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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 588]   CLASS 588,HAZARDOUS OR TOXIC WASTE DESTRUCTION OR CONTAINMENT
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the generic class for (1) hazardous or toxic waste destruction by any means to include, heating, chemical action, or the interaction with any form of radiation; (2) permanent containment of hazardous or toxic waste by methods to include storage in a simple container, solidification, vitrification, cementation, and more elaborate methods of storage such as marine, tetonic, or extraterrestrial storage; (3) hazardous or toxic waste conversion by any means (e.g., chemical, physical, etc.) to an environmentally safe substance; and (4) preparation for destruction or containment as well as the actual destruction or containment.

(1) Note. Chemical substances that move through commerce and are used or treated in some useful application are not considered to be hazardous or toxic waste. These substances may be considered hazardous or toxic waste in the event they are introduced into the environment in a manner not consistent with their intended utility.
(2) Note. Waste proper for classification in Class 588 is considered to be too hazardous or toxic for placement in an ordinary municipal landfill.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product

A process which produces a desired product for an end use, e.g., by manufacturing, chemical reaction, or purification etc., is classified with the product produced and controls over Class 588 regardless of whether or not a toxic or hazardous waste is destroyed or contained as part of the process. Class 588 provides for a process which destroys or contains hazardous or toxic waste and whose products are intended only to be safely discarded or whose production is only incidental to the destruction or containment.

Line With Method Classes

Class 588 controls over general method classes for storing or containing waste which is too hazardous or toxic to be placed in an ordinary municipal landfill.

Line With Apparatus Classes

This class does not provide for apparatus. Apparatus is classified based on its function without regard to whether or not hazardous or toxic waste is the substance acted on. Significant disclosure to processes of treating hazardous or toxic waste in apparatus patents may be cross-referenced to Class 588 as appropriate.

Line With Other Classes That Provide for Destroying Hazardous or Toxic Waste

Class 588 controls over general classes that are only incidental to the destruction or containment of hazardous or toxic waste.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

34Drying and Gas or Vapor Contact With Solids,   for separation of liquid hazardous or toxic waste from solids and the process of using gases or vapors to contact solids for the removal of hazardous or toxic waste.
48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   for a process directed to the production of a combustible gas from hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   for a process which produces elemental metal as a desired product and which may also destroy hazardous or toxic waste, particularly subclasses 507 through 584for the methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to melting or molten iron and subclasses 585-706 for methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to nonferrous metals at above 300°C (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
86Ammunition and Explosive-Charge Making,   subclass 50 for an apparatus for bomb disposal, or a method of bomb disposal by detonation (see Line With Apparatus Classes). This class, 588, takes the chemical destruction of bombs other than by detonation.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for the production of cement using hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
110Furnaces,   subclasses 235+ for apparatus which may be used for the incineration of hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Apparatus Classes).
196Mineral Oils: Apparatus,   for apparatus that may be used in the treating of hazardous or toxic waste in mineral oils (see Line With Apparatus Classes).
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   for the use of thermolytic processes to destroy substances other than hazardous or toxic waste.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   for distillation apparatus which may be used in the treating of hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Apparatus Classes).
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   for separating a liquid mixture with one or more of the components being hazardous or toxic waste, and subclasses 95+ for the additional use of water or steam in the separation.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for the interaction of electrical and wave energy with hazardous or toxic waste to produce a product (See Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product) and subclasses 193+ for electrical and wave energy apparatus used in the treatment of hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Apparatus Classes).
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   for the removal of hazardous or toxic substances form mineral oils, particularly subclasses 262.1+ for processes of removing halogen contaminants, e.g., PCB s from mineral oils (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210 (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
252Compositions,   subclasses 625+ for useful products (compositions) that contain radioactive hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   for apparatus which may be used in the treatment of gas or liquid hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Apparatus Classes).
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   for means of treating hazardous or toxic substances produced during the operation of a metallurgical apparatus, particularly subclasses 144+ for treating gaseous substances and 200+ for treating liquefied substances (see Line With Apparatus Classes).
373Industrial Electrical Heating Furnaces,   for electric heating furnaces that may be used in the treatment of hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Apparatus Classes).
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 128.1 through 128.9for soil remediation involving hazardous or toxic substances, and subclasses 129.1-129.95 for the deposition of waste, which is not hazardous or toxic, in an earth formation or the confinement of such waste in a structure in the earth.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for apparatus acting on hazardous or toxic waste for disinfection or sterilization thereof (see Line With Apparatus Classes). Class 422 provides for processes of destruction of hazardous or toxic material, such as noxious micro-organisms, by disinfecting or sterilizing when a desired useful product or article results (i.e., not a waste), and not elsewhere provided for (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product). Class 422, subclasses 1+ provides for processes of sterilizing wastes (such as household garbage or waste) not considered hazardous or toxic for Class 588.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 210 through 215.5for chemically removing, modifying or destroying a hazardous or toxic component of normally gaseous mixture, except for the chemical destruction of chemical weapons which may be gas, which is covered in this Class 588 (see Line With Other Classes That Provide for Destroying Hazardous or Toxic Waste); and for recovering inorganic elements or compounds from hazardous or toxic waste (See Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
431Combustion,   for combustion processes for purposes other than to destroy hazardous or toxic waste.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   for the methods of making micro-organisms, per se, and subclass 262.5 for methods of using the micro-organisms to destroy hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Other Classes That Provide for Destroying Hazardous or Toxic Waste).
532Organic Compounds,   for the production of useful products from hazardous or toxic waste (see Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).
976Nuclear Technology,   for the methods and apparatus used in the production of nuclear fuel, manufacturing of nuclear reactors, and nuclear technology in general (see Line With Apparatus Classes and Line With Classes Producing Desired Useful Product).

