reaction calls for C (Intermediate) + D solid final product. In this case, reactants are C and D and classification is on the basis of the first reactant appearing in the schedule array. See (M) for classification of an intermediate condensation product.

C. Patentee claims polymer C. Examiner or searcher must look to the disclosure to see reactants utilized.

D. A liquid polymer which is exposed to an after treatment step is classified as a reactant.

E. When the claims and disclosures are silent as to whether the polymer treated is a liquid or solid, the polymeric material is to be regarded as a liquid and therefore as a reactant.

F. When the claims are silent as to whether the polymer prepared is a solid or liquid and the disclosure is alternative, disclosing both solid and liquid materials, original classification is on the basis of general rules of schedule hierarchy and the alternative species is mandatorily cross-referenced.

G. When the claims are drawn to alternative claimed subject matter involving solid and liquid polymers, original classification is appropriate on the basis of general rules of schedule hierarchy and the alternative species is mandatorily cross-referenced.

H. Where there are generic claims presented (i.e., alternative)as well as species claims such species claims will generally control for classification purposes over the generic presented claims.

I. Markush claims of A or B are regarded as individual species and classification is appropriate on the basis of general rules of schedule hierarchy.

J. Claims which are drawn to an intermediate condensation product as a reactant wherein applicant alleges indefinite structure for the condensation product, are classified on the basis of the reactants utilized in preparing the intermediate condensation product.

Urea-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, and methylol melamine are considered as being indefinite materials and are classified as urea + formaldehyde, phenol + formaldehyde, and melamine + formaldehyde.

The reaction of a urea-formaldehyde condensation material + melamine product to yield product is C is classified on the basis of either urea, formaldehyde, or melamine, depending upon which is the first-appearing reactant provided in the schedule array.

If, however, the intermediate condensation product is of such definiteness as to be definable by applicant as a chemical compound, e.g., ester, polyester, polyether, polyamide, etc., such intermediate will be viewed as a compound and classified accordingly. An example of the aforementioned concept is as follows: Applicant starts with a (C) polyester prepared by reacting A + B. (C)polyester + isocyanate (D)--- polymer (E). Reactants are C and D and claim is cross-referenced to A and B if desired. If applicant identifies the final reactant product only in terms of the reactants necessary to produce such reactant product (e.g., urea-formaldehyde, etc.) classification is to be made on the basis of the reactants recited.

K. In all cases where doubt exists as to whether a material that is present during a reaction is a reactant or a nonreactant (i.e., specified material) such doubt has been resolved by looking at the material as if it were a reactant.

L. Applicants" statements as to functions of materials (e.g., catalyst, reactant, solvent, etc.) are to be taken literally and to be followed. An exception to the preceding rule is in those subclasses where specified rules are enumerated. If the Examiner has any doubts as to statements of functions, such doubts can be resolved by adequate cross- referencing. A specific exception to the rule enumerated above regarding applicants" statements is the question as to whether a material is a solid resin for the particular chemical modification subclasses which are provided in the schedule. In those cases where the claims are silent, the Examiner may resolve the question by looking at the total disclosure of the patent.

M. Classification into subclasses 1-425 is primarily on the basis of reactant utilized. It is possible, however, that polymeric products which may be identical in structure may be prepared from different reactants, and that these reactant may not be claimed or disclosed in the patent being classified. In those instances where a product is claimed which the Examiner believes may be formed from reactants which are not disclosed in the patent at hand, an optional cross-reference into the nonclaimed or disclosed reactant area may be highly desirable and appropriate.

The following rules apply in classifying a claim into Class 528 in those subclasses of the schedule which provide for processes (i.e., in specified material areas).

A. Patents that claim a product and process, wherein both the product and the process are specifically provided for in the schedule, are classified in the process area and cross-referenced to the product area.

B. Patents that claim both a provided for product and a process of polymerizing, and wherein the product is claimed in process terms, are classified on the basis of the process and cross-referenced to the first-appearing reactant in the schedule utilized in preparing the polymer.

C. Patents that claim a product solely in process terms are classified on the basis of the process, when said process is provided in the schedule and cross-referenced to the first-appearing reactant in the schedule utilized in preparing the polymer.

D. Patents that claim a product in process terms, and wherein the process is not provided, are classified on the basis of the first-appearing reactant in the schedule utilized in preparing the polymer.

E. Patents that claim a polymerizable composition or the preparation of a polymerizable composition are classified on the basis of the first-appearing reactant in the schedule that is part of the polymerizable composition.

F. Patents that claim a polymer only are classified on the basis of the first-appearing reactant in the schedule that has been used in preparing the polymer.

G. Patents that claim merely vulcanizing, curing, or cross-linking or a polymer proper for this area, without the presence of a specified vulcanizing, curing, or cross-linking agent, or the amount of the chemical agent or the vulcanized, cured, or cross-linked product of such a reaction are classified on the basis of the first-appearing reactant in the schedule that has been polymerized in the preparing the polymer.

H. Patents that claim a polymer which is the result of a degradation of a polymer proper for this area, and wherein the degradation has been effected in the absence of any chemical agent, are classified on the basis of the initial first-appearing reactant in the schedule that has been polymerized in preparing the previously formed polymer that is degraded.

I. This class provides for a composition of a polymer proper for this class admixed with a broadly claimed nonreactant not identifiable by a chemical atom or amount; or for a process of preparing a composition wherein the nonreactant material is not identified by a chemical atom or amount and wherein the process of forming the composition recites no process condition other than mere polymerizing. (See Class 523, section I of the Class Definition, for a discussion of nonreactant materials and designated nonreactant materials.)

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

525Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 242+ for products resulting from, or involving a polymer proper for this class reacted with an ethylenically unsaturated reactant.

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

REACTANT

A reactant for purposes of this Class is a material which occurs in a polymer as a repeating unit and is present in at least three units. As used herein, reactant is meant to exclude catalyst residues, chain transfer agents, etc.

WITH

For purposes of this class, the term "with" under a specific reactant subclass requires the presence of the specific reactant with a different reactant which meets the parameters set forth by the "with" definition.

CONTAINS

For purposes of this class, the term "contains" under a specific reactant subclass includes the term "with" and merely requires the presence of the "contains" material. The required moiety, element, etc., may be in the specific reactant or in an additional reactant.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 1]    1FROM PLANT MATERIAL OF UNKNOWN CONSTITUTION:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a plant-containing material of unknown constitution or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing a plant material of unknown composition or processes of preparing.
(1) Note. The types of plant materials which are proper for this subclass are those whose composition and constitution are not sufficiently determined to enable their classification in the later subclasses on the basis of a particular reactant(s).
(2) Note. Types of materials included herein are nut shell liquors and essential oils. This subclass includes cashew nut shell liquor containing unseparated anacardic acid or Cardanol.
(3) Note. This subclass includes derivatives of plant materials which are undefinable as to chemical identity.
(4) Note. Materials which are substantially known as to chemical composition are excluded from this subclass or indents hereunder and are classified below in the schedule on the basis of the first specific reactant which is part of the chemical composition. If in any claim, any doubt exists as to whether a composition is of sufficient chemical identity so as to be classified as a specific reactant, then such doubt is to be resolved by classifying the claim as an original in this area and cross-referenced to the appropriate reactant subclass.
(5) Note. A chemical agent for purposes of this subclass is material which is added to solid polymer and causes or is present during a process wherein a chemical change of the solid polymer is effected.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

86+,for Cardanol, anacardic acid or derivative, tannins, or tannic acid, cresylic acid, or coal tar extracts as reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 2]    2From cashew material with a sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein material derived from a cashew plant and a sulfur-containing material are reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 3]    3From cashew material with an aldehyde or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein material derived from a cashew plant and an aldehyde or derivative are reactants.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of the terms "aldehyde".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 4]    4FROM BORON REACTANT HAVING AT LEAST ONE BORON TO HYDROGEN OR BORON TO CARBON BOND:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymer products derived from a boron-containing reactant wherein at least one atom of boron is bonded directly to a hydrogen or carbon atom or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a compound of boron wherein boron is directly bonded to an atom of hydrogen or carbon or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubber,   subclass 239 for a polymer derived from a boron-containing ethylenic reactant as sole monomer, or for a boron-containing interpolymer wherein all of the reactants used in preparing the polymer are ethylenically unsaturated.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 5]    5Boron reactant contains a silicon atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the boron-containing reactant having a or bond also contains a silicon atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 6]    6Boron reactant contains a phosphorus atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the boron-containing reactant having a or bond also contains a phosphorus atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 7]    7Boron reactant contains a nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the boron-containing reactant having a or bond also contains a nitrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 8]    8Boron reactant contains a boron atom bonded to at least one atom of oxygen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the boron-containing reactant having a or bond also contains at least one atom of oxygen directly bonded to the boron atom of the or containing moiety.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 9]    9Boron reactant contains a boron atom bonded to at least one atom of oxygen:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymer products derived from a heavy metal or aluminum-containing reactant wherein at least one atom of a heavy metal or aluminum is bonded directly to an atom of hydrogen or carbon or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a compound of a heavy metal or aluminum wherein the heavy metal or aluminum atom is directly bonded to a hydrogen or carbon atom or processes of preparing.
(1) Note. Heavy metal denotes a metal atom having a specific gravity greater than four.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

395,for a polymer derived from a heavy metal-or aluminum-containing reactant.
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 240+ for a polymer derived from a metal-containing ethylenic reactant as sole monomer or for a metal-containing interpolymer wherein all of the reactants used in preparing the polymer are ethylenically unsaturated.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 10]    10FROM SILICON REACTANT HAVING AT LEAST ONE SILICON-TO-HYDROGEN OR -CARBON BOND:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymer products derived from a silicon-containing reactant wherein at least one atom of silicon is bonded directly to an atom of hydrogen or carbon or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a compound of silicon wherein a silicon atom is directly bonded to a hydrogen or carbon atom or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubber,   subclass 279 for a polymer derived from a silicon-containing ethylenic reactant as sole monomer or for a silicon-containing inter-polymer wherein all of the reactants used in preparing the polymer are ethylenically unsaturated.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 12]    12Polymerizing in the pressence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein a R3SiH or R3Si-CR3 reactant is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.
(1) Note. Silicones or polysiloxanes defined by the formula RnSiO wherein R is C or H are considered to be polymers and are proper for this area.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

33+,for organopolysiloxane used as reactants.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 13]    13Material is a boron-containing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is elemental boron or a boron-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 14]    14Material is a metal-containing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is an elemental metal or metal-containing compound.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 15]    15Material contains a Group VIII metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the metal atom is a Group VIII metal atom (i.e., Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, Rh).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 16]    16Material contains a Group IIIA metal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IIIA metal atom in elemental or compound form, i.e., Al, Ga, In, Ti.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 17]    17Material contains a Group IVB metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IVB metal atom in elemental or compound form, i.e., Ti, Zr, Hf.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 18]    18Material contains a Group IVA metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IVA metal atom in elemental or compound form, i.e., Ge, Sn, Pb.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 19]    19Material contains a heavy metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a heavy metal atom in elemental or compound form.
(1) Note. Heavy metal denotes a metal atom having a specific gravity greater than four.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 20]    20Material contains an alcohol, alcoholate, or ether compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains an ether, alcohol, or salt thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the terms "ether" and "alcohol".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 21]    21Material is a nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 22]    22Nitrogen-containign silicon compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Subject matter wherein silicon and nitrogen are part of the same compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 23]    23Material contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of phosphorus or sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 24]    24Material contains a compound having an O-O group, e.g., peroxide, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a compound having at least one -O-O (peroxy) group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 25]    25With organic silicon-free reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein a polymer has been derived from at least one or containing material and at least one reactant which is an organic compound and which organic compound is devoid of any silicon atom.
(1) Note. This subclass, for example, would include the reaction between two or containing reactants and at least one organic silicon-free reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 26]    26Organic Si-free reactant is a carboxylic acid or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein at least one silicon-free organic reactant contains a carboxylic acid group or is a derivative thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

520,Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers, see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid or derivative".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid or derivative".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 26.5]    26.5Reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.  Subject matter wherein said silicon-free reactant is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the definition of "fatty acid" in the Glossary for discussion of terms used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 27]    27Organic Si-free reactant contains a heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein at least one silicon-free organic reactant contains a heterocyclic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 28]    28Organic Si-free reactant is a nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein at least one silicon-free organic reactant is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 29]    29Organic Si-free reactant is an alcohol or alcoholate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 25.  Subject matter wherein at least one silicon-free organic reactant is an alcohol or alcoholate thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "alcohol".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 30]    30From silicon-containing reactant having at least one polyvalent atom other than carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein at least one or containing reactant having a polyvalent atom which is other than carbon, oxygen, or nitrogen (e.g., sulfur, phosphorus, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 31]    31Silicon reactant contains a silicon-to-hydrogen bond:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the silicon-containing reactant possesses at least one bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 32]    32Silicon reactant contains an ethylenically unsaturated group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the containing reactant possesses at least one ethylenically unsaturated group.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 279 for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated silicon-containing reactant as sole monomer or for a silicon-containing interpolymer wherein all of the reactants used in preparing the polymer are ethylenically unsaturated.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 33]    33Silicon reactant contains two or more silicon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein a containing reactant possesses at least two silicon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 34]    34With silicon reactant containing a single silicon atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein a containing compound possessing at least two silicon atoms is reacted with a silicon compound containing a single silicon atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 35]    35Silicon reactamt contains only carbon atom, only a carbon chain, or chain of carbon and oxygen atoms only between two silicon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein at least two silicon atoms of a containing compound are joined by a single carbon atom, by a carbon chain, or by a chain composed only of carbon and oxygen atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 36]    36Silicon reactant contains at least one halogen atom bonded to a carbon atom which carbon atom is not an acyl halide carbon atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein a containing compound with at least two silicon atoms contains a carbon-to-halogen bond and which carbon atom is not double bonded to an oxygen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 37]    37Reactant contains a silicon atom as a ring member of a cyclic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 33.  Subject matter wherein a containing compound possesses at least two silicon atoms with at least one silicon atom as ring member of a nonhetero-cyclic ring (e.g., cyclic trisiloxane, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

35,for a cyclic silicon reactant wherein two or more silicon atoms in the ring are joined by carbon atoms.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 38]    38Silicon reactant contains an amine nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the containing reactant possesses at least one amino-nitrogen atom.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

41,for a nitrogen-containing and -Si-C- containing reactant wherein the nitrogen atom exists solely therein either as a carboxylic acid amide or as a carboxylic acid nitrile, (-C=N).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 39]    39With silicon reactant which is free of any silicon to carbon bond:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein a containing material is reacted with at least one silicon compound which is devoid of any bond (e.g., SiCl4, Si(OR)4, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

31,for the interaction of a Si-H containing compound and a silicon compound which is devoid of any silicon-carbon bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 40]    40Silicon reactant contains a fused, bridged, or cycloaliphatic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein a containing compound contains at least one fused or bridged ring system or contains at least one ring composed solely of carbon atoms which is nonaromatic.
(1) Note. A bridged or fused ring system for purposes of this subclass requires that a given ring system be attached at two different nuclear atoms of its system to an atom or chain of atoms which, taken together with the two nuclear atoms, forms an additional ring structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 41]    41Silicon containing carboxylic acid or derivative or from a silicon derivative of a nonsilicon containing carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the containing reactant contains at least one carboxylic acid group or is a derivative thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,for an additional definition the "carboxylic acid".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid or derivative".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 42]    42Silicon reactant contains at least one halogen atom bonded to a carbon atom which carbon atom is not an acyl halide carbon atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the containing compound possesses a carbon-to-halogen bond and which carbon atom bonded to the halogen atom is other than as a carbonyl carbon atom (e.g., halo).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 43]    43Silicon reactant contains an aryl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the containing reactant possesses at least one aromatic group therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 44]    44FROM REACTANT HAVING AT LEAST ONE -N=C=X GROUP (WHEREIN X IS A CHALCOGEN ATOM) AS WELL AS PRECURSORS THEREOF, E.G., BLOCKED ISOCYANATE, ETC.:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a reactant containing a -N=C=X group wherein X is a chalcogen atom (i.e., O, S, Se, or Te) or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a compound having the general formula R-N=C=X wherein X is a chalcogen or processes of preparing a polymerizable composition.
(1) Note. This subclass also provides for those functional derivatives of isocyanates which are generally known as blocked, masked, or hidden isocyanates. These materials are those which revert on heating to the -N=C=X group (e.g., urethanes or ureides of phenols, alkanols, lactams, oximes, etc.)
(2) Note. Where a -N=C=X group is produced by an in situ reaction or a decomposition reaction (other than blocked, masked, or hidden isocyanates), those patents have been placed as originals in subclasses which provide for the compound prior to its decomposition or on the basis of the reactants undergoing the in situ reaction (e.g., adiponitrile, carbonates, or oxalates).
(3) Note. Polonium is excluded from this subclass as being a chalcogen.
(4) Note. As used throughout this subclass any reference to X (e.g., -XH-C-XH, etc.) connotes oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

