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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class  52]   CLASS 52,STATIC STRUCTURES (E.G., BUILDINGS)
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the residual class for static structures. It includes on site erected structures generally identified by terms such as: civil engineering, public works, shelter, housing, buildings or masts and other related components used in such structures, e.g., panels, beams, columns. etc. Also, included are selected structurally similar components, such as, table top panels, poles, posts, window sash elements or door panels even though not disclosed as specialized as components of a building structure. Also, are included processes, machines and implements used in the construction of such structures which are not elsewhere provided for.

SECTION II - SUBCLASS REFERENCES TO THE CURRENT CLASS

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

27,see the (1) Note, for exemplary classes and subclasses that provide for an article or article support installed in means forming an enclosure or part thereof.
198,see the search class reference to Class 454 for a ventilating structure with air directing or controlling features other than mere windows.
204.1,for a structure having defined structure outlining a passageway which traverses a barrier (e.g., wall), said passageway is designed for a means which allows access of light, air, people, or a pet and see the attached search notes to this subclass definition.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

14Bridges,   appropriate subclasses for nonmasonry or nonconcrete static structure specialized to carrying traffic across a space between supports.
34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 201+ for houses and kilns having means for drying and/or gas or vapor contact with solids, and subclass 237 for reticulated floors for distributing a drying medium.
47Plant Husbandry,   for buildings having features specialized to the care, treatment and support of the growth of plants.
49Movable or Removable Closures,   for closure panels mounted for movement or removal including support means for such closures having features providing for such movement or removal of a closure panel. This class (52) takes panels, per se, (1) even though defined as doors or windows, (2) structure defining an opening through a barrier, (3) structure having a feature for movement or removal of a panel section for purposes of repair or assembly or disassembly, (4) a transparent panel (window) with means to treat the panel not elsewhere provided for and (5) a building or barrier with a movable closure and having an additional feature other than one merely forming an enclosure or support for the movable closure. See Subclass References to Current Class, above, regarding a structure having defined structure outlining a passageway which traverses a barrier (e.g., wall).
105Railway Rolling Stock,   appropriate subclass, for a vehicle specialized to use as railway rolling stock, particularly subclasses 375 and 422 for floors, and subclasses 396+ for car framing and structure. In general, structure forming a box-like enclosure of general application is in Class 52, even though defined as a "vehicle body" or the like. Also a vehicle body with a feature for conversion from a vehicle to a static structure is also in Class 52, e.g., a vehicle with ground engaging braces or guys.
109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   appropriate subclasses, for a static structure of a building combined with devices provided for in Class 109, i.e., means resisting attack which do more than merely contribute to structural strength, particularly subclasses 78+ for wall structure with specific penetration resistant features.
110Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for furnace structure with features specialized to furnace operation, e.g., subclasses 297+ for a furnace provided with fluid supply structure; subclass 308 for fluid heater wall structure; subclasses 331+ for furnace arch or roof structure; subclasses 336+ for furnace wall structure; and subclasses 338+ for furnace brick structure. The mere recitation of a refractory, coated or oxidizably coated refractory, is not considered a recitation of a feature specialized to furnace operation. See the search notes to other classes in References to Other Classes, herein.
114Ships,   particularly subclasses 65+ for a structure specialized to a ship and see the search note for Railway Rolling Stock, in References to Other Classes, herein.
119Animal Husbandry,   subclasses 301 , 302+, 311+, 329+, 400+, and 416+ for enclosures having significant structure or combined with a feature for that class.
122Liquid Heaters and Vaporizers,   subclass 6 and 494 for furnace structure combined with tubes for liquid to be heated.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   appropriate subclasses for a structure with features peculiar to that class, particularly subclasses 144+ for fire pots and linings, and see the search note for Furnaces, in References to Other Classes, herein.
135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   the line is: Class 52 takes: (1) structures which are strengthened or shaped by fluid pressure (see subclass 2.11 ), (2) an in situ erected enclosure or shelter having as a component thereof a rigidly framed prefabricated panel even though it may have flexible surfacing (see subclass 63) and (3) certain covers which are entirely supported by an article or pile of material (see subclasses 3+) and (4) other in situ erected type rigid buildings. Class 135 takes other portable covers, or shelters surfaced with flaccid material, whether hand or earth supported.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits. The line between Class 52 and Class 138 is: Class 52 takes rigid tubular structures specialized to use as or in an in situ erected static structure, e.g., (1) a tubular structure of like components (modules) juxtaposed in an axial direction, (2) a curved segment, e.g., a curved cast arch or a curved module per se, (3) a module having intersecting passages, (4) a module having a through passage and a joint forming feature on at least one end surface intersecting said passage, (5) a tubular structure with means projecting from the wall thereof having a rigidifying function other than merely forming the tube, e.g., a tube with means to support a structural component or (6) an open-work load-bearing tube such as a box girder, mast, etc. Class 138 takes a tubular structure of more general application, e.g., (1) a tubular structure forming a clear through passage which is only defined by a cross-section normal to a longitudinal axis, (2) a flexible (nonrigid) tubular structure or (3) a tubular structure having reinforcement generally conforming to and embedded in or applied to the wall thereof to increase the strength of the tube rather than to adapt it for use as a load-bearing component of a building component.
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition,   or Panel. The line is: Class 160, takes: (a) Closures and other panel units utilizing flexible sheet material or fabrics to constitute the panel portion. (b) Closures and panel units made of plural strips, slabs or panels interconnected with one another for relative motion. (c) Closures and panel units of either or both types (a) and (b) combined with closures or panel units of other types. Class 52 takes: (1) rigid panels or (2) plural panels with a flexible section forming an enclosure. As to (a) above, the subject matter, if claimed generically or defining Class 160 subject matter, is placed in Class 160.
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 53+ for a heat exchanger related to a wall, ceiling or floor which heat exchanger is defined as more than a mere heating or cooling duct within a barrier.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   appropriate subclass for a pole, post or anti-inductive shield, e.g., building having defined a feature specialized to such use, e.g., conductor, insulator or means supporting it or a barrier or enclosure having means forming a conductive path between components, particularly subclasses 350 through 397for anti-inductive shields.
181Acoustics,   particularly subclasses 30 and 284+ for a panel having a physical configuration or relationship of components, peculiar to the attenuation of sound. This class takes such a panel combined with an additional feature for a static building structure, e.g., means for mounting them to form an enclosure or barrier.
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   for (1) ladder, i.e., stairs without risers except helical stairs, (2) ladder or scaffold attached to a building where only sufficient structure to attach the ladder or scaffold is defined, (3) ladder, scaffold or tower with a platform which in use is intended to support a person and (4) structure with additional features specialized to escaping from a building.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   subclasses 222+ for structural features peculiar to a thermolytic distillation retort.
220Receptacles,   appropriate subclasses for a portable type container especially subclasses 1.5+ , 3.2+, 216, 484, 565+, and 581+ and also other containers made of other materials not specifically provided for in other container classes.
238Railways: Surface Track,   subclasses 84+ for a plastic, e.g., concrete, railway tie.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 117+ for an aircraft structure having a defined feature specialized to Class 244 and see the search note for Railway Rolling Stock, in References to Other Classes, herein.
249Static Molds,   for molds in which the form panels are removed after molding and see the reference in subclass 1 and 213 of Class 249.
250Radiant Energy,   subclass 517.1 for a ray energy shielding structure having defined features specialized for such use.
256Fences,   for a structure having features peculiar to such use, particularly fences limited structurally to a definite height or posts having features for retaining fence wires or rails.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 280+ for an apparatus having structure with a feature specialized to such use, e.g., a leak proof furnace bottom construction, blast furnace bell cover, localized lining or oxidizable blocks, oxidizable devices between refractory blocks, etc., and see the above reference to Class 110.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   appropriate subclasses for an enclosure having a feature specialized to use as or with land vehicles and see the search note for Railway Rolling Stock, in References to Other Classes, herein.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   for a construction forming an enclosure which as an entity is portable, i.e., merely rests on a surface in its use position as distinct from a structure for Class 52 which is generally assembled at the job site. See also Subclass References to the Current Class, above, for the location of a discussion of exemplary classes and subclasses that provide for an article or article support installed in means forming an enclosure or part thereof.
396Photography,   subclasses 1+ for a specialized photographic studio.
403Joints and Connections,   for joints or junctures formed by members connected together at a single locus of more general application. Class 52 takes joints specialized to use in constructions generally identified by terms such as: housing, public works or civil engineering, e.g., rigid module or panel joints. In interpreting this line the following exemplary subject matter is in Class 52; (1) a system of physical connected joints forming a load bearing construction or accommodating itself to a transverse loading, e.g., a truss frame or a composite or tapered shaft; (2) connected rigid panels or modules having integral or permanently attached modifications on plural edges thereof for repetitious edge-to-edge connection, (3) a rigid panel connected by or to elongated rigid load resisting members, e.g., studs, columns, etc., in generally parallel planes, (4) rigid panels held in a fixed relationship to each other or to a sub-structure by a plurality of mechanical connectors, (5) a composite structure having a specified feature for receiving an impaling type fastener, e.g., a nailing beam or panel, (6) rigid panels with edge portions lapped so their edges lie in different planes, (7) rigid panels having a bridger strip overlying their edge juncture and (8) joined components incorporating an adjunct having a Class 52 function, e.g., a joint with means for retaining an external dissimilar element, e.g., a panel.
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   appropriate subclasses for road structure limited to highway or walkway use. Structure of general utility, and particularly where Class 52 provides a specific subclass locus for such structure - is classified in Class 52.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 15+ for bank, shore, or bed protecting structures (e.g., revetments, breakwaters, etc.); subclasses 52+ for fluid control structures (dams, dikes, canals, channels, etc.); subclasses 132+ for underground shaft and tunnel construction; subclasses 195.1+ for miscellaneous static marine structures; subclasses 229+ for foundations not provided for elsewhere; and subclass 258.1 for earth treating or control structures (e.g., retaining walls, sheet piles, etc.).
410Freight Accommodation on Freight Carrier,   subclasses 129+ for load bracing panels or movable or removable bulkheads.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   for a stock material product or article of that class not having either a physical feature for cooperation with another panel structure or mechanical means for connecting plural components of the panel, and see Lines With Other Classes and Within This Class, in the main definition of Class 428.
432Heating,   subclasses 247+ for chamber structure specialized to heating, and see the search note for Furnaces, in References to Other Classes, herein.
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 85+ for construction toys; and subclasses 476+ for toy buildings.
454Ventilation,   for buildings having means for directing air in a desired internal path or including air flow compelling means and see Subclass References to the Current Class, above, regarding a ventilating structure with air directing or controlling features other than mere windows.
607Surgery: Light, Thermal, and Electrical Application,   subclasses 81+ for a cabinet having features for treating a patient by light, heat, or electrical effects.

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

ARCHITRAVE

The finish around and extending away from a door or window opening.

BACKER

Means forming an extended surface against which a settable material is cast, e.g., troweled, spread, poured etc., the material when set forming a wear surface or facing.

BARRIER

A construction forming an extended indefinite surface preventing or inhibiting the passage of persons or things, e.g., wall, ceiling, floor, roof or cover.

BLOCK

A module whose depth is substantial relative to its length and height and which in use forms a stable load-bearing member.

COVER

Generally synonymous with "roof" but used where "roof" in some instances may be inapt, e.g., a covering supported by an article, a canopy, a man-hole closure, etc.

DISPARATE ARTICLE

An article which does not form an essential component of a building construction of plural components, but is in the nature of an adjunct having no essential load-bearing, supporting, joining or protective function.

ENCLOSURE

Means surrounding an area or volume to be occupied by persons, animals or goods.

ENTRANCE

An opening for persons or things, but not for a fluid or a mass of particles having a fluid like characteristic.

FACER OR FACING (SEE MODULE)

An element or structure which (1) forms an exposed surface section of a barrier or (2) the panel held by a frame, a framing element or an elongated sustainer, e.g., the movable closure part of a door or window. In the latter respect it differs from a module in that it is not used in repetition to form an extended surface.

FLASHING

Thin sheet of material covering or extending into a joint to deflect liquid from the joint.

LOAD-BEARING

A construction or component which is sufficiently strong and rigid to act as the primary support for other constructions or components against gravity or to resist transverse loading (see sustainer).

MODULAR

A construction utilizing modules.

MODULE

A component of building construction, usually designated by terms such as; brick, block, slab, panel, tile, sheet, precast monolith, etc., which when assembled in repetitious juxtaposition with other such preformed shapes (with or without interposed connecting means or material) define a surface of a construction, e.g., of a wall, ceiling or floor.

MONOLITH

A structure erected in situ by casting a water-settable composition, e.g., plaster or concrete.

PANEL (SEE MODULE)

The term panel is used to denote a thin rigid sheetlike structure which may not be disclosed as used repetitiously, e.g., table top or pane.

PORTAL

Structure defining an opening through a barrier for the passage of light, air, persons or things, e.g., the framing for a door or a window opening.

PREFORM OR PRESHAPE

A component of a building construction which is in completed form before its use at the job site. (Compare Module).

REBAR

An art term for a concrete reinforcing rod. A rebar chair is a device for spacing a rebar from a concrete form.

REINFORCEMENT, EMBEDDED

A body placed within and covered by a cast material or a foraminous member wherein the holes are filled by a cast material.

REVEAL

The sides of a door or window opening between the faces of the barrier.

ROOF (SEE COVER)

A rigid cover extending above and supported by the uppermost termini of walls or columns.

SETTABLE MATERIAL

A component which is applied or formed in a fluent condition but sets or hardens in the final product, e.g., concrete, cement or plaster.

SHAFT (SEE SUSTAINER)

A member which has a limited closed periphery and which is greatly elongated relative to its length. It is generic to "sustainer" in that it may not have a load bearing function.

SPECIFIED

The subclass definition must be referred to.

STIFFENER

Means embedded in cast material or extending between sustainers or load bearing components which act to strengthen a construction in contradistinction to acting as a primary load­bearing or bend-resisting member.

SUSTAINER

A rigid member or construction having a limited closed periphery which is (1) greatly elongated relative to any lateral dimension (2) resists transverse loading and (3) supports or retains other components of a building construction, e.g., stud, joist, beam, or column.

TENDON

A tensioned strandlike component of a unit which places the principal part of the unit under compression.

TILE

A thin, relatively rigid module which when applied repetitiously in edge-to-edge relationship to a backing surface forms an exposed facing

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 1]    1CONTROLLED BY CONDITION RESPONSIVE MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure comprising means to sense a condition and to exercise a control operation of a structure or component thereof in response to said condition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 67+ for a destructible or deformable control of a fluid device and subclass 468 for a residual thermal responsive valve.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 26+ for such a device with a pressure compensator.
169Fire Extinguishers,   subclasses 56+ for condition responsive control of an extinguishing system and subclass 42 for a fusible connection, per se.
454Ventilation,   subclasses 70+ , 75, 229, 238, 239, 255, 256, and 340 for automatic control of ventilating systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.11]    2.11SHAPED OR STRENGTHENED BY FLUID PRESSURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure in which a totally enclosed fluid is utilized to shape, support, or strengthen a building structure or component.
(1) Note. The following exemplary locations are noted as providing for or including structure involving the use of an inflating fluid:

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

3,for an article or material supported cover.
63,for an enclosure which includes a flaccid, nonmetallic, or foraminous surfacing.
115,for a fluid pressure actuated, relatively movable shaft assembly.
204.52,for a passage between the internal volume of a double pane panel and the ambient, which passage may be plugged and the internal volume pressurized.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   subclass 499 for an air inflatable or air supported covering for a pool, or subclass 588 for an inflatable bath tub for an infant.
5Beds,   subclasses 449+ for an inflatable mattress or cushion.
49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclass 477.1 inflatable or fluid pressure responsive closure seal.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   subclasses 34+ for a bellows-type, expansible chamber or subclasses 89+ for a collapsible chamber wall portion (e.g., hinged, flexible wall, etc.).
128Surgery,   subclass 118.1 for an inflatable pad to press against a human body as part of a method or apparatus of doing a diagnostic test or subclass 865 for an inflatable or expandable ear protector.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 93 for an inflatable closure or plug for a pipe.
152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   subclasses 450+ for a pneumatic tire or inner tube.
156Adhesive Bonding and Miscellaneous Chemical Manufacture,   subclasses 145+ for a method of encapsulating permanently fluent material in hollow or porous lamina or filling of space between adhered laminae, subclass 156 for a method of using fluid pressure to prevent collapse of hollow structure during assembly and/or joining, or subclass 286 for a method of using direct application of vacuum or fluid pressure during bonding to remove gas from between assembled laminae.
166Wells,   subclass 187 for a packer or plug expanded by confined fluid from a central chamber, pump, or plunger.
220Receptacles,   subclass 232 for a receptacle having a closure that includes an inflatable gasket or packing.
244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclass 5 for a heavier-than-air aircraft that has its weight diminished by buoyant gas, subclasses 24+ for aircraft that is lighter than air, subclass 98 for a gas bag inflation control for a lighter-than-air aircraft, or subclass 128 lighter-than-air aircraft gas cell construction and arrangement.
254Implement or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 93+ pushing and pulling implements actuated by fluid pressure.
267Spring Devices,   subclasses 64.11+ for a spring device for a vehicle that uses compressible fluid.
273Amusement Devices: Games,   subclasses 65+ for an inflatable football or basketball.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for a generic sealing means or process, subclasses 331+ for an inflatable packer for well apparatus, subclass 583 for a dynamic circumferential contacting inflatable seal or seal biased by an inflatable member, subclass 605 for a hollow, fluid filled or inflatable static contacting seal for a pipe, conduit, or cable, or subclass 646 for an inflatable static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or pipe, conduit, or cable.
383Flexible Bags,   subclass 3 for an inflatable bag.
441Buoys, Rafts, and Aquatic Devices,   subclasses 40+ for an inflatable raft or subclasses 90+ for a personal water rescue or life protecting flotation device including mechanical inflation means.
446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclasses 220+ for an inflatable toy.
450Foundation Garments,   subclass 38 for a device designed to fit a breast or chest (e.g., brassieres, etc.) of a human body to protect, compress, support, restrain, or alter its configuration including inflatable or liquid-containing chambers.
600Surgery,   subclass 31 for an implanted urinary or colonic incontinent device or treatment (e.g., artificial sphincters, etc.) having fluid actuated occluding means (e.g., inflatable cuff, etc.) for a human body.
604Surgery,   subclasses 96.01+ for treating material introduced or removed through a conduit, holder, or implantable reservoir inserted in a human body orifice and inflated in a human body (e.g., inflatable nozzle, dilator, balloon catheter, occluder, etc.).
606Surgery,   subclasses 191+ for an internal pressure applicator (e.g., dilator) that is inflatable or expandable by fluid or subclass 202 for a pneumatic cuff external pressure applicator.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.12]    2.12Loading dock doorway seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component comprises one or more tubular members, which members are mounted around at least a substantial part of the periphery of an opening defining a passage into and out of a building (e.g., a warehouse) and which will, when inflated, perform a sealing and cushioning function.
(1) Note. The members are intended, most commonly, to be engaged by the rear of a body of a vehicle which is being loaded or unloaded through the opening, the purpose being to minimize the infiltration of outside air into the building and the vehicle.
(2) Note. The presence or absence of a conventional closure member for the opening is immaterial insofar as the subject matter of this subclass is concerned.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.13]    2.13Confined tubular element exerts force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component comprises a tubular element which is located between two, relatively rigid members and which, when inflated, develops an outward force against the members.
(1) Note. In some instances, both of the member are fixed, but, in other instances, at least one of the members is intended to have some degree of movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.14]    2.14For sealing a closure panel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.13.  Structure wherein the tubular element is utilized as a seal for a plate-like member (e.g., of glass, wood, etc.) which serves to close a passage.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.15]    2.15Form for hardenable material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component comprises a member, often sheetlike in nature, which is shaped by the fluid it encloses and which, in turn, serves to shape or support one or more elements of a building that are being formed from material initially lacking a shape-retaining property, but which material subsequently undergoes a change of state and becomes relatively rigid.
(1) Note. Upon the change of state of the material, the member often becomes superfluous, and, in some instances, is removed.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.16]    2.16Fluid pressure is subatmospheric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the enclosed fluid is at a pressure which is less than that of the ambient air; i.e., a vacuum of one degree or another has been established.
(1) Note. The density of certain materials can be increased by subjecting them to a vacuum.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.17]    2.17Including ingress/egress provision:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the enclosure includes a system, device, element, etc., which enables entry or exit, usually that of persons.
(1) Note. Included here is an air lock, a door, a flap, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.18]    2.18Intersecting tubular elements form framework:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component comprises tubular elements which intersect one another and which, when inflated, form the frame members of a building.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.19]    2.19Supported on rigid-walled structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component comprises a sheetlike member which rests on and is affixed to the relatively rigid walls of an open-top enclosure.
(1) Note. The member sometimes serves as an upward extension of the enclosure, but, in other instances, is more nearly in the nature of a cover therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.21]    2.21Upstanding column (e.g., mast, tower):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component comprises a tubular member, anchored at one end, which is extended by the fluid into a generally vertical position.
(1) Note. A structure of this subclass may be "self-erecting".
(2) Note. A structure of this subclass may consist of a plurality of members connected end-to-end.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.22]    2.22Comprising spaced, sheetlike members and fluid chamber therebetween:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component comprises two or more flexible panels which are in a spaced-apart, more or less parallel relationship with one another and which are joined, at least along their perimeters, in a fluid-tight manner.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.23]    2.23Including subdividing elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.22.  Structure wherein a plurality of elements (e.g., webs), extending more or less transversely of, and fluid-tightly joined to, the members are provided for dividing the chamber into a plurality of smaller chambers.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.24]    2.24Sheetlike member comprises plural, edge-joined sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component is a flexible panel which is fabricated from number of smaller sections which have been joined (e.g., by a seam) to one another, fluid-tightly, along their perimeters.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.25]    2.25Including holddown means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.11.  Structure wherein the building structure or component is provided with means for securing it to an underlying object, structure or surface.
(1) Note. Frequently, the building structure or component is being anchored to the ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 2.26]    2.26Comprising strandlike element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.25.  Structure wherein the hold-down means, or a component thereof, comprises at least one elongated, nonrigid elements (e.g., a cable, a rope, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 3]    3ARTICLE OR MATERIAL SUPPORTED COVER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means covering and supported by an article or a body of material, which article or body of material is not part of a static building structure, and which is not configured for a specific article.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