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

Terms used throughout the schedule and definitions are to have the meaning ascribed below. Generally accepted or commonly used "art" terms retain their meaning found in their everyday usage and are not found in this glossary. Certain specialized terms are employed in these subclasses and they have been given definitions altered to meet the needs of this class. Some or all of the terms may be broader or more restricted as well as different in meaning compared to normal usage.

ALKALI METALS

The metal elements in group I of the periodic system consisting of Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs.

ALKALINE EARTH METALS

The metal elements in group II of the periodic system consisting of Mg, Ca, Sr, and Ba.

CATALYST

A substance which either increases or decreases the speed of a chemical reaction.

CHALCOGEN

Also known as chalcogenides, specifically O, S, Se, or Te.

COMPOSITION

A mixture of material(s) such as elements, compounds, etc. which materials are not present in a ratio of small whole numbers based on molar ratios, i.e., mixtures.

COMPOUND

A substance whose molecules consist of unlike atoms, whose constituents cannot be separated by physical means, whose properties are entirely different from those of its constituent elements, and which contains definite proportions of its constituent elements, depending on their atomic weights.

CONTAINMENT

To hold or enclose totally to prevent any leaching or leaking of the hazardous or toxic material into the environment, and any use of a container that is destroyed with the waste.

CONTAMINATE

To make a first substance impure (hazardous or toxic) by contact with or by the addition of a second or more substances.

DESTROYING

To convert the hazardous or toxic waste to an environmentally safe substance to include the steps used to prepare the waste for destruction as well as the actual destruction.

ENCAPSULATING

To immobilize hazardous or toxic waste materials by any means to include vitrification, combining with organoclay and mixing, adding a cement material, or enclosing in a container the hazardous or toxic waste material. The hazardous or toxic waste material is held in place and is not permitted to be leached or leaked out into the environment.

ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE SUBSTANCE

Is any material that in any of its chemical or physical interactions with the environment results in no measurable adverse effects or degradations on the environment.

HALOGENS

The elements (F, Cl,Br, I, or At).

HARMFUL CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE

Harmful chemical substances are chemical waste substances which are too hazardous or toxic to be discarded in an ordinary municipal landfill.

HAZARDOUS WASTE

Materials that when present in the environment produce for man and other living organisms an acute and/or cumulative effect that is a dangerous, risky, or perilous environmental situation in so far as the physiological well being of the organism is concerned (e.g., caustic chemicals, irritants, cancer causing agents, and other tumor producing materials).

HEAVY METAL

A metal other than the following (light) metals, lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), and Aluminum (Al).

IMMOBILIZE

To contain the hazardous or toxic waste by any means that keeps the hazardous or toxic waste in a matrix or container such as cement, organoclay, glass, or in an actual physical container.

NOBLE GASES

The elements of the periodic table that consist of He, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn which have no valency and combine only with great difficulty, if at all, with other elements.

INCINERATE

To burn to highly oxidized ashes. The oxidation is chemically near completion.

LEACHING

The processes of extracting or dissolving a soluble component from a mixture by contacting the mixture with a solvent, resulting in dissolution or solution of the solubles and leaving an insoluble material.

Note. Solution of a substance in a normally solid, molten material is not considered to be leaching as defined above.

ORGANIC COMPOUND

A compound as defined in the definition of Class 260, Chemistry of Carbon Compounds as qualified by (34) Note.

ORGANIC METAL CONTAINING COMPOUND

Any carbon containing compound as defined by the definition of Class 260, in which the carbon compound contains a metal.

RADIOACTIVE

Any element capable of giving off rays or subatomic particles by spontaneous disintegration. The radioactive elements are usually those having an atomic number of 84 or greater and the phenomenon of radioactivity is not affected by chemical or physical influences or matter adulterated by radioactivity.

RARE EARTHS

The compounds of the elements found on the periodic chart at atomic numbers 21, 39, or 57-71 inclusive.

SORPTION

The ability of a substance to undergo a surface reaction that causes that substance to be able to retain other substances, these other substances are generally gases, liquids, or dissolved materials.

SLUDGE

Residue (usually viscous) from an industrial, home, or agricultural process which may contain a harmful chemical substance. Examples of harmful chemical substances are: heavy metals, sulfur compounds, phosphorus compounds, nitrogen compounds, and halogenated compounds any of which may be organic.