370+,
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 45]    45From at least one blocked -N=C=X group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one material having a -N=C=X group which has been rendered inert by conversion to an inactive group (e.g., blocked, masked, or hidden) is utilized as a reactant.
(1) Note. The reaction process usually involves heating the reactant which thereby reverts to a -N=C=X-containing reactant.
(2) Note. The -N=C=X group which has been rendered inert is usually in the form of a urethan group
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 48]    48Process of polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein a -N=C=X-containing reactant, wherein X is a chalcogen atom, i.e., O, S, Se, or Te, is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass, a compound having a single -C-XH, -C-NH2-C-NHR, or (X is chalcogen) is always considered to be a nonreactant. Similarly, a compound having a single group is considered as a nonreactant except where the compound is a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil, in which case, if the compound is a reactant it is considered proper for Class 528, subclass 74.5.
(2) Note. For purposes of this subclass a compound having two or more or (X is chalcogen) or combination of functional groups is always considered to be a reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 49]    49Material contains only one -C-XH,-C-C(=X)-XH or carbon to -NH or HNH group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a compound having a single C-XH, C-NH2, C-NH-, or group (X is chalcogen).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 50]    50Material contains compound having a -O-O- group, e.g., peroxide, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a compound having at least one -O-O- group (i.e., peroxide, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 51]    51Material contains a phosphorus atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 52]    52Material is organic nitrogen-containing compoud:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one nitrogen-containing organic compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 53]    53Organic nitrogen compound contains a nitrogen atom bonded to three atoms or carbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 52.  Subject matter wherein the organic nitrogen-containing compound possesses at least one trivalent nitrogen atom which is bonded to three atoms of carbon i.e., (C )3N
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 54]    54Nitrogen compound wherein nitrogen atom is bonded to three atoms of carbon contains a bridged- or fused-ring system, e.g., triethylene diamine, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 53.  Subject matter wherein the nitrogen compound whose nitrogen atom is bonded to three atoms of carbon, contains a fused- or bridged-ring system (e.g., triethylene diamine, etc.).
(1) Note. A bridged or fused ring system for purposes of this subclass requires that a ring system be attached at two different atoms of its nuclear skeleton to an atom or chain of atoms which, when taken together with the nuclear atoms, forms an additional ring structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 55]    55Material contains at least one metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 56]    56Material contains a transition metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a transition metal atom.
(1) Note. Transition metal is limited to elements of atomic numbers 21-29, 39-47, 57-79, and 89 and higher, but does not include Zn, Cd, or Hg.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 57]    57Material contains at least one group IA or group IIA metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of Group IA or Group IIA metal atom.
(1) Note. Group IA metal atoms are limited to Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr. Group IIA metal atoms are limited to Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 58]    58Material contains at least one atom of tin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains tin (At. No. 50).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 59]    59From N=C=X reactant having at least two -C-NH-C(=X)- groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein the -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) reactant contains at least two groups.
(1) Note. Patents for the most part herein are drawn to the after treatment of a liquid prepolymer having terminal -N=C=X groups.
(2) Note. The addition of materials to a prepolymer intermediate characterized by terms such as chain extenders, chain-lengthening material, cross-linking or curing agents, is not sufficient absent an amount of a material of chemical identity of added material (chemical identity is identical to what is required of a specified material).
(3) Note. For purposes of this subclass a carboxylic acid anhydride is considered as having two free carboxylic acid groups.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

67,through 85, for products and processes where a prepolymer is inherently prepared in an ongoing polymerization reaction and is subsequently modified, but where no intent has been made to recognize or identify the prepolymer intermediate.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 60]    60With reactant compound containing three or more XH, -C(=X)-XH, -NH, =NH, or HNH groups or combination thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter wherein a material containing at least one -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) group and two or more groups is reacted with a material which contains a compound having three or more -XH, NH, -NH2, C=NH or groups or contains a compound having a combination of three or more of these groups.
(1) Note. In all cases each of the functional derivatives -XH, NH, -NH2, C=NH, must be directly bonded to a carbon atom. It is permissible, however, for these functional derivatives to be bonded to different carbon atoms or to the same carbon atom. A compound having three functional derivatives bonded to a single carbon atom meets the requirement of this subclass. An anhydride formed from two carboxylic acids is considered for purposes of this subclass as having two groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 61]    61With organic nitrogen reactant which contains two NH, =NH, or HNH groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter wherein a material containing at least one -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) group and two or more groups is reacted with a compound which contains two nitrogen atoms as -NH, -NH2, or =NH groups or a combination thereof.
(1) Note. In all cases each of the functional derivatives (i.e., -NH, =NH, or -NH2) must be directly bonded to different carbon atoms or to the same carbon atom. A single compound having two functional groups bonded to a single carbon atom meets the requirements of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 62]    62Organic NH, =NH, or HNH nitrogen-containing reactant contains a heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the reactant which contains two -NH, =NH, or -NH2 groups also contains a heterocyclic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 63]    63Organic NH, =NH, HNH nitrogen reactant contains at least one halogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the -NH, NH2, or =NH reactant contains at least one halogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 64]    64Organic NH, =NH or HNH nitrogen reactant contains a carbocyclic or aromatic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the -NH, NH2, or =NH reactant contains a cyclic ring is composed solely of carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 65]    65With reactant having two -XH groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter wherein a material containing at least one -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) group and two or more groups is reacted with a compound which has two -XH groups.
(1) Note. In all cases the -XH functional group must be directly bonded to a carbon atom. A single carbon atom may be bonded to more than one -XH group and such a compound would meet the requirements of this subclass.
(2) Note. The carbon atom bonded to the -XH group cannot be double to a chalcogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 66]    66Reactant having two -XH groups contains two or more -C-X-C- groups or two or more carboxylic acid ester groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 65.  Subject matter wherein the reactant containing two -XH groups also contains at least two C-X-C or at least two carboxylic acid ester groups.
(1) Note. This subclass includes hydroxyl terminated polyesters or polyethers as reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 67]    67From two or more reactants containing -N=C=X groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least two reactants containing a -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) group are polymerized.
(1) Note. Excluded from this subclass are those conventional commercial compositions which are mixtures of toluene discoyanate (e.g., 2, 4 and 2, 6 TDi, 20/80 percent and 35/65 percent, etc.). However, mixtures of stereo and position isomers are included herein if proportions are recited.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 68]    68With organic compound reactant containing at least two NH, HNH or =NH groups and wherein the reactant composition is devoid of -C-XH, -C(=X)XH or anhydride:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein a compound having at least one -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) group is reacted with at least one compound which contains two or more NH, -NH2, or C=NH groups or a combination of two or more of these groups and wherein the NH, -NH2, or C=NH group-containing reactant plus any other reactant is devoid of any group.
(1) Note. In all cases each of the functional derivatives, i.e., NH, C=NH, -NH2, must be directly bonded to the same or different carbon atom. A compound having a single carbon atom which is bonded to more would than one -NH2, >NH, or >C=NH group would meet the requirements of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 69]    69Reactant contains a single -N=C=X group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains only one -N=C=X group (X is chalcogen).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 70]    70Reactant contains a fluorine atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains flourine.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 71]    71Reactant contains at least one salt group, e.g., quaternary ammonium salt, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a salt group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 72]    72Reactant contains at least one phosphorus atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one contains phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 73]    73Reactant contains at least one heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a heterocyclic ring.
(1) Note. Reactants are classified herein only if a positive recitation is noted that a reactant contains a heterocyclic group (e.g., reactants prepared from a heterocyclic material wherein the heterocyclic group has been destroyed would be classified elsewhere it is unambiguous from the specification of the patent that some heterocyclic group still exists in the reactant.
(2) Note. Included herein but not limited to the following examples are oxirane, aziridine, triazine, cyclic anhydrides, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 74]    74Reactant contains at least one bridged- or fused-ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a fused or bridged ring system.
(1) Note. A bridged or fused ring system for purposes of this subclass requires that a ring system be attached at two different atoms of its nuclear skeleton to an atom or chain of atoms which when taken together with the nuclear atoms forms an additional ring structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 74.5]    74.5Reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein there is at least one reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester; a fatty acid or salt derived form a naturally occurring glyceride; or tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the definition of "fatty acid" in the Glossary for a discussion of terms used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 75]    75Reactant contains at least one ethylenically unsaturated group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains an ethylenically unsaturated group.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 288 and 310+, respectively, for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated -N=C=S or -N=C=O-containing reactant as sole monomer or for an interpolymer derived from only ethylenically unsaturated reactants wherein at least one of said reactants contains a -N=C=S or -N=C=O group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 76]    76With ether or thioether compound containing at least two -C-X-C- groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein a material containing two or more -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) groups is reacted with a compound having two or more or groups and wherein the carbon atoms bonded to oxygen or sulfur atom are not double bonded to any oxygen, selenium, or tellurium atom.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass a compound having the structure is considered as having two groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 77]    77Ether or thioether compound contains three or more -XH groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Subject matter wherein the or reactant contains at least three -XH groups.
(1) Note. In all cases the -XH functional group must be directly bonded to a carbon atom. A compound having a single carbon atom which is bonded to three -XH groups would meet requirements of this subclass.
(2) Note. The carbon atom bonded to the -XH group cannot be double bonded to a chalcogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 78]    78Ether or thioether contains at least one nitrogen atom other than as a C NH, C=NH, or C-N(H)-H:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Subject matter wherein the or reactant contains at least one nitrogen atom which is other than C-NH, C-NH2, or C=NH group.
(1) Note. This subclass includes tertiary amines.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 79]    79Ether or thioether contains a carbocyclic or aromatic group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Subject matter wherein the or reactant contains a cyclic ring which is composed soley of carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 80]    80With reactant compound containing at least two -C-C(=X)-X-C groups and which compound is devoid of C-NH, C=NH or C-N(H)-H groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein a material containing two or more -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) groups is reacted with a compound having two or more groups and which compound is devoid of any C-NH-, C=NH, or C-NH2 groups.
(1) Note. In all cases the functional group must be bonded directly to a carbon atom. A compound having a single carbon atom which is bonded to two or more groups would meet the requirements of this subclass.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

84,for (a) polymers derived from a reactant having two or more -N=C=X groups which reactant contains two or more groups and which contains at least one C-NH-, C-NH2, or C=NH group, or (b) a polymer derived from a reactant having two or more -N=C=X groups and a reactant having a group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 81]    81Reactant compound which contains at least two -C-C(=X)-X-C groups contains three or more XH groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the reactant contains at least three -XH groups.
(1) Note. In all cases the -XH groups must be bonded to a carbon atom. A compound having a carbon atom which is bonded to three or more -XH groups would meet the requirements of this subclass. The carbon atom bonded to the -XH group cannot be double bonded to a chalcogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 82]    82Reactant which contains at least two -C-C(=X)-X-C groups contains tertiary nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the reactant contains at least one trivalent nitrogen atom which is bonded to three atoms of carbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 83]    83Reactant which contains at least two -C-C(=X)-X-C groups has been derived from only a dicarboxylic acid or derivative and only a dihydric alcohol or alcoholate derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the reactant has been derived from only a dicarboxylic acid or derivative and only a glycol or alcoholate derivative.
(1) Note. Included herein are mixtures of dicarboxylic acids and mixtures of glycols.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,for a definition of the term "dicarboxylic acid or derivative".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "alcohol".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 84]    84With reactant containing at least two -C-C(=X)-X groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein a material containing two or more -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) groups is reacted with a compound having two or moregroups.
(1) Note. In all cases the functional group must be bonded directly to a carbon atom. A compound having a single carbon atom which is bonded to two or more groups would meet the requirements of this subclass.
(2) Note. For purposes of this subclass a compound having a group is considered as having twogroups and is considered proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 85]    85With reactant containing at least two -XH groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein a material containing two or more -N=C=X (X is chalcogen) groups is reacted with a compound having two or more -XH groups.
(1) Note. In all cases the -XH functional group must be bonded directly to a carbon atom. A compound having a single carbon atom bonded to two or more -XH groups would meet the requirements of this subclass. The carbon atom bonded to the -XH group cannot be double bonded to a chalcogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 86]    86FROM PHENOL, PHENOL ETHER, OR INORGANIC PHENOLATE:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a phenol, phenol ether, inorganic phenolate and processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing a phenol, phenol ether, inorganic phenolate reactant and processes of preparing a polymerizable composition.
(1) Note.
(A) A phenol for purposes of this subclass requires one or more -OH groups directly bonded to a nuclear carbon atom of a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring, which benzene ring can be an individual benzene ring or can be part of a polycyclic ring system.
(B) A phenol ether for purposes of this subclass requires one or more -O-C- groups wherein the oxygen atom of the -O-C- group is directly bonded to a nuclear carbon atom of a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring and wherein the carbon atom of the -O-C- group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to nitrogen. The benzene ring may be an individual benzene ring or may be part of a polycyclic ring system. The following examples of phenol ethers are within the definition set out above:
(1) The -O-C- group may itself be part of a cyclic ring system, e.g.,
, etc.
(2) The carbon of the -O-C- group may be a ring atom of a cyclic or
,etc.,
aromatic ring, e.g.,
(3) The carbon of the -O-C- group may be a terminal carbon atom, e.g.,
or may be the carbon atom of a chain, e.g.,
(C) An inorganic phenolate is an inorganic salt of a phenol (see phenol (1) above) wherein the hydrogen atom of a -OH
group is replaced by a metal or an inorganic group.
(2) Note. The term phenolic reactant as used throughout this subclass is intended to include the subject matter enumerated in the (1) Note above.
(3) Note. For purposes of this subclass tannin or tannic is considered to be a poly-hydroxy polycyclic carboxy-containing phenol.
(4) Note. For purposes of this subclass cresylic acid is considered to be cresol.
(5) Note. For purposes of this subclass coal tar extracts are considered to be an indefinable mixture of ingredients some of which are phenolic in nature and are classified in this area on the basis of the coreactant, if any.
(6) Note. For purposes of this subclass, Cardanol and anacardic acids are considered to be phenols.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

1+,for a cashew nut shell liquor containing anacardic acid or Cardanol.
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 313 for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate as sole monomer or as interpolymer derived from only ethylenically unsaturated reactants wherein at least one of the ethylenically unsaturated reactants contains a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 87]    87From 1,2-epoxy-containing phenolic reactant or with 1,2-epoxy-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer contains both a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate group and at least one 1, 2-epoxy group, or wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate-containing material is reacted with a 1, 2-epoxy-containing material.
(1) Note. A 1, 2-epoxy-containing material is a compound having a three-membered heterocyclic ring composed only of one oxygen and two carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 88]    88Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate which contains at least one 1, 2-epoxy is polymerized in the presence of a specified material, or wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is polymerized with a 1, 2-epoxy-containing reactant in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 89]    89Material contains a phosphorus atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains phosphorus atom(s).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 90]    90Material contains a sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains sulfur atom(s).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 91]    91Material contains a boron atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains boron atom(s).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 92]    92Material contains a polyvalent metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a polyvalent metal atom.
(1) Note. Polyvalent material is limited to elements of atomic numbers 4, 12, 13, 20-33, 38-51, 56-84, 88, and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 93]    93Material contains a nitrogen compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a nitrogen compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 94]    94Nitrogen material contains a nitrogen atom as part of a heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a nitrogen atom as part of a heterocyclic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 95]    95Material contains a Group IA metal atom (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 88.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IA metal atom, i.e., Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr.
(1) Note. Included herein are those substances classified as caustics.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 96]    96Phenolic reactant contains a heterocyclic group other than a 1,2-epoxy group per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein the phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant contains at least one heterocyclic group which is not a 1, 2-epoxy-containing ring.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

101,for a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing as the sole heterocyclic ring a 1, 2-epoxy group fused to a carbocyclic ring.
105,for a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant containing only a single 1, 2-epoxy group.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 97]    97Phenolic reactant contains a fused-or bridged-ring other than as a 1,2 epoxy group fused to carbocyclic or aromatic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein the phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant contains a fused or bridged structure, which fused structure is other than a 1, 2-epoxy ring which is fused to a ring system containing only carbon atoms as ring members.
(1) Note. Fused or bridged ring for purposes of this subclass requires that a ring system be attached at two different atoms of its nuclear skeleton to an atom or chain of atoms which, when taken together with the nuclear atoms, forms an additional ring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 98]    98Phenolic reactant contains at least three distinct aromatic or carbocyclic rings or mixtures thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein the phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate contains at least three rings and wherein each of said rings is composed solely of carbon atoms.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass a ring containing only carbon atoms wherein a 1, 2-epoxy group is fused directly thereto is considered as being a single ring, e.g.,

, etc.

, etc.