100Presses,   subclasses 65+ for such structure compacting material within a silo.
135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   subclasses 87+ for nonarticle supported canopies.
150Purses, Wallets, and Protective Covers,   subclasses 154+ for a protective cover of flaccid material for covering, and being supported by, a specific article, and see the Notes and the extensive Search Class notes thereof.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 216+ for a receptacle with a cover which floats on its contents.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 4]    4With article or ground penetrating retainer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Structure including a feature which retains the cover and penetrates the ground or the article covered.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

155+,for an earth piercing or expanding anchor.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 5]    5Flexibly connected strips or slats:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Structure which comprises a plurality of strips or slats fastened together by means which allow pivoted motion of one strip or slat relative to another.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

342+,for openly spaced slat type lath.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   subclasses 218+ for movably interconnected slats or strips of more general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 6]    6WITH STADIUM OR AUDITORIUM FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter specialized to the presentation of an attraction or accommodation of an audience group, such specialized structure including (1) an arrangement of seats or slopes relative to the locus of the attraction, (2) a structure having means peculiar to the accommodation of the audience or (3) a stage, screen or area of activities which aid in the presentation of or serves as the locus of the attraction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

36.1+,for an enclosure combined with a piece of furniture or a fixture of more general application, e.g., a movable platform or support even though defined as a stage or theater seat but which is capable of use in other environments or individual seats.
182+,for a stepped structure which could as well be used as strips, e.g., do not define seat and foot rest portions.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclasses 75+ for an apparatus or setting intended to be used on or in cooperation with the stage of a theater and subclasses 92+ for a playing or exhibition area enclosure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 7]    7Movable stage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Structure including a movable floor or platform particularly related to a proscenium or to a seating arrangement for viewers.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   appropriate subclass for a platform of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 8]    8Seating arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Structure relating to a particular arrangement of seats relative to an enclosure or area of the presentation or attraction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

6,for an outdoor theatre having traffic paths so that vehicles are disposed in a desired arrangement and 174+ for another structure with a traffic guiding feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 9]    9Shiftable seating section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 8.  Structure including a section of seats mounted for movement with respect to another section or to the floor upon which it rests.

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183,for a mere stepped structure of more general application having interconnected relatively movable components.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 10]    10Power means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Structure wherein the shifting of the section is accomplished by, or aided by means releasing stored or generated energy, e.g., motor, spring, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 11]    11COVER WITH SURFACE WATER RECEIVER AT EAVE OR VALLEY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which forms a cover (roof) having an edge or forms a valley and in which there is a means located in, at or near the edge of the valley which provides for the drainage or discharge of liquid flowing from the upper surface of the cover into the means.

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95,for a gable or eave construction with water discharge means for handling liquid from a subjacent area of the cover.

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248Supports,   subclass 48.1 for an eave trough support.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 119+ for a trough or channel having no feature relating it to a roof.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 12]    12With separator; e.g., strainer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Structure comprising means for preventing debris from (1) entering the eave trough or (2) entering a downspout or other structure associated with said eave trough.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 154+ , 459+, and 473+ for a strainer, per se, or a strainer combined with an eave trough which does not have any features particularly adapting it for association with a roof.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 13]    13Between oppositely sloping sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Structure wherein there is means forming a gutter located at the vertex of two portions of a cover construction which slope towards each other.

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58+,for exterior type flashing.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 14]    14With additional subsurface liquid receiver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Structure in which there is means forming a second gutter on the under side of the cover structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 15]    15Inwardly of edge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Structure in which the means forming a trough is, at least in part, within the peripheral edge of the cover.

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24+,for cover means to retain solid material deposited on the roof, e.g., an anti-snow slide.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 16]    16With downspout:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Structure including means forming or connected to a downspout.

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12,for a gutter or eave trough with strainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 17]    17INSULATED RAILWAY CAR-TYPE ROOF:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure peculiar to railway car roofs combined with means situated in the roof under its exterior covering acting to inhibit or retard the passage of heat, sound, vibrations, etc.

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144+,for a building construction with an exposed surface with an acoustical feature, and see notes.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 238.1+ for railway rolling stock comprising a special car body.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 18]    18CLERESTORY OR SAW-TOOTH ROOF:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure wherein (1) at least one portion of the roof is offset to form a plurality of roof surfaces at different levels, said offset portion being substantially coextensive with one dimension of the roof or (2) the roof surface has distinct surfaces inclined from a common plane to form a serrated roof.

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200,for a cupola or turret construction, i.e., a small building extending upwardly of a roof which as an entity is within the outer periphery of a roof.
639+,for a truss member of more general utility forming a peak or curved chord.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 19]    19WITH ENTRANCE FOR PERSONS OR OBJECTS IN HORIZONTAL OR INCLINED COVER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure comprising a horizontal or inclined cover and entrance means defining an opening for persons or objects which pass through the cover.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 20]    20With additional enclosure structure; e.g., manhole:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Structure in which the cover is supported by a wall construction enclosing a space which is entered through the opening.

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131+,192+, 198+, 200, 204.1+, 218, 219, 220.1+, 302.1+, and 553 for a building construction with a material (e.g., air or water) port, duct or channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 21]    21Masonry or concrete:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Structure including a masonry or concrete component which is constructed entirely of masonry or concrete.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 22]    22SPECIFIED ROOF SPACED FROM CEILING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means forming the uppermost exposed surfacing of a building and having features peculiar to such use, e.g., a ridge, arch, coping, inclined rafter, etc., combined with a ceiling construction which is openly spaced from said means.

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275+,for a construction of laterally related modules which form an intersection.
479+,for a construction of face to face barrier sections spaced by an internal frame or shaft.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 23]    23COVER WITH EXTERIOR HOLDDOWN:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a rod-like member extending over the outside of a building structure, usually the roof, and acting to hold such structure to the ground or substructure.

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4,for an article supported cover which may utilize exterior hold-down strands.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 24]    24COVER WITH PROJECTING RESTRAINER; E.G., SNOW STOP:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means for preventing or restraining the movement of foreign objects or material not permanently part of the roof; e.g., anti-slides for snow.

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101,for an animal, e.g., bird, blocker which is a trap, scarer or lateral projection.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 25]    25Rod-type with plural supports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Structure comprising a horizontal rod-like portion supported by a plurality of spaced members.

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677+,for a spacer-positioner for a rod, e.g., a support spacer reinforcing a rod from a support.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 26]    26Restrainer having integral penetrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Structure comprising means to penetrate the base which supports the means for restraining movement of foreign objects.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 27]    27INCLUDING COMPONENT (E.G., WALL) DESIGNED TO RECEIVE A DISPARATE ARTICLE HAVING DISPARATE ARTICLE MOUNTED THERETO:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure having a modification of a static structure or component for attaching an article, in which the article is not essential to the subject matter of this class.
(1) Note. The exemplary classes and subclasses noted here below under "SEARCH CLASS" provide for an article or article support installed in means forming an enclosure or part thereof. Many classes provide for static type devices, e.g., supports or furniture, and take such combinations wherein no structure is defined other than that required to accommodate or isolate the article provided for such a class. Others take such combinations relating to operative apparatus wherein an operating unit or significant characteristic for such a class is defined, e.g., electrical device or a burner, wherein the enclosure is a furnace, a casing for a machine, a tool, etc. Others are referred to in subclasses indented hereunder or in the class definition of this class.

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6+,for a building combined with an auditorium or theatre feature.
24,for a projecting object restrainer.
57,for a finial or cresting.
73,for a cantilevered rigid barrier, e.g., rigid awnings.
101,for an animal blocker which is a trap scarer or lateral projection.
129,through 133, for a burial vault and adjunct.
173.1,for static structures combined with subject matter from another class.
220.1+,for a service duct including an electrical conduit within a barrier.
273,for a flexible shaped or attached floor covering.
698+,for anchor or ties of more general application.
716.1+,for an in situ attached channel or trim strip which may be disclosed as enclosing a wire or pipe.

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5Beds,   subclasses 2.1 , 10.1 and 159.1.
62Refrigeration,   subclasses 259.1+ .
73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 431 .
89Ordnance,   subclass 36.04
104Railways,   subclasses 27+ .
108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 42+ .
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   subclasses 19+ .
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 158+ and 480-507.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 87+ .
220Receptacles,   subclasses 3.3+ .
248Supports,   appropriate subclasses.
297Chairs and Seats,   subclasses 14+ and 147.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 242 , 245+, and 351.1+.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclasses 872+ .
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 600+ .
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 27.5]    27.5With a telephone (e.g., booth or stand):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Static structure or component which encloses or supports an audio transmission and receiving means.

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764+,for sheet like sections between framing members.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 28]    28Artificial illumination means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure wherein the article is an artificial illuminating means.

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362Illumination,   subclasses 145+ for combined light and structure there provided for. The line between this class (52) and Class 362 subclass is: Class 362, subclasses 145+ takes structure illuminated by artificial means or merely supporting illuminating means. Class (52) takes building structure including features having functions in addition to merely supporting the illuminating means or forming the enclosure, barrier or other structure illuminated. In interpreting this line the presence of a claim to building structure not including illuminating means is considered conclusive of the fact that such additional function features are present.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 29]    29Mounted for movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure wherein the securing means causes or permits movement of the article.

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36.4,for a structure wherein the article is a fixed bed, chair, table or shelf.

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483Tool Changing,   generally for apparatus or method for transferring tools combined with support or storage means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 30]    30Elevator in multistory:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Structure comprising a multi-level structure provided with a platform and hoisting machinery therefor for conveying persons or goods to or from the different levels.

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187Elevator, Industrial Lift Truck, or Stationary Lift for Vehicle,   appropriate subclasses for an elevator and building combination wherein no more structure of the building is defined than is necessary to support the elevator.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 31]    31Revolving or endless-type conveyor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Structure wherein the article, device or adjunct includes means for conveying, or aiding in the conveying of articles which means includes a revolving member or endless web or strand type conveyor wherein the article is readily removable from the conveyor.

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198Conveyors: Power-Driven,   appropriate subclasses for such apparatus combined with a mere enclosure, particularly subclass 860.3 .
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 32]    32Swinging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Structure wherein the supporting means can oscillate about a fixed axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 33]    33Articles form traffic path arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure wherein an article or articles or adjunct, are so arranged so as to form a defined path for traffic, e.g., a store with a defined furniture arrangement.

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174+,for other structure with a traffic guiding feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 34]    34Lavatory fixture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure wherein the article is a fixture for receiving body waste matter or for washing.

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4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   appropriate subclass for apparatus having a fixture with a feature for the purpose of that class, e.g., drains, flow lines, etc. This class (52) takes (1) structures merely forming enclosures or barriers, (2) joints between a lavatory fixture and a barrier or (3) an in situ type enclosure having features with functions other than merely enclosing a class 4 device.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 35]    35Wall juncture (e.g., bathtub surround kit):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Wall juncture (e.g., bathtub surround kit): Structure in which a discrete connector joins at least an edge of a lavatory fixture; e.g., tub or basin and a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 36.1]    36.1Task-area type repositionable component (e.g., modular booth, workstation, or concession stand):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Component in which user or work related equipment is self supporting and is designed to be assembled and disassembled (i.e., transportable).

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79.1+,for a floor to ceiling assembly; e.g., wall, defining an occupiable space.
205,for a partition framed for a door or window.
481.2,for demountable partitions separating two areas.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 36.2]    36.2With top covering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.1.  Task area component including a ceiling above an occupant.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 36.3]    36.3Fireplace mantel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Component in which a casing and shelf are attached to both a portion of the static structure and a framed opening made in a chimney to hold an open fire.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 36.4]    36.4Component having specific attachment for an article comprising a horizontal, planar surface (e.g., shelf, bed):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Component which is specifically designed or modified for furniture of the type having a relatively level area lying in a plane that carries an item, items, or a person.
(1) Note. Articles that have means for mounting on an existing wall, floor, or ceiling are classified with the article.
(2) Note. A static structure component that is made to incorporate the article is classified in Class 52.

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6,for a static structure including an auditorium or stadium feature arranged relative to a center or attraction.
29+,for an article mounted for movement.

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5Beds,   subclasses 2.1 , 10.1+, and 159.1 for specific bed structure with a static structure.
108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 33+ and 42+ for specific planar surface structure with a static structure.
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   subclasses 19+ for specific partition structure with a static structure.
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclasses 222+ for a ladder, scaffold, or mast with a workman"s platform with a static structure.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 87.01+ for specific rack structure with a static structure.
248Supports,   appropriate subclasses for specific supports (e.g., shelf brackets).
297Chairs and Seats,   subclasses 14+ and 147 for specific chair or seat structure with a static structure.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 242 , 245+, and 351.1+ for specific cabinet structure with a static structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 36.5]    36.5Connecting feature for modular-type panels having article (e.g., cabinet, shelf bracket) attachment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.4.  Component specific attachment in which a means securing two edge-abutting thin rigid sheet-type members includes a means for supporting the horizontal planar surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 36.6]    36.6Including a slotted tubular portion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 36.5.  Connecting feature in which the securing means consists of a hollow elongated cylindrical-like section with apertures for the article holding piece.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 37]    37On or adjacent portal frame; e.g., window cleaner’s hook:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure wherein the article support means is attached to or adjacent a door or window frame, usually a window washer"s hook to which a safety belt may be attached.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclasses 50+ for a movable or removable shield which blocks a passage vacated by a closure.
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclasses 53+ for a balcony-like platform detachably mounted in a window opening.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 87.01+ for a rack with means specializing it for mounting on a window frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 38]    38Sign; e.g., nameplate or ornament:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure wherein the disparate article is a sign, e.g., name plate or ornamental plaque.

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103+,for a structure which, as a whole, serves as a marker or monument and see notes thereto.
105,for a building component with indicia.

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40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclass 124.5 for memorial tablets and subclasses 541+ for illuminated signs and subclasses 584+ for signs, and see the reference to Class 52 in the class definition of Class 40.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 39]    39Supported from ceiling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure in which there is means supporting the disparate article from means forming a ceiling, i.e., the under side of a roof or floor.

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248Supports,   subclasses 317+ for a suspended support of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 40]    40On shaft or tower:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Structure in which the disparate article is supported by an elongated rigid structure, i.e., pole, post or mast.

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110,for a shaft mounted on a vehicle shell.
651.01+,for a three dimensional open-work, particularly subclass 649 for a mast with distinct terminal structure, e.g., a horned type power line tower.
697,for a shaft with braced cross arm.
831,for a miscellaneous shaft (e.g., pole, post, column, etc.).

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174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 40+ , particularly subclasses 45 and 149 for elongated members, e.g., poles and posts, having claimed features specialized to electrical use such as: (1) positive recitation of an electrical conductor, (2) an insulator supporting or retaining an electrical conductor or (3) means supporting said insulator.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 475 , 567, and 628+ for an elevated tank involving specific receptacle structure.
248Supports,   subclasses 127+ , particularly subclass 146 for a stand not involving a specific in situ erected article supporting skeleton tower.
256Fences,   for a fence or post having features for retaining a wire or rail.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 41]    41ROOF RUNNING BOARD OR SADDLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure forming a walkway above a roof or forming a support (saddle) for such a walkway, usually present on a railway car.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 42]    42Shaped to accommodate seam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Structure in which the roof covering includes a seam and the walkway conforms to the shape of the seam.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 43]    43Also ridge cap:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Structure in which the walkway or saddle also conforms to and accommodates means forming a ridge cap extending along the roof.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 44]    44Attached to seam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Structure in which the walkway is fastened to a roof seam.

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42+,for walkways conforming to a roof seam.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 45]    45RAILROAD CAR ROOF CONSTRUCTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure comprising roof construction peculiar to railroad cars.

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17,for an insulated car roof.
18,for a clerestory or sawtooth roof.
41+,for a roof with running board or saddle.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 238.1+ for railway rolling stock comprising a special car body.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 46]    46Continuous carline; e.g., discrete coextensive rafter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Structure comprising a covering supporting member (carline) which extends laterally of the roof and is substantially coextensive with the transverse dimension of the car.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 47]    47And longitudinal ridge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Structure associated structurally with a ridge running centrally and longitudinally of the car roof.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 48]    48Purlin or cross-bracing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Structure comprising a plurality of carlines and interconnecting structural members extending longitudinally of the roof or diagonally of the carlines.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 49]    49Superjacent covering strip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Structure comprising a cover strip overlying the carline and a joint between two juxtaposed roofing sheets, said strip being substantially coextensive with the joint.

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459+,for a surfacing with a strip covered joint of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 50]    50Laterally verging sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Structure in which the carline is composed of distinct sections which diverge or converge toward each other in a nonvertical plane or (2) form chords of a truss which diverge or converge.

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639+,for a peaked truss of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 51]    51Separate end fastener or support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Structure including a separate support or connecting means attached to the end of a carline and engaging a vertical support, e.g., car wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 52]    52Over juncture of covering sheets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.  Structure in which the carline is positioned above the joint between plural covering sheets.

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459+,for similar structure of more general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 53]    53Transverse sustaining rib integral with covering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Structure comprising one or more transversely extending ribs formed integrally with the roof sections, and rib being substantially coextensive with the transverse dimension of the roof.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 54]    54Central discrete ridge member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Structure comprising a central cover sustaining member elevated above the edges and extending longitudinally of the roof.

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47,for a carline and longitudinal ridge construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 55]    55Relatively movable covering sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 54.  Structure including relatively movable roof sheets, usually to compensate for car motion.

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204.1+,for another construction with a feature for a closure, e.g., a removable panel over an opening.
573.1,for a residual structure having means accommodating a dimensional variation responsive to varying conditions.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 56]    56Covering sheet with overhanging continuing edge section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.  Structure comprising a continuation of the facing member of the roof which overhangs the junction of the roof and car walls.

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11+,for a cover with section overhanging a gutter.
94+,for another gable or eave terminal construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 57]    57ROOF FINIAL OR CRESTING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including ornamental means at a ridge or peak of a roof.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 3 through 30,and 542.2+ for a miscellaneous ornamental article not provided for elsewhere.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 58]    58EXTERIOR-TYPE FLASHING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including sheet material on the exterior of a building structure which material is anchored at at least one edge and extends over a joint of the structure.

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94+,for a gable or eave covering sheet material often termed "roof edge flashing".
101,for an insect blocking means, e.g., termite shield.
302.5,for a liquid directing sheet material disposed within the confines of a barrier.
408+,for a sheet laminae separating components of an in situ construction, e.g., through wall type flashing.
459+,for a construction of more general application involving a strip covering a juncture of panels.