TOXIC WASTE

Materials that are direct physiological poisons to living organisms (e.g., pesticides, heavy metal ion solutions, and other organic and inorganic materials) that are poisonous to life.

VOLATILIZING

Converting a normally solid or liquid material into a gas or vapor state; mere evaporation of water or other solvents is included under this definition.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 1]    1DESTRUCTION OR CONTAINMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Product and process wherein radioactive material that is intended to be disposed of is transformed to a condition facilitating its destruction or disposal or contained so as to hold or enclose totally to prevent any leaching or leaking of radioactivity into the environment.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 2]    2By fixation in stable solid media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the radioactive material is immobilized in a solid medium.
(1) Note. Immobilization is on either a molecular or particulate level, the radioactive material permeating or being part of the whole mass.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 3]    3Cement, concrete, or hydraulic setting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media is concrete, cement containing, or hydraulic setting composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 4]    4With additional solid material to enhance fixation of radioactivity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein the concrete, cement containing, or hydraulically settable composition contains an additional solid material that enhances retention of the radioactive material to leaking or leaching.
(1) Note. The additional solid does not participate or influence the hydraulically settable nature of the solid media.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 5]    5Bituminous:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media is butimen, asphalt, or tarlike.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 6]    6Resin or polymer; e. g., cellulose, polyethylene:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media is a natural or synthetic resin or a polymer.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 7]    7Ion exchange resin:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Subject matter wherein the solid media is a solid resin material with chemically bound ionic groups capable of exchanging ion with radioactive contaminant ionic groups.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 8]    8Polymer derived from ethylenically unsaturated monomer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 6.  Subject matter wherein the polymer is derived only from ethylenically unsaturated monomer(s); i.e., wherein the monomer contains a c=c which undergoes addition polymerization to form long c-c chains.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 9]    9Clay or clay-like:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media is a fine grained naturally occurring earthy material or artificial composition having generally, equivalent chemical and physical properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 10]    10Ceramic or ceramic-like:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media is an inorganic composition that is to be hardened by heat treatment or which has been so hardened.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 11]    11Glass, glass-like, or vitreous:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the ceramic is a glassy or vitrified media.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 12]    12Boron containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 11.  Subject matter wherein the glassy or vitreous media contains boron.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 13]    13Ion exchange material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media is a nonresinous material having the ability or property, of adsorbing or exchanging cations and/or anions with the radioactive material.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 14]    14Silicon containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media contains silicon.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 15]    15Metal containing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Subject matter wherein the solid media contains free metal or combined metal and includes alleys and metal compounds.
(1) Note. Rock and synthetic rock are included in this subclass because of their mixed metal oxide composition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

10,for similar compositions hardened by heat.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 16]    16Surrounding with specified material or structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the containment surrounding the radioactive material is defined by its structure or by the material forming the containment or container means.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 17]    17Geological:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the radioactive material containment is accomplished by placing it in the ground, bore hole, underwater, or space or orbit.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 18]    18Chemical conversion to a table solid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein the radioactive material as it occurs in the waste is chemically converted to a solid that is more readily disposable; e.g., precipitation as an insoluble solid.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 19]    19Incineration, calcination, pyrolyzing to obtain solid residue:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein the radioactive material is burned, calcined, or pyrolyzed to a solid residue to facilitate disposal.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 20]    20Treating radioactive liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein liquid, flowable radioactive waste material is placed in better condition for disposal.
(1) Note. This subclass includes treatment or slurries or solids suspended in a liquid.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

159Concentrating Evaporators,   for processes of concentrating solids held in solution or suspension by evaporation of the liquid containing the solids and isolation of the concentrate obtained.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 249]    249CONTAINMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes wherein the hazardous or toxic waste is confined in a permanent facility by means such that the waste is not permitted to move or migrate from the permanent facility. Additionally, the hazardous or toxic waste can be contained in a monolithic type structure.
(1) Note. The containment also includes the processes of producing monoliths which when stored in (moved to) a facility are themselves nonleaching and in no way enter or contaminate the facility environment or the outside environment.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

53Package Making,   appropriate subclasses for methods or apparatus used in package making to contain hazardous or toxic waste, and for methods of packaging to move hazardous or toxic materials through commerce where the materials are removed from the container for subsequent use or treatment.
206Special Receptacle or Package,   subclasses 528+ for ampule, capsule, pellet, or granule containing hazardous or toxic waste.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 62.11+ for multilayer barrier structure intended to contain hazardous or toxic waste.
428Stock Material or Miscellaneous Articles,   subclass 2 for compacted trash or refuse bundle which may include hazardous or toxic waste and subclasses 443+ for asbestos containing articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 249.5]    249.5Chemical or germ warfare agents, or pathogenic organisms (e.g., sarin, VX, anthrax, virus, bacteria and medical waste, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Processes wherein a material intended to be employed as a chemical or germ warfare agent, or a disease causing organism, is the hazardous or toxic substance which is contained.