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 99]    99Phenolic reactant contains at least one nitrogen, phosphorus, or sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein the phenolic reactant contains at least one nitrogen, sulfur, or phosphorus atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 100]    100Phenolic reactant contains a carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein the phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant contains a carboxylic acid group or is a derivative thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

96,for a cyclic anhydride, lactone, lactam, or imide-containing phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant.
271,for an explanation of the term "carboxylic acid derivative".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 101]    101Phenolic reactant contains ethylenic unsaturation or contains a 1,2-epoxy group fused to a carbocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein the phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant contains (1) ethylenic unsaturation, or (2) contains at least one 1, 2-epoxy group fused to a ring composed solely of carbon atoms.
(1) Note. A fused ring monomer for purposes of this subclass requires that a ring composed solely of carbon atoms be attached at two of its adjacent nuclear carbon atoms to a single oxygen atom so that the adjoined carbons and the oxygen atom form an additional ring structure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 102]    102Phenolic reactant contains a halogen atom directly bonded to a nuclear carbon atom of the aryl-oxygen group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein at least one halogen atom is bonded directly to a nuclear carbon atom of a benzene ring and wherein at least one of the nuclear carbon atoms of the same benzene ring is directly bonded to an oxygen atom so as to form a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 103]    103Two or more 1,2-epoxy reactants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein two or more 1, 2-epoxy-containing compounds are reactants.
(1) Note. This subclass includes:
(a) Two or more epoxy-containing phenols, phenol ethers, or inorganic phenolates or mixtures thereof.
(b) A 1, 2-epoxy-containing phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reacted with a nonphenolic-containing 1, 2-epoxy reactant.
(c) A nonepoxy-containing phenolic material reacted with two or more non-phenolic 1, 2-epoxy-containing reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 103.5]    103.51, 2-epoxy reactant having at least one carboxylic ester group, e.g., eposidized linseed oil, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein at least one 1, 2-epoxy reactant contains one or more carboxylic acid ester groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 104]    104Two or more phenolic reactants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein two or more phenols, phenol ethers, or inorganic phenolates or mixtures thereof are reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 105]    105Phenolic reactant contains only one, 1,2-epoxy group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant contains only a single 1, 2-epoxy group therein.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

103,for the interaction of two or more phenolic reactants each containing a single 1, 2-epoxy group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 106]    106With at least one nonepoxy or nonphenolic reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing two or more 1, 2-epoxy groups is reacted with a non-1, 2-epoxy-containing reactant (reactant is devoid of 1, 2-epoxy group), or wherein a non-1, 2-epoxy-containing phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate (phenolic material is devoid of a 1, 2-epoxy group) is reacted with a single compound having a 1, 2-epoxy group and with at least one non-1, 2-epoxy-containing reactant (reactant is devoid of a 1, 2-epoxy group).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

103,for two or more 1, 2-epoxy reactants.
104,for two or more phenolic reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 107]    107Non-1,2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is an aldehyde or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is an aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

230,for a clarification of the term "aldehyde derivative".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "aldehyde".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 108]    108Non-1,2-epoxy, or nonphenolic reactant is a phosphorus-containing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant contains phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 109]    109Non-1,2-epoxy, or nonphenolic reactant is a sulfur-containing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant contains sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 110]    110Non-1,2-epoxy, or nonphenolic reactant is an alcohol, inorganic alcoholate, or ether:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is an alcohol, oxygen ether, or inorganic alcoholate.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the terms "alcohol" and "ether".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 111]    111Nitrogen-containing alcohol, inorganic alcoholate, or ether:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is a nitrogen-containing alcohol, inorganic alcoholate of a nitrogen-containing alcohol, or a nitrogen-containing oxygen ether.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 111.3]    111.3Non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant which is a dimer or trimer of an ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having at least ten atoms; or adduct of said unsaturated monocarboxylic acid with an alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein said nonepoxy or nonphenolic reactant is polycarboxylic acid reactant which is a dimer or trimer of an ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic noncarboxylic acid having at least ten carbon atoms; or an adduct of said unsaturated monocarboxylic unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of "dimer or trimer or an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 111.5]    111.5Non 1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein said non 1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or fatty acid drived from tall oil.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the definition of "fatty acid" in the Glossary for a discussion of terms used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 112]    112Non-1,2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is a carboxylic acid, salt thereof, or carboxylic acid anhydride:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is a carboxylic acid, salt thereof, or anhydride thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid salt or anhydride".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 113]    113With nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein in addition to the carboxylic acid, salt thereof, or anhydride thereof, there is at least one additional non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant which is a nitrogen-containing compound.
(1) Note. This subclass may include a mixture of two nonepoxy or nonphenolic reactants wherein one is a nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid and wherein the other is a non-nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 114]    114Nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid, salt thereof, or anhydride, or nitrogen-containing salt of a non-nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is a nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid, a salt of a nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid, a nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid anhydride, or a nitrogen-containing salt of a non-nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 115]    115At least two carboxylic acids, salts thereof, or carboxylic acid anhydrides, or mixtures thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is at least a mixture of two or more carboxylic acids, salts thereof, anhydrides thereof, or is a mixture of at least any two of the types of materials enumerated above.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 116]    116Non-1,2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant contains a heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant is a heterocyclic ring-containing compound.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

112,for a non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant containing a cyclic carboxylic acid anhydride group.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 117]    117Five-membered heterocyclic ring contains at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 116.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonpenolic reactant contains a five-membered heterocyclic ring having at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 118]    118Six-membered heterocyclic ring contains at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 116.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant contains a six-membered heterocyclic ring having at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 119]    119Non-1,2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant contains one or more nitrogen atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 106.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant contains at least one atom of nitrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 120]    120Two or more nitrogen-containing reactants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic material contains at least two nitrogen-containing reactants.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

99,for a nitrogen-containing phenolic reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 121]    121Nitrogen reactant contains at least one amino-nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 119.  Subject matter wherein the nitrogen-containing non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant contains an amino-nitrogen atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 122]    122Nitrogen reactant having at least one amino-nitrogen atom contains a cycloaliphatic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenlic reactant which has an amino-nitrogen atom contains a non-aromatic ring composed solely of carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 123]    123Nitrogen reactant having at least one amino-nitrogen atom contains three or more nitrogen atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant which has an amino-nitrogen atom contains at least three nitrogen atoms.
(1) Note. In counting the number of nitrogen atoms, the nonamino groups are counted toward the number of nitrogen atoms required to meet the requisite number of three or more nitrogen atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 124]    124Nitrogen reactant having at least one amino-nitrogen atom contains at least one aryl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 121.  Subject matter wherein the non-1, 2-epoxy or nonphenolic reactant which contains an amino-nitrogen atom contains at least one aromatic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 125]    125From ketone-containing phenolic reactant or with ketone-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate which contains a ketone group or wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate-containing material is reacted with a ketone-containing material.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass a reactant having a C=C=O group (a ketene) is considered as being a ketone.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ketone".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 126]    126Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate which contains at least one ketone group is polymerized in the presence of a specified material, or wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is polymerized with at least one ketone-containing reactant in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 127]    127With nonketone- or nonphenolic-aldehyde or derivative as a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein at least one phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing a ketone group is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative which is free of any ketone or phenolic group, or wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is reacted with a ketone-containing reactant and with an aldehyde or derivative which is devoid of any phenolic or ketone groups.

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230,for a definition of the term "aldehyde derivative", and see the (2) Note thereunder.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for definition of the term "aldehyde".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 128]    128With nonphenolic or nonketone reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is reacted with at least one ketone reactant which is devoid of any phenolic group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 129]    129With aldehyde or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least one phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate and at least one aldehyde or derivative.
(1) Note. (a) An aldehyde derivative is:
(1) Compounds having a X-CH2-OH group wherein X is other than a carbon or hydrogen (e.g., paraformaldehyde, methyol derivatives of urea, etc.).
(2) Heterocyclic compound having only carbon and oxygen as ring members in an alternating manner and in equal amount, i.e., as illustrated below, e.g., trioxane.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 129

(3) Hexamethylenetramine (CH2)6N4, known also as methenamine, hexamine, formine, hexamethyleneamine, and urotropin and its derivatives. A derivative for purposes of this subclass requires the basic ring structure of hexamethylenetetramine but wherein the hydrogen atoms may have been replaced by other atoms. See illustration below.

Image 2 for class 528 subclass 129

(2) Note. Compounds having a -CH2OH group bonded to elements other then C, H, or oxygen are regarded as being two compounds; for instance, a methylol derivative of melamine is regarded as a mixture of melamine and formaldehyde, and methylol urea is regarded as being a mixture of urea and formaldehyde.
(3) Note. An unspecified novolak or resole is proper for this area in that it is a mixture of a phenol and an aldehyde. If a novolak or resole of specified structure is claimed as a reactant, then classification is proper based on the structure of the specific reactant.
(4) Note. For purposes of this subclass, a reactant composed of only halogen and carbon atoms is considered as being a halogenated carbon and is therefore proper for subclass 160.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for cross-references placed therein when liquid novolak or resole is utilized as a reactant in the subclass or its indents. Such liquid reactants are regarded as solids for purposes of cross-references.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "aldehyde".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 137]    137Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is reacted with at least one aldehyde or derivative in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 138]    138Material contains a boron atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of boron.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 139]    139Material contains an aluminum or heavy metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of aluminum or of a heavy metal.
(1) Note. Heavy metal denotes a metal atom having a specific gravity greater than four.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 140]    140Material contains a Group IIA metal atom (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of a Group IIA metal (i.e., Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

139,for a radium-containing specified material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 141]    141Material contains a phosphorus atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of phosphorus.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 142]    142Material contains an alcohol, inorganic alcoholate, or ether:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is an alcohol, inorganic alcoholate thereof, or ether.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

139,for an inorganic alcoholate containing aluminum or a heavy metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the terms "alcohol" or "ether".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 143]    143Material contains a sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 144]    144Material contains a carboxylic acid, anhydride thereof, ester thereof, or salt thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a carboxylic acid, ester thereof, salt thereof, or anhydride thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid salt or anhydride".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid or derivative".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 145]    145Material contains a nitrogen compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 146]    146Nitrogen-containing material contains a nitrogen atom directly bonded to a carbon atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Subject matter wherein the nitrogen-containing specified material contains at least one atom of nitrogen directly bonded to at least one atom of carbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 147]    147Material contains a Group IA metal atom (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of a Group IA metal (i.e., Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr).
(1) Note. The term "caustic or alkali" in a claim is sufficient for a material to be considered as a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

139,for a specified material containing radium.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 148]    148Phenolic reactant contains a carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid salt group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing a carboxylic acid group or a salt of a carboxylic acid group is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid salt".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid or derivative".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 149]    149Phenolic reactant contains a nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether containing at least one nitrogen atom is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 150]    150Phenolic reactant contains a sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether containing at least one sulfur atom is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 151]    151Phenolic reactant contains a halogen atom directly bonded to a nuclear carbon atom of the benzene-oxygen group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether containing at least one halogen atom which is bonded to a nuclear carbon atom of a benzene ring and wherein at least one of the other nuclear carbon atoms of the same benzene ring is directly bonded to an oxygen atom so as to form a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether therewith, is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 152]    152Phenolic reactant contains an ethylenically unsaturated group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether containing at least one ethylenically unsaturated group is reacted with at least one aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 313 , wherein an ethylenically unsaturated phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether is the sole reactant, or wherein all of the reactants are ethylenically unsaturated.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 153]    153Phenolic reactant contains at least two ring moieties (includes fused or bridged ring system):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether containing a fused or bridged ring or containing two or more individual rings is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative.
(1) Note. Included within the term "two or more individual rings" may be a phenolic reactant containing a heterocyclic ring or cycloaliphatic ring in addition to the phenolic structure, or a phenolic reactant containing two phenolic rings (e.g., diphenyl ether, etc.) or a phenolic reactant containing an aryl ring in addition to the phenolic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

154,for a phenol ether reactant wherein the ether group is not bonded to two distinct benzene rings.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 154]    154Phenol ether:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol ether is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 155]    155Two distinct phenolic reactants or two or more hydroxy groups or phenate groups bonded to nuclear carbon atoms of the same benzene ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein an aldehyde (1) is reacted with a phenol containing two distinct (-OH) groups or two distinct (-O-Salt) groups or mixtures of these groups and wherein the two (-OH) groups or two (-O-Salt) groups are bonded to two distinct carbon atoms of the same benzene ring, or (2) is reacted with two or more phenolic compounds to their phenolate salts or mixtures thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

153,for a phenolic reactant containing two distinct benzene rings and containing at least one (-OH) or (-O-Salt) group bonded to a nuclear carbon atom of a benzene ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 156]    156Two or more aldehydes or derivatives:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol or inorganic phenolate is reacted with at least two distinct aldehydes or derivatives or mixtures thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 157]    157Aldehyde or derivative is ethylenically unsaturated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol or inorganic phenolate is reacted with an ethylenically unsaturated aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 315 for polymers wherein an ethylenically unsaturated aldehyde is the sole reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 158]    158With at least one nonaldehyde phosphorus- or sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol or inorganic phenolate is reacted with at least one aldehyde or derivative and at least one additional phosphorus or sulfur-containing reactant which sulfur or phosphorus reactant is not a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or aldehyde or derivative thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 158.5]    158.5With a reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from a tall oil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein there is additionally present a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the definition of "fatty acid" in the Glossary for a discussion of terms used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 159]    159With an ethylenically unsaturated reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol or phenolate is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative thereof and with an additional ethylenically unsaturated reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

152,for the reaction of an ethylenically unsaturated phenolic reactant and an aldehyde or derivative.
157,for the reaction of a phenolic reactant and an ethylenically unsaturated aldehyde or derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 160]    160With reactant having only carbon and hydrogen atoms or only carbon, hydrogen, and halogen atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol or inorganic phenolate is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative and with an additional reactant which is solely composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms, or solely composed of only carbon, hydrogen, and halogen atoms.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass a reactant containing only carbon and halogen atoms (i.e., perhalo) will be considered as being proper for classification herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 161]    161With at least one reactant which is other than an aldehyde or derivative and which contains a carboxylic acid, anhydride thereof, salt thereof, or ester thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol or inorganic phenolate is reacted with at least one aldehyde or derivative and with an additional reactant which is a carboxylic acid, salt, or a carboxylic acid anhydride and which reactant is not a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or an aldehyde or a derivative thereof.

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148,for a phenolic reactant containing a carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid salt group.
271,for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid salt or anhydride".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 162]    162With nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein a phenol or inorganic phenolate is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative and with at least one additional reactant which contains at least one nitrogen atom which is not a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or an aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

149,for a nitrogen-containing phenolic reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 163]    163Nitrogen-containing reactant is a heterocyclic ring compound containing at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member or is nitrogen-containing aromatic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein the nonphenolic or nonaldehyde or derivative nitrogen reactant (1) contains at least one atom of nitrogen as a ring atom of a heterocyclic ring, or (2) is a compound having at least one nitrogen atom and at least one aromatic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 164]    164Nitrogen-containing reactant contains the -N-C(=O)-N- group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein the nonphenolic or nonaldehyde or derivative nitrogen reactant contains the group.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

158,for a nonphenolic or nonaldehyde reactant containing the N-C-N group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 165]    165Aldehyde or derivative is sole coreactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein the sole reactants are a phenol or inorganic phenolate and an aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

155,for a polymer from two or more phenolic reactants and at least one aldehyde or derivative.
156,for a polymer from a single phenolic reactant and two or more aldehydes or derivatives.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 166]    166Aluminum- or heavy metal-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived (1) from phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant containing an aluminum or heavy metal atom, or (2) from a phenol, inorganic phenolate, or phenol ether and an aluminum or heavy metal-containing reactant.
(1) Note. Heavy metal denotes a metal atom having a specific gravity greater than four.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

9,for a heavy metal or aluminum reactant having at least one hydrogen to heavy metal or aluminum bond or at least one carbon to heavy metal or aluminum bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 167]    167Phosphorus-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived (1) from a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant containing at least one atom of phosphorus, or (2) from a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate and a phosphorus-containing reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 168]    168Nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.  Subject matter wherein a nitrogen-containing compound is a reactant.
(1) Note. The nitrogen atom may be in any of the reactants and the phosphorus atom may be in any of the other reactants, or they may be in the same nonphenolic reactant, or in the same phenolic reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 169]    169Halogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.  Subject matter wherein a halogen-containing compound is a reactant.
(1) Note. The halogen atom may be in any of the reactants and the phosphorus atom may be in any of the other reactants, or they may be in the same nonphenolic reactant, or in the same phenolic reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 170]    170Imide-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived (1) from a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing at least one imide group, or (2) from a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate and an imide-containing reactant.
(1) Note. An imide for purposes of this subclass is a compound having the general formula, as shown below, wherein X is one or more.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 170

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 171]    171Sulfur reactant contains sulfur directly bonded to oxygen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived (1) from a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing a sulfur-to-oxygen bond, or (2) from a phenol, phenol ether, or an inorganic phenolate and a reactant which contains a sulfur-to-oxygen bond.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 172]    172Nitrogen-containing compound is a reactant other than wherein nitrogen is solely present as a carboxylic acid derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 171.  Subject matter wherein a nitrogen-containing compound is a reactant and wherein the nitrogen atom is other than solely as the nitrogen atom of a carboxylic acid derivative, i.e., amide, nitrile, or lactam.
(1) Note. The nitrogen atom may be in any of the reactants (other than solely as carboxylic acid derivatives) and the sulfur-to-oxygen group may be in any of the other reactants, or they may be in the same nonphenolic reactant, or in the same phenolic reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

170,for a phenolic reactant containing an imide group, or for the reaction of a phenolic reactant and an amide-containing reactant.
173,for a reactant wherein nitrogen is solely part of a carboxylic acid amide, nitrile, or lactam.
271,for a definition of a carboxylic acid derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 173]    173Carboxylic acid or derivative is a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 171.  Subject matter wherein a carboxylic acid or derivative is a reactant.
(1) Note. A derivative of a carboxylic acid for purposes of this class is limited to esters, amides, imides, lactams, salts, anhydrides, nitriles, lactones, and acyl halides.
(2) Note. The carboxylic acid or derivative may be in any one of the reactants and the sulfur-to-oxygen bond may be in any of the other reactants, or they may be in the same phenolic or nonphenolic reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

170,for imides.
271,for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid or derivative thereof".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 174]    174Halogen-containing material is a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 171.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains a halogen-containing material (F, Cl, Br, I, At) as a reactant.
(1) Note. The halogen atom may be in any of the reactants and the sulfur-to-oxygen group may be in any of the other reactants, or they may be in the same nonphenolic reactant, or in the same phenolic reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 175]    175Reactant contains a (O=)S(=O)-halo group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains the halo group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 176]    176With polycarboxylic acid or derivative as reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is reacted with a polycarboxylic acid or derivative thereof.
(1) Note. "Derivative" is limited to a nitrile, ester, anhydride, salt, amide, imide, lactam, lactone, and acyl halide. Certain compounds, however, may have more than one function (e.g., a lactone is a species of ester; a lactam isa species of an amide). Compounds which are multifaceted (i.e., more than one function) are classified on the basis of the first-appearing term provided in the subclass hierarchy.
(2) Note. A polycarboxylic acid reactant for purposes of this subclass requires the presence of at least two carboxylic acid groups. A polycarboxylic acid derivative requires at least one carboxylic acid group and at least one carboxylic acid derivative, or at least two identical carboxylic acid derivatives, or at least two different carboxylic acid derivatives. See (1) Note above for an explanation of the term "derivative".
(4) Note. For purposes of this subclass an anhydride having the general formula, which may be linear or cyclic, is considered as being a polycarboxylic acid. Compounds having both a anhydride and a free carboxylic acid group are considered as being a tricarboxylic acid, e.g., as shown below in the first illustration, etc., and compounds containing two anhydride groups are considered as being a tetracarboxylic acid, e.g., as shown below in the second illustration.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 176

Image 2 for class 528 subclass 176

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

170,for the reaction of an imide-containing phenolic reactant or for the reaction of a phenolic reactant with an imide-containing reactant.
271,for a more specific definition of the term "carboxylic acid derivative".