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285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 42+ for a roof or floor drain type flashing forming a seal around a duct or pipe.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 59]    59Raggle block:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Structure including a block forming part of a vertical structure and having a groove which receives part of the flashing.
(1) Note. For definition of a "BLOCK" see glossary.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 60]    60Interfitting parts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Structure wherein the sheet material comprises at least two interfitting sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 61]    61Within wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 60.  Structure wherein the parts which interfit are within a vertical structure, i.e., wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 62]    62Extending into wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 58.  Structure wherein a part of the sheet material extends into a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 63]    63ENCLOSURE INCLUDING FLACCID NONMETALLIC OR FORAMINOUS SURFACING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure forming a complete enclosure and including a thin, flexible, flaccid, nonmetallic or foraminous membrane which forms an exposed surfacing and is stretched between elongated members of its substructure.

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2.11+,for a structure strengthened by internal fluid pressure, e.g., inflated.
3+,for an article supported cover.
64+,for a collapsible type structure of rigid panels interconnected for repositioning.
222,for a tensioned sheet facing.
273,for a shaped or edge attached flexible covering, e.g., carpet, in contact with a barrier.
393+,for a relatively yieldable preformed separator.
404.1+,for insulation in a hollow cavity.
518+,for a shingle type surfacing.
782.1+,for a composite panel.

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135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   subclasses 87+ for structures having a flexible covering without rigid panels preformed before in situ erection and see the reference to Class 135 in the class definition of Class 52.
312Supports: Cabinet Structure,   subclasses 3+ for an enclosure having a flexible covering and also an article support.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 64]    64BARRIER OR MAJOR SECTION MOUNTED FOR IN SITU REPOSITIONING; E.G., REARRANGEABLE ORROTATABLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including at least one component which is a wall, ceiling, roof, cover section or major section thereof which are fixedly mounted for repetitious or continuous movement relative to a base without total disconnection therefrom for purposes of changing the size or function of the structure or a portion thereof or providing continuous movement during use, e.g., revolving building.
(1) Note. A movable closure, e.g., door or window is not a barrier component except where a door or window constitutes a major section.

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7,for a movable stage combined with a static structure forming an enclosure therefor.
29,for a movable support for a disparate article.
55,for a car roof with a relatively movable section.
63,for an enclosure including as a component a nonmetallic flexible surfacing section.
79.1+,for a three dimensional sub- enclosure which in use is often assembled with another enclosure.
111+,for a tower or mast with powered motive means.
122.1+,for a structure with hoist or handle means.
127.1+,for another structure with an adjunct provided solely for facilitating assembly or disassembly.
143,for a structure with means transporting it from place-to-place.
183,for a stepped structure with interconnecting relatively movable components.
204.1+,for a structure having means forming a window or door opening.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   appropriate subclasses for a repetitiously movable closure providing for the passage of persons or things through a barrier.
105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclasses 238.1+ , especially subclasses 377.01+ and 379 for a freight car with a movable body component.
135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   for a tent with a foldable frame and see the reference to that class in subclass 85 of this class.
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   for such a structure which does not form an enclosure for a usable space.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 177+ for a collapsible vehicle body and subclasses 107.01+ for a let-down-type vehicle top.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 65]    65Rotatable about vertical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure wherein the barrier or major section thereof is mounted for rotation in a horizontal plane about a vertical axis.

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7,for a theater with a movable stage.
31,and 32, for an enclosure with a disparate article support mounted for swinging or rotation.

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472Amusement Devices,   particularly subclasses 1+ for an amusement roundabout appropriate therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 66]    66Roof movable as entity relative to its substructure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure wherein the movable barrier is a complete roof which is connected to and movable as an entity relative to its supporting columns or walls defining or within an area normally covered by the roof.

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63,for a construction including a flaccid surfacing component.
69,for a barrier swingable to act as a wall or canopy.
83,for a roof or enclosure suspended by flexible means and fixedly related to support means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 67]    67Telescoping sub and main enclosures:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure wherein the movable barrier sections include one structure defining an occupiable space which structure is arranged to telescope, either by sliding or swinging, within another such structure.

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79.1+,for another three-dimensional, preassembled subenclosure which is not mounted for movement.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 638+ for an extensible vehicle structure there provided for.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 68]    68Wall extension convertible to roof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure comprising a wall construction having an extension, which extension is adapted to be manipulated to form a roof section.

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66,for an entire roof movably connected to a substructure.
69,for a vertical section hinged to swing to form a horizontal barrier, e.g., canopy.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 69]    69Hinged to swing from vertical to nonvertical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure in which at least two of the components are connected to each other by a hinge fastened to both, with one of the components in the erected or use position being vertical but which can be folded to a nonvertical, e.g., collapsed position.

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68,for a structure, e.g., stile, having a wall extension convertible to a roof.
73,for a rigid barrier, e.g., canopy, cantilevered from a vertical support.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 70]    70Three walls hinged at their intersections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure including three walls interconnected by hinge means allowing folding of the walls in order to collapse the structure.

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66,for a foldable enclosure wherein a complete roof is connected to walls.
71,for a barrier hinged intermediate its length.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 71]    71Barrier of hingedly connected sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure wherein the movable barrier section cooperates with other sections in forming a barrier, the sections being hingedly connected so as to allow the barrier to be collapsed.

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108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 166+ for such a structure which is freely movable over a supporting surface, e.g., a foldable stage, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 72]    72Movable cupola or section thereof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 64.  Structure comprising a structural unit mounted on and projecting above a roof surface and communicating with the space below the roof.

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55,for a centrally ridged car roof with a movable cover section.
64,for an upright support member connected to a movable cover section.
66,for a cover assembly movable as an entity.
200,for a cupola or skylight mounted on a roof and having no movable major components.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 73]    73RIGID BARRIER CANTILEVERED FROM VERTICAL SUPPORT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a barrier which extends laterally from an upright support with the barrier being unsupported except by means connected to the upright support.

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11+,for a cover with a surface water receiver at an eave or valley.
64+,particularly 66, 68, and 69 for a movable mounted barrier section which may be cantilevered in one position.
97,for an externally projecting liquid deflector.
201,for a bay window which extends downwardly to a base, e.g., the earth.
260,for a cast in situ column with radial reinforcement for a floor.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 74]    74Awning type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Structure including means defining an inclined panel overlying an open space which panel extends downwardly and outwardly of a vertical structure, usually a wall, to which the upper edge of the panel is secured.

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473,for a louvered panel having no feature for holding it as a unit in a cantilevered, e.g., inclined position.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclass 71 for a movable rigid awning which also acts as a closure.
135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   subclasses 15.1+ for an umbrella.
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   subclasses 45+ for a flexible panel type awning.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 152+ for a vehicle door or window canopy.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 75]    75Longitudinal axis of slats inclined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Structure wherein the inclined surface consists of a series of parallel slats, the longitudinal axes of which are downwardly and outwardly inclined.

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518+,for another lapped multiplanar surfacing.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 76]    76With side panel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 75.  Structure wherein the outside edges of the outside slats are intersected by vertically depending side panels which are secured and extend generally perpendicular to the vertical structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 77]    77Diverse side and top panels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Structure in which the side panels construction differs in kind from that of the inclined surface panel construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 78]    78Horizontal slatlike surfacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 74.  Structure wherein the inclined surface consists of a series of integral or separated slats disposed with their longitudinal axes parallel to the major plane of the vertical structure.

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473,for another louvered panel.
518+,for another lapped multiplanar, e.g., shingle-like surfacing.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.1]    79.1PREASSEMBLED SUBENCLOSURE OR SUBSTRUCTURE SECTION(S) OF UNIT OR BUILDING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including one or more preassembled or prefabricated structural means, each defining 1) at least a two sided or walled sub-occupiable space assembly, 2) a preassembled or prefabricated room or occupiable space which is to be assembled with like or unlike structures to form a complete structure, or 3) a single or composite wall, usually having a curved cross-section which acts, with other structure to form one or more occupiable spaces.
(1) Note. The structures classified in this subclass usually fall into one of the following categories: a) one or more prefabricated room units which can be associated with other like or unlike units to form a building or plurality of occupiable spaces; or b) one or more prefabricated partial room units which can be associated with other like or unlike structure to form one or more occupiable spaces.

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67,for a telescoping three-dimensional subenclosure mounted for movement relative to means forming another enclosure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.11]    79.11Cast in situ:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.9.  Structure wherein the subenclosures include spaced forms to accept a cast in situ material, such as concrete, which acts as a binder to attach the subenclosures together.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.12]    79.12Separate frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.9.  Structure wherein the sub-enclosures are supported, and thereby attached, by a separate framework or vertical and horizontal sustainer means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.13]    79.13Distinct vertical tie:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.9.  Structure wherein a plurality of occupiable sub-enclosures or building units are superposed, one above the other, and are attached by a separate and distinct vertical tie member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.14]    79.14Continuous cementitious barrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure wherein the sub-enclosure or building unit is a single piece, continuous barrier, e.g., poured concrete monolith.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 405 for concrete modules.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.2]    79.2Vertically staggered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure wherein two or more occupiable units are arranged in such a manner that each unit is vertically offset (higher or lower) with respect to its adjacent unit, but not directly above or below its adjacent unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.3]    79.3Angularly stacked:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure wherein a plurality of occupiable spaces are superposed, one over the other in such a manner as to have their respective floors horizontal and parallel to each other, and at least one vertical wall of one unit at an angle to at least one vertical wall of another unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.4]    79.4Nonrectangular substructure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure wherein the occupiable space has a floor plan which is nonrectangular.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.5]    79.5Collapsible for ease of transport:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure which is made in such a manner so as to be collapsible to a more compact form for ease of transport from its place of manufacture to the building site.

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64+,for barriers mounted for repetitious movement relative to base without disconnection.

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296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclass 27 for collapsible trailers.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.6]    79.6Porch or vestibule:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure wherein the occupiable space is a porch or vestibule.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.7]    79.7Opening between subenclosures:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure wherein each of two or more subenclosures is provided with an opening through one side thereof, such openings to mate with each other to form a passage for people from one subenclosure to the other.
(1) Note. An opening, for this subclass, may be the absence of an entire wall, in which case, each subenclosure would form half of a room.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.8]    79.8Portal to portal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.7.  Structure wherein the mating openings in each occupiable space are doors for the passage of people.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 79.9]    79.9With retaining or attaching means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 79.1.  Structure wherein two or more occupiable spaces have therebetween means to attach them together or to another common structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 80.1]    80.1COMPOUND CURVE STRUCTURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure having a major exposed portion which conforms to a surface generated by a curved line moving along a curved path; e.g., a sphere, hyperbolic parabloid, or dome.

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2.11+,for a construction which is shaped by fluid pressure.
82,for a conical structure.
85,for a two-dimensional curvilinear entrance archway.
86+,for a two-dimensional vertically curved arch.
200,for a skylight.
245+,for a noncompound curve curvilinear barrier.
639+,for a two-dimensional curved or peaked truss.
648.1+,for openwork.

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135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   subclasses 124+ for portable structures formed with an arc or dome structure.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 565+ for a compound curve; e.g., spheroidal, fluid confining tank.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclass 872 for a dome-like antenna housing having a defined electrical characteristic; e.g., a radome.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 80.2]    80.2Hyperbolic parabloid shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Compound curve structure which is in the form of a saddle shaped quadric surface wherein all sections parallel to one coordinate plane are hyperbolas while all the sections parallel to another coordinate plane are parabolas (if proper orientation of the coordinate axes is assumed).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 81.1]    81.1Geodesic shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Compound curve structure comprising distinct polygonal panels connected to form a surface which is or approximates a segment of a sphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 81.2]    81.2Having an underlying grid frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.1.  Geodesic shape comprising a network of uniformly spaced members which support cover panels.

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648.1+,for three dimensional openwork.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 81.3]    81.3Frame connection detail:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.2.  Frame in which a node of the structural network members is particularly designed to hold the members together and transmit forces.

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403Joints and Connections,   subclasses 169+ for a joint designed for frame members.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 81.4]    81.4Comprised entirely of a single self-supporting basic geometrical shaped panel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.1.  Shape in which all the panels are of a simple configuration; i.e., triangle or diamond.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 81.5]    81.5Trapezoidal or rectangular design:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.4.  Panel in which the configuration is a quadrilateral having (1) two parallel sides and two diverging (or converging) sides or (2) all corners at right angles.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 81.6]    81.6Monolithic construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.1.  Shape which is cast as a single piece.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 82]    82CONICAL OR RADIALLY RIBBED COVER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure forming a cover which has a conical surface or formed by three or more generally triangular surface forming members the abutting edges of which form seams or ribs which converge upon a common locus.

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68,for a wall extension movable to form a roof in which an extension component is often formed of triangular sections which pivot to form a radially ribbed cone.
80.1+,for a compound curve structure, e.g., dome, and see notes.
90.1+,for another inclined roof or rafter with a substructure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 83]    83COVER OR ENCLOSURE SUSPENDED BY FLEXIBLE MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means covering or enclosing an area which means is suspended by flexible devices attached to structure which extends into the ambient above and beyond said means.

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22+,for a vertically spaced roof section.
73+,for a cantilevered structure which may include a diagonal guy means.
120+,for a mast with cable hoist.
121,and 122.1+, for a static structure combined with hoist means.
506.06+,for an internal facer suspended by flexible or pivoted hanger.

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135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   subclass 90 for a flexible, canopy suspended by flexible means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 84]    84STREAMLINE CROSS-SECTION; I.E., AIRFOIL
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure which has a curvilinear cross-section peculiar to the reduction of wind resistance generally termed air foils or streamlined.

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245+,for a structure having or formed by a curvilinear barrier.

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244Aeronautics and Astronautics,   subclasses 123.1 through 124for an aircraft airfoil construction.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclass 887 for an antenna support with a streamlined cross-section.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 85]    85CURVILINEAR PORTAL WITH SETTABLE MATERIAL BACKER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a facing member in the form of curvilinear arch having structure for the adherence or retention of plastic-to-rigid, water settable material, e.g., plaster, which material forms a curved exposed surface.

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204.1+,for another construction forming a portal.
250+,for a settable material corner construction of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 86]    86VERTICALLY CURVED ARCH WITH TERMINAL SUPPORT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure peculiar to an in situ erected primary, load bearing construction which as a whole forms a curved arch whose mid-point is above the externally supported terminal edges.

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67,for a telescoping three-dimensional section which may include a curved segment.
80.1+,for a compound curve cover.
85,for a settable material, curved, entrance archway.
245+,for a space enclosing, curvilinear wall.
319+,particularly subclasses 329 and 389 for a generally planar concrete barrier which may include a curved backing member supporting a cast section.
575,for a key type block, per se, which can be used to form a curved arch.
639+,for a curvilinear or peaked truss.

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14Bridges,   subclasses 24+ for an arch bridge which is not primarily of stone-like material.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 87]    87With deck structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Structure including a horizontal deck construction, e.g., roadway, supported by the structure.

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174+,for a construction with traffic guiding feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 88]    88Monolithic arch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Structure in which the arch as a whole is formed by flowable cast material which, when set, forms an entity.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 89]    89Stonelike modules form arch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 86.  Structure in which the arch is formed by abutting masonry or concrete-like units.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 90.1]    90.1INCLINED TOP COVER (E.G., ROOF, A-FRAME):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including cover construction or rafters which are at an angle to a horizontal plane.
(1) Note. The rafter are attached to a vertical supporting substructure; e.g., walls, studding, columns, etc.
(2) Note. This subclass takes ridge connections without a venting function.

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45+,for a car roof construction.
73+,for a cantilevered barrier which is more than a mere eave.
82,for a conical or radially ribbed cover.
262+,for a floor, ceiling, or roof not having a defined feature relating to an inclined roof or rafter resting on a substructure.
272+,for a construction, per se, formed by intersecting barriers even though disclosed or claimed as being at the ridge of a roof.
478,for a lapped or strip cover joint surfacing attached to a substructure arrangement; e.g., rafter and purlin.
639,for a peaked truss construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 90.2]    90.2On existing roof:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.1.  Inclined cover which is erected on a previously built cover.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 91.1]    91.1Self-supporting cover (i.e., without distinct rafters):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.1.  Inclined cover in which a roof spans from eaves to ridge without being supported by an underlying frame, beam, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 91.2]    91.2Eave fixed by masonry or settable material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Self-supporting cover specialized to the use of cementitious or adhesive type material at the junction of the cover and the supporting substructure; e.g., of a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 91.3]    91.3Connection for abutting cover sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.1.  Self-supporting cover where the entire cover is in portions which are secured together by a fastening means to make a complete cover.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 92.1]    92.1Rafter tie-in at horizontal-type support (e.g., wall plate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.1.  Inclined cover in which a roof support beam is (1) set or (2) fabricated or cut to a particular shape for attachment to the supporting substructure (e.g., wall top plate).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 92.2]    92.2Distinct connector fixing rafter to wall plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.1.  Tie-in in which a discrete fastener secures the roof support beam to the supporting substructure.

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92.1,for a roof support beam attached to a bearing member without a fastener.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 92.3]    92.3Rafter end terminating at wall exterior face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.1.  Tie-in in which the end of the roof support beam, at the eaves, is in the same plane as the supporting substructure outside surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 93.1]    93.1Rafter to vertical support (e.g., stud, column, post) connection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 90.1.  Inclined cover in which a roof support beam is directly fastened to a load bearing upright element of the supporting substructure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 93.2]    93.2Rafter overhangs vertical support outside surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.1.  Connection in which a roof support beam extends beyond the supporting substructure exterior face.

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92.2,for a rafter connected to a vertical support with a fastener.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 94]    94GABLE OR EAVE TERMINAL CONSTRUCTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure comprising means forming a construction at the gable or eave terminus of a roofing surface which is different in kind from that forming the surface.

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11+,for a cover with an eave gutter.
45+,for a car roof, particularly subclass
56,for a cover sheet with over-hanging, continuing edge section.
73+,for a rigid cantilevered barrier, e.g., awning.
90.1+,for an inclined roof having supporting substructure.
262+,for a roof extending over at least two vertical supports in which the construction merely involves a roof overhang (eave).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 95]    95With conduit or passage means (e.g., eave vent, insulation shield for eave vent):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Structure including means forming a passage or conduit from a subjacent area communicating to outside of the roof.

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11+,for an eave or valley gutter receiving liquid flowing from the upper surface of a roof.
302.1+,for a construction with fluid passage between the interior of it and the ambient, and see notes.
553,for a lapped multiplanar surfacing with a unit spacing or space forming feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 96]    96Covering continuation overlaps edge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 94.  Structure wherein the material forming at least part of the upper exposed surfaces of a roof between the gables or eaves is bent to form a flange-like portion which extends downwardly to a subjacent edge portion of the roof.

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56,for a car roof with an overhanging edge section.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 97]    97EXTERNALLY PROJECTING LIQUID DEFLECTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means extending outwardly of the plane of a surface means is defined as functioning to deflect a liquid (rain) away from the barrier surface.

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11+,for a cover with an eave gutter.
56,for a car cover with overhanging sheet edge.
58+,for an exterior type flashing.
74+,for a rigid outrigged awning usually having a flashing or liquid deflector at the wall juncture.
94+,for a coping which may have an edge overhanging a wall.
302.1+,for a structure with means draining or venting the interior of a construction to the ambient.
302.5,and 408+, for sandwiched preformed imperforate member even though they may have a flanged portion bent to contact the wall.
503+,and 606+, for a liquid deflector within an internal through passage.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 98]    98FRANGIBLE SECTION OR MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a distinct section or means which facilitates fracturing of the structure or section thereof.

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105,for an indicia combination including means indicating a cutting or breaking line.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclass 797 for an element for that class which is breakable, and see the notes.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 265+ for a frangible or knockout receptacle closure, and see the notes.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 43 for a stock material product in the form of a single or plural layer web or sheet which has been weakened to permit fracturing through the thickness thereof, and subclass 156 for such a stock material product having a component or layer which varies in thickness.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 99]    99In dissimilar material member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Structure in which the frangible means is made of a material differing in kind from that of the primary structure, e.g., a metal member attached or embedded in a concrete base member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 100]    100Removable corner or internal section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Structure in which the frangible section or means is so arranged relative to the original circumscribing boundary surfaces that a corner or a section within such circumscribing boundary surfaces is severable from the original unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 101]    101ANIMAL BLOCKING LATERAL PROJECTION, TRAP, OR SCARER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure which deters the movement of animal life having (1) a trap, (2), a device which by movement or force repels them or (3) a projection which extends outwardly of a surface of structure to block landing on or movement along the structure.