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300through 320, for the use of a chemical process to stabilize a substance which is subject to containment, or to destroy a chemical or germ warfare agent.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 749+ for a chemical treatment process to purify a liquid to obtain a desired product, e.g., water.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   subclasses 1 through 43for methods using disinfecting or sterilizing to destroy micro-organisms other than germ warfare agents.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclasses 235.1 through 239for virus, bacteriophage, composition thereof, preparation or purification thereof, or production of viral subunits.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 250]    250Geologic, marine, or extraterrestrial storage and containment (e.g., tectonic, volcanic, deep natural, manmade earth cavity, submarine placement sites, lunar, earth orbital, and solar placement, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Process wherein the storage or containment of the hazardous or toxic waste is accomplished by the following methods, e.g., descending tetonic plates, active volcanoes, caves, salt caverns, bore holes, abandoned mines, submarine dumping, earth orbital storage, lunar storage, and the use of decaying solar orbits to require the waste to fall into the sun.

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405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 129.1 through 129.95for the deposition of waste, which is not hazardous or toxic, in an earth formation or the confinement of such waste in a structure in the earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 251]    251Treating a solid (e.g., clay, slag, spent sorbent, active carbon, etc.) to prevent gas emissions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Processes wherein solids are treated to prevent the emissions of hazardous or toxic gas.
(1) Note. Included herein is the treatment of slag heaps to prevent the emissions of hazardous or toxic gas.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   subclasses 19+ for the utilization of slag.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 624+ , 714+, and 789+ for utilization of slag in plastic compositions.
501Compositions: Ceramic,   subclasses 28 and 36 for ceramic compositions using slag.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 252]    252Solidification, vitrification, or cementation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Processes wherein containment is accomplished by the use of solidification, vitrification, or cementation as a means of immobilizing hazardous or toxic waste.
(1) Note. Solidification included herein is any process that will produce a solid phase nonleachable product.
(2) Note. Vitrification included herein is any process that will produce a solid phase nonleachable glass like noncrystalline product.
(3) Note. Cementation included herein is any process that will produce a solid phase nonleachable hydraulic setting product.

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312through 320, for the use of a chemical reaction to stabilize a substance which is subject to solidification, vitrification or cementation.

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65Glass Manufacturing,   appropriate subclasses for the methods of producing glass.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for alkali metal silicate containing compositions and subclasses 638+ for inorganic settable ingredient containing compositions.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   subclasses 749+ for a chemical treatment process.
501Compositions: Ceramic,   subclasses 2+ for devitrified glass - ceramics, subclasses 11+ for glass compositions, and subclass 124 for refractory hydraulic cement containing compositions.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 253]    253In situ vitrification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Processes whereby the melting or sintering to form a glass or glass like substance is done underground.
(1) Note. Included herein is any process that produces the necessary conditions for the melting or sintering of a substance to form a glassy mass under the surface of the earth.

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405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 128.1 for a process or apparatus for soil remediation wherein the process does not destroy or contain hazardous or toxic waste; and subclass 258.1 for the treatment of a condition of the earth not related to remediation, or for the control of an earthen formation for the purpose of reinforcement or stabilization.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 254]    254Contains asbestos:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Processes wherein asbestos is present in the hazardous or toxic material.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for compositions containing asbestos.
162Paper Making and Fiber Liberation,   subclasses 153+ for making a paper like product containing asbestos.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclass 167 for treating asbestos.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 255]    255Polymer or resin containing (e.g., foam, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Processes wherein a polymer or resin is used in the solidification, vitrification, or cementation.

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264Plastic and Nonmetallic Article Shaping or Treating: Processes,   subclasses 4+ for encapsulating normally liquid materials.
427Coating Processes,   subclasses 212+ for particles, flakes, or granules coated or encapsulated.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 256]    256Waste contains heavy metals (e.g., fly ash, flue dust, and incinerator ash):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Processes wherein hazardous or toxic waste contains heavy metals.
(1) Note. It is assumed that fly ash, flue dust, and incinerator ash obtained from various sources will contain at least traces of some heavy metal in the absence of disclosure to the contrary.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 286.1+ for inorganic materials only containing at least one metal atom and subclass 287.18 for coating or plastic compositions containing heavy metals.
501Compositions: Ceramic,   subclass 155 for ceramic compositions composed of waste material.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 257]    257And confined in a cement type material (e.g., concrete):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Processes wherein waste is used in the production or formulation of a cement type product.

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106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for alkali metal silicate containing subclasses 638+ for inorganic settable ingredient containing, and subclasses 286.1+ for compositions, coating or plastic which contain only inorganic materials with at least one metal atom. Class 588 contains any formulation of the above materials with hazardous or toxic waste.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 266+ for cementitious grouting.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 259]    259Secondary containment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Processes wherein more than one form of containment is used (i.e., one form of containment around another form of containment).

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405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclass 129.1 for subterranean waste disposal, containment, or treatment; and subclass 266 for cementing.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 260]    260With sensing, detecting, or monitoring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 249.  Processes wherein the integrity of the containment is observed by chemical, physical, electrical, or optical methods to sense, detect, or monitor movement of waste.