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 179]    179Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant and other than Group IA or Group IIA material as sole metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is reacted with at least one reactant which is a polycarboxylic acid or polycarboxylic acid derivative in the presence of a specified material.
(1) Note.
(A) For purposes of this subclass non-reactant materials (specified materials) which are present during a polymerization reaction and wherein the only metal atoms therein are Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA metal atoms (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) or a mixture thereof, are not considered as being specified materials.
(B) Compounds which contain at least one Group IA or Group IIA and at least one other non-Group IA or non-Group IIA metal atom are proper herein and are classified on the basis of the non-Group IA or non-Group IIA metal atom.
(C) A mixture of a metal-containing compound specifically excluded herefrom and another material which can be considered as being a specified material, per se, is classified herein on the basis of specified material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 180]    180Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 181]    181At least one transition metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of a transition metal.
(1) Note. Transition metal is limited to elements of atomic numbers 21-29, 39-47, 57-79, 88, and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 182]    182Material is a nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 183]    183Nitrogen reactant contains at least one amino-nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein a nitrogen-containing compound is a reactant and wherein at least one nitrogen atom thereof is an amino-nitrogen atom.
(1) Note. The amino-nitrogen atom may be in any of the reactants, for instance, it may be in the phenolic reactant or in the polycarboxylic acid or derivative reactant, or in a nonphenolic or nonpolycarboxylic reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 184]    184Nitrogen reactant having at least one amino-nitrogen atom contains a carboxylic acid group or is a derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains both a carboxylic acid group or derivative thereof and at least one amino-nitrogen atom.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

188,for a non(amino nitrogen)-containing tricarboxylic acid or non (amino nitrogen)-containing derivative of a tricarboxylic acid (e.g., amide, nitrile, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 185]    185Phenolic reactant contains at least two aryl rings and two diverse phenolic to oxygen bonds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein a phenolic reactant contains two or more oxygen atoms directly bonded to two distinct aryl nuclear carbon atoms of two distinct aryl rings and wherein the bonded oxygen atoms form two distinct phenols, phenol ethers, or inorganic phenolates or mixtures thereof with the aryl rings to which they are bonded, e.g.,

etc.

etc.

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 186]    186Nitrogen reactant contains at least three amino-nitrogen atoms bonded to one or more carbon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains three or more amino-nitrogen atoms.
(1) Note. An amine proper for this subclass requires (a) at least three distinct nitrogen atoms bonded to at least two distinct carbon atoms, or (b) the presence of at least three nitrogen atoms bonded to the same carbon atom. Each nitrogen atom single or double bonded in the manner set forth above and consistent with the (1) Note above is an amine. The following are examples of triamines:

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 186

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 187]    187At least one reactant contains three or more carboxylic acid groups or is derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 186.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains three or more carboxylic acid groups or three or more carboxylic acid derivatives or any combination thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 188]    188Reactant contains three or more carboxylic acid groups or is derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 183.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains three or more carboxylic acid groups, three or more carboxylic acid derivatives, or contains a combination thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

184,for an amino-nitrogen containing carboxylic acid or amino-containing derivative of a carboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 189]    189Two or more polycarboxylic acids or derivatives or mixtures thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 188.  Subject matter wherein two or more reactants, each containing two or more carboxylic acid groups, or two or more derivatives of acids, each containing two or more carboxylic acid groups or a combination thereof, are utilized.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 190]    190Reactant contains a fused- or bridged-ring other than solely as a polycarboxylic acid anhydride group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a fused or bridged ring structure with the proviso that a cyclic anhydride is not the only ring fused or bridged to another ring.
(1) Note. A bridged or fused ring system for purposes of this subclass requires that a given ring system be attached at two different nuclear atoms of its ring to an atom or chain of atoms which, when taken together with the two nuclear atoms, forms an additional ring structure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

176,for the reaction of a phenolic reactant with a reactant containing a carboxylic anhydride group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 191]    191Reactant contains a halogen atom other than solely as halogen atom bonded to a carbonyl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains a halogen atom with the proviso that the halogen atom is other than as a halogen atom bonded directly to a carbonyl group,i.e., halo.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 192]    192Ethylenically unsaturated reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains an ethylenically unsaturated group.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 193]    193Two or more phenolic reactants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least two or more phenols, phenol ethers, or inorganic phenolates or mixtures of two or more phenolic reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 194]    194Two or more polycarboxylic acids or derivatives as reactants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from two or more polycarboxylic acids or polycarboxylic acid derivatives.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

183+,for a polymer derived from an amino-containing polycarboxylic acid or amino-containing derivative of a polycarboxylic acid, or for a polymer derived from a non (amino nitrogen)-containing polycarboxylic acid or non(amino nitrogen)-derivative and an amino-containing reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 195]    195Reactant is a nonphenolic compound having at least two hydroxyl groups or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein at least one nonphenolic reactant contains at least two hydroxyl groups or salts thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see "alcohol" in the Glossary for a definition of the term "hydroxyl group".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 196]    196With reactant having halo-C(=O)-halo, halo-C(=O)-O-, or -O-C(=O)-O- group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate and at least one reactant containing a halo halo, halo, or group.
(1) Note. Within the purview of this area is the interreaction of a phenolic compound containing a halo or group with a different phenolic reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 198]    198Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant and other than Group IA or Group IIA material as sole metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is reacted with a reactant containing a halo halo, halo, or group in the presence of a specified material.
(1) Note.
(A) For purposes of this subclass non-reactant materials (specified materials) which are present during a polymerization reaction and wherein the only metal atoms therein are Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) metal atoms or a mixture thereof, are not considered as being specified materials.
(B) Compounds which contain at least one Group IA or Group IIA and at least one other non-Group IA or non-Group IIA metal atom are proper herein and are classified on the basis of the non-Group IA or non-Group IIA metal atom.
(C) A mixture of a metal compound specifically excluded herefrom and another material which can be considered as being a specified material, per se, is classified herein on the basis of the specified material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 199]    199Material is a nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 200]    200Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 201]    201Fused- or bridged-ring-containing reactant other than solely as a polycarboxylic acid anhydride group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a fused or bridged ring with the proviso that a cyclic anhydride group is not the sole group fused or bridged to another ring.
(1) Note. A bridged or fused ring system of this subclass requires that a given ring system be attached at two different nuclear atoms of its ring to an atom or group of atoms which, when taken together with the two nuclear atoms, forms an additional ring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 202]    202Reactant contains a halogen atom other than solely as halogen bonded to a carbonyl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains a halogen atom with the proviso that the halogen atom is other than as a halogen atom bonded directly to a carbonyl group i.e., halo.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 203]    203Reactant contains a nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a nitrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 204]    204Two or more phenolic reactants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least two or more phenols, phenol ethers, or inorganic phenolates, or mixtures of two or more phenolic reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 205]    205Ethylenically unsaturated reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein an ethylenically unsaturated phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is a reactant, or wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate is reacted with an ethylenically unsaturated reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 206]    206Phenolic reactant contains at least one carboxylic acid group or is derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing at least one carboxylic acid group, or a carboxylic acid derivative thereof is a reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

170,for a polymer derived from an imide-containing phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate.
176,for a polymer derived from a phenolic reactant and at least one reactant which is a polycarboxylic acid or a polycarboxylic acid derivative, and for a definition of what is considered as being a polycarboxylic acid derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 207]    207Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant and other than Group IA or Group IIA material as sole metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolic reactant containing at least one carboxylic acid group, or carboxylic acid derivative group is reacted in the presence of a specified material.
(1) Note.
(A) For purposes of this subclass nonreactant materials (specified materials) which are present during a polymerization reaction and wherein the only metal atoms therein are Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA(Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) metal atoms or a mixture thereof, are not considered as being specified materials.
(B) Compounds which contain at least one Group IA or Group IIA and at least one other non-Group IA or non-Group IIA metal atom are proper herein and are classified on the basis of the non-Group IA or non-Group IIA metal atom.
(C) A mixture of a metal compound specifically excluded herefrom and another material which can be considered as being a specified material, per se, is classified herein on the basis of the specified material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 208]    208Nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein the reactant is a nitrogen-containing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 209]    209With nonphenolic compound having at least two hydroxyl groups or salts thereof as reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein at least one nonphenolic reactant contains at least two hydroxyl groups or salts thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see "alcohol" in the Glossary for a definition of the term "hydroxyl group".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 210]    210Phenolic reactant contains a nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a reactant is a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate containing at least one nitrogen atom.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

99,for a polymer derived from a phenolic nitrogen-containing 1, 2-epoxy reactant or from a phenolic nitrogen containing material and a 1, 2-epoxy reactant.
183,for a polymer derived from at least a polycarboxylic acid or derivative and at least one phenolic reactant wherein the phenolic reactant may contain a nitrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 211]    211With nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from a phenol ether or inorganic phenolate and a nitrogen-containing reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 212]    212Phenolic reactant contains a single phenolic -OH group or a single inorganic phenolate thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate reactant contains only one phenolic hydroxyl or one inorganic phenolate group.
(1) Note. A compound having a single phenolic hydroxyl or inorganic phenolate group may, for purposes of this subclass, contain one or more phenolic ether groups, e.g.,

, etc.

, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

219,for a sole phenolic reactant having two or more phenolic hydroxyl or inorganic phenolate groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 214]    214Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant and other than Group IA or Group IIA material as sole metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein the phenolic reactant is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.
(1) Note.
(A) For purposes of this subclass nonreactant materials (specified materials) which are present during a polymerization reaction and wherein the only metal atoms therein are Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) metal atoms or a mixture thereof, are not considered as being specified materials.
(B) Compounds which contain at least one group IA or Group IIA and at least one other non-Group IA or non-Group IIA metal atom are proper herein and are classified on the basis of the non-group IA or the non-Group IIA metal atom.
(C) A mixture of a metal compound specifically excluded herefrom and another material which can be considered as being a specified material, per se, is classified herein on the basis of the specified material, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 215]    215Material is a nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 216]    216Nitrogen-containing material is a heterocyclic compound containing at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein the specified nitrogen-containing material contains at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member of a heterocyclic compound.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 217]    217Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 214.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 218]    218Two or more phenolic reactants each of which contains a single -OH group or inorganic phenolate group, or with a compound containing a single ether oxygen atom bonded to two discrete aryl rings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 212.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from (1) at least two phenolic reactants each of which contains only a single phenolic hydroxyl group, or a mixture of inorganic phenolates thereof, or a mixture of a phenolic reactant containing a single hydroxyl group and another phenolic reactant which is an inorganic phenolate of a phenolic reactant containing only a single hydroxyl group, or (2) wherein a phenolic reactant containing a single phenolic hydroxyl group or a phenolate thereof is reacted with a compound containing an ether oxygen atom bonded to two discrete aryl rings.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 219]    219Phenolic reactant contains two or more phenolic -OH groups, or two or more inorganic phenolate groups, or mixtures thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Subject matter wherein a phenol, phenol ether, or inorganic phenolate contains two or more phenolic hydroxyl groups, or is an inorganic phenolate thereof, or contains at least one phenolic hydroxyl group and at least one inorganic phenolate group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 220]    220FROM KETONE OR KETENE REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a ketone reactant or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a ketone or process of preparing.
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass a reactant having a ketene (C=C=O) group is considered as being a ketone.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ketone".
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 316 for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated ketone as sole monomer or for an interpolymer derived from only ethylenically unsaturated reactants wherein at least one of the reactants is an ethylenically unsaturated ketone.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 222]    222Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein a ketone reactant is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 223]    223Material contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of phosphorus or sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 224]    224Material contains a nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 225]    225Material contains a boron or polyvalent metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of boron or at least one atom of a polyvalent metal atom.
(1) Note. Polyvalent metal is limited to elements of atomic numbers 4, 12, 13, 20-33, 38-51, 56-84, 88, and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 226]    226With sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein the material is a ketone which is reacted with at least one sulfur-containing reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 227]    227With aldehyde or derivative thereof as reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein a ketone-containing material is reacted with at least one aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

230,for a definition of an aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of "aldehyde" or "aldehyde derivative".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 228]    228With nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein a ketone is reacted with at least one nitrogen-containing reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 229]    229Nitrogen-containing reactant contains an amine group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Subject matter wherein a nitrogen reactant contains at least on nitrogen atom as an amino-nitrogen.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 230]    230FROM ALDEHYDE OR DERIVATIVE THEREOF AS REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from at least one aldehyde or derivative as a reactant or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant an aldehyde or derivative or process of preparing.
(1) Note.
(A) An aldehyde derivative for purposes of this subclass includes
(1) Compounds having a X-CH2OH group wherein X is other than carbon or hydrogen. Included herein are paraformaldehyde, methylol derivatives of urea, etc.
(2) Heterocyclic compounds having only carbon and oxygen as ring atoms in an alternating manner and in equal amount, as illustrated below. Included herein is trioxane.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 230

(3) Hexamethylenetetramine or derivative, e.g., as illustrated below. A derivative of this type requires the basic ring structure of hexamethylenetetramine but wherein the hydrogen atoms may have been replaced by other atoms.