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24,for a projecting restrainer, e.g., a snow slide stop.
58+,for an exterior type flashing.
97,for an externally projecting liquid deflector.
170,for a shaft reinforcement adjacent the surface of the earth which may act as a protector.
408+,for a "through type" flashing which may have a protruding edge.
517,for a structure with an insect repellent coating.

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43Fishing, Trapping, and Vermin Destroying,   subclasses 124+ for a vermin destroying device not structurally combined with a building structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 102]    102EARTH-SUPPORTED COPING OR EDGING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a single monolithic unit or a single course of connected modules which unit or course rests on the earth and defines a low wall edging for an area.

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38,for a support for a name plate.
103,for a marker or monument.
128+,for a burial vault.
146,283, 296+, 300+, and 720+, for a shaft or a related structure of more general application.
169.1+,for a structure with defined geographic feature.
245,for a tubular structure of more general application.
311.1+,for a structure with relief pattern forming an ornamental facing.

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47Plant Husbandry,   subclass 33 for an edging for gardens there provided for.
256Fences,   for a structure of greater height than a mere coping or edging.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 103]    103LAND MARKER OR MONUMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure which indicates a position on or particular use of the earth and has (1) a feature, e.g., indicia, serving such function or (2) a shape which in its entirety has inherent stability against overturning.

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38,for a building structure supporting a sign.
102,for an earth supported coping, and see notes.
105,for a building structure or building component with indicia.
128+,for a grave vault.
311.1+,for an ornamental component of a building structure for having no feature specialized to use as a marker or monument, particularly subclass 315 for visible embedded elements and subclass 316 for integrally relieved surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 104]    104With translucent feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Structure including a visible component that permits the passage of light.

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306+,for a glass block or embedded translucent component.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 34 for a pair of substantially coextensive light transmissive sheets, spaced from each other and sealed at their edges to each other, and subclass 38 for a light transmissive mass having a frame or an opaque border around it.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 105]    105WITH INDICIA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including (1) means, e.g., writing, grooves or markings; which (a) indicates a property or characteristic of an element or (b) serves as a gage in the positioning or alignment of a structure; or (2) means identifying the location of an embedded or hidden device or structure.
(1) Note. Devices having a structural function, e.g., for locking, positively positioning, receiving, fasteners, etc., are classified in appropriate subclasses below even though they may also serve as an indicator.

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38,for a supported sign, e.g., name plate.
103+,for a marker or monument.
364+,for a member acting as a gage for after-applied plaster coating, e.g., screed.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 187 for a stock material product in the form of a single or plural layer web or sheet in which one component is of uniform thickness but nonplanar to form a figured pattern or to yield information, and subclasses 195+ for a stock material product having a discontinuous or differential coating, impregnation or bond to form a pattern or to yield information.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 106]    106JAIL-TYPE STRUCTURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure having features peculiar to buildings for confining a person so that he cannot leave the building or compartment thereof without outside intervention.

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65,for buildings with revolvable section, e.g., revolving prison cells.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclasses 15+ for a jail structure restricted to movable doors, their mountings, operators and/or locks.
109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   appropriate subclasses for a related structure for preventing entrance of persons into a building or part thereof, except subclass 21.5 which is the residual subclass for a structure allowing voice transmission through a closure of barrier irrespective of disclosed purpose.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 107]    107AREAWAY; E.G., WINDOW WELL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means defining a wall outside of and attached to the outside of a building wall adjacent a portal opening which in use is below grade level.

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69+,for a structure with a defined terrane an feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 108]    108STRIPLIKE UNIT, REVERSIBLY FLEXIBLE AND RIGID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including flexible strands or strips or discrete connected sections which when fed from a coiled or collapsed storage position form an elongated rigid shaft section extending from the storage position and vice versa.

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2.11+,for a structure shaped or strengthened by fluid pressure.
109,for a lazy tong extension unit, and see the search notes.

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182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclass 41 for a self-rigidifying upwardly extensible flexible ladder or escape means.
242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 370+ and 901 for a reeling device which may store a strip that is convertible from a coiled to an extended rigid state.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclass 877 for an antenna with reel and subclasses 900+ for rod type antennas.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 109]    109LAZY TONG EXTENSION UNIT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure comprising a series of diagonal levers pivoted together at their mid-points and at their ends by which arrangement the device as a whole can be extended and retracted.

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14Bridges,   subclass 45 for a lazy tong draw bridge.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 521 for a lazy tong mechanical movement.
135Tent, Canopy, Umbrella, or Cane,   subclasses 131 and 145 for lazy-tong type frameworks for portable shelters.
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   subclasses 69.1+ for a lazy tong means for extending an extension ladder and subclass 141 for a platform elevating means which may include lazy tong extension means.
187Elevator, Industrial Lift Truck, or Stationary Lift for Vehicle,   subclasses 211 and 269 for an elevator with lazy tong elevating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 110]    110SHAFT, VEHICLE SHELL ATTACHED; E.G., ANTENNA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including an elongated member mounted on a part of the shell of a vehicle body which can be projected or is fixedly mounted to extend outwardly of the shell, which member is usually disclosed as being an antenna.

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108,109, and 111+, for another extensible or relatively movable shaft.

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343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclasses 711+ for an antenna attached to a vehicle wherein a significant electrical or radiation limitation is defined.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 111]    111MECHANISM OPERATED RELATIVELY MOVABLE SHAFT ASSEMBLY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure comprising a rigid elongated member or construction at least part of a section of which is movable relatively to another section or to a base and mechanical motive means for applying power to affect such movement, e.g., motor, spring, pulley, crank or cable.

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108,for a strip which can be coiled for storage or projected outwardly to a rigid position.
109,for a lazy tong extension unit.
110,for a vehicle shell attached shaft, e.g., antenna.
122.1+,for a static structure with hoist or handle means for adjusting component level or assembling.
143,for another static structure with a transportation feature.
146+,for a vertical structure with diagonal brace or guy.
632,for a manually extensible shaft.
633+,for openwork structures, particularly subclasses 648+ for three dimensional open work, e.g., tower or mast.
848,for an end-to-end connected section shaft.

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182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   appropriate subclasses for a mast with a workman"s platform, particularly subclass 62.5 for such an apparatus having extensible vertical and nonvertical sections.
212Traversing Hoists,   appropriate subclasses for a collapsible, extensible, horizontally swinging, or vertically swinging, boom for a load-handling apparatus. Patents placed as originals in Class 212 should claim structure peculiar to load-handling apparatus.
248Supports,   subclasses 351+ for a prop or brace there provided for.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 264+ for a derrick hoist having means to hoist an external load.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclasses 874+ for mast or tower type antennas with a significant recitation of an electrical feature.
362Illumination,   subclass 431 for an electrically operated light supporting post.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 112]    112Opposed barrier-engaging; e.g., rock drill column:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Structure in which the terminal ends of shaft section which are movable longitudinally each have on their outer ends means for engaging opposed barriers, e.g., floor and ceiling of a mine.

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122.1+,for a building component with hoist or handle means.

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173Tool Driving or Impacting,   subclasses 31+ for such devices with work engaging means supporting the tool device.
211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 123+ for a horizontal rod type rack which includes means engaging opposed walls.
248Supports,   subclass 200.1 for an extensible column mounted between opposed surfaces for supporting a bracket; and subclass 644 for such a column for supporting a machine.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   appropriate subclass for an extensible device, designed to move an object, particularly subclass 93 for a fluid operated device, subclass 95 for a rack and pinion operated device, subclasses 98+ for a screw-operated device, and subclass 387 for a cable-operated device.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 113]    113With spring-actuated return:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Structure wherein spring means are provided to return the rigid elongated member or construction to an upright position after deflection by a transversely applied outside force.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 114]    114Moves about vertical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Structure wherein the structure is mounted to move in a substantially horizontal plane about an axis normal to said plane, e.g., a rotatable building.

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212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 223+ for a load-handling boom and sluing mechanism therefor.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 115]    115Fluid pressure actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Structure wherein the means for moving the shaft includes a motor utilizing a fluid as its source of power which motor is connected to the shaft and its base.

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91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclasses for an expansible chamber type motor, particularly subclasses 167+ for an apparatus wherein some of the extension equals the extension of individual chambers.
92Expansible Chamber Devices,   appropriate subclasses particularly subclasses 51+ for a mutually relatively movable cylinder or sleeve device.
212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 238 and 261 for a load-handling (i.e., crane) boom and a fluid ram for swinging it in a vertical plane. See also subclass 297 for a crane-boom supporting tower and a fluid cylinder to raise the same from a horizontal-transport position.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclass 902 for a telescoping fluid pressure actuated rod type antenna having a feature specialized to such use.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 116]    116Tilts relative to base:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Structure wherein the shaft is pivoted so as to allow it to tilt relative to a base.

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113,for a spring actuated return post or column.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 117]    117Relatively moving sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 116.  Structure wherein the shaft is divided into multiple discrete sections which may change their position with respect to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 118]    118Telescoping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Structure wherein one of said sections is extensible from within the other.

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212Traversing Hoists,   subclass 296 for a telescoping boom-supporting tower and means to permit the tower to collapse to a position for transporting the crane; and subclasses 231 and 264 for an extensible, vertically swinging crane boom.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 119]    119Lifting arm directly engages tower:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Structure including a rigid member extending between the shaft and base and connected to one and slidably contacting the other, acting to elevate the shaft.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 120]    120Gin pole hoist:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 117.  Structure including a cable passing over a drum or pulley mounted on a vertical member acting to elevate the shaft or shaft section.

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121,for a cable hoist to extend a non- tilting sectional mast.

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212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 239+ and 262 for a vertically swinging crane boom actuated by a flexible cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 121]    121Longitudinally extensible by flexible drive or hoist:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 111.  Structure wherein the elongated assembly is extended and collapsed by means of a flexible cable, e.g., Bowden wire, or hoisted by a cable.

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120,for a tilting mast with relatively movable sections utilizing a gin pole hoist.
632,for a manually extensible shaft.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 500.5+ for a hand operated control lever and linkage system with a flexible transmitter.
212Traversing Hoists,   subclasses 230+ , 264, and 267 for extensible boom structure for load-handling apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 122.1]    122.1WITH LIFTING OR HANDLING MEANS FOR PRIMARY COMPONENT OR ASSEMBLY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including installed means which has utility for raising or lowering a construction, or a primary component thereof during in situ assembly, or for adjustment while in use.

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6+,for a building with a theatre, or stadium feature which may be movable.
29+,for a disparate article, or its support, mounted for movement.
64+,for a barrier, or major component thereof mounted for in situ repositioning, i.e., to change size, or shape, or for continuous movement.
111+,for a mast or tower with motive power means.
365,for a screed having a position adjusting means.
678,for means adjustable spacing a concrete reinforcing rod from a form surface.
698+,for an anchor or tie which may be adjustable.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 123.1]    123.1Mast or enclosure section elevated to superimposed position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.1.  Structure wherein the installed means raises (a) a disconnected elongated vertical shaft or group of shafts, i.e., a mast, or a construction surrounding an area or volume to be occupied by persons, animals, or goods, i.e., an enclosure section, to a vertically extending position above a lower mast or enclosure section or, (b) a first mast or enclosure section to make room for a similar disconnected section below, the mast or enclosure sections in their superimposed position being longitudinally joined to form an erected structure.

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111+,for a shaft or mast having power means for moving the shaft or mast as an entirety relative to a base section thereof or relative to other connected sections thereof during use.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 124.1]    124.1Vault component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.1.  Structure in which the primary component is a unit, e.g., the cover, of an enclosed receptacle capable of receiving an organic or inorganic body for either burial or installment at a particular site.
(1) Note. The body may be, for example, a dead being, a casket, or electrical, or sewer connections which are placed within the stationary vault at a given location below or on the ground surface.

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128+,for vaults, per se.

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27Undertaking,   for a coffin, casket, or portable coffin case for receiving and transporting a dead body to a burial site.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 124.2]    124.2Having hand, hoist, or tackle engaging means embedded in settable material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.1.  Structure in which the installed means (a) is a separate means for positively contacting, i.e., engaging, a living being"s hand or a mechanical lifting, or grasping device and (b) is, or is attached to an element that is, intimately surrounded and held, i.e., embedded, in an initially fluent material which has hardened, i.e., set, into a firm connection with the engaging means or element all of which substantially forms the unit of the receptacle.
(1) Note. Examples of settable materials are concrete, cement and plaster.
(2) Note. Hand, hoist, or tackle engaging means which are screwed, nailed, or otherwise attached to the primary component after it has been made are not proper for this subclass.

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124.1,for a handle that is integrally cast i.e., not a separate element embedded in the settable material.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 125.1]    125.1Lift slab:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.1.  Structure wherein the construction or primary component is a horizontal barrier which is specifically configured to be elevated from a stack, or point of manufacture to a final, in-use position in a building or other construction such that during elevation the barrier maintains a horizontal orientation.

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126.1+,for installed means which only adjusts the final position of a construction or primary component thereof and is not used to lift the component into place.
745.1+,for a process involving forming a unit and moving it into position.
749.1+,for apparatus especially adapted for in situ construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 125.2]    125.2Construction or component having means to engage hand or cable-type lifting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.1.  Structure in which the installed means is a means attached to, integrally formed with, or embedded in the construction or primary component for positively contacting, i.e., engaging, (a) a living being"s hand, or (b) a flaccidly suspended or constructed hoisting means.

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698+,for anchor elements, per se, which may be used as engaging means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 125.3]    125.3Unitary engaging means in monolithic or single construction or component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.2.  Structure in which the construction or primary component is formed from a monolithic or single piece of material having a portion thereof which is given a specific shape to form the engaging means.

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124.1,for vault components having unitary engaging means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 125.4]    125.4Embedded in settable material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.2.  Structure in which the engaging means is, or is attached to an element that is, intimately surrounded and held, i.e., embedded, in an initially fluent material which has hardened, i.e., set, into a firm connection with the engaging means or element all of which substantially forms the construction or primary component.
(1) Note. Examples of settable materials are concrete, cement and plaster.
(2) Note. Engaging means which are screwed, nailed, or otherwise attached to the construction or primary component after it has been made are not proper for this subclass.

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698+,for an anchor or other handling means adapted to be embedded in settable material.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 125.5]    125.5Embedded socket element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.4.  Structure where the engaging means comprises a separate, female type, or concave receiving chamber embedded in the construction or primary component with the sides of the receiving chamber being engaged by the hand or the hoisting means.

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704+,for sockets, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 125.6]    125.6Engaging means cooperates with rigid, intermediate device which distributes load or lifts multiple components:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 125.2.  Structure wherein the engaging means is connected to the cable type lifting means through a solid, i.e., rigid, element suspended from the cable type lifting means which element either (a) distributes the component"s load between plural locations on the element, or (b) lifts a plurality of components.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 126.1]    126.1Position adjusting means; e.g., leveling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 122.1.  Structure having installed means consisting of position adjusting means (a) for moving a construction or primary component thereof towards its final position, (b) for holding the construction or component in its final position relative to a nonparallel subsurface, or (c) for leveling the construction or component relative to a support surface.
(1) Note. A support surface may be a predominantly horizontal surface such as the earth, or it may be another primary component of a static structure or construction.

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122.1,123.1, 124.1, 124.2, 125.1 - 125.6, for installed means which move a construction or primary component thereof from an inoperative location to an operative, or in use position.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 126.2]    126.2For service duct or outlet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.1.  Structure wherein the construction or primary component is either (a) a conduit for water, fuel, heating or cooling fluids, or electrical conductors, or (b) an outlet element for the conduit, and the position adjusting means moves the conduit or the outlet element relative to each other or the support surface.

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220.1+,for a service duct, per se, within a barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 126.3]    126.3For vertical barrier only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.1.  Structure wherein the construction or primary component has its largest, generally planar, surface perpendicular to the horizon, i.e., vertical, in its final assembled form and prevents or inhibits the passage of persons, or things, i.e., acts as a barrier.

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126.1+,for both vertical and horizontal barriers being adjusted together.
238.1+,for adjustable components of a vertical barrier, e.g., a wall, which engage a floor or ceiling without adjusting the position of the barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 126.4]    126.4Threaded element engages support surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.3.  Structure wherein the position adjusting means consists of a helically ridged, i.e., threaded, element which contacts the supporting surface and, through rotation of the threaded element, serves to adjust the position of the vertical barrier.
(1) Note. The threaded element may be internally or externally threaded, e.g., a nut or a bolt.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 126.5]    126.5For horizontal barrier only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.1.  Structure wherein the construction or primary component has its largest, generally planar, surface parallel with the horizon, i.e., horizontal, in its final assembled form and prevents or inhibits the passage of persons or things, i.e., acts as a barrier.

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126.1+,if both vertical and horizontal barriers are being adjusted together.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 126.6]    126.6Adjustable pedestal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.5.  Structure wherein the position adjusting means has a wide base which engages a lower supporting surface and holds an upper, relatively movable portion which engages the horizontal barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 126.7]    126.7Threaded element engages support surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.1.  Structure wherein the position adjusting means consists of a helically ridged, i.e., threaded, element which contacts the supporting surface and, through rotation of the threaded element, serves to adjust the position of the construction or primary component thereof.
(1) Note. The threaded element may be internally or externally, threaded, e.g., a nut or a bolt.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.1]    127.1WITH ADJUNCTIVE MEANS FOR ASSEMBLY OR DISASSEMBLY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means which facilitates the physical positioning of a component in the static structure or its removal therefrom and is not essential to the completed structure but is in the nature of an accessory, i.e., an adjunct, which is useful only in joining or uniting, i.e., assembling, the component to the structure, or separating or dividing, i.e., disassembling, the component from the structure.
(1) Note. Tools, or access openings used in the assembly or disassembly of a component and structure are included herein.

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122.1+,for a static structure with an installed lifting or handling means which is often used for assembling and disassembling, and the notes thereunder.
514,for a damaged element which has been repaired by the use of an additional element.
641,and 645+, for a truss wherein the components are formed for adjustment, collapse, or demounting.
741.1+,for a process of assembly or manufacture of an in situ construction.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 315.01 through 329.4for a fluid handling device with repair, tapping, or assembly means.
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 76+ for heat exchange apparatus with assembly means.
166Wells,   subclasses 85.1+ for wells with below and above ground modifications of an assembly or disassembly nature.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 232+ for liquid purification or separation devices with assembly means.
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 18+ for pipe joints or couplings with assembly means or features.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.11]    127.11Cam surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.7.  Structure wherein the adjunctive means manipulates or provides admittance to a sliding, wedging or rotating eccentric means, i.e., a camming means, which uses its sloped or eccentric face in the assembly or disassembly of the structure.
(1) Note. Threaded engaging surfaces alone are not considered camming surfaces although if they propel a camming surface or are tapered for causing a camming action they would be considered proper herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.12]    127.12Threaded engagement means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.7.  Structure wherein the tool manipulates, or is provided admittance to a helically ridged element, i.e., a threaded element, whereby the threaded element positively contacts and is used for assembly or disassembly of the structure.

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127.11,for a threaded element which engages or comprises a cam or wedge.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.2]    127.2Removable prop or brace combined with structure component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.1.  Structure wherein the adjunctive means includes a removable, compressive or tensile, element, i.e., a prop or brace, which bridges between spaced parts of the static structure to support or hold the component of the static structure during assembly of the structure.

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127.3,for a prop or brace which is not temporary and positions the component relative to a flowable, or settable material.
146,for a prop or brace which is otherwise not temporary.
749.1+,for props and braces for assembly of a static structure which are not claimed in combination with the static structure.

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206Special Receptacle or Package,   for a prop or brace used only in shipping of a static structure component.
248Supports,   subclasses 354.1+ for an adjustable prop or brace for an article.
269Work Holders,   for general purpose braces and work holders.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.3]    127.3Having component positioning means or control means for flowable material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.1.  Structure wherein the adjunctive means (a) locates the component relative to the static structure or another component thereof to provide reaction against, space for, drying or setting time for, or a shaping configuration to, a fluent substance, or (b) regulates or directs the flow of the substance.
(1) Note. The fluent substance need only be fluent during the positioning of the component and may harden or set thereafter, e.g., concrete, cement, plaster, or glue.
(2) Note. Adjunctive means which excludes the flowable material from a building part, or permits it to flow into a building part are included herein.