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73Measuring and Testing,   subclasses 40+ and 52 for leakage testing and subclasses 290+ for barrel liquid level indicator.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 3.1 through 3.9for selective communication having monitoring in addition to control.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 261]    261MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Process not provided for above.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 299]    299GERM WARFARE AGENTS DESTROYED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Process wherein a material, e.g. micro-organism, intended to be employed as a germ warfare agent is the hazardous or toxic substance destroyed or converted.
(1) Note. This subclass includes the destruction of micro-organisms intended to be used in warfare.

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249.5,for processes of storage or containment of chemical or germ warfare agents.

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110Furnaces,   for apparatus which may be used to destroy hazardous or toxic waste.
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   for the use of thermolytic processes to destroy substances other than hazardous or toxic waste.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   for apparatus which may be used in the treatment of gas or liquid hazardous or toxic waste.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   for metallurgical apparatus which could be used to destroy hazardous or toxic waste, particularly subclasses 144+ for treating gaseous substances and 200+ for treating liquefied substances.
373Industrial Electrical Heating Furnaces,   for electric heating furnaces that may be used to destroy hazardous or toxic waste.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for the methods and apparatus used in destroying micro-organisms other than germ warfare agents.
431Combustion,   for combustion processes for purposes other than to destroy hazardous or toxic waste.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   subclass 262.5 for methods of using the micro-organisms to destroy hazardous or toxic waste.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 300]    300PROCESSES FOR MAKING HARMFUL CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES HARMLESS, OR LESS HARMFUL, BY EFFECTING A CHEMICAL CHANGE IN THE SUBSTANCES (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Processes for chemically changing harmful chemical substances into substances which are harmless or less harmful. These processes are chemical processes which change the chemical composition of the harmful chemical substance. The harmful chemical substance can be one component of a mixture. The use of special chemical reagents for chemical fixing is included. These processes can comprise the step of dissolving or dispersing the harmful chemical substances in water for the purpose of treating them, or the step of producing a gaseous product from a non-gaseous harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00) and F1 (A62D 3/00).
(2) Note. When classifying in subclasses 300-321, classification is normally also made in subclasses 400-415 to identify the hazardous substance.
(3) Note. Harmful chemical substances are chemical waste substances which are too hazardous or toxic to be discarded in an ordinary municipal landfill.
(4) Note. The production or recovery of marketable products is covered elsewhere, as indicated by the references below.

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299,for the destruction of germ warfare agents.

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48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   for a process directed to the production of a combustible gas from hazardous or toxic waste.
75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   for processes of preparing or treating elemental metal employing hazardous or toxic waste as a raw material or agent, particularly subclasses 507+ for the methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to melting or molten iron and subclasses 585+ for methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to nonferrous metals at above 300°C.
86Ammunition and Explosive-Charge Making,   subclass 50 for an apparatus for bomb disposal, or a method of bomb disposal by detonation. This class, 588, takes the chemical destruction of bombs other than by detonation.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for the production of cement using hazardous or toxic waste.
110Furnaces,   subclasses 235+ for apparatus which may be used for the incineration of hazardous or toxic waste.
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   for the use of thermolytic processes to destroy substances other than hazardous or toxic waste.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   for separating a liquid mixture with one or more of the components being hazardous or toxic waste, and subclasses 95+ for the additional use of water or steam in the separation.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for the interaction of electrical and wave energy with hazardous or toxic waste to produce a product, and subclasses 193+ for electrical and wave energy apparatus used in the treatment of hazardous or toxic waste.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   for the removal of hazardous or toxic substances form mineral oils, particularly subclasses 262.1+ for processes of removing halogen contaminants, e.g., PCB"s from mineral oils.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claimed disclosure that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
261Gas and Liquid Contact Apparatus,   for apparatus which may be used in the treatment of gas or liquid hazardous or toxic waste.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   for means of treating hazardous or toxic substances produced during the operation of a metallurgical apparatus, particularly subclasses 144+ for treating gaseous substances and 200+ for treating liquefied substances.
373Industrial Electrical Heating Furnaces,   for electric heating furnaces used in the treatment of hazardous or toxic waste.
405Hydraulic and Earth Engineering,   subclasses 128.1 through 128.9for soil remediation involving hazardous or toxic substance.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for apparatus using disinfection or sterilization to destroy micro-organisms, and for methods using disinfection or sterilization to destroy micro-organisms other than germ warfare agents.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 210 through 215.5for chemically removing, modifying or destroying a hazardous or toxic component of normally gaseous mixture (except for the chemical destruction of chemical weapons which may gas, which is in this Class 588); and for recovering inorganic elements or compounds from hazardous or toxic waste.
431Combustion,   for combustion processes for purposes other than to destroy hazardous or toxic waste.
435Chemistry: Molecular Biology and Microbiology,   for processes whereby a micro-organism is used in degradation of hazardous or toxic waste, e.g., degrading PCBs.
532Organic Compounds,   for the production of useful products from hazardous or toxic waste.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 301]    301By subjecting to electric or wave energy or particle or ionizing radiation (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein electric or wave energy or particle or ionizing radiation is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G) and FI (A62D 3/00 100).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

209Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,   subclasses 12+ for combined operations including the use of magnetic operations; subclasses 509+ for sorting special items, and certain methods and apparatus some of which use magnetic properties and note subclasses 212 through 232 for magnetic separation, per se. (Class 588 provides for the magnetic separation of any hazardous or toxic waste in combination with the destruction of the waste).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 302]    302Electrochemical processes, e.g., electrodialysis (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein an electrochemical process is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G2) and FI (A62D 3/00 110).