Image 2 for class 528 subclass 230

(2) Note. Compounds having a methylol group (-CH2OH) bonded to atoms other than carbon, oxygen, or hydrogen are regarded for this subclass as being two compounds, one of which is formaldehyde. For instance, a methylol derivative of melamine is regarded as being a mixture of melamine and formaldehyde. Methylol urea is regarded as being a mixture of formaldehyde and urea.
(3) Note. Solid paraformaldehyde polymers will be regarded as reactants.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

403,for heterocyclic oxygen-containing reactants such as dioxolane, dioxepan, etc.
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition "aldehyde".
523Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 1 for the distinction between that class and this area, and see in particular, section D in the class definition.
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 315 for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated aldehyde as sole reactant or for an interpolymer derived from only ethylenically unsaturated reactants wherein at least one of the ethylenically unsaturated reactants contains an aldehyde group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 232]    232Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein an aldehyde or derivative is polymerized in the presence of a special material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 233]    233Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 234]    234Material contains a transition metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one transition metal atom.
(1) Note. Transition metal is limited to elements of atomic numbers 21-29, 39-47, 57-79, 89, and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 235]    235Transition metal atom is a Group VIII metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Subject matter wherein the transition metal is a Group VIII metal atom, i.e., Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 236]    236Material contains a heavy metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one heavy metal atom.
(1) Note. Since transition metals are not classified herein subclasses 234+ above, the term "heavy metal" herein is limited to elements of atomic numbers 30-33, 48-51, 80-84, and 88.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

234+,for transition metal containing specified materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 237]    237Heavy metal is a Group IVA metal atom (Ge, Sn, Pb):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a Group IVA metal atom, i.e., Ge, Sn, Pb.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 238]    238Material contains an aluminum atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of aluminum.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 239]    239Material contains a Group IA metal atom (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of a Group IA metal (i.e., Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 240]    240Material contains a boron atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of boron.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 241]    241Boron trihalide or organic complex thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains one boron atom which is bonded to three halogen atoms or is an organic complex wherein at least one boron atom therein is bonded to three halogen atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 242]    242Material contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of phosphorus or sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 243]    243Material contains nitrogen as part of a nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 244]    244Fluorine- or phosphorus-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a fluorine or phosphorus atom.
(1) Note. The fluorine or phosphorus atom may be part of the aldehyde or derivative or may be a material which is reacted with the aldehyde or derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 245]    245From glyoxal or compound having two or more -C(=O)-H groups per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein at least one aldehyde is glyoxal or a compound containing two or more aldehyde groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 245.3]    245.3With a polycarboxylic acid reactant which is a dimer or trimer of an ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having at least ten carbon atoms; or adduct of said unsaturated monocarboxylic acid with an alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein a polycarboxylic acid reactant which is a dimer or trimer of ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarbozylic acid having at least ten carbon atoms, or an adduct of said unsaturated monocarboxylic acid with an alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated acid carboxylic acid or derivatives is present in addition to said aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of "dimer or trimer of aliphatic monocarboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 245.5]    245.5With a reactrant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein a reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or fatty acid derived from tall oil is present in addition to said aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see definition of "fatty acid" in the Glossary for a discussion of terms used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 246]    246Ethylenically unsaturated reactant other than unsaturation solely in heterocyclic ring containing only oxygen as hetero atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains an ethylenically unsaturated group with the proviso that a heterocyclic compound containing only oxygen and carbon atoms as ring members must possess at least one ethylenically unsaturated moiety exterior to the ring.
(1) Note. Excluded herein is furfural, furfuryl alcohol, etc.
(2) Note. A methylene group which is bonded to a heterocyclic carbon is considered as being exterior to the heterocyclic ring.
(3) Note. The unsaturation required for this subclass may be in the aldehyde or derivative thereof, or may be in a material which is reacted with an aldehyde or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 247]    247With hydrocarbon or halogenated hydrocarbon reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein the aldehyde or derivative is reacted with a hydrocarbon or halogenated hydrocarbon.
(1) Note. Halogenated hydrocarbon for purposes of this subclass also includes those compounds wherein all of the hydrogen atoms have been substituted by halogen atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 248]    248With heterocyclic reactant which is not an aldehyde or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein an aldehyde or derivative is reacted with at least one heterocyclic reactant, which reactant is a nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 249]    249Nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative heterocyclic compound contains an oxygen atom as a ring member of the heterocyclic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant which is not an aldehyde or derivative of an aldehyde contains at least one oxygen atom as a ring member of a heterocyclic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 250]    250Heterocyclic compound contains a 1,2-epoxy ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic oxygen atom is part of a three-membered ring containing one oxygen atom and two carbon atoms (i.e., 1, 2-epoxy compound).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 251]    251Nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative heterocyclic compound contains a sulfur atom as a ring member of the heterocyclic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant which is not an aldehyde or a derivative of an aldehyde contains at least one sulfur atom as a ring member of a heterocyclic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

255,for a polymer derived from a sulfur-containing triazine reactant and an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 252]    252Nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative heterocyclic compound contains only two nitrogen atoms as ring members of the heterocyclic compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the reactant which is not an aldehyde or derivative contains only two nitrogen atoms as ring members of a heterocyclic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 253]    253Nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative heterocyclic compound contains two or more heterocyclic rings and includes shared hetero atoms in a fused or bridged ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the reactant which is not an aldehyde or derivative contains two or more heterocyclic rings.
(1) Note. Included herein are those reactant compounds having two distinct heterocyclic ring moieties as well as those reactant compounds wherein a heterocyclic atom is shared between two ring moieties (i.e., fused or bridged rings).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 254]    254Nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative heterocyclic reactant contains a six membered ring having three nitrogen and three carbon atoms as ring members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the reactant which is not an aldehyde or derivative contains a six-membered ring having three nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 255]    255Sulfur-containing heterocyclic compound having three nitrogen and three carbon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant having three nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms as ring members contains at least one atom of sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 256]    256With reactant containing >NC(=O)- or >N-C(=S)- group, e.g., urea, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter wherein a reactant containing a or group is utilized in preparing a polymer and wherein the or reactant is not an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative, or a compound having a six-membered heterocyclic ring containing three nitrogen and three carbon atoms as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 257]    257With reactant containing at least one noncyclic carbon atom bonded to at least three atoms of nitrogen, e.g., dicyanodiamide, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter wherein a reactant containing an extracyclic carbon atom bonded to at least three nitrogen atoms is utilized in preparing a polymer and wherein the reactant, as illustrated below, is not (1) an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative, or (2) a compound having a six-membered heterocyclic ring containing three nitrogen and three carbon atoms as ring members.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 257

(1) Note. Extracyclic carbon as used in this subclass denotes a carbon atom which is not a ring atom of a ring-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 258]    258Six-membered heterocycle is other than melamine per se or methylol derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant containing three nitrogen atoms and three carbon atoms is other than melamine, per se, or a methylol (-CH2OH) derivative thereof.
(1) Note. The materials herein excluded are melamine, i.e., as illustrated below, or its derivatives wherein one or more of the available hydrogen atoms of melamine have been substituted by -CH2OH groups.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 258

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 259]    259With >N-C(=X)-N< -containing reactant wherein X is a chalcogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein an aldehyde or its derivatives is reacted with at least one reactant which contains a group and wherein X is a chalcogen atom (O, S, Se, or Te).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 260]    260Two or more >N-C(=X)-N< -containing reactants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Subject matter wherein two or more reactants containing groups are utilized, and wherein X is O, S, Se, or Te.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 261]    261At least one reactant is a nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative, non- >N C(=X)-N< -containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant is a nonaldehyde or derivative or non group- (X is O, S, Se, or Te) containing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 262]    262Nonaldehyde reactant, non->N-C(=X)-N< reactant contains a nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein the nonaldehyde or derivative or non-containing reactant NX is O, S, Se, or Te) is a nitrogen-containing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 263]    263Non- >N-C(=X)-N< nitrogen reactant is an organic compound containing two or more amino groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Subject matter wherein the non-reactant (X is O, S, Se, or Te or nonaldehyde or derivative reactant is an organic compound containing two or more amino groups.
(1) Note. An amine proper for this subclass requires (a) at least two distinct nitrogen atoms bonded to at least two distinct carbon atoms, or (b) the presence of at least two nitrogen atoms bonded to the same carbon atom. Each nitrogen atom, single or double bonded, set forth above and consistent with the definitiom referred to in the Search Note below is the nitrogen of an amine.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 264]    264>N-C(=X)-N< reactant is other than urea or thiourea per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Subject matter wherein X the - containing reactant is other than urea or thiourea, per se.
(1) Note. The materials excluded herein are urea, per se, i.e., or thiourea, per se, i.e.,
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 265]    265Sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein a sulfur-containing aldehyde or aldehyde derivative is utilized as a reactant, or wherein an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative is reacted with a sulfur-containing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 266]    266With nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative nitrogen-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative is reacted with at least one nitrogen-containing reactant and which nitrogen-containing reactant is not an aldehyde or aledhyde derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 267]    267Nitrogen-containing nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative contains a nitrile group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein the nitrogen-containing reactant which is not an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative is a nitrile group-containing material.
(1) Note. A nitrile for purposes of this subclass requires:
(A) The structure wherein n is an integer and wherein the C atom is not double bonded to oxygen, selenium, or tellurium.
(B) The structure wherein n is an integer.
(C) The structure wherein n is an integer and X is, or a derivative, i.e., salt, ester, amide, imide, lactam, lactone, anhydride, or nitrile.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 268]    268Nitrogen-containing nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative contains three or more nitrogen atoms bonded to the same carbon atom, e.g., dicyanodiamide, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein the nitrogen-containing reactant which is not an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative contains at least one carbon atom bonded to at least three nitrogen atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 269]    269Nitrogen-containing nonaldehyde or nonaldehyde derivative contains a single organic amine group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein the nitrogen-containing reactant which is not an aldehyde or aldehyde derivative contains only a single amino-nitrogen atom.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

266,for a polyamine reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 270]    270From aldehyde or aldehyde derivative as sole reactant (includes copolymer of only aldehydes or aldehyde derivatives):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived solely from reactants which are aldehydes or aldehyde derivatives or mixtures thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 271]    271FROM CARBOXYLIC ACID OR DERIVATIVE THEREOF:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from at least one carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid derivative or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable composition containing as a reactant a carboxylic acid or derivative or process of preparing.
(1) Note. A derivative of a carboxylic acid is limited to a nitrile, ester, anhydride, salt, amide, imide, lactam, lactone, and acyl halide.
(2) Note. A carboxylic acid denotes:
(A1) The structure wherein n is one or greater and the C- atom is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or is not triple bonded to nitrogen.
(A2) The structure wherein n is one or greater, e.g., formic acid when n=1.
(A3) The structure wherein n is an integer, e.g., oxalic acid when n=1.
(B1) The structure wherein n is one or more and the carbon atom bonded to thegroup and the carbon atom single bonded to the oxygen atom of the group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.
(B2) The structure wherein the atom single bonded to the group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or is not triple bonded to nitrogen.
(B3) The structure wherein n is an integer and X is or a derivative as defined in the (1) Note of this subclass.
A carboxylic acid amide denotes:
(C1) The structure wherein n is one or greater and the atom bonded to the group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.
(C2) The structure wherein n is one or greater.
(C3) The structure wherein n is an integer and X isor a derivative as defined in the (1) Note of this subclass.
A nitrile for purposes of this subclass denotes:
(D1) The structure wherein n is an integer and wherein the atom is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium.
(D2) The structure wherein n is an integer.
(D3) The structure wherein n is an integer and x is or a derivative, i.e., salt, ester, amide, imide, lactam, lactone, anhydride, or nitrile.
A carboxylic acid anhydride denotes:
(E1) The structure wherein n is one or more and wherein the carbon atom bonded to the group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium.
(E2) The structure wherein n is an integer, X is or a carboxylic acid derivcative as defined in the (1) Note of this subclass.
(E3) The structure In E1, E2, and E3 the group may be joined together in a ring. An acyl halide of a carboxylic acid denotes:
(F1) The structure wherein n is one or more and wherein the carbon atom bonded to group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium.
(F2) The structure halo wherein n is one or more.
(F3) The structure halo wherein n is an integer and X is or a carboxylic acid derivative as defined in the (1) Note of this subclass.
(G) A carboxylic acid imide denotes the structure wherein n and x are one or more, as illustrated below.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 271

(H) The lactam of a carboxylic acid denotes the structure wherein n and x are one or more as illustrated below.

Image 2 for class 528 subclass 271

(I) The lactone of a carboxylic acid denotes the structure, illustrated below, wherein x and n are one or more and the carbon atom bonded to the group and the carbon atom single bonded to the oxygen atom of the group are not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.

Image 3 for class 528 subclass 271

(J1) The salt of a carboxylic acid denotes the structure, illustrated below, wherein n is one or more and the group and the X component are held together primarily by ionic forces: the carbon atom bonded to thegroup is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.

Image 4 for class 528 subclass 271

(J2) The structure, illustrated below, wherein n is one or more and the group and the X component are held together primarily by ionic forces.

Image 5 for class 528 subclass 271

(J3) The structure, illustrated below, wherein n is an integer. Z is or a derivative as defined in the (1) Note of this subclass and wherein the X component and the component are held together primarily by ionic forces.

Image 6 for class 528 subclass 271

(3) Note. In the above definitions of carboxylic acid and their derivatives, certain compounds may have more than one function (e.g., a lactone is a species of ester, a lactam is a species of an amide). Compounds which are multifunctional are classified on the basis of the first-appearing function provided in the subclass hierarchy.
(4) Note. A polycarboxylic acid reactant for purposes of this subclass requires the presence of at least two carboxylic acid groups. A polycarboxylic acid derivative requires at least one carboxylic acid group and at least one carboxylic acid derivative, or at least two identical carboxylic acid derivatives, or at least two different carboxylic acid derivatives. See (1) Note above for an explanation of the term "derivative".
(5) Note. For purposes of this subclass an anhydride having the general formula, which may be linear or cyclic is considered as being a polycarboxylic acid. A compound having both an anhydride and a free carboxylic acid is considered as being a tricarboxylic acid, e.g. as in the first illustration below, and a compound containing two anhydride groups is considered as being a tetracarboxylic acid, e.g., as in the second illustration, below.

Image 7 for class 528 subclass 271

Image 8 for class 528 subclass 271

(6) Note. An imide is considered as being a dicarboxylic acid derivative.
(7) Note. An organic amine salt of a carboxylic acid has been classified as if it were a mixture of an amine and a carboxylic acid. An organic diamine salt of a dicarboxylic acid where the amine salt-forming groups are identical is considered as being a single amine compound; whereas if the amine groups are different then they are regarded as two amine compounds. Where the compound contains two or more nitrogen atoms bonded to the same or different noncarbonyl carbon atom then they are to be regarded as polyamines.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

170,for the reaction of an imide-containing phenolic reactant or for the reaction of a phenolic reactant with an imide-containing reactant.
263,see (2) Note for an explanation of the term "polyamine".
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 272]    272From di- or higher ester of a polycarboxylic acid as sole reactant, or from a polycarboxylic acid or derivative with a compound containing two or more hydroxyl groups or salts thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter involving a polymer derived (1) from one or more di- or higher esters of a polycarboxylic acid as the sole reactant or reactants, or (2) from at least a polycarboxylic acid or derivative thereof and at least a compound containing two or more hydroxyl groups or salts thereof.
(1) Note. A hydroxyl group denotes the bonding of an -OH group to a carbon atom and wherein the carbon atom is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.
(2) Note. A compound containing two or more hydroxyl groups or salts thereof requires (a) at least two distinct -OH or salt groups bonded to different carbon atoms, e.g., HO-CH2-CH2-OH, etc., or (b) two or more -OH or salt groups bonded to the same carbon atom, e.g.,

etc.

etc.

(3) Note. A compound which contains a single C-OH group and a single C-O salt group is proper for this subclass.
(4) Note. A claim which recites the aftertreatment of a solid polymer wherein no preparation of said polymer is claimed is not proper for this subclass. See Search Notes, infra.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

481,for (a) the process of heating particles of polyethlene terephthalate at 250°C in an affluent gaseous stream of nitrogen to increase the polymer"s molecular weight. and (2) the process of condensing a polyester precondensate havinga relative viscosity of 1.05-1.15 at 220°C-280°C under reduced pressure.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   II, B, 2 in the class definition for a definition of what constitutes a solid polymer. Also, terms such as relative viscosity, intrinsic viscosity and polymer melt also connote a solid polymer.
525Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 437 , for heating of solid polyethylene terephthalate in the presence of P2O5 dehydrating agent.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 274]    274Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein (1) one or more di- or higher esters of a carboxylic as sole reactant, or (2) a polycarboxylic acid or derivative thereof and a reactant containing two or more hydroxyl groups or salts thereof are polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for an explanation of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 275]    275Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 276]    276Metal atom in elemental form:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Subject matter wherein the metal atom is in the elemental state.
(1) Note. An alloy is considered as being a mixture of elemental metals and is proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 277]    277Material contains a transition metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of a transition metal.
(1) Note. Transition metal atom is limited to elements of atomic numbers 21-29, 39-47, 57-79, 89, and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 278]    278Metal atom has atomic number of 57-71, or 89 and higher:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one transition metal of atomic numbers 57-71 or 89 and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 279]    279Material contains a Group IVB metal atom (Ti, Zr, Hf):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one Group IVB transition metal atom (i.e., Ti, Zn, Hf).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 280]    280Material contains a Group VIII metal atom (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one Group VIII metal atomi (i.e., Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 281]    281Material contains a Group IIB metal atom (Zn, Cd, Hg):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IIB metal atom (i.e., Zn, Cd, Hg).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 282]    282Material contains a Group IIIA metal atom (Al, Ga, In, Tl):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IIIA metal atom (i.e., Al, Ga, In, Tl).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 283]    283Material contains a Group IVA metal atom (Ge, Sn, Pb):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IVA metal atom, i.e., Ge, Sn, Pb.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 284]    284Material contains a Group IVA metal atom (Ge, Sn, Pb):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of lead.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 285]    285Material contains a Group VA metal atom (As, Sb, Bi):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group VA metal atom (i.e., As, Sb, Bi).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 286]    286Material contains a phosphorus atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one phosphorus atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 287]    287Phosphorus-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a phosphorus atom.
(1) Note. The phosphorus atom may be in a polycarboxylic acid or in a derivative thereof, or it may be in a polyhydroxyl compound or in a salt thereof, or it may be in an additional reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 288]    288Nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a nitrogen atom.
(1) Note. The nitrogen atom may be in a carboxylic acid or derivative thereof, or it may be in a polyhydroxyl compound or salt thereof, or it may be in an additional reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 289]    289Final product contains nitrogen atom as a member of a heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Subject matter wherein a final polymeric product contains a heterocyclic ring having a nitrogen atom as a ring member.
(1) Note. The final product may be formed from a heterocyclic reactant having a nitrogen atom as a ring member or may be formed from a nonheterocyclic nitrogen-containing compound. The sole requirement for placement in this subclass is that the final product contain a nitrogen atom as a ring member of a heterocyclic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 290]    290Sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains at least one sulfur atom.
(1) Note. The sulfur and nitrogen atoms required for this subclass may be in the same reactant or may be in different reactants.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 291]    291Nitrogen-containing polyhydroxy compound or salt of a nitrogen-containing polyhydroxy compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Subject matter wherein a nitrogen atom is part of a compound containing two or more hydroxyl groups or is a salt thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

288+,for a salt of a non-nitrogen-containing polyhydroxyl compound wherein nitrogen is solely present in the cation moiety.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 292]    292Nitrogen-containing polycarboxylic acid or nitrogen-containing polycarboxylic acid derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Subject matter wherein a nitrogen atom is part of polycarboxylic acid, or is part of a derivative thereof, or is a nitrogen-containing derivative of a nonnitrogen-containing polycarboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 293]    293Sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a sulfur atom.
(1) Note. The sulfur atom may be in polycarboxylic acid or in a derivative thereof, or it may be in a polyhydroxyl compound or in a salt thereof, or it may be in an additional reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 294]    294Sulfur-containing polyhydroxy compound or salt of a sulfur-containing polyhydroxy compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter wherein a sulfur atom is part of a compound containing two or more hydroxyl groups or is a salt thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

293+,for salt of a nonsulfur-containing polyhydroxyl compound wherein sulfur is solely present in the cation moiety.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 295]    295Sulfur-containing aryl compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains at least one atom of sulfur and at least one aromatic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 295.3]    295.3Polycarboxylic acid reactant which is a dimer or trimer of an ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having at least ten carbon atoms; or adduct of said unsaturated monocarboxylic acid with an alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein there is at least one polycarboxylic reactant which is a dimer or trimer of ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having at least ten carbon atoms, or an adduct of said unsaturated monocarboxylic acid with an alpha, beta ethylenically carboxylic acid or derivative.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of "dimer or trimer of an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 295.5]    295.5Reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein there is at least one reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester; a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the definition of "fatty acid" in the Glossary for a discussion of the terms used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 296]    296Reactant contains three or more carboxylic acid groups or is derivative thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant is present which contains three or more carboxylic acid groups, or wherein a reactant is present which contains three or more carboxylic acid derivative groups, or mixtures thereof (e.g., trimellitic acid, pyromellitic tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride, etc.).
(1) Note. For purposes of this subclass an anhydride having the general formula, which may be linear or cyclic is considered as being a polycarboxylic acid. A compound having both an anhydride and a free carboxylic acid is considered as being a tricarboxylic acid, e.g., as shown below in the first illustration, and a compound containing two anhydride groups is considered as being a tetracarboxylic acid, e.g., as shown below in the second illustration.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 296

Image 2 for class 528 subclass 296

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 297]    2971,2-epoxy containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a heterocyclic ring solely composed of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom as ring members.
(1) Note. The 1, 2-epoxy ring may be part of the carboxylic acid or derivative or may be part of an additional reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 298]    298Fused- or bridged-ring-containing reactant other than solely as cyclic acid anhydride group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a fused or bridged ring with the proviso that the cyclic anhydride group is not the sole group fused or bridged to another ring.
(1) Note. A bridged or fused ring system for purposes of this subclass requires that a given ring system be attached at two different nuclear atoms of its ring system to an atom or chain of atoms which, when taken together with the two nuclear atoms, forms an additional ring structure.