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127.2,for a removable (i.e., temporary) prop or brace combined with a component for positioning the component relative to a flowable or settable material during assembly.
371,if the component being positioned is a screed.
603,if the means is integral with the module or element being positioned.
677+,if the component being positioned is an open-work, or rebar.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   for a means positioning a building component in a removable form- work, or means retaining removable formworks.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.4]    127.4Opening or passageway for flowable material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.3.  Structure wherein the adjunctive means provides an ingress for the fluent material to enter into the component of the static structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.5]    127.5Specific hand or tool engaging surface on structure component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.1.  Structure wherein the adjunctive means includes a face on the component of the static structure to be positively contacted, i.e., engaged, directly by a hand of a living being or by a mechanical force transmitting implement, i.e., a tool, during assembly or disassembly.

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127.7,for an opening, or component configuration which merely provides access for a tool, but is not intended to be engaged by the tool, or if only a locking, latching, or attaching means is engaged.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.6]    127.6Panel and frame connection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.5.  Structure wherein a flat, planar component or assembly and a peripheral framework component or assembly are joined together and either of the components or assemblies, or a retaining trim strip therefor, has the tool engaging face.

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127.8,for a tool, or an opening providing access for tool, used in locking, latching, or attaching and wherein the tool only engages the lock, latch, or attaching means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.7]    127.7Structure includes tool or opening to provide access for a tool used in operating a locking, latching, attaching, or adjusting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.1.  Structure wherein the adjunctive means includes either a mechanical force transmitting implement, i.e., a tool, for manipulating a securing, connecting, fastening, or regulating means during the assembly or disassembly, or a tool admitting aperture which is only used during the assembly, or disassembly.

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584,for a clamp type joining means where no tool or access opening is claimed.
749.1+,for a tool, or implement for in situ construction where no part of the building is claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.8]    127.8Panel joined to or released from peripheral frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.7.  Structure wherein the component is a flat, planar sheet of material to be attached to or removed from a surrounding framework without disassembling the framework.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 127.9]    127.9Tool operates swinging arm latch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.7.  Structure wherein the adjunctive means manipulates or provides admittance to a connecting means having a pivot attaching it to one component and spaced engaging means adapted to engage a second component, i.e., a pivoted or swinging arm latching means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 128]    128BURIAL VAULT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means defining a receptacle having a space which receives a dead body, casket or coffin at the burial site for interment.

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19,192+, 198+, 234+, 245+, and 261+ for a construction forming an enclosure of more general application.

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27Undertaking,   subclasses 2+ for a coffin, casket or portable coffin-case for receiving and transporting a body for burial.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 129]    129With corpse, or corpse product, treating feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure including apparatus and materials for treating the corpse or products, e.g., fluids and gasses emitted by it.

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27Undertaking,   subclasses 21.1+ for a coffin or burial casket having means for disinfecting or preserving.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 130]    130Disinfectant means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Structure including a disinfectant means acting to preserve the corpse or to treat the corpse product.

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   appropriate subclass for a disinfecting composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 131]    131With fluid guiding port from ambient:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure including an opening, e.g., port, in an outer barrier of the receptacle which communicates the enclosed space with the ambient atmosphere or earth.

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129+,for a drain or vent with a corpse product treating feature.
198+,for a similar structure of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 132]    132With internal air director:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 131.  Structure including structure within the enclosed space for directing circulating air.

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454Ventilation,   appropriate subclass, for a ventilated enclosure of more general application having means for directing or forcing air to or from an enclosed space relative to the ambient atmosphere.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 133]    133Combined:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure including means combined with the receptacle, e.g., vault, having functions other than primarily forming the structure of the receptacle or perfecting such structure for its primary purpose, e.g., tombstones, transparent section, wheels, closure operations, etc.

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124.1+,for a vault element with handling means.
129+,for a corpse or corpse product treating combination.
131+,for a vault with fluid guiding means.
139+,for a vault with a closure which may include a hinge or operator.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 134]    134Mausoleum type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure, including a building construction in addition to that forming the receptacle, e.g., a mausoleum.
(1) Note. The building construction usually holds a plurality of vaults arranged to form a wall which defines a side of an access corridor in a building and each vault has an entrance opening into the corridor.

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234+,for a multiroom building of more general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 135]    135Concentric barrier sections with dissimilar sealing lamina therebetween:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure including concentric inner and outer wall layers with a sealing material that is different from the material of the receptacles, e.g., asphalt or Portland cement, between the receptacles.

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265,for a floor and wall formed by a laminated barrier enclosing a space.
267+,for a laminated wall enclosing a space.
408+,for a construction involving a preshaped dividing lamina.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 136]    136Compartmented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure including structure dividing the enclosed space into a plurality of compartments.

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134,for a building having plural corpse compartments.
135,for a vault of concentric receptacles with dissimilar lamina between them.
234+,for a compartment construction of more general utility, e.g., a multiroom building.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 137]    137Plural covers defining a compartment therebetween:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 136.  Structure including plural cover type members, one above the other, defining a compartment therebetween, and a compartment for the corpse below the lower cover member.
(1) Note. A vault having a casket chamber and a dead air chamber above the casket chamber are here included.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 138]    138Hood type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure including a continuous concave, open-bottom, cover (hood) having substantial side walls adapted to envelop a casket or coffin and usually resting upon a base.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 139]    139With separately placeable closure in abutting relation to wall edges:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 128.  Structure including a separate closure, forming one barrier wall of the receptacle, which is placed against terminal edges of other walls of the receptacle.

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138,for a hood-like receptacle the vertical walls of which rest on a floor.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 140]    140With sealing material retaining construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Structure including a feature which confines flowable, plastic or elastomeric material acting as a hermetic seal between the closure and the walls of the receptacle.

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393+,for a construction with resilient divider between opposed layers.
416+,for lapped multiplanar or strip covered joint surfacing utilizing a settable material applied in situ.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclasses 475.1+ for a closure seal, e.g., striker gasket or weather strip and see the search notes thereto for loci of other seals.
277Seal for a Joint or Juncture,   for a generic sealing means or process, subclasses 628+ for a static contact seal for other than an internal combustion engine, or pipe, conduit, or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 141]    141Tongue and groove type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Structure including a closure and receptacle wall juncture feature of the tongue-and-groove type and in which the sealing material is in the groove and the tongue is embedded in the sealing material.

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436,for a construction where there is a settable material section between integral interengaging means or modules.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 142]    142Sectional side walls and floor construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Structure in which the receptacle side walls and the floor are composed of a plurality of distinct sections or units assembled together.

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250+,for a construction forming an intersection with a cast component.
264+,for a construction wherein a floor supports spaced walls.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 143]    143WITH TRANSPORTING FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means facilitating the transportation of an entire building or a component specialized to such use.

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122.1+,for a structure with lifting or handling means.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   for a railway vehicle specialized to such use.
114Ships,   for an enclosure specialized to use on water.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   for a vehicle having running gear or other features specialized to travel over the earth. Class 52 takes a separable enclosure which is convertible to in situ ground supported use and a mere structure forming a box-like enclosure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 144]    144WITH EXPOSED CONFIGURATION HAVING ACOUSTICAL FUNCTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure which in the completed construction presents an exposed, i.e., visible, face having a defined physical configuration peculiar to the attenuation of sound.
(1) Note. Mere definition of a material, e.g., fibrous, porous, rock wool, etc., is not a definition of a physical configuration and such subject matter classified elsewhere in this class on other features, and see the references herein after under "Search Class".

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17,for an insulated car roof.
167.1+,for means compensating earth- transmitted force, e.g., earthquakes.
238.1+,for a resilient spacer, holding a partition from a barrier, which may act to absorb sound waves.
347,for a member isolating a backing from support.
380+,for a cast in situ barrier having an isolated space filled with insulated material.
393+,for a component separated by a relatively yieldable spacer.
404.1+,for a construction with a nonsettable insulating material within a cavity.
573.1,for a structure having means accommodating dimension variation responsive to changing conditions, which means may also act as buffer to sound waves.

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181Acoustics,   particularly subclasses 30 and 290+ for a sound deadening unit, per se, even though it may be made of multiple layers, i.e., not including features for a building structure combination.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 145]    145Absorbing material behind foraminous facing sheet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Structure wherein a perforated exposed sheet conceals a sound absorbing material.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 146]    146VERTICAL STRUCTURE WITH BRACE, OR GUY, EXTENDING DIAGONALLY TO A BASE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including an elongated rigid vertically extending primary structure, e.g., wall, column or post, which is held against a laterally applied force by a brace or guy which is outside of and extends away from the primary structure diagonally downward to a base for the primary structure, usually the earth.

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296+,for a footing.
651.01+,for a three dimensional openwork, e.g., skeleton tower, which often includes diagonal bracing between corner shafts.
831,for a shaft structure of general application.

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211Supports: Racks,   subclasses 119.01+ for a clothes line with isolated poles in which the poles may be guyed.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 147]    147Attached discrete guard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Apparatus including (1) discrete guard member attached to the brace or guy and serving as a protector therefor or (2) such a guard, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 148]    148Flexible guy type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Apparatus wherein the guy is a flexible strand, e.g., rope or cable.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 149]    149With adjustable means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Apparatus including means to adjust the brace or guy.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 150]    150At brace and shaft intersection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Apparatus in which the adjusting means is at or adjacent the point of contact of the brace or guy and the primary structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 151]    151For tie between shaft and brace:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Apparatus having a lateral tie between the brace and structure which tie is provided with an adjustment to vary the stress therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 152]    152Spaced or angularly related braces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Apparatus having braces which are spaced or angularly related to each other.

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148,for a flexible diagonal member which often requires a plurality of such members to properly guy the vertical structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 153]    153SHAFT WITH EMBEDDING WING-TYPE BRACE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including an elongated rigid structure (shaft) or its base having a rigid sheet form brace member mounted on and projecting outwardly thereof with the juncture of the shaft and member extending in the direction of the shaft axis, said member in use serving to resist lateral movement of the shaft relative to the earth.

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155+,for a shaft with a terminal earth piercing or expanding feature.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 154]    154Wings in different planes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Structure in which two or more of the projecting sheet form members are not in a single plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 155]    155WITH PIERCING OR EXPANDING EARTH ANCHOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including anchoring means having a component which in use is held below ground and which holds another component usually extending above the earth"s surface, which means has (1) a feature for piercing the earth or (2) an anchor component which moves outwardly relative to the element held and thereby acts to prevent or retard movement of the latter relative to the earth.

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153+,for a shaft with an embedded wing type brace.
166,for a "deadman" type anchor.
169.1+,for a residual construction having a defined terranean feature.
292+,for a wall or shaft footing.
679+,for a support for a reinforcing rod having a base penetrator with a limiting stop.
698+,for a residual anchor or tie acting between components of a building construction.

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166Wells,   subclasses 206+ for an expansible anchor or casing operating in or as a well casing.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 6+ for structurally related means acting to ground an electric charge to the earth.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 327+ for a bit or bit element adapted for boring or penetrating the earth.
248Supports,   subclasses 85 , 87, 156, and 545 for a support comprising a ground inserted anchor.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 231+ for a pile to be driven into the earth, particularly subclass 244 for a process or apparatus for placing a shaft provided with laterally projecting structure to anchor the shaft; and subclasses 259.1+ for a structure for preventing undesired earth movement and provided with earth anchors to secure the structure to an earth formation.
411Expanded, Threaded, Driven, Headed, Tool-Deformed, or Locked-Threaded Fastener,   subclasses 1 through 80for an anchor or holding device in the form of an expansible member which merely cooperates with a preformed opening in a preformed component, e.g., a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 156]    156Disparate subterranean anchor components:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Structure in which the below-ground components are discrete units each differing in kind and acting to prevent or retard translatory withdrawal or swinging movement of the structure as a whole after final positioning.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 157]    157Auger-type penetrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Structure having means attached to, extending outwardly of and inclined relatively to the longitudinal axis of the element held, which means penetrates and acts to pull the element into the earth or base when the element held is rotated.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 158]    158Laterally held, translating driven piercer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Structure in which a piercing element is attached outside of the anchored structure with the pierce being mounted for translatory movement relative to the anchored structure when it is driven into the earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 159]    159Guided in plane normal to shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Structure in which an anchoring component is mounted for movement in a plane normal to the principal longitudinal axis of an elongated rigid structure held thereby.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 160]    160Spreader cam or plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Structure including a movable cam or plate which acts to spread the movable anchor component relative to the parts to which it is attached.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 161]    161Screw operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Structure in which the actuating means for the cam or plate includes a screw.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 162]    162Pivot means connecting separate fluke or hook:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Structure including a part including a barbed head or hook member movably connected through pivot means to the major component of the earth held means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 163]    163Fluke or hook pivoted intermediate their ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Structure in which the pivot means for the barb or hook member is substantially spaced from the terminals or edges thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 164]    164Connected by pivoted brace or tie:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Structure including a separate brace or tie which is pivotally connected between the harbor hook member and the part held by it.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 165]    165Supporting separate axially aligned shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Structure including an elongated rigid member and a separate earth piercing section substantially axially aligned therewith and attached thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 166]    166DEADMAN-TYPE ANCHOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means having a component which in use is buried below ground and holds another component which components are substantially different in kind and extend at substantially right angles to each other.

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155+,for a piercing or expanding type earth anchor.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.1]    167.1MEANS COMPENSATING EARTH-TRANSMITTED FORCE (E.G., EARTHQUAKE):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including features (a) allowing motion between supported and supporting structures when a force is transmitted to the structure through the earth, (b) which compensate for earth motion without affecting structure supported by the earth, or (c) having means for absorbing or confining a force transmitted through the earth to a structure.

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393+,for a resilient member sandwiched in between two opposed members.
573.1,for other constructions having means to provide dimensional variation responsive to changing conditions.

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14Bridges,   appropriate subclasses, for roller bearing expansion devices which allow relative movement between the bridge structure and its support.
384Bearings,   for devices which reduce friction between relatively moving elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.2]    167.2Dynamic force generator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.1.  Structure including active apparatus for producing counteractive accelerations in the mass of the building or in the mass of the apparatus which tends to nullify the effects of an earthquake.
(1) Note. Moving weights, sloshing liquids, pendulums, and eccentrically weighted flywheels are some examples of apparatus appropriate for inclusion in this subclass.

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248Supports,   subclass 559 for general purpose moving weights which may be part of a vibration dampening means or attenuation system.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.3]    167.3Cross bracing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.1.  Structure including an array of strategically placed members which triangulate an otherwise conventionally constructed building to minimize the tendency for that structure to rock when subjected to an earth-transmitted force.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.4]    167.4Relative motion means between a structure and its foundation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.1.  Structure including a means allowing movement between a static structure and its supporting foundation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.5]    167.5Rolling support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.4.  Structure wherein the means allowing motion comprises a rolling device (e.g., a ball bearing or a cylindrical bearing) between the structure and its supporting foundation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.6]    167.6With damping or limiting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.5.  Structure including an additional means to retard movement of the structure or to confine or restrict movement of the structure relative to its supporting foundation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.7]    167.7Elastomeric support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.4.  Structure wherein the means allowing motion includes a deformable bearing surface of rubber or a rubberlike supporting device positioned between the structure and the supporting foundation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.8]    167.8With damping or limiting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.7.  Structure including an additional means to retard movement of the structure or to limit or confine movement of the structure relative to its supporting foundation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 167.9]    167.9Polymeric support structure (e.g., Teflon&4121;):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 167.4.  Structure wherein the means allowing motion includes providing a supporting surface of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon&4121;) or other similar polymeric substance between a structure and its supporting foundation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 168]    168WITH PROTECTIVE LIQUID SUPPLY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means for holding a supply of liquid which is attached to or is related to a building structure or building component, the liquid in this container acting to preserve or protect the structure.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 357+ for a fluid handling system of more general application which is installed in a building.
169Fire Extinguishers,   subclasses 5+ for fluid fire extinguishing systems installed in a building.
239Fluid Sprinkling, Spraying, and Diffusing,   subclasses 208+ for a building having a liquid supply means and a sprinkling, spraying or a diffusing device.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.1]    169.1SPECIFIED TERRANEAN RELATIONSHIP:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a claimed feature of the earth or relationship to the earth, e.g., grade level, material between a wall and the earth, underground structures resisting external objects, position in the earth, etc.

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23+,for a structure with an exterior hold down anchored to the earth.
86+,for vertically curved arch with earth supported abutments.
102,for an earth supported type coping.
128+,for a shaft with diagonal earth engaging brace or guy.
155+,for a structure with earth piercing features.
167.1+,for a structure combined with means for compensating earth transmitted forces, e.g., earthquake.
274,and 292+, for a footing or footing combination.
741.11+,for a construction process utilizing the earth.

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14Bridges,   appropriate subclasses for structure there provided for which carries traffic across an open space.
62Refrigeration,   subclass 260 for such systems with a subterranean feature.
89Ordnance,   subclass 36.01 for ordnance shields which may be underground.
137Fluid Handling,   subclass 234.6 for fluid systems with a vehicle guide or support, 236.1 for fluid distribution systems involving geographic features and 363 for a ground supported enclosure for such a system.
165Heat Exchange,   subclass 45 for a heat exchanger structurally related to the earth.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 170.01 through 170.11for liquid purification or separation means installed in a geographic feature.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   appropriate subclasses for a process or apparatus there provided for, particularly subclasses 53+ for underground fluid storage; subclasses 229+ for foundations which are not provided for elsewhere and methods and apparatus for constructing the same and subclass 258.1, specifically subclass 302.4 for a structure or method for preventing the earth from shifting.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.11]    169.11Means to control heat transfer; e.g., insulation or frostline positioning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure with means to control the transfer of heat between a building and the earth. The means can include a positioning of a building relative to a "frostline", i.e., the maximum depth of freezing.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.12]    169.12Mobile home skirt:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure for enclosing the space between the earth"s surface and the floor of a mobile home.

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155+,for piercing or expanding earth anchors.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 768 for trailer skirts.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.13]    169.13Shaft; i.e., elongated rigid structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure which is an elongated rigid substantially upright member, e.g., column, pole post, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.14]    169.14With waterproofing means; e.g., covering, coating, or lamina:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure provided with means, such as a lamina or coating, to prevent the passage of water through the floor or wall of the structure.

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169.5,for waterproofing means which includes a conduit, pipe or porous medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.2]    169.2Geographic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure wherein 1) separate static structures, 2) roads or pavements, 3) subdivided land areas, 4) naturally occurring geographic landmarks, such as rivers, mountains, etc., or 5) any combination of 1) through 4) thereof, are established in a specified relationship to each other.
(1) Note. The mere fact that land is inclined is not considered a geographic feature.

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169.4,for a single building positioned on inclined land.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.3]    169.3Divided terrane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.2.  Structure wherein the specified relationship is between at least two buildings or two subdivided land areas.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.4]    169.4Inclined terrane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure wherein a structure is positioned on land which is inclined.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.5]    169.5With drain or vent exterior to foundation perimeter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure in which a fluid conducting means, such as a pipe, pipe system or a porous medium, facilitates the flow of water or air adjacent the outside of the static structure base but not beneath the base.
(1) Note. Under the basement or cellar floor drain or vent is classified elsewhere. See search notes below.

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198,for an enclosure or cover with a fluid guiding part between ambient and enclosed usable space.
302.1+,for a wall, ceiling, or floor with a passage for a gas or liquid.

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52Static Structures (e.g., Buildings),   subclasses 302.3+ , for an under the basement or cellar floor drain or vent
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.6]    169.6Subterranean enclosure with portal opening; e.g., storm or root cellar, bomb shelter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure which is underground and defines an enclosed usable space with portal means at or leading to the earth"s surface. Included herein are root cellars, bomb shelters, tornado shelters, underground storage tanks and the like.

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19+,for enclosures having horizontal or inclined covers with an entrance for persons or objects.

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109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   for protective devices of that class.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.7]    169.7Open top, embedded container, tank, or reservoir:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure which is embedded in the earth and has an open top adjacent the earth"s surface.

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4Baths, Closets, Sinks, and Spittoons,   subclasses 488+ for a complete pool-type receptacle, and see note to Class 52 for line details.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.8]    169.8With laterally spaced foundation element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.7.  Structure wherein the vertical walls which define the container structure have laterally spaced foundation elements with interconnecting means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 169.9]    169.9Discrete, spaced foundation elements (e.g., post, column):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure which includes spaced column-like or pad-like discrete foundation elements in a building structure extending from the structure downwardly into the earth.