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204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for processes of electrodialysis or electrolysis.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is placed in Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, place the process in Class 210.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 303]    303Electrolytic degradation or conversion (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 302.  Subject matter wherein electrolysis is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G2B) and FI (A62D 3/00 111).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 304]    304Sonic energy (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein energy in sound waves is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G4) and FI (A62D 3/00 120).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 305]    305Particle radiation, e.g., electron beam radiation (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein particle radiation is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance. Particles include molecules, atoms, protons or electrons.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G6) and FI (A62D 3/00 130).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 306]    306Electromagnetic radiation, e.g., laser (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein electromagnetic radiation is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G8) and FI (A62D 3/00 140).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 307]    307Gamma rays (about 0.003nm-0.03nm) (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the wavelengths range from 0.003nm– 0.03nm.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G8B) and FI (A62D 3/00 141).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 308]    308X – Rays (about 0.03nm-3nm) (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the wavelengths range from 0.03nm– 3nm.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G8D) and FI (A62D 3/00 142).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 309]    309Ultraviolet radiations (about 3nm-400nm) (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the wavelengths range from 3nm– 400nm.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G8F) and FI (A62D 3/00 143).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 310]    310Microwave radiations (about 0.3cm-30cm) (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the wavelengths range from 0.3cm– 30cm.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G8H) and FI (A62D 3/00 144).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 311]    311Plasma (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Subject matter wherein plasma is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00G10) and FI (A62D 3/00 150).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 312]    312By hydropyrolysis or destructive steam gasification, e.g., using water and heat or supercritical water, to effect chemical change (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein water or steam is used in a thermal process to achieve chemical change.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00J) and FI (A62D 3/00 200).

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48Gas: Heating and Illuminating,   subclasses 197+ for processes of gasification to produce a heating or illuminating gas.
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   subclasses 32+ for the addition of disparate gaseous material to a carbonizing zone.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   subclasses 96+ for thermolytic type apparatus.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   subclasses 28+ for the processes with a chemical reaction and subclasses 95+ for the addition of water or steam.
431Combustion,   subclass 4 for feeding a flame modifying additive and subclass 5 for burning waste gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 313]    313By reacting with chemical agents (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein an additional chemical material is used to react with the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K) and FI (A62D 3/00 300).
(2) Note. The substance that is destroyed maybe a mixture of hazardous or toxic waste with nonhazardous or nontoxic waste. Either component of the mixture being destroyed is sufficient for classification here. Mandatory XR (cross-reference) into subclass(es) for the actual hazardous or toxic substance (component) destroyed is noted.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

252through 257, for the containment of hazardous substances through solidification, vitrification or cementation
532,through 570, for the production of useful organic compounds from hazardous or toxic substances.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   for a process which produces elemental metal as a desired product and which may also destroy hazardous or toxic waste, particularly subclasses 507+ for the methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to melting or molten iron and subclasses 585+ for methods adding hazardous or toxic waste to nonferrous metals at above 300°C.
86Ammunition and Explosive-Charge Making,   subclass 50 for an apparatus for bomb disposal, or a method of bomb disposal by detonation. This class, 588, takes the chemical destruction of bombs other than by detonation.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for the production of cement using hazardous or toxic waste.
110Furnaces,   subclasses 235+ for apparatus which may be used for the incineration of hazardous or toxic waste.
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   for thermolytic distillation processes in general.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   for distillation apparatus which may be used in the treating of hazardous or toxic waste.
203Distillation: Processes, Separatory,   for separating a liquid mixture with one or more component being hazardous or toxic waste, and subclasses 95+ for the additional use of water or steam in the separation.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   for the interaction of electrical and wave energy with hazardous or toxic waste to produce a product, and subclasses 193+ for electrical and wave energy apparatus used in the treatment of hazardous or toxic waste.
208Mineral Oils: Processes and Products,   subclasses 208+ for sulfur removal from mineral oils.
210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for apparatus acting on hazardous or toxic waste for disinfection or sterilization thereof. Class 422 provides for processes of destruction of hazardous or toxic material, such as noxious micro-organisms, by disinfecting or sterilizing when a desired useful product or article results (i.e., not a waste), and not elsewhere provided for. Class 422, subclasses 1+ provides for processes of sterilizing wastes (such as household garbage or waste) not considered hazardous or toxic for Class 588.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for the production of a desired inorganic substance or product for a hazardous or toxic substance.
585Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Compounds, for processes employing chalcogen (O, S, Se,   or Te) containing compounds in the manufacture of hydrocarbons containing the chalcogen. subclasses 240+ for the production of a hydrocarbon mixture from refuse or vegetation.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 314]    314By treatment in molten chemical reagent, e.g., salts or metals (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Process wherein the reaction takes place in a chemical reagent which is normally solid at room temperature is used in a molten state.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K2) and FI (A62D 3/00 310).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   for a process which produces elemental metal as a desired product and which may also destroy hazardous or toxic waste, particularly subclasses 507+ for the methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to melting or molten iron and subclasses 585+ for methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to nonferrous metals at above 300°C.
110Furnaces,   subclasses 235+ for apparatus which may be used for the incineration of hazardous or toxic waste.
201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   subclass 11 for the use of liquid metal in a thermolytic distillation for purposes other than the destruction of hazardous or toxic waste.
266Metallurgical Apparatus,   for means of treating hazardous or toxic substances produced during the operation of a metallurgical apparatus, particularly subclasses 144+ for treating gaseous substances and 200+ for treating liquefied substances.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   digest 12 for the use of molten media in chemical reactions.
431Combustion,   for processes of combustion in general, and for the combustion of hazardous or toxic waste which produces a useful product.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 315]    315By chemical fixing the harmful substance, e.g., by chelation or complexation (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Process wherein the reaction results in a chemical fixing of the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K4) and FI (A62D 3/00 320).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 316]    316Dehalogenation using reactive chemical agents able to degrade (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Process wherein halogen is removed from the harmful chemical substance by using reactive chemical agents.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K6) and FI (A62D 3/00 330).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