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308+,for phthalic acid anhydride as a reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 299]    299Halogen-containing reactant other than solely as halogen atom bonded to a carbonyl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains a halogen atom with the proviso that the halogen atom is other than as a halogen atom bonded directly to a carbonyl group (i.e., halo).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 300]    300Polyhydroxy-containing compound or salt thereof having an ether-oxygen atom as reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein a reactant containing two or more hydroxyl groups or a salt thereof contains at least one ether oxygen atom.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ether".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 301]    301Acyclic ether-oxygen compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein the ether reactant is devoid of any cycloaliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 302]    302Two or more carboxylic acid or derivatives or mixtures thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein a reactant mixture contains two or more carboxylic acids, or at least two carboxylic acid derivatives, or a mixture of at least one carboxylic acid and a carboxylic acid derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 303]    303Ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or ethylenically unsaturated derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein at least one carboxylic acid reactant contains ethylenic unsaturation, or wherein at least a derivative of a carboxylic acid contains ethylenic unsaturation.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 304]    304Aryl-containing carboxylic acid or derivative of an aryl-containing carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Subject matter wherein (1) at least one reactant is an ethylenically unsaturated aromatic carboxylic acid or is a derivative thereof, or (2) the mixture contains as a reactant at least one ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative thereof, and at least one aryl-containing carboxylic acid or derivative thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 305]    305Each of the carboxylic acids or derivatives contains an aryl group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein each of the carboxylic acids or derivatives contains at least one aryl group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 306]    306Ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative of an ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein a reactant is an ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or a derivative of an ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid (e.g., maleic anhydride, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 307]    307Cycloaliphatic ring-containing reactant (other than aryl):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a ring solely composed of carbon atoms and is nonaromatic.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308]    308Aryl-containing carboxylic acid or derivative of an aryl-containing dicarboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant is an aryl-containing dicarboxylic acid or a derivative of an aryl-containing dicarboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.1]    308.1Polyethylene terephthalate, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.  Subject matter wherein the process involves either ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid, per se; ethylene glycol and dimethyyl terephthalate; or bis(hydroxyethyl)terephthalate as sole reactant(s) or the preparation of a solid polymer having the sole repeating units of the structure, below, "or products thereof."

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 308.1

(1) Note. A polymer described as polyethylene terephthalate is presumed to be derived from the starting monomers of this subclass or to have the structure above, unless the patent otherwise specifies.

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308.6+,for processes of preparing other polyesters derived from terephthalic acid or substituted forms thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.2]    308.2Physically after-treated solid polymer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.1.  Subject matter wherein the polymer claimed has been treated by physical means, such as stretching, heating, cutting, spinning, etc., in order to change the physical properties of the polymer.
(1) Note. The specification may be read in conjunction with the claims to determine whether the polymer has been physically treated within the meaning of this subclass.

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480+,for processes of treating a polymer by chemical means in order to change physical, but not chemical properties of the polymer and for processes of chemically modifying polymers solely by physical processes in the absence of a chemical treating agent.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   appropriate subclasses, for processes for preparation of a polymer wherein a significant molding step, such as spinning into a specifically named bath, is recited and note especially subclasses 340+ for processes in which preformed, shaped or solid articles are subjected to treatment, including all procedures in which the chemical or physical properties or characteristics of a work piece are modified or controlled by other than mechanically shaping by contacting the work with a solid shaping member.
525Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 50+ , for processes of chemically modifying solid polymers in the presence of a chemical treating agent or reactant or products thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.3]    308.3Processes of preparing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.1.  Subject matter wherein the process of polymerization involving the stated reactants is claimed.

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308.1,for products of the such processes.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.4]    308.4In presence of hydrocarbon, steam or water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.3.  Subject matter wherein at least one step of the process utilizes either a compound derived solely from carbon and hydrogen, water or steam.
(1) Note. An aqueous acid or base solution is classified herein provided the acid or base is not specified; for example, claims drawn to "an aqueous base" would be classified herein.

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274,for claims drawn to inter alia an aqueous solution of a specified base; e.g., aqueous ammonia.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.5]    308.5At least two claimed distinct temperature or pressure gradients:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.3.  Subject matter wherein the process involves at least two distinct gradients, either temperature and/or pressure.
(1) Note. A temperature range, such as 273°C - 283°C or "a temperature less than 300°C, "is considered to be one distinct gradient for this subclass. A temperature described as commencing at 273°C and gradually being increased to 283°C is considered to be "at least two distinct gradients" for purposes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.6]    308.6Contains terephthalic acid or substituted forms thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.  Subject matter wherein the process involves terephthalic acid or substituted forms thereof or products thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.7]    308.7Derived from at least two reactants simultaneously containing a C - OH group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.6.  Subject matter wherein the process involves simultaneously at least two reactants having at least one C - OH group or products thereof.
(1) Note. The two alcohol reactants are not considered to react simultaneously for purposes of this subclass when one reactant has completely reacted with another material before the addition of the second alcohol reactant.

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308.6,or 308.8+, for processes involving two reactants containing an alcohol group wherein the two reactants are not involved simultaneously.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 308.8]    308.8Processes of preparing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.6.  Subject matter wherein a polymerization process involving the stated reactants is claimed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

308.6,or 308.7, for products prepared by a process involving this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 309.1]    309.1At least two claimed distinct temperature or pressure gradients:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.8.  Subject matter wherein the process involves at least two distinct gradients, either temperature and/or pressure.
(1) Note. A temperature range, such as 273°C - 283°C or a "temperature less than 300°C," is considered to be one distinct gradient for this subclass. A temperature described as commencing at 273°C and gradually being increased to 283°C is considered to be "at least two distinct gradients" for purposes of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 310]    310From imide- or lactam-containing compound, or from an amino-nitrogen containing carboxylic acid, or derivative of an amino-nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter involves a polymer derived from an imide, lactam, or from an amino-nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid or from a derivative of an amino-nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 312]    312Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein an imide, lactam, or an amino-nitrogen-containing carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 313]    313Material contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 314]    314Material contains a nitrogen atom as a ring member of a heterocyclic ring other than where nitrogen heterocycle is solely part of a lactam ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one nitrogen atom as a ring member of a heterocyclic ring with the proviso that the sole heterocyclic ring is not a lactam.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 315]    315Material is a nitrogen-containing compound other than a lactam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one nitrogen-containing compound.
(1) Note. A lactam utilized as a specified material is excluded herefrom and is classified below as a specified material on some other basis. A compound, however, which contains a nitrogen atom in addition to the nitrogen atom of a lactam ring is proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 316]    316Material is a ketone, aldehyde, or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a ketone or aldehyde.
(1) Note. The term "aldehyde" herein does not include aldehyde derivatives, such as acetals or hemiacetals.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the terms "ketone" and "aldehyde".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 317]    317Material is an alcohol, ether, or inorganic alcoholate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is an alcohol, ether, or inorganic alcoholate.

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319,for a polyvalent metal-containing specified material when a metal atom is not part of an inorganic alcholate.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the terms "alcohol" and "ether".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 318]    318Material is a carboxylic acid, acyl halide thereof, ester thereof, or lactone thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material is a carboxylic acid, acyl halide thereof, ester thereof, or lactone thereof.

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271,for a definitions of the types of chemical compounds specified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 319]    319Material contains a polyvalent metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a polyvalent metal atom.
(1) Note. Polyvalent metal is limited to elements of atomic numbers 4, 12, 13, 20-33, 38-51, 56-84, 88, and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 320]    320Material contains a silicon atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 312.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains an atom of silicon.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 321]    321Phosphorus- or sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom.
(1) Note. The phosphorus or sulfur atom may be part of an imide, lactam, or amino-containing carboxylic acid or derivative, or may be part of a coreactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 322]    322Imide-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains an imide group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 323]    323Lactam-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains a lactam group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 324]    324With two or more reactants one of which is a carboxylic acid or derivative and one of which is an organic compound containing at least two amino nitrogen atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 323.  Subject matter wherein a polymer has been derived from at least three reactants with the proviso that one reactant is a lactam-containing material, a second reactant is a carboxylic acid or derivative, and a third derivative is a compound containing two or more amino-nitrogen atoms.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for the reaction of two lactam reactants and a single polyamine reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

263,(2) Note. for an explanation of the term "polyamine".

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 325]    325Two or more lactam reactant or with an amino-containing carboxylic acid or derivative of an amino-containing carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 323.  Subject matter wherein a polymer has been derived from (1) at least two lactam-containing reactants, or (2) at least one lactam reactant and (a) at least one amino-containing carboxylic acid, or (b) at least a derivative of an amino-containing carboxylic acid.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 326]    326Lactam reactant contains 3-5 or 12 or more carbon atoms in the lactam ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 323.  Subject matter wherein a lactam reactant contains three to five carbon atoms in a lactam ring, or 12 or more carbon atoms in a lactam ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 327]    327Heterocyclic reactant or a reactant which contains a nitrogen atom bonded directly to another nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a heterocyclic ring atom, or wherein one reactant contains at least one nitrogen atom bonded directly to another nitrogen atom.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are n-carboanhydrides.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 328]    328From N-C-(C=O)-OH containing reactant or acid derivative thereof, e.g., alpha amino acid, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein the amino-carboxylic acid reactant contains a group (n is one or more) or is a carboxylic acid derivative thereof, and wherein the nitrogen atom bonded to the single carbon atom which is bonded to the group may be bonded to any other atom other than to a carbon atom which is double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium or triple bonded to a nitrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 329.1]    329.1With two or more reactants one of which is a carboxylic acid or derivative thereof which is devoid of an amine group and one reactant which is a polyamine which is devoid of a carboxylic acid group or carboxylic acid derivative group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein a polymer has been derived from at least three reactants with the proviso that (1) at least one reactant is an amino-containing carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid derivative of an amino-containing carboxylic acid; (2) a second reactant is a carboxylic acid or derivative which is devoid of any amino groups, and (3) a third reactant is polyamine which is devoid of any carboxylic acid groups or carboxylic acid derivative groups.

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263,(2) Note, for an explanation of the term "polyamine".

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 330]    330Cycloaliphatic ring-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a saturated carbocyclic ring.
(1) Note. The term as utilized herein includes a fused or bridged ring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 331]    331Aryl-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains an aromatic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 332]    332With organic amine, or from organic amine salt of a carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least one reactant which is an organic amine salt of a carboxylic acid, or wherein a carboxylic acid or carboxylic acid derivative is reacted with an organic amine.
(1) Note. An organic amine salt of a carboxylic acid has been classified as if it were a mixture of an amine and a carboxylic acid. An organic diamine salt of a dicarboxylic acid where the amine salt-forming groups are identical is considered as being a single amine compound; whereas if the amine groups are different then they are regarded as two amine compounds. Where the compound contains two or more nitrogen atoms bonded to the same or different noncarbonyl carbon atom then they are to be regarded as polyamines.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "amine".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 335]    335From dicarboxylic acid or derivative thereof and an organic amine, or from an organic amine salt of a dicarboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from a dicarboxylic acid or from a dicarboxylic acid derivative thereof and an organic amine, or wherein a reactant is an organic amine salt of a dicarboxylic acid or derivative.
(1) Note. The reactant may be the monoamine salt of a dicarboxylic acid, the diamine salt thereof, or it may be the diamine or monoamine salt of a dicarboxylic acid derivative.

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350+,for polymers derived from a tri or higher carboxylic acid or derivative and a polyamine.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 336]    336Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein an organic amine salt of a dicarboxylic acid or derivative is polymerized, or wherein a dicarboxylic acid or derivative thereof and an organic amine are polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 337]    337Phosphorus- or sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 338]    338From at least two dicarboxylic acids or derivatives or mixtures thereof and at least two organic polyamines:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least four reactants, two of which are dicarboxylic acids or carboxylic acid derivatives and two of which are organic polyamines.
(1) Note. Two compounds which are organoamine salts of two different dicarboxylic acids, wherein each of the two amine salts are different and wherein each in its own right is a polyamine, would meet the requirements of this subclass. In addition, a carboxylic acid in admixture with a diamine salt of a different dicarboxylic acid, wherein each of the diamine salts are different and wherein each is a polyamine, would be properly classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 339]    339From at least two dicarboxylic acids or derivatives or mixtures thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least two dicarboxylic acids or at least two dicarboxylic acid derivatives.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 339.3]    339.3Polycarboxylic acid reactant which is a dimer or trimer of an ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having at least ten carbon atoms; or adduct of said unsaturated monocarboxylic acid with an alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 339.  Subject matter wherein there is at least one reactant which is a dimer or trimer or ethylenically unsaturated aliphatic monocarboxylic acid having at least ten carbon atoms, or adducts of said unsaturated monocarboxylic acids with an alpha, beta ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid or derivative.

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520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of "dimer or trimer of an aliphatic monocarboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 339.5]    339.5Reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 339.  Subject matter wherein there is at least one reactant which is a fatty acid glycerol ester, a fatty acid or salt derived from a naturally occurring glyceride, tall oil, or a fatty acid derived from tall oil.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the definition of "fatty acid" in the Glossary for a discussion of terms used herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 340]    340From at least two organic polyamines:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least two organic polyamines.
(1) Note. An organodiamine salt of a dicarboxylic acid, wherein each of the diamine salt groups are different and wherein each is a polyamine, would be properly classified herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 341]    341Heterocyclic-containing reactant other than cyclic acid anhydride as sole hetero ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a heterocyclic ring with the proviso that the sole heterocyclic group is not a dicarboxylic acid anhydride.

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310,for an imide or lactam-containing reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 342]    342From reactant containing at least three amino-nitrogen-containing groups or with a carboxylic acid containing at least three carboxylic acid groups or deivatives thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains three or more amino-nitrogen atoms, three or more carboxylic acid groups, or is a derivative of an acid containing three or more carboxylic acid groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 343]    343Carboxylic acid containing (C=O)-(C=O) or is a derivative thereof, e.g., oxalic acid, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant is derived from a (n is an integer) containing dicarboxylic acid or is a carboxylic acid derivative thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 344]    344Bridged- or fused-ring-containing reactant other than as anhydride fused to a nonfused- or bridged-ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a bridged or fused ring structure.
(1) Note. A bridged or fused ring system for purposes of this subclass requires that a given ring system be attached at two different nuclear atoms of its ring system to an atom or chain of atoms which, taken together with the two nuclear atoms, forms an additional ring.
(2) Note. Excluded from this subclass as being a fused or bridged ring system is an anhydride group fused or bridged to a ring, which ring by itself is not part of a fused or bridged ring system.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 345]    345Ethylenically unsaturated reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains an ethylenically unsaturated group.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 346]    346Cycloaliphatic ring-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a saturated carbocylic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 347]    347Aryl ring-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains an aromatic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 348]    348All reactants contain at least one aryl ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Subject matter wherein all of the reactants contain at least one aromatic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 349]    349Reactant contains three carbon atoms directly bonded to a single carbon atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a tertiary carbon atom (i.e., bonded to at least three distinct carbon atoms) e.g.,

, etc.