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155+,for a piercing or expanding earth anchor.
169.13,for a post related to the earth.
299,wherein a framework spans spaced footings.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 170]    170Shaft reinforcement adjacent earth’s surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 169.1.  Structure wherein an elongated rigid substantially upright member is provided with means defined as acting to reinforce it at or adjacent the earth"s surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 171.1]    171.1VIEWING PORT FOR SPECIFIC ENVIRONMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure in which a transparent panel is installed in a wall, ceiling, or floor of, usually, a high temperature or pressure chamber for the purpose of watching an operation.

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204.1+,for a window or door frame.
204.5+,for a window.
455+,for a door.

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126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 200 for a heated stove door or window with a transparent panel.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 171.2]    171.2VEHICLE-TYPE WINDSHIELD DEFOGGER OR DEICER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure in which a transparent panel is installed in an automobile, truck, airplane, train, etc., and includes means to either dissipate condensation or melt frozen water.

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397+,for edging around a window pane.

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219Electric Heating,   subclass 203 for an electrically heated window.
237Heating Systems,   subclass 28 for such a system including a window heater.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 84.1+ for a windshield on a vehicle body and top structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 171.3]    171.3TRANSPARENT PANEL HAVING ACTIVE TREATMENT WITH GAS OR LIQUID:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure in which a window includes means for altering opacity, translucence, insulating ability, or color, etc., of the window.

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204.5+,for a window.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclasses 250.001+ for a window cleaning attachment, particularly subclasses 250.01+ for such a combination with material supply means.
62Refrigeration,   subclass 248 for a display-type refrigerator with condensate remover or preventer and subclasses 275+ for a refrigerator with an additional heater to prevent or remove frozen condensate caused by the refrigerating means.
454Ventilation,   subclasses 85 , 93, 95+, 121+, 128+, and 196+ for means for directing air relative to a window pane.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 172]    172Hygroscopic material; e.g., internal drier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 171.3.  Structure in which the treating is a sorbent for water vapor.

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34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   subclasses 80 , 81, 467, and 468 for a process of drying a gas and directing it relative to discrete articles for the purpose of treating the article.
96Gas Separation: Apparatus,   subclasses 108+ for solid sorbent apparatus, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 173.1]    173.1COMBINED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure in which claimed subject matter provided for in another class (e.g., heater) is incorporated with a static construction, a component thereof, or a panel structurally similar to a building panel.
(1) Note. Combinations relating to operative apparatus wherein an operating unit or significant characteristic for such a class is defined; e.g., electrical device or a burner, or wherein the enclosure is a furnace, a casing for a machine, a tool, etc.

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27+,for a static structure specifically modified to hold a disparate article.

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62Refrigeration,   subclasses 259.1+ for a structural installation.
73Measuring and Testing,   subclass 431 for an instrument casing.
89Ordnance,   subclass 36.04 for shields for a fixed structure.
104Railways,   subclasses 27+ for terminals and stations.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   158+ for insulator supporting or attaching means.
343Communications: Radio Wave Antennas,   subclasses 872+ for housings.
361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 600+ for mounting assembly.
362Illumination,   subclasses 145+ with static structure.
451Abrading,   subclasses 451+ for a guard or housing for use with an abrading device.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 173.2]    173.2With a loading dock seal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.1.  Structure in which an impact absorbing and weather sheltering device is secured to the static structure specifically for the reception of a vehicle, usually of a tractor-trailer type.

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2.12,for inflatable loading dock seals.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 173.3]    173.3With a sunlight activated device (e.g., passive solar or photoelectric):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 173.1.  Structure in which a solar energy collecting apparatus is an integral portion of the static structure but does not change the static structure or its arrangement.

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1,for a static structure controlled by condition responsive means.

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126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 633 for a wall or floor constructed with a passage for solar heated fluid to warm a building and subclass 623 for a solar collector housing supported on a roof-type structure.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 200+ for photocells.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 174]    174WITH TRAFFIC-GUIDING FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means peculiar to the direction or control of vehicular or pedestrian surface traffic, e.g., curbs, sidewall guard rails or traffic strips.

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33,for installed furniture or fixtures defining a traffic path.
87,for a vertically curved arch construction combined with a superimposed deck.
184+,for steps with additional building structure which inherently guides traffic.

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14Bridges,   for such a construction not principally of masonry or concrete.
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 6+ for a traffic guide or barrier, per se, and subclasses 9+ for a traffic direction, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 175]    175Multilevel building with ramp:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Structure wherein different levels are formed by a continuous floor which is helical in structure or wherein the different levels are interconnected by an inclined passageway.

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185,for a multi-level building with steps.
236.1+,for another multi-level compartmented structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 176]    176Central ramp group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Structure wherein the inclined passageway means is positioned centrally of the building, usually forming a true helix or an interrupted helical core.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 177]    177SPECIFIED WEAR OR FRICTION-TYPE TRAFFIC-CARRYING SURFACE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including (1) a claimed exposed surface having a physical characteristic specialized to increasing friction or reducing wear caused by pedestrian or other traffic or (2) a separate member covering the end of a stair tread which member conforms to the nosing, i.e., that portion of the tread beyond a riser, for the purpose of reducing wear or increasing friction.

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182+,for (1) a stair construction wherein the member forming the permanent treads of the stairs may have a configuration defining a nosing which is integral with a stair component or (2) a stair covering combined with a stair construction or a tread covering having a defined feature other than for wear or friction reduction.
273,for an intersection having a flexible covering, e.g., carpeting.
327+,for a cast floor with additional coextensive section.
479+,for a facing held by a sustainer which may include plural layer flooring.
506.01+,for a facer attached to dissimilar sub-structure, e.g., linoleum or wood on a dissimilar sub-floor.
660+,for a fabric or lattice open-work not having a defined friction or wear surface feature.
716.1+,for in situ attached channel or trim strip.
782.1+,for a composite panel.
800.1+,for a composite panel with an attached edging.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclasses 238+ for a foot scraping mat.
16Miscellaneous Hardware,   subclasses 4+ for a carpet fastener wherein a barrier or stair component is only nominally defined.
51Abrasive Tool Making Process, Material, or Composition,   for an abrasive material or composition even though nominally defined as a wear or antislip surface.
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 19+ for a pavement with an antislip surface.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 98+ for a single or plural layer stock material product which is structurally defined, especially subclasses 141+ for a product having an irregular or nonuniform surface, subclasses 156+ for such a product in which at least one component varies in thickness, and subclasses 174+ for such a product in which at least one component is nonplanar.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 179]    179Tread-nosing; e.g., shaped stair pad:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Structure having means at the exposed edge of a stair tread or floor mat which protects the edge from wear or increases friction.

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182+,for stepped construction including uniform surfacing, e.g., carpeting covering plural successive treads and risers.
254+,for an intersection of cast stone-like material having a revealed embedded protector.
716.1+,for a panel of more general utility having a separately attached edging.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 180]    180Perforate structure having twisted element or particular surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Structure having (1) spaced bars or strips which are twisted along their length or (2) a grating or perforated sheet having a feature forming a defined traffic carrying surface which is discrete with respect to the sheet or grating itself.

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660+,for another openwork lattice or fabric surface forming structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 181]    181Exposed embedded element or inserted filler:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 177.  Structure including (1) an element which is embedded in a settable material of (2) elements which are inserted into openings formed in a prefabricated sheetlike holder for the elements and which in the final product are exposed at the traffic receiving surface.

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318,for cast in situ barrier, e.g., floor, having revealed intersecting strips and see notes.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 182]    182STEPPED; E.G., STAIR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure defining (1) a stepped structure, i.e., surfaces which are arranged in repetitious vertical and horizontal offset relationship or (2) a specific building structure having attached footholds or rungs.

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6+,for a construction with an auditorium, stadium or theater feature in addition to a mere stepped structure, e.g., a stepped structure with seat means.
179,for a tread nosing wear or anti-skid feature.
518+,for lapped multiplanar surfacing, e.g., shingled, in which surfacing sections are offset and lapped.

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108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   subclasses 92+ for a terraced article supporting structure with a specific understructure.
182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   appropriate subclasses for a ladder, per se, with rungs, steps or treads in the plane of a stile or stringer but which lack a riser, i.e., a vertical closing plate between tread members.
256Fences,   subclass 22 for a stair rail (banister).
280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 163+ for a step structure specialized to vehicle use.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 183]    183Interconnected relatively movable components:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Structure having means forming a connection between at least two step forming components which allow relative movement between them, e.g., folding stairs.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 184]    184With additional building feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Structure in which the stepped structure is formed in conjunction with or attached to a barrier or other component of an in situ erected building structure having a load bearing or shielding function.

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193,for liquid or fluent material container with a rod crossing a material port in a wall, which rod may serve as a rung.

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182Fire Escape, Ladder, or Scaffold,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 90+ and 93+ for a floor or wall attached rung, step or ladder where no feature of construction other than that merely serving as a support for such elements is defined.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 185]    185Multilevel building:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Structure wherein the stepped means is combined with a building having floors at different levels.

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175+,for multilevel building with a spiral or ramp.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 186]    186Closure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Structure including a movable closure means structurally related to the stepped structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 187]    187Helical type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Structure in which the stepped structure is arranged around a vertical center line.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 188]    188Tread unit on horizontal tread member connected to riser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Structure in which a horizontal surface (tread) member, is supported above another discrete horizontal member, the latter being connected to a vertical front member (riser).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 189]    189Precast stonelike component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Structure in which at least one part, e.g., tread, riser or stringer, of the stepped construction is made of settable material which has set to rigidity before being used at the site.

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600+,for a reinforced cast module.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 190]    190Integral tread and riser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 189.  Structure in which a tread and riser are cast as a monolith.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 191]    191Risers connected to common stringer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Structure in which the vertical components of the step structure are individually connected to an elongated member formed as a single component serving as the primary beam (stringer).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 192]    192FLUENT MATERIAL HOPPER OR STORAGE CONTAINER WITH MATERIAL PORT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a container or receptacle structure, e.g., tank, bin or cistern particularly adapted to retain liquid or fluent solid materials and having a port, i.e., an opening in its outer barrier structure through which the material is either deposited within or withdrawn from the structure.

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168,for a static structure combined with a protective liquid reservoir.

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137Fluid Handling,   subclasses 154+ , 356, 583, and 613 for an enclosure having more than one fluid handling port.
220Receptacles,   appropriate subclass for a receptacle having a port there provided for.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 193]    193Rod crossing port:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Structure in which the rods or ladder rungs cross the port and are usually secured to the side edges of the container or receptacle which form the port.

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184,for a building structure combined with means for a stair or ladder and see notes.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 194]    194Elevated container, leg-supported:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Structure wherein the fluent material hopper or container is supported by legs or is otherwise elevated.

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220Receptacles,   subclass 567 for an elevated tank for confining a fluid.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 195]    195With chute:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Structure wherein the container is provided with wall attached means forming an elongated passageway communicating with the material port.

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193Conveyors, Chutes, Skids, Guides, and Ways,   subclasses 2+ for a chute, per se, or merely combined with enough structure to support it.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 196]    196Framed port in wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Structure in which the port is defined by a discrete frame structure mounted in the container or receptacle structure.

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204.1+,for a construction having a feature for a closure or window opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 197]    197Bottom outlet port; e.g., hopper bottom:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 192.  Structure in which the port is located in the bottom, i.e., floor of the container or receptacle structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 198]    198ENCLOSURE OR COVER, WITH SUPPLEMENTAL FLUID-GUIDING PORT BETWEEN AMBIENT AND ENCLOSED USABLE SPACE (E.G., ROOF RIDGE VENT):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure forming an enclosure for or a cover over a usable space (a room or compartment) and having a fluid guiding port in an outer barrier (wall, ceiling or floor) communicating with the space and the ambient earth or air.
(1) Note. A door or window and/or opening therefor is not a fluid guiding port. See the search notes below for a construction with means forming such a portal opening.

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19+,for a closure with top entrance opening for persons or things.
192+,for a fluent material container with a port for the material.
204.1+,for construction with means forming a door or window and/or opening therefor.
220.1+,for a construction with service duct within a barrier.
270+,for a barrier construction with a fluid handling feature within the barrier.
503+,for barriers having a fluid passage formed by modules.

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454Ventilation,   appropriate subclasses for a ventilating structure with air directing or controlling features other than mere windows.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 199]    199Attic vent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 198.  Structure in which the port is within the roof or cover of the enclosure and acts to vent the space below the roof or cover.

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64+,for construction with a barrier or mounted for repositioning, e.g., hinged roofs or skylights wherein the hinged roof is a movable section.

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454Ventilation,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 1+ and 339+ for building with air guiding or forcing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 200]    200CUPOLA OR SKYLIGHT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means forming an enclosure located on and within the periphery of a roof and having an open bottom or passage communicating with the space beneath the roof.
(1) Note. Where the entire cover structure is considered a skylight (e.g., greenhouse roof), the claims should be classified under the appropriate cover structure; e.g., compound curve cover, inclined cover.

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18,for a clerestory or sawtooth type roof.
72,for a cupola or roof section mounted for repositioning.
80.1+,for a compound curve cover construction, e.g., dome.
90.1+,for an inclined roof or rafter with supporting substructure.
202+,and 204.1+, for a construction relating to a window or door through a barrier.

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454Ventilation,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 339+ for a related structure combined with an air directing or control means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 201]    201BAY WINDOW:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a generally, U-shaped enclosure extending outwardly of a building wall and having an open side facing the interior of a building.

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73+,for a guyed or cantilevered barrier, e.g., a cantilevered bay window.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 202]    202AUXILIARY IMPERFORATE PANEL-LIKE SHIELD ATTACHED TO MAIN PANEL, BARRIER, OR FRAME:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including (1) two panels of different size, the smaller of which protects and is attached to, facially contacts, or is sealed to the surface of the larger panel or to a frame surrounding the larger panel, or (2) a panel which is attached to the outside of a barrier and which protects and covers an opening in the barrier, which opening is occupied by another, usually permanent, panel, e.g., storm panels over permanent windows.

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204.1+,for another construction defining or relating to an opening through a barrier, particularly subclasses 204.5+ for a window with attached bars or the like acting to reinforce the glass.
476,for a cornered frame with a releasable facer retainer, e.g., for holding a window light in a surrounding framing section for it.
479+,for a barrier construction having facially opposed surfacing sections.
483.1+,for a facer abutting and concealing a frame.
506.01+,for a facer attached to another dissimilar in situ erected type structure.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclasses 50+ for a protective grille which overlies a main closure, one of which is movable or removable and subclasses 61+ for an auxiliary closure which overlies a main closure one of which closure is movable or removable.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 203]    203Auxiliary pane attached to main pane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Structure wherein a transparent, relatively smaller, auxiliary pane or film is mounted on and contacts or is sealed to an exposed surface of a main pane, usually removably.

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204.52,for a double pane panel having a drain or vent to the ambient atmosphere.
396.01+,for a structure including plurality of facially spaced similar panels held apart by a resilient separator.
788+,for a unit including parallel panes, i.e., double glass panels, usually held by a peripheral frame.

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296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 97.1+ for glare shields attached to a windshield or its frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.1]    204.1FRAMING TO RECEIVE DOOR, DOOR JAMB, OR WINDOW SASH:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure having defined structure outlining a passageway which traverses a barrier (e.g., wall), said passageway is designed for a means which allows access of light, air, people, or a pet.

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19+,for a roof with an entrance way through it.
64+,for a barrier section mounted for repositioning.
85,for a curved arch type doorway.
97,for an outwardly extending liquid projector including a window sill having a claimed feature for this function.
171+,for a transparent panel for a specific environment.
186,for a closure related to a stair.
200,for a cupola or skylight above a roof.
201+,for a bay window.
202+,for an auxiliary shield and/or main panel or frame arrangement.
220.1,for a service duct with a lateral outlet.
302.1+,for a structure with a vent or passage to its interior; e.g., a wall drain.
306+,for a structure with a translucent block or embedded translucent component.
473,for a louvered panel.
633+,for a foraminous structure; e.g., repetitious members defining the peripheries of openings.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware,   subclasses 193+ for sash structure.
49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclass 504 for a frame member insertable in an opening having means adapting the member for use with a closure; e.g., a stop.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.2]    204.2Lintel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Framing defining a load bearing generally horizontal member spanning an opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.5]    204.5WINDOW OR WINDOW SASH, SILL, MULLION, OR GLAZING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure defining a framework surrounding at least one piece of transparent material (as glass) for the admission of light.

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107,for a below grade wall for a portal opening.
171.1+,for a transparent panel for a specific environment.
201,for a bay window.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclass 380 for a window and frame or sash transferable as a unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.51]    204.51Having a fixed pane and a movable pane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window comprising a stationary portion and a displaceable portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.52]    204.52With a plug:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.  Drain or vent in which a distinct device closes the sash or window frame fluid conveying means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.53]    204.53Architrave; i.e., molding or finish strip touching pane face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window including a strip form element which extends over the pane face (the art term being "the architrave") so that the plane of the strip form element intersects the plane of the surface defining a window opening, i.e., the strip form element covers and outlines the portion of the wall face that intersects the surface defining the inside of a window frame.

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58+,for flashing.
716.1+,for molding strips.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.54]    204.54Separable and lapped sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.53.  Architrave wherein the strip form element comprises two sections covering a major portion of the pane with the sections being in face-to-face lapped relationship with each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.55]    204.55Sash having integral securing means (e.g., nailing strip):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window in which the framework includes a portion, usually with holes or slots, for fasteners to attach the framework to the wall.

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211+,for an architrave.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.56]    204.56For size adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.55.  Securing means including means to adjust the framework to the size of the wall opening.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclass 505 for a means to alter the relative a position of the closure frame components or the closure frame to a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.57]    204.57Intersection of panes having coextensive exposed sustainer (i.e., corner):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window in which a juncture member that connects two panes along their length or width is visible to an observer.

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282.1,for an exposed intersection member for panels or modules.
287,for a sheetlike trim member at an intersection.
764+,for coplanarily arranged sections having a framing member between and separating the section edges and having an interfitting configuration between the framing member and the section.

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109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   subclass 79 for vault corners.
217Wooden Receptacles,   subclass 65 for box corners.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for just a corner connector.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.58]    204.58Finite tie for intersection of panes (i.e., corner):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window in which a juncture member connects two panes along their length or width.

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712+,for a sheet and wire tie of more general application.

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109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   subclass 79 for vault corners.
217Wooden Receptacles,   subclass 65 for box corners.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for just a corner connector.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.59]    204.59Ornamental-type; e.g., stained glass or mosaic-type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window wherein the panes of glass are (1) colored or (2) cut in unique shapes and fitted into a sash.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.591]    204.591Spacing pane from disparate edging:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Structure in which the separator member or a part thereof acts to space the edge or face of a window pane from a section or component of a strip-like member positioned at its edge, which section or component (e.g., a sash component), acts to hold or retain the panel.

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785+,for sandwich or hollow panels.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.593]    204.593At least two spaced panes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.591.  Structure including at least two similar panels held in facially spaced parallel relationship by the separator member.

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204.52,for a double pane vented panel.
811+,for another composite panel formed by facially spaced panes.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.595]    204.595Spaced by unitary or contacting U-channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.593.  Structure in which the separator means is either a single unitary member or plural members in side-by-side contact which have two or more U-shaped channels, each of which overlaps the edge and adjacent faces of a different one of a pair of laterally spaced panels.

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204.597,for single U-shaped channel overlapping edge and face of a panel.
811+,for a parallel spaced pane or panel.
823+,for a panel, per se, with U-shaped edging.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.597]    204.597Overlapping edge and face of pane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.591.  Structure in which one of the separated components of a panel, usually a glass pane, is separated from an adjacent component by means which covers the edge and adjacent areas of the faces of the panel (e.g., a U-shaped strip).

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204.595,for similar devices spacing plural panels.
811+,for a parallel spaced pane panel.
823+,for panel, per se, with disparate U-shaped channel edging.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.599]    204.599Metallic spring (e.g., strip separator):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.591.  Structure wherein the resilient separator is a metallic spring, frequently a longitudinally deformed metallic strip.