314,for dehalogenation in molten chemical reagent.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 317]    317By hydrolysis (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein water is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K8) and FI (A62D 3/00 340).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 318]    318Detoxification by using acid or alkaline reagents (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein an acid or a base is used to chemically change the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K10) and FI (A62D 3/00 350).
(2) Note. The added material may be, for example, acids, bases, or hydrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 319]    319By reduction, e.g., hydrogenation (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein the chemical reaction is reductive, i.e. gain of electrons.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K12) and FI (A62D 3/00 360).
(2) Note. The added material may be, for example, acids, bases, or hydrogen.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 320]    320By oxidation; by combustion (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein the chemical reaction is oxidative, i.e. loss of electrons.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00K14) and FI (A62D 3/00 370).

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110Furnaces,   subclass 237 for incinerators intended for use with explosive material.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 321]    321By heating to effect chemical change, e.g., pyrolysis (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein thermal degradation is used to decompose the harmful chemical substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00L) and FI (A62D 3/00 400).

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201Distillation: Processes, Thermolytic,   for thermolytic distillation processes in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 400]    400Harmful chemical substances made harmless, or less harmful, by effecting chemical change (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein the harmful chemical substance is identified.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M) and FI (A62D 3/00 600).
(2) Note. When classifying into subclasses 401-404, classification is also made in subclasses 405-415 according to the specific substance, if of interest.
(3) Harmful chemical substances are chemical waste substances which are too hazardous or toxic to be discarded in an ordinary municipal landfill.

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75Specialized Metallurgical Processes, Compositions for Use Therein, Consolidated Metal Powder Compositions, and Loose Metal Particulate Mixtures,   for a process which produces elemental metal as a desired product and which may also destroy hazardous or toxic waste, particularly subclasses 507+ for the methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to melting or molten iron and subclasses 585+ for methods of adding hazardous or toxic waste to nonferrous metals at above 300°C.
86Ammunition and Explosive-Charge Making,   subclass 50 for an apparatus for bomb disposal, or a method of bomb disposal by detonation. This class, 588, takes the chemical destruction of bombs other than by detonation.
106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for the production of cement using hazardous or toxic waste.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 401]    401Chemical warfare substances, e.g., cholinesterase inhibitor (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein the hazardous or toxic substance is intended to incapacitate or destroy a human enemy. Chemical warfare substances include nerve, blister/vesicant, blood and pulmonary affecting substances.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M2) and FI (A62D 3/00 610).
(2) Note. This subclass includes the destruction of nerve gases and mustard agents.

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423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for recovering inorganic elements or compounds from hazardous or toxic waste, and subclasses 210 through 215.5for chemically removing, modifying or destroying a component of normally gaseous mixture containing hazardous or toxic waste. Class 588 provides for the chemical destruction of chemical weapons, which may contain gas.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 402]    402Pesticides, e.g., insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, nematicides (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein the hazardous or toxic substance is intended to prevent, repel, destroy or mitigate pests. A pest is plant or animal which is detrimental to humans or human concerns, e.g. agriculture or livestock production.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M4) and FI (A62D 3/00 620).

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424Drug, Bio-Affecting and Body Treating Compositions,   particularly subclasses 400 through 502for preparations characterized by special physical form, including insect repellants, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial compositions.
504Plant Protecting and Regulating Compositions,   for herbicides.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 403]    403Explosives, propellants or pyrotechnics, e.g., rocket fuel, napalm (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein the hazardous or toxic substance is an explosive, chemical reaction propellant, e.g. for rocket or gun, or a pyrotechnic, e.g. fireworks.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M6) and FI (A62D 3/00 630).
(2) Note. The added material may be, for example, acids, bases, or hydrogen.