, etc.

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 350]    350From carboxylic acid having three or more carboxylic acid groups or derivatives thereof, and an organic amine, or from an organic amine salt of a tri-or higher carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from a tri or higher carboxylic acid or from a tri-carboxylic acid derivative thereof and an organic amine, or wherein a reactant is an organic amine salt of a tri or higher carboxylic acid or derivative.
(1) Note. The reactant may be the monoamine, diamine, or triamine salt of a tri-carboxylic acid, or it may be a higher amine of a higher polycarboxylic acid, or it may be an organic amine salt of a tri or higher carboxylic acid derivative.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 351]    351Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter wherein an organic amine salt of a tri- or higher carboxylic acid or acid derivative is polymerized in the presence of a specified material, or wherein a tri- or higher carboxylic acid or acid derivative thereof and an organic amine are polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 352]    352Phosphorus- or sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 353]    353Carboxylic acid contains at least four carboxylic acid groups or is a derivative of a carboxylic acid containing at least four carboxylic groups:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 350.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant is a tetra or higher carboxylic acid or is an acid derivative thereof.
(1) Note. An anhydride having the general formula, which may be linear or cyclic is considered as being a polycarboxylic acid. A compound having both an anhydride and a free carboxylic acid is considered as being a tricarboxylic acid, e.g., as shown in the first illustration, below, and a compound containing two anhydride groups is considered as being a tetracarboxylic acid, e.g., as shown in the second illustration, below.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 353

Image 2 for class 528 subclass 353

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 354]    354From compound having -C-C(=O)-O-C- group as part of a heterocyclic ring, e.g., lactone, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant is a cyclic ester of a carboxylic acid as ring atoms, e.g., as shown below, wherein n is an integer and wherein X is an atom necessary to complete the ring structure and yet maintain the material as an ester.

Image 1 for class 528 subclass 354

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,see the (2) Note.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 355]    355Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter wherein the cyclic ester is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 356]    356Material contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 355.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a phosphorus or sulfur atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 357]    357Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 355.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 358]    358Material contains a Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA metal atom (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 357.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) metal atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 359]    359Heterocyclic ring compound is a four-membered ring containing one oxygen and three carbon atoms -C-C(=O)-O-C-:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic ester is a four-membered ring containing three carbon atoms and one oxygen atom, i.e.,

Angiotensin I

  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 360]    360From sulfur-containing carboxylic acid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter wherein a carboxylic acid or a derivative thereof contains a sulfur atom.
(1) Note. The sulfur atom may be in the carboxylic acid portion, in the derivative portion, or in both the acid and derivative thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

364,for the interpolymerization of a nonsulfur-containing carboxylic acid or derivative and a sulfur reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 361]    361From ether, metal alcoholate, or alcohol group-containing carboxylic acid; or from a derivative of a carboxylic acid which derivative contains an ether, metal alcoholate, or alcohol group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter wherein (1) a carboxylic acid contains an ether, alcohol, or metal alcoholate group, or (2) a carboxylic acid derivative contains an ether, alcohol, or metal alcoholate group.
(1) Note. Both the acid and its derivative may contain an ether, alcohol, or metal alcoholate group.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

365,for the interpolymerization of a noncyclic ether-containing carboxylic acid or derivative and a cyclic ether reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 362]    362From organic nitrile group-containing compound:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter wherein at least one organic reactant contains a nitrile of a carboxylic acid.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,see (2) Note, section D for a definition of the term "nitrile".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 363]    363With nitrogen-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter for a polymer derived from at least one carboxylic acid reactant or derivative and at least one nitrogen containing reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 364]    364With sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter for a polymer derived from at least one carboxylic acid or derivative and at least one sulfur-containing reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

360,for a polymer derived from a sulfur-containing carboxylic acid or sulfur-containing derivative thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 365]    365With reactant containing at least one cyclic ether group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 271.  Subject matter for a polymer derived from at least one carboxylic acid or derivative and at least one cyclic ether reactant.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

361,for a polymer derived from an ether-containing carboxylic acid or ether-containing derivative thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ether".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 366]    366Contains a single 1,2-epoxy group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 365.  Subject matter wherein the cyclic ether contains only a single three-membered heterocyclic ring having two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 367]    367FROM REACTANT HAVING A NITROGEN ATOM DIRECTLY BONDED TO THE CARBON ATOM OF A CARBONYL GROUP, I.E., N-C(=O)-:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from at least one reactant containing a group or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a material having a group or processes of preparing.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are carbamic acid derivatives and urea.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 301 for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated carbamic acid as sole monomer or for a carbamic acid interpolymer wherein all of the reactants used in preparing the polymer are ethylenically unsaturated, and subclass 302 for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated urea as sole monomer or for a urea interpolymer wherein all of the reactants used in preparing the polymer are ethylenically unsaturated.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 368]    368Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 367.  Subject matter wherein a reactant containing a group is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 369]    369N-C(=O)-OH containing reactant or ester, salt, anhydride, or acyl halide thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 367.  Subject matter wherein a reactant is a containing material or a derivative thereof.
(1) Note. Derivative is limited to esters, acyl halides, anhydrides, or salts.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

271,for a discussion of such derivatives.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 370]    370FROM REACTANT HAVING A HALOGEN ATOM OR OXYGEN SINGLE BONDED TO A CARBONYL GROUP, E.G., HALO-C(=O)-, -O-C(=O)-O, ETC.:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from at least one reactant containing a halo or group or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a material having a haloor group or processes of preparing.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are phosgene, carbonic acid, and carbonic acid esters.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 291+ for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated halogen containing compound having three or more carbon atoms as sole monomer, or for an interpolymer wherein all of the reactants are ethylenically unsaturated and at least one reactant contains three or more carbon atoms and at least one halogen atom, and subclass 314 for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated reactant containing a group as sole monomer, or for an interpolymer wherein all of the reactants are ethylenically unsaturated and at least one reactant contains a group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 371]    371Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Subject matter wherein a halo or containing reactant is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 372]    372Reactant contains a halogen atom directly bonded to a carbon atom of a carbonyl group, i.e., halo-C(=O)-:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Subject matter wherein a reactant contains a halo group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 373]    373FROM SULFUR-CONTAINING REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from at least one sulfur-containing reactant or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a sulfur-containing material or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

525Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 343+ , for a process of chemically modifying a solid polymer derived from ethylenic monomers only in the presence of a sulfur-containing material; subclasses 256+ for a homopolymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated sulfur heterocyclic compound or for a sulfur-containing interpolymer wherein all of the reactants are ethylenically unsaturated and at least one of said reactants contains a sulfur atom as part of a heterocyclic ring, and subclasses 286+ for a polymer derived from an ethylenically unsaturated sulfur-containing reactant as sole monomer or for a sulfur-containing interpolymer wherein all of the reactants are ethylenically unsaturated and at least one of said reactants contains a sulfur atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 374]    374From mercaptan or mercaptide-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from at least one mercaptan (thiol) or inorganic mercaptide-containing material.
(1) Note. A mercaptan denotes an organic compound having the general structure wherein the carbon atom bound to the sulfur atom of the thiol group is not double bonded to oxygen, sulfur, selenium, or tellurium, or triple bonded to nitrogen.
(2) Note. A mercaptide denotes a salt of a mercaptan.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 375]    375Two or more mercaptan or mercaptide reactants, or mixture thereof, or with additional reactant-containing sulfur:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Subject matter wherein (1) a polymer is derived from at least two or more mercaptan reactants, or from at least two or more mercaptide reactants, or from at least a mixture of a mercaptan and a mercaptide, or (2) a polymer is derived from a mercaptan or mercaptide and at least one other sulfur-containing reactant.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 376]    376With ethylenically unsaturated reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 374.  Subject matter wherein a mercaptan or mercaptide is reacted with at least one reactant which contains an ethylenically unsaturated group.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ethylenically unsaturated".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 377]    377From heterocyclic compound containing a sulfur atom as a ring member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a sulfur atom as a ring atom of a heterocyclic ring.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 378]    378Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant containing a heterocyclic ring having at least one sulfur atom as a ring atom is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 379]    379Material contains a Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA metal atom (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 378.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or Group IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) metal atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 380]    380Heterocyclic reactant contains a ring composed solely of carbon atoms and a single sulfur atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 377.  Subject matter wherein a sulfur heterocyclic reactant contains at least one heterocyclic ring composed of a single sulfur atom and two or more carbon atoms and there are no other atoms in the heterocyclic ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 381]    381From inorganic sulfur-containing reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter wherein a sulfur reactant is elemental sulfur or a sulfur-containing inorganic compound.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   See the Glossary for a definition of "organic compound". An inorganic compound for purposes of this subclass is a compound which does not fit the parameters of said definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 382]    382Sulfur dioxide is a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Subject matter wherein the inorganic reactant containing sulfur is sulfur diozide (SO2).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 383]    383Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 382.  Subject matter wherein sulfur dioxide is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 384]    384Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 383.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 385]    385Material is free oxygen, peroxide, air, or ozone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 383.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a peroxide, free oxygen, air or ozone.
(1) Note. A peroxide denotes a compound containing an -O-O- group.
(2) Note. This subclass does not include the use of air as a blanket or carrier gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 386]    386With reactant containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 382.  Subject matter wherein sulfur dioxide is reacted with at least one material which contains only atoms of hydrogen and carbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 387]    387Carbon disulfide or hydrogen sulfide is reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Subject matter wherein the inorganic reactant containing sulfur is carbon disulfide (C52) or hydrogen sulfide (H25).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 388]    388Inorganic sulfur reactant contains at least one metal atom or contains an ammonium ion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Subject matter wherein the inorganic sulfur reactant contains at least one metal atom or at least one ammonium ion.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 389]    389Elemental sulfur is reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant is elemental sulfur.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 390]    390From organic reactant containing a -C(=S)-group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is prepared from an organic reactant containing a group.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

387,for a polymer prepared from carbon disulfide.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 391]    391From organic reactant containing a sulfur to oxygen bond, e.g., -S(=O), etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 373.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is prepared from an organic reactant containing a sulfur atom bonded to one or more oxygen atoms (e.g., sulfonates, sulfones, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 392]    392POLYMER OF AN ETHYLENICALLY UNSATURATED REACTANT WITH A SATURATED REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from at least one ethylenically unsaturated reactant and at least one non-ethylenically unsaturated reactant or processes of polymerization; polymerizable compositions containing at least one ethylenically unsaturated reactant and at least one nonethylenically unsaturated reactant or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

525Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   appropriate subclasses for processes of chemically reacting a solid polymer.
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 72+ for processes of polymerizing an ethylenic monomer in the presence of an ethylenic material, which ethylenic material concurrently enters into the polymer by reaction with a functional group of the ethylenic monomer and for processes of polymerizing ethylenically unsaturated monomers only.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 393]    393At least one reactant contains a three-membered heterocyclic ring having two carbon and one oxygen atoms, e.g., oxirane, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 392.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the reactants contains a three-membered heterocyclic ring which contains as ring atoms an oxygen atom and two carbon atoms.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 394]    394FROM BORON-CONTAINING REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a boron- containing reactant or process of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing a boron-containing reactant or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

4,for a boron-containing reactant wherein a boron atom is bonded to at least one atom of hydrogen or carbon.
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 395]    395FROM ALUMINUM- OR HEAVY METAL-CONTAINING REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a heavy metal- or aluminum-containing reactant wherein a heavy metal or aluminum atom is devoid of any bonding to hydrogen or to carbon or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a heavy metal or aluminum containing reactant, wherein a heavy metal or aluminum atom is devoid of any bonding to hydrogen or to carbon or processes of preparing.
(1) Note. A heavy metal denotes a metal atom having a specific gravity greater than four.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

9,for a heavy metal- or aluminum- containing reactant wherein a heavy metal or aluminum atom is bonded to at least one atom of carbon or hydrogen.
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 396]    396FROM HYDROCARBON REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a hydrocarbon reactant or process of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a hydrocarbon material or processes of preparing.
(1) Note. A hydrocarbon contains only atoms of carbon and hydrogen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 397]    397FROM HALOGENATED HYDROCARBON REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a halogenated hydro-carbon reactant or process of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a halogenated hydrocarbon reactant or processes of preparing.
(1) Note. Included as halogenated hydro- carbons for purposes of this subclass are those reactants wherein all of the hydro-carbon atoms have been replaced by halogen atoms.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 398]    398FROM PHOSPHORUS-CONTAINING REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a phosphorus-containing reactant or process of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a phosphorus-containing material or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 274+ for a polymer derived from a phosphorus-containing ethylenic reactant as sole monomer or for a phosphorus-containing interpolymer wherein all of the reactants used in preparing the polymer are ethylenically unsaturated.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 399]    399Phosphorus reactant contains a nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 398.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains at least one phosphorus atom and at least one nitrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 400]    400With alcohol or alcoholate reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 398.  Subject matter wherein a phosphorus-containing material is reacted with an alcohol or alcoholate.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "alcohol".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 401]    401FROM FLUORINE-CONTAINING REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a fluorine- containing reactant or process of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a fluorine-containing material or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 242+ for a polymer derived from a fluorine-containing ethylenic reactant as sole monomer of fluorine.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 402]    402Fluorine reactant contains a heterocyclic ring having a -C-O-C- group as part of the hetero ring atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Subject matter wherein the fluorine atom is part of a compound which contains a heterocyclic ring and wherein part of the heterocyclic ring atoms can be represented as an oxygen ether group (e.g., 1, 2-epoxy compounds, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the terms "heterocyclic" and "ether".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 403]    403FROM HETEROCYCLIC REACTANT CONTAINING AS RING ATOMS OXYGEN, SELENIUM OR TELLURIUM, E.G., EPOXY, ETC.:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a heterocyclic reactant having at least one oxygen, selenium, or tellurium atom as a ring member or process of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a heterocyclic compound having as a ring member at least one atom of oxygen, selenium, or tellurium and processes of preparing.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those compounds which may contain at least one atom of oxygen, selenium, or tellurium together in a heterocyclic ring with nitrogen (e.g., oxazolines, etc.).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

230+,for a polymer derived from trioxane, tetraoxane, or hexamethylenetetramine.
377+,for a polymer derived from a heterocyclic reactant containing at least one sulfur atom as a ring member.
422,for a polymer derived from a heterocyclic reactant containing only nitrogen and carbon as ring atoms.
480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "heterocyclic".
526Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 260 for polymers derived from only ethylenic monomers and wherein at least one ethylenic monomer contains a five-membered heterocyclic ring and at least one of the ring members is nitrogen and at least one is a oxygen, and subclasses 266+ for polymers derived from only ethylenic monomers and wherein at least one ethylenic monomer has a heterocyclic ring containing at least one oxygen atom as a ring member.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 405]    405With reactant which is devoid of a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen, selenium or tellurium atoms as ring members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein at least one heterocyclic reactant containing at least one oxygen, selenium, or tellurium atom as ring members is reacted with at least one reactant which is devoid of a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen, selenium, or tellurium as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 406]    406Heterocyclic reactant contains at least two heterocyclic rings having oxygen, selenium or tellurium as ring members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant contains at least two separate heterocyclic rings each, and wherein each ring contains at least one atom of oxygen, selenium, or tellurium as a ring member.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 407]    407Reactant which is devoid of a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen, selenium or tellurium as ring atoms, contains at least one nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 406.  Subject matter wherein the reactant which is devoid of a heterocyclic ring containing oxygen, selenium, or tellurium as ring members contains at least one nitrogen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 408]    408Polymerizing in the presence of a specified material other than a reactant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein a heterocyclic reactant containing oxygen, selenium, or tellurium as ring atoms is polymerized in the presence of a specified material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "specified material".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 409]    409Material contains a metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 408.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains a metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "metals".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 410]    410Material contains a transition metal atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one atom of a transition metal.
(1) Note. Transition metal is limited to elements of atomic numbers 21-29, 39-47, 57-79, or 89 and higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 411]    411Material contains a Group IVB metal atom (Ti, Zr, Hf):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 410.  Subject matter wherein the transition metal is a Group IVB metal atom (Ti, Zr, Hf).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 412]    412Material contains a Group VIII metal atom (Fe, Co, Ni, Pd, Ru, Os, Ir, Rh, Pt):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 410.  Subject matter wherein the transition metal is a Group VIII metal atom (Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 413]    413Material contains a Group IIA metal atom (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Subject matter wherein the metal is a Group IIA metal atom (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 414]    414Material contains a Group IIB metal atom (Zn, Cd, Hg):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Subject matter wherein the metal is a Group IIB metal atom (Zn, Cd, Hg).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 415]    415Material contains at least two diverse metal atoms either in the same compound or in different compounds:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 414.  Subject matter wherein the Group IIB metal material contains a diverse metal atom in the same compound, or wherein a Group IIB material is in admixture with a material which contains a diverse metal atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 416]    416Material contains a Group IIIA metal atom (Al, Ga, In, Tl):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 409.  Subject matter wherein the specified material contains at least one Group IIIA metal atom (Al, Ga, In, Tl).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 417]    417Reactant contains a single hetero-atom in a ring and at least three carbon atoms, e.g., oxetane, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant contains only a single hetero atom (i.e., oxygen, sulfur, or selenium) in a ring containing three or more carbon atoms and there are no other atoms in the ring (e.g., oxetane, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 418]    418Reactant contains two or more rings each of said rings having a single oxygen and two carbon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant contains at least two three-membered heterocyclic rings, and each of said heterocyclic rings is composed of two carbon atoms and a single oxygen atom as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 419]    419Two or more heterocyclic reactants containing rings of one oxygen and two carbon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein a polymer is derived from two or more reactants with the proviso that at least two separate reactants each contain a single three-membered heterocyclic ring having two carbon atoms and a single oxygen atom as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 420]    420Reactant has a three-membered ring of oxygen and two carbon and contains a nitrogen atom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein a heterocyclic reactant contains at least one nitrogen atom and a single three-membered heterocyclic ring which contains two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 421]    421Reactant has a three-membered ring containing oxygen and two carbon atoms, i.e., 1,2-epoxy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein the heterocyclic reactant contains a single three-membered heterocyclic ring which is composed of two carbon atoms and one oxygen atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 422]    422NITROGEN-CONTAINING REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from a nitrogen- containing reactant or process of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant a nitrogen-containing material or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for the definition of "heterocyclic".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 423]    423Reactant contains nitrogen as a ring member of a heterocyclic ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 422.  Subject matter wherein at least one reactant contains a heterocyclic ring which has only nitrogen and carbon atoms as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 424]    424Heterocyclic nitrogen-containing ring contains a single atom of nitrogen and two atoms of carbon as ring members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Subject matter wherein at least one nitrogen heterocyclic reactant contains a three-membered heterocyclic ring which has two carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom as ring members.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 425]    425FROM ORGANIC OXYGEN-CONTAINING REACTANT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Subject matter involving polymers derived from an organic oxygen-containing reactant or processes of polymerizing; polymerizable compositions containing as a reactant an organic oxygen-containing material or processes of preparing.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