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769,for a springy strip panel retainer which does not act as a separator.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.6]    204.6Multiple panes within a sash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window in which at least two window pieces are positioned in one peripheral framework.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.61]    204.61Decorative grill attached to sash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window in which a lattice type structure is fastened to the sash presenting a multiple pane appearance.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.62]    204.62Attaching means securing a pane to a sash member or to another pane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window wherein (1) a distinct member fixes a pane to the framework or (2) a distinct member completely separates two adjacent panes in the same plane.

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235,for a curtain wall.
764,for a wall, ceiling, or floor section separated by a framing member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.63]    204.63Sash piercing element (e.g., glazing points):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.62.  Window securement wherein the pane retaining means includes a member which pierces the framework to fix the pane in position.

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765,for wall, ceiling, or floor framing or section piercing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.64]    204.64Including cam or wedge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.62.  Window securement wherein the pane retaining means includes (1) a rotating or sliding piece that imparts motion to a pin free to move in a groove or (2) a rectangular-shaped piece that tapers to a thin edge.

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766,for a wall, ceiling, or floor section with attaching means that has a cam or wedge.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.65]    204.65Clamped against pane by turning cam engaging screw:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.64.  Window securement cam including a screw which engages the surface of the rotating or sliding piece that imparts motion to a pin free to move in a groove and which, when turned, in cooperation with said piece causes a retaining element to press against the pane.

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767,for a wall, ceiling, or floor section clamped to framing by turning a cam engaging screw.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.66]    204.66Pivots or includes pivoting actuating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.62.  Window securement wherein the pane retaining means is (1) mounted for rotational motion or (2) includes a rotating part which moves a retainer into its retaining position adjacent the pane.

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768,for a wall, ceiling, or floor section including a pivotable attaching means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.67]    204.67Contacting pane front and back then fastens to sash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.62.  Window securement wherein separate retaining members, either angularly, or curvilinearly shaped, touch opposite faces of a pane, said members, or one of said members being interconnected by a separate fastener to the framework.

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770,for a wall, ceiling, or floor section attaching means that contacts section front and back faces then is fastened to a frame member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.68]    204.68Interconnected by intermediate member and fastener:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.67.  Window securement connector including at least one separate element located between the retaining members and mutually joined by at least one fixing means such as a screw.

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771,for a wall, floor, or ceiling section attaching means contacts section front and back faces then is fastened to a frame member by an intermediate member and fastener.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.69]    204.69Pane to sash attaching means resiliently biased:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.62.  Window securement wherein the pane retaining means is formed of springy thin-walled material or is made of wire, said retaining means being flexed when in its pane retaining position so as to press the pane into a predetermined position.

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773,for a wall, ceiling, or floor section attached to frame by a resiliently biased member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.7]    204.7With attaching means element received in channel or aperture in sash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.62.  Window securement wherein a portion of the pane retaining means is situated either in (1) an opening extending through the framework or (2) in a groove in the framework.

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775,for a wall, ceiling, or floor section attaching element received in a frame channel or aperture.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.705]    204.705Solid three-sided glazing strip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 764.  Structure wherein the pane retaining means consists of a solid strip having a triangular shape and used for holding a pane against a sustainer in a window.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.71]    204.71U-shaped channel formed of separate strips overlapping pane edge, front, and back:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Window wherein the periphery of the window has independent members forming the letter "U" which cover both the pane thickness and extend over a portion of both major faces.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 204.72]    204.72With mechanical fastener for securing strips:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.71.  Channel in which a bolt, screw, etc., is used to fix the members to the sash.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 205]    205Access portal in interior partition; e.g., into office or storage space:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Structure including a partition on the inside of an enclosure, which partition has the passageway therethrough.

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238.1+,for another construction wherein an interior type partition is used.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 206]    206Wall with plural portals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Structure in which the barrier construction is a wall having means defining plural, separate passageways.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclasses 95+ for closures in spaced openings along a barrier and interconnected for concurrent movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 207]    207With one movable door section and at least one fixed section (e.g., sliding doors):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Structure including a barrier having crossing or intersecting elongated members defining plural areas some of which are occupied by fixed panels, e.g., panes, and at least one being a passageway occupied by a movable floor or window.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 208]    208Specific studding arrangement for door, doorjamb, or window sash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Structure including a panel and means for attaching it over or in a passageway in a barrier by adhering or clamping it in contact with the major face of the barrier or in contact with a seal sandwiched between said face and the panel.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 209]    209Having a drain or vent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.5.  Structure including means for draining or venting the surface between the opposed barrier faces, e.g., the space within a barrier behind a door or window frame.

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302.1,for a drain, vent or vent plug combination of more general application.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclass 408 for a drain in the guide or sash of a sliding closure, subclass 471 for a threshold with a drain or vent and subclass 476.1 for a closure seal with a fluid drain or a closure face mounted deflector.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 210]    210Specific studding arrangement for door, doorjamb, or window sash:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Structure wherein the framing of a door or window opening is directly attached to the studding of a wall or wherein the studding itself is part of the passageway frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 211]    211Architrave; i.e., finish strip on floor, ceiling, or wall opening:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Structure including a strip from element, which extends over the barrier face (the art term being "the architrave") so that its plane intersects the plane of the surface defining a door or window opening (the art term for this surface being "the reveal"), i.e., the strip form element covers and outlines a portion of a wall face intersecting the surface defining the inside of a door or window frame.

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716.1+,for molding strips and see notes.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 212]    212Separable and lapped sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Structure wherein the strip-form element comprises two sections covering a major portion of the reveal with the sections being in face-to-face lapped relationship with each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 213]    213Retaining feature between frame and reveal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.1.  Structure having framing means defining the passageway, which means differs in kind from that forming the barrier and including means rigidly and permanently connecting together the means and the means defining surface forming the opening through the barrier (reveal).

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211+,for a reveal and a border strip extending over the barrier surface (architrave).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 214]    214Catch or resilient strip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.55.  Structure including (1) a resilient strip (2) a fastening device, held between the reveal and the framing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 215]    215Buck:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Structure having sub- framing means to be enclosed by framing means defining the opening.

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364+,for a penetrating receiver ground member construction where no feature forming a frame is defined, i.e., where the ground member may be defined as a "buck" of "frame member".
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 216]    216Foraminous section of frame embedded:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Structure in which the means defining an opening has a foraminous portion embedded in a plastic to-rigid settable material, e.g., plaster.

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255+,for a cast in situ embedded protector for a corner.
660+,for a fabric or lattice surface forming type sheet which may be used as an embedded reinforcement.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 217]    217For size-adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Structure including means to adjust the frame to the size of the passageway.

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49Movable or Removable Closures,   subclass 505 for a means to alter the relative position of the closure frame components or the closure frame to a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 218]    218FLUE WITH GASEOUS FLUID-DIRECTING FEATURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure comprising tubular means confining gaseous products and including means directing a gaseous fluid (air or other gas) therein to or therefrom.

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110Furnaces,   subclass 184 for a metal smokestack peculiar to solid fuel burning furnaces.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclasses 500+ for a flue construction including a fireplace and subclasses 307+ for a stovepipe peculiar to that class.
454Ventilation,   subclasses 1+ for a chimney or stack which conducts air or products of combustion between a ventilated space and the surrounding environment.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 219]    219FLUE CONNECTION TO BUILDING STRUCTURE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including tubular means guiding gaseous products, a specific building structure and connecting means therebetween.

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218+,for flue structures combined with a gaseous fluid director there provided for.

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285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclasses 42+ for a combined flue and roof flashing, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.1]    220.1WALL, CEILING, OR FLOOR DESIGNED FOR UTILITIES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure in which a distinct duct-type path for water, fuel, heating fluid, cooling fluid, or electrical systems is an integral part of the barrier.

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34+,for an installed lavatory fixture.
95,for a roof end structure with conduit or passage means.
192+,for liquid or fluent material container with material port.
209,for window with drain or vent.
219,for a flue connection to a specific building structure.
302.1+,for a barrier construction within exteriorly opening fluid handling feature.
503+,for a barrier with a through fluid passage formed by the component modules of the barrier.
533+,for a lapped surfacing with fluid handling feature in the joint.
553,for a lapped multiplanar surfacing with an interior space.

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62Refrigeration,   subclasses 440+ for a cooled enclosure having means or a relationship of components specialized to refrigeration, particularly subclass 451 for a duct confining a flowing coolant and covered by insulation means.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 633 for a wall or floor constructed with a passage for solar heated fluid to warm a building.
137Fluid Handling,   subclass 234.6 for a fluid handling system related to a vehicle guide or support, subclass 236.1 for such a system related to a geographical feature and subclass 343 for such a system in a static structural installation.
138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclasses 156+ for ducts.
165Heat Exchange,   subclasses 53+ for a specific heat exchanger structurally installed in a wall, ceiling, or floor.
174Electricity: Conductors and Insulators,   subclasses 50 through 64, 68.1-136, and 480-507 for a passageway specifying electrical features; e.g., a wire.
220Receptacles,   subclass 3.2 for an outlet or junction box even though a mere connection to a buried conduit may be defined.
237Heating Systems,   subclass 69 for a heating system including a duct in a floor.
285Pipe Joints or Couplings,   subclass 64 for a pipe joint supported by an element of a building construction.
454Ventilation,   subclasses 270+ for a hollow wall structure with air distributors; e.g., inlet to space.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.2]    220.2Load-bearing, prefabricated, abutting units with aligned utility passages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.1.  Unit which is constructed with; e.g., ducts that, upon assembly, line up with a matching unit to receive a utility therethrough.

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302.2,for drain or vent with an aligned passage.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.3]    220.3Multiple passageway or multicellular load-bearing units (e.g., grid or two parallel pipes in a slab):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.1.  Unit containing (1) two parallel duct-type paths or (2) a network of uniformly arranged horizontal and perpendicular spaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.4]    220.4Corrugated type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.3.  Unit in which the paths are defined by alternating parallel ridges and grooves.

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783.11+,for a corrugated sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.5]    220.5Completely accessible continuous trench duct type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.1.  Floor containing an opening that runs the length or width thereof and is covered to provide a planar trafficable surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.6]    220.6Suspended ceiling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.1.  Ceiling in which the utilities are carried in a space beneath a floor and sheetlike elements held by a grid hanging from the floor.

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506+,for suspended ceilings.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.7]    220.7Partition type (e.g., raceway arrangement):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.1.  Wall in which the utility is in demountable panel-type or modular-type structures.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 220.8]    220.8Having a passageway through the entire wall, ceiling, or floor thickness (e.g., poke-through):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.1.  Wall, ceiling, or floor in which an opening, made at the smallest wall, ceiling, or floor dimension, provides access from one side of; e.g., a wall, to the other side for the utility to pass through.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 222]    222TENSIONED OR FLEXED SHEET FACING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including an exposed facing sheet which is attached to another structure which sheet is defined as (1) being under tension, (2) flexed or (3) defining that the other structure has means operating to pull on the sheet, the sheet acting to stress a substructure or frame so that the components of the assembly act to strengthen the structure as a whole.

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179+,for a stair tread nosing which may be formed by a tensioned sheet, e.g., carpet.
223.1+,for a precompressing, e.g., prestressing construction.
273,for a flexible barrier covering which may be stretched to hold it flat.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.1]    223.1WITH COMPONENT HAVING DISCRETE PRESTRESSING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a compressive preloading of a static structure or portion thereof by either a pre-tensioning or post-tensioning member to reduce or eliminate tensile stress.

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222,for a tensioned sheetlike facing.
231,for a related structure having means stretching the reinforcement but not applying compressive stress to the material.
291,for an adjustable stressing means acting to correct warp.
600+,for a module with embedded reinforcement.
854,for an elongated rigid structure with mechanically attached or bonded projection.

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29Metal Working,   subclasses 446+ for a process of assembly and/or joining involving prestressing of a part, particularly subclass 452 for prestressing of a rod, filament, or strand.
264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 228+ for processes there provided for involving precompressing.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.11]    223.11Connecting adjacent ends of monolithic beam or girder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.08.  Beam, girder, or truss in which preformed, independent, separately reinforced structural members are joined by the prestressing means to form a continuous type of structural element (i.e., continuous beam).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.12]    223.12Homogenous design (e.g., all metal):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.8.  Beam, girder, or truss in which the structural element including the prestressing means is fabricated from a single material (e.g., steel).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.13]    223.13Anchorage (e.g., end):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Preloaded structure including a device for holding the prestressing means after tensioning.

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24Buckles, Buttons, Clasps, etc.,   subclasses 122.3 , 122.6, and 127 for strand holder of general application.
254Implements or Apparatus, for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclass 29 for an apparatus applying tension to a rod or strand.
403Joints and Connections,   subclasses 314 and 365+ for an end coupler including wedging or camming means and interfitted members including radially interposed shim or bushing, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.14]    223.14Specific prestressing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Preloaded structure in which significance is attributed to the tensioning member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.2]    223.2Pressure vessel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Preloaded structure comprising a specialized container that is specifically designed to withstand, over the entire interior face, a fluid force that is substantially greater than normal atmospheric conditions.

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220Receptacles,   subclasses 565+ for stationary tanks.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.3]    223.3Tubular shaped tank, silo, cooling tower, etc.:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Preloaded structure which is vertically extending, has a generally circular cross-section, and strengthened to reduce the effect of radial forces.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.4]    223.4Axially loaded vertical structure (e.g., column, derrick):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Preloaded upright structure which is strengthened along an axis perpendicular to or at a high angle to the earth"s surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.5]    223.5Composed of stacked sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.4.  Upright structure which is made up of a plurality of preformed sections placed one on top of the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.6]    223.6Slab or panel construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Preloaded structure which is an architectural element having a generally flat surface (e.g., wall, floor, or ceiling section) and is strengthened to overcome forces in either the vertical or horizontal direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.7]    223.7Composed of abutting modular panels or blocks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.6.  Slab in which the architectural element is made up of a plurality preformed sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.8]    223.8Beam, girder, or truss construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.1.  Preloaded structure which is a distinct generally horizontal structural member strengthened along a major or minor axis to counteract forces from additional loads (e.g., floor, roof).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 223.9]    223.9Composed of abutting sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.8.  Beam, girder, or truss which is made up of a plurality of preformed sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 231]    231MONOLITH WITH SUSTAINER AND MEANS TENSIONING ADDITIONAL REINFORCEMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a cast type structure having a sustainer supporting the structure and additional reinforcing means cooperating with the material, which additional reinforcing means including means associated therewith to stretch or tension them.

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223.1+,for a cast material with means precompressing it.
240,for a partition between rooms combined with tensioning means.
414,for a monolithic cast in situ barrier with sustainer and untensioned embedded reinforcement.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 232]    232IRREVERSIBLY REACTIVE COMPONENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including (1) a component in one layer which reacts chemically with a component of another layer or (2) a component which irreversibly changes in physical or chemical structure other than a mere dimensional change with variations in ambient conditions, e.g., heat or moisture.

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1,for means responsive to a condition to control movement of a component.
573,for a structure allowing mere expansion or contraction in response to a change in an ambient condition.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 15.05+ for a fireproofing, biocidal or antifouling composition there provided for.
252Compositions,   subclasses 2+ for a fire extinguishing composition there provided for.
285Pipe Joints and Couplings,   subclasses 2+ for pipe joints with safety release and subclass 187 for temperature responsive pipe joints.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclasses 920+ (a cross- reference art collection) for a product having a heat or fire protective coating or impregnation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 233]    233LOG WALL-TYPE CONSTRUCTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including shaft-like elements held in edge-to-edge relationship which (1) present coplanar curved exposed faces exhibiting grooves between them, (2) have terminal ends projecting beyond the limits of the intersection or (3) constructions defined as imitating a log wall construction.

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446Amusement Devices: Toys,   subclass 106 for a toy log house.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 234]    234MULTIROOM OR LEVEL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure defining plural areas formed by subdividing a larger area, which areas function to shelter or enclose a person, animal or a movable object.

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6+,for a construction with means defining a stage or arena area.
29+,for a structure where a horizontal surface type article may move into a compartment.
33,for a structure wherein installed fixtures, e.g., store shelving, define a traffic path.
64+,for a construction wherein a wall, floor or roof may move to subdivide a larger area.
79.1+,for a preassembled subenclosure specialized to assembly to form a large building.
106,for a residual jail type structure.
185,for a multilevel building with stairs.
201,for a bay window construction.
205,for a portal in an interior partition.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 235]    235Curtain-wall; i.e., panel attached outside floor or beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Structure in which the outside or sheathing wall of a building includes preformed panels which are supported in crossing relationship to the terminal outside edge of a floor or by the load bearing beams or columns which define the outside limits of the building frame by attachment of the panels.

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236.3+,for another construction having floors at plural levels.
483.1+,for another construction wherein a facer (panel) is held laterally of a repositioned elongated rigid member, a stud or column.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.1]    236.1Nonrectangular:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Structure in which at least one compartment is nonrectangular in shape.

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80.1+,for a compound curve cover, e.g., dome.
85+,for a curvilinear entrance archway.
89+,for a vertically curved arch.
245,for another construction forming a curvilinear barrier.
639+,for a curvilinear or peaked truss.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.2]    236.2Curvilinear:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.1.  Structure wherein at least one wall of the nonrectangular structure is curvilinear in shape.

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79.4,for a prefabricated nonrectangular subenclosure.
245,for a curvilinear barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.3]    236.3Multilevel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Structure wherein the enclosed areas are on different vertically spaced levels, e.g., multistory buildings.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.4]    236.4Staggered levels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.3.  Structure wherein two or more enclosed areas arranged in such a manner that each unit is vertically offset (higher or lower) with respect to its adjacent unit, but not directly above or below its adjacent unit.

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79.2,for vertically staggered prefabricated subenclosures.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.5]    236.5Continuous cementitious barrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.3.  Structure wherein a substantial portion of the vertical walls of at least two adjacent levels and the floor-ceiling barrier therebetween are cast as a single monolithic structure, e.g., poured concrete.

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250+,for cast, stone-like intersection.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.6]    236.6Floor intermediate wall ends:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.3.  Structure wherein a horizontal barrier (floor-ceiling) is disposed between the upper and lower edges of a vertical barrier (wall).

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283,for the intersection of a barrier seated on a projection.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.7]    236.7Superimposed vertical structure with spacing horizontal structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.3.  Structure wherein horizontal barrier (floor-ceiling) is disposed between two vertically spaced distinct walls or columns.

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262+,for a barrier resting on walls or floor supporting walls.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.8]    236.8Horizontal structure includes component of settable material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.7.  Structure wherein a portion of the horizontal barrier has a cast in situ component at the juncture with the vertical walls or columns.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 236.9]    236.9Abutting vertical structure at horizontal structure juncture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.3.  Structure having distinct walls or columns in vertically aligned end-to-end relationship and a horizontal barrier (floor-ceiling) at and spanning the juncture.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 238.1]    238.1Partition secured to and crossed by preconstructed barrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Structure wherein the enclosed areas (i.e., compartments) are formed by a vertical partition secured to and crossed by an intermediate portion of at least one in situ preconstructed wall, ceiling, or floor.

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64+,for a partition mounted relative to a base for repositioning without being totally disconnected therefrom.

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105Railway Rolling Stock,   subclass 375 for auxiliary freight car floors.
114Ships,   subclass 116 for ship bulkheads.
160Flexible or Portable Closure, Partition, or Panel,   subclass 351 for portable partitions.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 283 for a movable shield used in trench excavation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 239]    239Cubicle type; i.e., spaced from floor or ceiling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.1.  Structure wherein the partitions which form the compartments terminate in spaced relationship to a floor or ceiling.

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70,for a collapsible structure which may form collapsible cubicle, e.g., voting booth, but which remains connected to a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 240]    240With tensioning means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.1.  Structure including supporting means which are tensioned or drawn taut by means acting between spaced preconstructed barriers.

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223.1+,for a construction including tensioned reinforcement means which compresses the construction.
231,for a cast monolith including a sustainer and means tensioning an additional reinforcement.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 241]    241Elongated terminal member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.1.  Structure including a distinct elongated member fixed to or resting on a ceiling and/or floor with the construction forming the vertical partition proper being coextensive with and terminating at its top and/or bottom at the member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 242]    242Interfitted trim plate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Structure including a trim-type plate or strip which is interfitted with either the terminal member or with a clip which retains said plate or strip relative to the terminal member.

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290,for strip sections with an end of a sustainer therebetween which are usually a part of the type of construction in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 243]    243Spaced sustainers individually connected to barriers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.1.  Structure including a plurality of separate rigid elongated members (sustainers) extending between and individually connected to the preconstructed barriers.