480+,for processes of preparing a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. Subclasses 480+ also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "organic compound".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 480]    480TREATING POLYMER CONTAINING MATERIAL OR TREATING A SOLID POLYMER OR A RESINIFIABLE INTERMEDIATE CONDENSATION PRODUCT:
 This subclass is indented under Class 520, subclass 1.  Processes wherein a solid polymer which has been derived from at least one ethylenic monomer, or a material which is in contact with the polymer, is treated.
(1) Note. Materials with which the polymer is in contact includes the reactants forming the polymer, their nonpolymeric reaction products, the solvents used for polymerization, etc.
(2) Note. The specific treatments provided herein need not occur in the presence of the polymer.
(3) Note. Contacting of the polymer or material in presence therewith, with a solid material which is inert and which merely functions as a physical barrier (e.g., container, storage, facility, filter paper); or which contacts the material so as to cool or heat, or which transports (e.g., pipe, tube); or which manipulates (e.g., stirrer, centrifuge) are normally not considered as a basis for classification herein.
(4) Note. This subclass provides for those processes wherein the desired polymer is not chemically modified. Processes, however, which involve a chemical reaction of material other than the polymer are proper herein.
(5) Note. This subclass provides for processes of treating a polymer not involving a chemical modification of the polymer, by the addition of a material thereto, and for chemically modifying material other than the polymer. This subclass and its indents also provide for processes of admixing with a broadly claimed nonreactant material.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

491+,for separating polymer by filtration from a liquid diluent and contacting the liquid diluent which is now devoid of polymer with an organic compound.
482,through 499, for contacting with material which requires the combination of at least two materials that differ in composition, for example, adding more of a given material to a solution containing that material would be considered an addition since the solution differs in composition from the added material. However, mere division of a stream into two portions, followed by a heating or cooling of one of the portions, with a subsequent recombining operation of the two portions would not be considered "contacting" since the two portions are compositionally equivalent.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

523Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 1+ for a composition of a previously formed solid polymer and a nonreactive material.
525Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   for processes of chemically modifying a solid polymer by the addition of a chemical treating agent thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 481]    481Treating at O Deg C (32 Deg F) or below, or at 200 Deg C (392 Deg F) or above:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein a polymer or a polymer-containing material is cooled to 0°C (32°F) or less, or is heated to a temperature of 200°C (392°F) or higher.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 482]    482Contacting with ion exchange material or solid sorbent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein a solid sorbent mass is used to retain on its surface a constituent of a mixture, or wherein an ion-exchange material is used to contact the polymer or polymer-containing material.
(1) Note.
(A) A solid sorbent is a material which separates a constituent from a fluid mixture containing such constitutents in a "quasi chemical" manner. The action in most instances is that of selective retention (e.g., the sorbent removes only the part of the fluid mixture for which it has the greatest affinity). The retained portion cannot be removed by mechanical action but generally requires heating or use of a stripping or denuding fluid.
(B) A filter is not proper herein since a filter has no particular "chemical" affinity for a constituent of the fluid mixture. The separation in the case of a filter depends upon a mechanical entrapment of the solid particles because of their relatively large size compared to the interstices or spaces between individual elements of the filter. In the case of a filter, mechanical brushing, wiping, shaping, etc., will remove the retained particles.
(2) Note. Solid sorbent includes but is not limited to diatomaceous earth, kieselguhr, perlite, activated carbon, asbestor, colloidal clays, molecular sieves, etc.
(3) Note. Ion exchange is a process in which ions are chemically transferred from a material to a liquid or solid separatory substance or exchanger which, because of its chemical structure of loosely bound ions, has an affinity for certain ions and gives up some of its own ions to the material. The exchange occurs between ions of like charge; the exchanger substance can usually be regenerated by passing another material through it to elute the previously sorbed ions and replace them with the original kind of loosely bounds ions. These ions exchanger substances are usually solid resins.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

95Gas Separation: Processes,   subclasses 90+ for processes of gas separation using solid sorbents.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   subclass 41 , for a separatory distillation process including the step of passing the produced vapor through a solid sorbent.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 660+ , for liquid purification by ion exchange or sorption.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 483]    483Contacting with exteriorly produced specified gaseous agent other than drying, blanket, or carrier gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes which involve contacting the polymer-containing material with a gaseous material which material is other than a carrier, blanket, or drying gas.
(1) Note. "Gas" for purposes herein includes vapor, mist, or smoke.
(2) Note. Excluded from this subclass is the production of a gas by an "in situ" reaction wherein the production of the gas is effected by treatment in the presence of the polymer.
(3) Note. Air, carbon dioxide, steam, N2, and the inert gases are generally the type of gases to be excluded from this subclass by the use of the terms "carrier, blanket, or drying gas." Absent any disclosure to the contrary "gas" will be taken to mean one of these gaseous materials utilized as enumerated above and will be excluded herefrom.
(4) Note. Materials which are bifunctional and which have both a carrier, blanket or drying effect and also exhibit another effect such as a reactant, or as an extracting medium, are proper for this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 484]    484Preventing or removing reactor or processing equipment buildup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the accumulation of material on the reactor wall or on parts of the processing equipment is prevented or removed.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

526Synthetic Resins or natural Rubbers,   subclass 74 for a polymerization process utilizing a nondiluent-type material so as to prevent clogging or fouling of the reactor or processing equipment.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 485]    485Contacting with aluminum or heavy metal material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein a material containing at least one atom of aluminum or of a heavy metal contacts the polymer or the material which is in contact with the polymer.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 486]    486Contacting with carboxylic acid, salt, or anhydride thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein a polymer-containing material is contacted with a carboxylic acid, a carboxylic acid salt, or a carboxylic acid anhydride.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

491+,for contacting in the the presence of a carboxylic acid ester or acyl halide.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "carboxylic acid".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 487]    487Contacting with sulfur or phosphorus-containing material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the polymer or polymer-containing material is contacted with a material containing a phosphorus or sulfur atom.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 488]    488Contacting with alkali (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) or alkaline earth (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba) metal or compound thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the polymer or polymer-containing material is contacted with a treating material which contains at least one atom of an alkali metal or alkaline earth element.
(1) Note. Alkali metal is limited to elements, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr, Alkaline earth metal is limited to elements Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 489]    489Oxide or hydroxide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 488.  Processes wherein the alkali metal or alkaline earth metal is in the form of an oxide or hydroxide.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 490]    490Contacting with specified element or with specified inorganic compound other than water, elemental nitrogen, air and the inert gases (Group VIII A):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein a polymer or polymer-containing material is contacted with a material which is a free element or an inorganic compound, which materials are other than air, water, N, and the inert gases (Group VIIIA) or mixtures composed solely of these materials.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

491+,appropriate subclasses for the use of an aqueous organic material as a contacting agent.
499+,for processes involving the use of water as a contacting agent.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 491]    491Contacting with organic material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the polymer or polymer-containing material is contacted with an organic compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 492]    492Nitrogen containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 491.  Processes wherein the organic compound is a nitrogen-containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 493]    493Aldehyde or ketone:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 491.  Processes wherein the organic compound is an aldehyde or ketone.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Rubbers,   see the Glossary or a definition of the terms "aldehyde" or "ketone".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 494]    494Ether:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 491.  Processes wherein the organic compound is an oxygen-containing ether.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "ether".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 495]    495Alcohol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 491.  Processes wherein the organic compound is an alcohol.
(1) Note. This subclass includes phenols as being an alcohol.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

488,for a contacting agent wherein the hydrogen of a hydoxyl group has been replaced by an alkali metal or by an alkaline earth metal atom.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

520Synthetic Resins or Rubbers,   see the Glossary for a definition of the term "alcohol".
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 496]    496Contains one to four carbon atoms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 495.  Processes wherein the hydroxy compound contains from one to four carbon atoms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 497]    497Hydrocarbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 491.  Processes wherein the organic compound consists of atoms of hydrogen and carbon only.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 498]    498Acyclic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 497.  Processes wherein the organic compound is devoid of any aromatic or cycloaliphatic group.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 499]    499Contacting with water:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the polymer or polymer-containing material is brought into contact with material.
(1) Note. Included herein is contact with water in any of its physical forms.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 500]    500Steam stripping or steam distilling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 499.  Process wherein the polymer or the polymer-containing material is separated by vaporizing and condensing at least a portion of the material, so as to isolate in the condensed liquid or in the unvaporized portion a comparatively pure compound, which compound was present in the original mixture and wherein the separation is effect by contacting the material to be separated with steam so as to reduce the partial vapor pressure of the component of the material desired to be recovered.
(1) Note. This subclass includes the addition of water which is converted to steam in the distillation device as well as the addition of steam to the distillation process.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

202Distillation: Apparatus,   subclasses 81+ , for distillation apparatus utilized in steam stripping or distillation.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   subclasses 95+ , for separatory distillation processes including the addition of water or steam which are of general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 501]    501With distilling or pressured reduction step to remove material, e.g., flashing, autorefrigeration, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein a polymer or polymer-containing material is exposed to a pressure decrease so as to effect a separation therein, or wherein a polymer or polymer-containing material is subjected to a distillation operation so as to effect a separation therein.
(1) Note. Included herein are processes of effecting a separation by cooling under a reduced pressure, or by partial vaporization by a sudden pressure reduction, such as by the introduction of a feed stream under pressure high enough to prevent ebullition into a zone of lesser pressure, which introduction results in the volatizing of at least a portion of the distilland.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

503,for a process of vaporizing material under heat without any attempt to condense the volatized component.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

62Refrigeration,   subclasses 9+ for processes of liquefaction wherein autorefrigeration by pressure reduction is utilized to effect separation.
159Concentrating Evaporators,   for processes of general utility for concentrating solids in solution or suspension by volatizing the liquid and note especially subclass 2.1 for flash evaporators of general utility.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   for apparatus for carrying out distillation processes.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   for processes of general utility for separation of the components of a feed mixture by distillation.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   for distillation processes wherein the comparatively pure component recovered is a mineral oil.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 502]    502Physical treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the polymer or polymer-containing material is treated by the application of a physical force.
(1) Note. Generally the physical force which acts upon the material causes a deformation, flow, or breakdown of the material (e.g., cutting, comminuting, shearing, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 503]    503Temperature maintaining, heating or cooling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Processes wherein the polymer or polymer-containing material is held at a constant temperature other than ambient or heat is applied, or cooling is utilized.
(1) Note. This subclass includes processes which consist in holding the effluent from a polymerization zone at a constant temperature, as well as holding the recovered polymer at some constant temperature to effect some alteration in its properties.
  

CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS

The following subclasses are collections of published disclosure pertaining to various aspects of art relating to solid polymers, and which aspects do not form an appropriate base for subclass classification in the classification schedule.

(1) Note. Disclosures are placed for value as a search aid and in no instance do they represent the entire extent of the prior art.
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 901]    901ROOM TEMPERATURE CURABLE SILICON-CONTAINING POLYMER:
 Subject matter involving Si-H or -Si-C -containing materials which normally cure by reaction at ambient temperature with atmospheric moisture.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 902]    902PARTICULATE MATERIAL PREPARED FROM AN ISOCYANATE:
 Subject matter involving particulate polymers formed from at least one -N=C=C- containing reactant (X is a chalcogen atom).
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 903]    903POLYMERIZING OR PROCESSING AN ISOCYANATE UNDER SUBSTANTIALLY ANHYDROUS CONDITIONS:
 Subject matter involving the treating of a polymer derived from at least one -N=C=X- containing reactant (X is a chalcogen atom) or the polymerizing of at least one -N=C=X- containing reactant in the substantial absence of water, e.g., under anhydrous conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 904]    904ISOCYANATE POLYMER HAVING STATED HYDROPHILIC OR HYDROPHOBIC PROPERTY:
 Subject matter involving a polymer derived from at least one -N=C=X- containing reactant (X is a chalcogen atom) which has a specific affinity for or aversion to water, i.e., possessing hydrophilic or hydrophobic properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 905]    905POLYMER PREPARED FROM ISOCYANATE REACTANT HAS ADHESIVE PROPERTY:
 Subject matter involving a polymer derived from at least one -N=C=X- containing reactant (X is a chalcogen atom) which has adhesive properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 906]    906FIBER OR ELASTOMER PREPARED FROM AN ISOCYANATE REACTANT:
 Subject matter involving a polymer derived from at least one -N=C=X- containing reactant (X is a chalcogen atom) which is utilizable as a fiber or has elastomeric properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 930]    930GUAYULE RUBBER:
 Subject matter involving guayule rubber.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 931]    931PHYSICAL TREATMENT OF NATURAL RUBBER OR NATURAL RUBBER CONTAINING MATERIAL OR CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF NONRUBBER PORTION THEREOF, E.G., EXTRACTION OR RUBBER FROM MILK WEED, ETC.:
 Subject matter relating to the recovery and physical processing of natural rubber.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 932]    932Protein removal or conversion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 931.  Subject matter relating to treatments which remove or convert the protein portion of natural rubber as obtained from the plant source.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 933]    933Resin removal or conversion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 931.  Subject matter relating to treatments to remove or convert the resin portion of natural rubber as obtained from the plant source.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 934]    934Latex:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 931.  Subject matter relating to natural rubber latex.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 53+ for colloid systems of aqueous continuous phase with discontinuous phase primarily organic liquid or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 135+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settlying, coagulating, flocculating); in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 935]    935Preserving or stabilizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 934.  Subject matter relating to preserving or stabilizing natural rubber latex.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 53+ for colloid systems of aqueous continuous phase with discontinuous phase primarily organic liquid or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 135+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settlying, coagulating, flocculating); in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 936]    936Coagulating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 934.  Subject matter relating to coagulation of natural rubber latex.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 53+ for colloid systems of aqueous continuous phase with discontinuous phase primarily organic liquid or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 135+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settlying, coagulating, flocculating); in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 937]    937Concentrating, e.g., creaming etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 934.  Subject matter relating to concentration of natural rubber latex.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

516Colloid Systems and Wetting Agents; Subcombinations Thereof; Processes of Making, Stabilizing, Breaking, or Inhibiting,   subclasses 53+ for colloid systems of aqueous continuous phase with discontinuous phase primarily organic liquid or agents for such systems or making or stabilizing such systems or agents, subclasses 135+ for compositions for or subcombination compositions for or breaking of or inhibiting of colloid systems (e.g., emulsion breaking, dispersion inhibiting, suspension settlying, coagulating, flocculating); in each instance, when generically claimed or when there is no hierarchically superior provision in the USPC for the specifically claimed art.
  
[List of Patents for class 528 subclass 950]    950Polymers useful for replacing hard animal tissues, e.g., dentures bones, etc.:
 Subject matter pertaining to synthetic resins for use in replacing or restoring partially or wholly hard tissue as normally found in animals.
(1) Note. The type of polymers provided for herein include those derived from ethylenic monomexs only and these from condensed monomers only. This subclass does not provide for polymer compositions.
(2) Note. Specifically excluded from this subclass are synthetic hair or skin and contact lenses.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

128Surgery,   for the methods of treating living body and apparatus used in inspection and treatment of diseases, wounds, and other abnormal conditions of animals.
433Dentistry,   for methods, apparatus, implements and devices relating to the treatment of teeth or gums, or replacement of teeth.
523Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclasses 105+ for nonmedicated compositions containing a synthetic resin having utility specifically intended to be for contact with animal living tissue, especially subclasses 109 and 113-120 for dental compositions or to processes of preparing said compositions.
604Surgery,   for medicators and applicators.
623Prosthesis (i.e., Artificial Body Members), Parts Thereof or Aids and Accessories Therefor,   appropriate subclasses for artificial parts for human bodies peculiarly adapted and structured to replace missing members or to repair a defect in a human body.
  

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