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690+,for shafts held side-by-side by spacers, e.g., a truss.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 243.1]    243.1Movable element on partition engages overhead barrier; i.e., ceiling, to secure partition in place:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.1.  Structure wherein a body mounted on the vertical partition shifts into contact with an intermediate portion of a ceiling to hold the vertical partition in position between that portion and an intermediate portion of a floor beneath the vertical partition.

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126.3+,for a vertical partition which is lifted into engagement with the ceiling.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 244]    244TUBULAR STRUCTURE WITH EXPOSED TERMINUS EDGE PROTECTOR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including means defining a cap which in use is mounted on and covers the exposed terminal edge of a barrier which encloses a space, e.g., chimney top guards.

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103,for markers or monuments which may include capped stones, slabs or posts.
300+,for another vertical structure with an upper terminus bearing plate or cap.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 245]    245CURVILINEAR BARRIER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a barrier, e.g., wall, which has its opposite faces both curvilinear and substantially parallel or a module specialized to use in forming such a barrier.

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80.1,86+, 192+, 223.3, 236.1, 236.2, 244, 329+, and 639+, for another construction having a curvilinear feature.
503,for a barrier with an internal fluid passage formed by modules.
575,for a module having non-parallel joint faces e.g., keystone shaped block.
606+,for a hollow block which may be used to form a construction with a through passage.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclasses 100+ and 157+, and see the reference to Class 138 in the class definition of this class (52).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 246]    246Supports transverse structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Device including a horizontal structure, e.g., floor or roof, mounted on and crossing at least the inner edge of the curved barrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 247]    247Anchored to disparate base:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Structure wherein the curvilinear barrier rests on a discrete base and wherein additional means are provided for securing the barrier to the base.

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274,for an intersection supported on a base.
292+,for a footing supporting a planar wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 248]    248Dissimilar material hoop tie:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Structure including a strip or rod-like member which encircles the barrier construction.

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223.3,for a similar construction wherein the member has means radially compressing a tubular construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 249]    249Transversely layered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Structure in which the curvilinear barrier is formed of plural layers which are facially opposed.

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561+,for a barrier of laterally related, individually assembled courses and see the search notes under subclass 561 for other constructions involving plural layers.

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138Pipes and Tubular Conduits,   subclass 114 for plural coaxial ducts and subclass 148 for tubular structures having plural spaced layers and see the reference to Class 138 in the class definition of this class (52).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 250]    250INTERSECTION OF A CAST STONELIKE COMPONENT (E.G., CONCRETE FLOOR OR WALL) TO ANOTHER COMPONENT (E.G., WALL):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a reinforced construction having a cast component which forms (a) wall, ceiling, floor or roof, (b) a load bearing column or (c) a girder or beam at least two of a, b or c being arranged in connected relationship with their principal dimension intersecting.

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86+,for a vertically curved stone-like arch construction.
91.2,for inclined roof with supporting substructure and cast material at the eave.
128+,for a burial vault type construction.
174+,for a building construction with a traffic guiding feature.
192+,for a liquid or fluent material container with a fluid port.
198+,for an enclosure with fluid guiding port between the ambient and a usable space.
218,for a flue with a gaseous fluid directing feature.
219,for a flue with a connection to a building structure.
294+,for a concrete type footing structure.
319+,for a barrier construction having rib-like portions projecting from the face of the barrier.
606+,for a module, per se, with a traversing passage.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 251]    251Cast reinforced vertical and horizontal members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Structure which is specialized to a reinforced construction having a vertical component supporting a horizontal component, e.g., monolithic intersection of a column and beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 252]    252Distinct horizontal sustainers between columns:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Structure in which the horizontal component is an elongated sustainer, e.g., a beam or a ribbed cast slab.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 253]    253Rods engage rings or plates at supports:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Structure including embedded plates or rings in the columns, which rings or plates are engaged or contacted by the reinforcement of the horizontal member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 254]    254With revealed embedded protector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Structure including a device extending beneath the exposed faces of a corner defined by intersecting faces of the construction, a portion of the device, usually the outside edge of an angle member, being exposed at the intersection of said faces.

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85,for a curved entrance arch having edge protectors.
179,for a stepped stair tread nosing.
371,for a screed for a planar settable material surface.

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404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 4+ and 7+ for road curb structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 255]    255Cast in situ facings (e.g., corner bead):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Structure in which the member constitutes a reinforcing protector for a corner, created by the intersection of two generally planar facing layers of cast in situ material, e.g., plaster.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 256]    256With separate anchor portions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Structure in which the member has at least two separably connected portions, one forming an exposed corner edge and the other extending into or along the cast in situ facing layers.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 257]    257Longitudinally spaced discrete anchor portions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Structure wherein the reinforcement has a plurality of discrete, separate anchor parts disposed at spaced intervals along its length.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 258]    258Laterally related modules with concealed cast-sustainer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Structure including a sustainer of cast in situ settable material which sustainer is surrounded by modules forming an intersection.

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259,and 260, for other intersection constructions with cast in situ material.
415+,for a barrier formed by a facer bonded by a cast section, e.g., brick wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 259]    259Cast in situ material at module juncture:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Structure including cast in situ material at the juncture of intersecting modules.

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258,for a cast in situ sustainer concealed within an intersection formed by laterally related modules.
415+,for modules bonded to an internal cast in situ section forming a construction of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 260]    260Cast in situ column with radiating-type reinforcement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Structure including a cast in situ reinforced column provided with distinct reinforcing members, e.g., rods, extending transversely of and radiating therefrom into an intersecting cast in situ floor, roof or beam.

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82,for a cover construction with radial ribs.
251+,for a sustainer supporting a transverse structure with reinforcing at the juncture.
258,and 259, for related constructions and see notes.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 261]    261THREE-WAY CORNER CONSTRUCTION (E.G., TWO WALLS AND A FLOOR):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including two or more spaced structures, at least one being a wall, ceiling, floor or roof, which structures are angularly related, usually at 90°, the combined structure defining at least two intersections, e.g., columns supporting a roof, three or more intersecting columns, etc., and thus defining at least three sides of an area.

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241+,for a partition secured to a barrier by a base-board type member; appropriate subclass above for various enclosure constructions involving two or more intersections.
250+,and 272+, for other constructions forming a single intersection.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 262]    262Barrier resting on top of vertical structures; e.g., walls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Structure in which one barrier is a ceiling or roof resting on the upper terminus of two or more spaced vertical load-bearing constructions, e.g., columns or walls.

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11+,for a roof with an eave or a valley gutter.
73+,for a rigid barrier cantilevered from a vertical structure.
86+,for a vertically curved arch.
90.1+,for an inclined cover or rafter with supporting substructure.
94+,for a structure peculiar to a roof having a defined structure forming an exposed terminal edge.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 263]    263On column (e.g., elevated floor):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 262.  Structure in which the vertical structures are columns.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 264]    264Floor supports walls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Structure in which two or more walls rest upon and are supported by a floor.

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274,for a footing supporting intersecting walls.
293.1+,for a footing supporting a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 265]    265Layered barrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Structure in which a barrier (floor or wall) construction is composed of two or more layers of material.

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249,258, 267, and 275+, for a construction forming an intersection involving a barrier of plural layers of material.
506.01+,for a residual construction of dissimilar layers and see the references under "SEARCH CLASS" in subclass 506.01 for various constructions involving a layered structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 266]    266Vertically superposed wall sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Structure wherein at least one wall is formed by distinct wall sections which are arranged in vertically aligned end-to-end relationship.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 267]    267Wall of contacting layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Structure including wall construction having plural, distinct, coextensive layers or sections.

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265,for a construction wherein a floor supports a wall at least one of which is of a layered construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 268]    268Disparate material lamina between layers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Structure including a coextensive layer of material differing in kind from the material on both sides thereof.

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408+,for another construction having a disparate lamina separating other components.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 269]    269Dissimilar material sheet-form facing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Structure including a liner or shell of preformed, sheet-form material and another layer of material differing in kind from that of the liner or shell.

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268,for a disparate material separating facer sections.
506.01+,for a construction formed of modules with an attached sheetlike facing, e.g., metal on brick courses.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 270]    270Walls of modular construction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Structure in which at least one wall structure is composed of preformed modules.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 271]    271Joint key between superimposed modules:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.  Structure in which the modules are superimposed and keying means extend between adjacent surfaces of the modules.

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578+,for a module or panel with a discrete edgewise connecting feature, e.g., integral key or separate fastener.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 272]    272INTERSECTION OF WALL TO FLOOR, CEILING, ROOF, OR ANOTHER WALL (I.E., TWO-WAY CORNERCONSTRUCTION):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including a barrier, i.e., wall, floor, ceiling or roof, which intersects another barrier or a beam or column and also an adjunct or component specialized to use in such a construction, e.g., a corner trim member or corner block.

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64+,73+, 86+, 90.1+, 128+, 234+, 246, 250+, and 261+, for a construction which may include two or more intersections of barriers.

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428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 604 for metallic stock material having intersecting corrugations.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 273]    273Flexible barrier covering: shaped or edge-attached:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure including a flexible sheetlike member, e.g., carpet or linoleum, usually in face-to-face contact with a wall and floor which member is shaped to conform to an intersection or is held at an edge portion by retaining means lying at the intersection corner.

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179,for a member which is shaped to conform to the nosing of a stair tread member and subclasses 182+, for other covered stepped constructions.
287.1+,for an intersection having a corner cove type channel or trim member.
506.01+,for a construction having facer attached to dissimilar substructure, particularly subclass 511, for a mounting means attached to an upholstered facing panel.
716.1+,for a residual in situ attached channel, or trim strip.
800.1+,for a panel with separate attached edging.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware,   subclasses 4+ for a carpet fastener wherein a barrier or a component thereof is only nominally defined.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 274]    274With footing; e.g., foundation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure in which the intersection rests upon a structure differing substantially in kind or size from the supported structure.

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264,for a structure wherein a floor supports plural walls.
292+,for a footing (foundation) of more general utility.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 275]    275Laterally related modules; e.g., spaced surfacing forms corner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure wherein the construction defining an intersection has inner and outer barrier facing sections formed by separate modules which are placed in juxtaposed position, i.e., front to back across a wall.

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506.01+,for a residual construction of dissimilar layers and see the reference under "SEARCH CLASS" in subclass 506.01 for various constructions involving a layered construction.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 276]    276Multiplane overlapping angle and barrier sections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Structure wherein the module defining one of the sections comprises a discrete, integral corner member, e.g., angle or L, which member overlaps the contiguous faces of the intersecting modules of the other section, the exposed surface of the discrete member and the exposed surfaces of the intersecting modules lying in offset planes.

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279,for outer L and abutting inner modules forming intersecting barriers having coplanar exposed surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 277]    277Arcuate angle section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Structure wherein the corner member is curved along a substantial portion between terminal longitudinal edges thereof.

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287.1+,for a corner type trim member, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 278]    278Means attaching angle section to substructure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Structure wherein the corner member has means integral or attached to it which means extends below the inner face of the other section and is attached to a supporting substructure for the latter.

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209+,for a cap-like bridger strip over the juncture of coplanar panels.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 279]    279Abutting inner modules with outer L-type module:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 275.  Structure having inner modules in abutting relationship or separation by a mere divider such as mortar and also an outer L-shaped module covering the juncture of the abutting modules.

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276+,for intersections where the sections of an integral angle overlap the abutting barrier sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 280]    280Trihedral shafts-type corner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure including at least three elongated rigid shafts lying in three intersecting planes each containing two of the shafts at least one sheetlike member forming a barrier or facing attached to at least one of the members and being parallel to its plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 281]    281Sustainer coextensive with junction of panels or modules:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure including an elongated sustainer, e.g., beam or column which is located at, and is longitudinally coextensive with the juncture of angularly related panels or modules.

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258,for an intersection formed by laterally related modules and having a concealed cast in situ sustainer.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 282.1]    282.1Exposed sustainer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 281.  Intersection in which the juncture member is visible to an observer.

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287.1+,for a sheetlike trim member at an intersection.
764+,for coplanarily arranged sections having a framing member between and separating the section edges and having an interfitting configuration between the framing member and the section.

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109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   subclass 79 for vault corners.
217Wooden Receptacles,   subclass 65 for box corners.
403Joints and Connections,   subclass 205 for a corner connector for two members.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 282.2]    282.2With three or more identical panel or module connection points:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.1.  Visible intersection in which the juncture member has at least three similar securing portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 282.3]    282.3Wall, ceiling, or floor section designed to receive corner connector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.1.  Visible intersection in which the juncture member fits into a designated location in a static structure component.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 282.4]    282.4With fastener:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.1.  Visible intersection in which the juncture member has a bolt, screw, rivet, or nail type securing member through the wall juncture pieces.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 282.5]    282.5Compressing a clamping means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.4.  Fastening means in which the juncture member has a threaded bolt-type fastener which presses at least one discrete member against the juncture member.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 283]    283Barrier or module seated on projecting means on vertical structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure including a rigid vertical structure, e.g., column or wall, provided with a laterally extending feature which supports a barrier or preform extending generally horizontally of the vertical structure.

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289,for a construction of coplanar sustainers (joists) intersecting a wall.
702,for a saddle-like cantilevered anchor which holds a joist transversely of a wall.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 284]    284Block type or modular panel type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure including plural angularly related modules or a single module specialized by its shape for use in forming an intersection, e.g., corner blocks.

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281,for corner sustainer coextensive with modules.
608+,for nonrectangular cross-section modules of more general application.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 285.1]    285.1Finite (i.e., not coextensive), disparate material tie:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Intersection including a determinate juncture member composed of a different material than the sections of a wall, floor, ceiling, or roof being secured.

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712+,for a sheet and wire tie of more general application.

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109Safes, Bank Protection, or a Related Device,   subclass 79 for vault corners.
217Wooden Receptacles,   subclass 65 for box corners.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for just a corner connector.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 285.2]    285.2Including threaded tie member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.1.  Intersection in which the determinate juncture member has a bolt or screw-type fastener.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 285.3]    285.3Clip-type tie:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.1.  Intersection in which the juncture member resiliently grips the static structure components in position.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 285.4]    285.4Lockpin-type tie:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.1.  Intersection in which the juncture member has a generally short cylindrically or rectangularly shaped piece that fixes the static structure components in position.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 286]    286Block type having vertical and horizontal keys:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Structure which the module has a key on a vertical surface and a key on a horizontal surface which lock vertically and horizontally, respectively with other modules.

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589.1+,for a module in the same course with keys on angularly related faces.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 287.1]    287.1CONDUIT, TRIM, OR SHIELD MEMBER AT CORNER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure wherein a trim-type element; e.g., tile or baseboard, forms an exposed surface which is attached at a floor-wall, wall-wall, or wall-ceiling intersection and serves as a channel, conduit, or covering strip for protective or decorative purposes.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

179,for a stair or tread nosing.
254,for a partition with an interfitted trim plate at a base or ceiling board.
716.1+,for edging.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 288.1]    288.1With mechanical fastener:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 287.1.  Corner conduit, trim, or shield which is held in position by a nail, screw, bolt, nut, rivet, pin, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 289]    289COPLANAR SUSTAINERS; E.G., JOIST TO WALL (SEE 52/702):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Structure including two or more spaced sustainers, e.g., columns or joists, which extend normally to a construction with which they form an intersection.

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283,for a module supported on a laterally projecting part of an intersecting barrier construction.
702,for a joist hanger wherein no arrangement of spaced sustainers and an intersecting barrier is defined.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 290]    290OPPOSED STRIP SECTIONS (BASEBOARDS) AND OUTWARDLY EXTENDING SUSTAINER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure including facially spaced, parallel coextensive strips or flanges, with a rigid elongated shaft extending normally to the strips with an end portion only thereof between the strips, i.e., two back-to-back baseboards with the end of a stud therebetween.

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241+,for a compartment forming partition having baseboards.
481.1,for a barrier with facers spaced by an internal sustainer, e.g., wall boards on either side of a stud.
690+,for open-work with side-by-side shafts, e.g., truss.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 291]    291ADJUSTABLE STRESSING MEANS; E.G., WARP CORRECTION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure having adjustable means which is attached to a principal structure and which acts in compression, torque, tension or flexure to (1) correct deflection, warp or sag of the principal structure or (2) acts to reinforce one member of the principal structure so as to equalize the unit stress on the load-bearing members of the said principal structure.

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222,for a construction utilizing a tensioned or flexed facing.
223.1+,for means acting under tension to compressively stress a structure in which the means is incorporated.
640,for a curvilinear or peaked truss with means to vary its camber.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 292]    292FOOTING OR FOUNDATION TYPE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure forming a discrete stable base which in use is peculiar to the support of and differs substantially in size and shape from that of a superimposed structural body such as a wall, post or column which body or base is not merely a coplanar component of or section of a floor.
(1) Note. See the search notes below for appropriate subclasses for various other constructions involving a dissimilar base and attached section.

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27+,for an in situ erected structure with a feature for supporting a disparate article.
169.1+,for a structure wherein a combination with or feature related to the earth is defined.
247,for curvilinear barrier anchored to a base.
274,for barrier intersection construction with a foundation.
506.01+,for a construction wherein a facer is attached to a dissimilar in situ erected section.

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248Supports,   appropriate subclasses for bases of more general application, particularly subclasses 678+ for machinery supports; subclasses 519+ for staff supporting bases; and subclasses 346+ for miscellaneous article supporting bases.
403Joints and Connections,   subclasses 230+ for a connection between a rod end and a transverse surface of general application.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 222 and 224+ for a marine foundation, or a method or apparatus for installing the same; and subclasses 229+ for subject matter relating to foundations not provided for elsewhere (e.g., piers, or piles).
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 293.1]    293.1For a wall:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Footing or foundation in which the base member substantially supports a vertical barrier construction; i.e., a wall.

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274+,for a corner and a footing.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 293.2]    293.2Of block (e.g., masonry) type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.1.  Wall footing or foundation composed of concrete, wood, metal, or clay generally rectangular cube-like building units.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 293.3]    293.3With wall-securing means between wall bottom and footing (e.g., sill or sill plate):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.1.  Wall footing foundation wherein the base and vertical barrier are attached by a discreet connection which also spaces the barrier from the footing or foundation.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 294]    294Concrete type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Structure in which the base is composed primarily of a stone-like cast material, e.g., concrete.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 295]    295Embedded projecting tie:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Structure in which there is a tie embedded in the base and projects upwardly and outwardly thereof, which tie connects the supported structure to the base.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 296]    296Supporting shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Structure supporting a vertical, rigid, pole, post, column or the like.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 297]    297Shaft encompassed by base:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 296.  Structure in which the base surrounds, e.g., embeds, the lower portion of the elongated rigid member.

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298,or another socket type footing for a shaft.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 298]    298Socket:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Structure wherein either the stable base or the supported body includes a recess which receives the other in telescopic interfitted relation.

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291,for a footing which embeds a shaft.
704+,for a socket type anchor or tie, either, per se, or embedded in a wall or ceiling.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 299]    299Framework spans footings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 292.  Structure including a plurality of separated bases supporting structure extending from and between said bases, e.g., tower with feet on separate footings.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 300]    300VERTICAL STRUCTURE WITH UPPER TERMINAL BEARING PLATE OR CAP:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure which is vertical, i.e., wall or column, and includes a distinct member mounted at its top and so shaped as to be the final upper terminal of the structure.

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57,for a roof finial or cresting.
102,for a border formed as an earth supported coping which may include a low wall with a cap.
103+,for a marker or monument which may include a cap.
179,for a nosing of a step tread member.
218,for a flue which may include a cap therefor.
244,for a wall enclosing a space with a terminus edge protector.
254+,for a corner with a revealed embedded protector.
283,for an intersection wherein means at a joint may be a cap.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 301]    301Shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Structure in which the vertical structure is a rigid member having a limited closed periphery and which is greatly elongated relative to any lateral dimension.

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146+,for a vertical structure with a diagonal brace or guy engaging a base or the earth.

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5Beds,   subclass 281 for a bed post top or ornament.
116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 173 , for a flagstaff having a feature specialized to such use.
  
[List of Patents for class 52 subclass 302.1]    302.1WALL, CEILING, FLOOR, OR ROOF DESIGNED FOR VENTILATION OR DRAINAGE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Structure in which a static structure, or a component, is specifically fabricated or modified to convey a fluid (e.g., a wall with a passage for air or water).

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12+,for a cover with external water receiv