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86Ammunition and Explosive-Charge Making,   subclass 50 for an apparatus for bomb disposal, or a method of bomb disposal by detonation. This class, 588, takes the chemical destruction of bombs other than by detonation.
110Furnaces,   subclass 237 for incinerators intended for use with explosive material.
149Explosive and Thermic Compositions or Charges,   subclass 124 for an art collection of methods reclaiming or disposing of explosive or thermic charges or component materials thereof.
431Combustion,   for processes of combustion in general, and for the combustion of hazardous or toxic waste which produces a useful product.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 404]    404Toxic combustion residues, e.g., toxic substances contained in fly ash from waste incineration (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein the hazardous or toxic substance is a by-product of combustion, often found in industrial and municipal fly ash. The combustion of a non-hazardous substance may result in a hazardous residue.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M8) and FI (A62D 3/00 640).

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110Furnaces,   subclasses 235+ for apparatus which may be used for the incineration of hazardous or toxic waste.
431Combustion,   for processes of combustion in general, and for the combustion of hazardous or toxic waste which produces a useful product.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 405]    405Organic substances (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein the hazardous or toxic substance contains either two atoms of carbon bonded to each other, one atom of carbon bonded to an atom of hydrogen or halogen, or one atom of carbon bonded to at least one atom of nitrogen by a single or double bond.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M10) and FI (A62D 3/00 650).
(2) Note. Certain substances falling under the above definition are excluded from this and indented subclasses. Their destruction and conversion are classified in the subclasses below, to wit; hydrocyanic acid, cyanogen, isocyanic acid, cyanamide, cyanogen halides, isothiocyanic acid, fulmenic acid, and metal carbides.
(3) Note. The substance(s) that is destroyed maybe a mixture of hazardous or toxic waste with nonhazardous or nontoxic waste. Either component of the mixture being destroyed is sufficient for classification in subclass 205. Mandatory XR (cross-reference) into subclass(es) for the actual hazardous or toxic substance (component) destroyed in noted.
(4) Note. If the hazardous or toxic material is destroyed and a purified compound or composition is recovered search the appropriate compound or composition class.

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532Organic Compounds,   for the production of useful products from hazardous or toxic waste.
585Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Compounds,   for organic hydrocarbons.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 406]    406Containing halogen (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Subject matter wherein the organic substance contains fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M10B) and FI (A62D 3/00 651).
(2) Note. This subclass includes hydropyrolysis and destructive stream gasification.

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568Organic Compounds,   for the production of halogen containing organic compounds.
570Organic Compounds,   for the production of halogen containing organic compounds.
585Chemistry of Hydrocarbon Compounds,   for process employing halogen containing compounds in the manufacture of hydrocarbons.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 407]    407Containing heavy metals (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Subject matter wherein the organic substance contains a metal other than the following (light) metals – lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), and Aluminum (Al).
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M10D) and FI (A62D 3/00 652).

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532Organic Compounds,   appropriate classes for the production of a desired metal containing organic compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 408]    408Containing nitrogen or phosphorus (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Subject matter wherein the organic substance contains nitrogen or phosphorus.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/0010F) and FI (A62D 3/00 653).

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for recovering inorganic elements or compounds from organic hazardous or toxic waste.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 409]    409Containing oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium, i.e., chalcogen (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 405.  Subject matter wherein the organic substance contains oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/0010H) and FI (A62D 3/00 654).

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423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for recovering inorganic elements or compounds from organic hazardous or toxic waste.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 410]    410Inorganic substances (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein the hazardous or toxic substance is not an organic substance or does not contain any component which is an organic substance.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M12) and FI (A62D 3/00 660).
(2) Note. The substance that is destroyed maybe a mixture of hazardous or toxic waste with nonhazardous or nontoxic waste. Either component of the mixture being destroyed is sufficient for classification here. Mandatory XR (cross-reference) into subclass(es) for the actual hazardous or toxic substance (component) destroyed is noted.

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for recovering inorganic elements or compounds from organic hazardous or toxic waste.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 411]    411Inorganic fibers, e.g., asbestos (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 410.  Subject matter wherein the inorganic substance is fibrous, and made primarily from rock, clay, slag or glass.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M12B) and FI (A62D 3/00 661).
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 412]    412Containing heavy metals, in the bonded or free state (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 410.  Subject matter wherein the inorganic substance contains a metal other than the following (light) metals – lithium (Li), sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs), Francium (Fr), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba), Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), and Aluminum (Al).
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M12D) and FI (A62D 3/00 662).

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210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 1 -209 for treating to obtain a desired metal containing compound.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 413]    413Containing nitrogen or phosphorus (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 410.  Subject matter wherein the inorganic substance contains nitrogen or phosphorus.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M12F) and FI (A62D 3/00 663).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 299+ for the production of phosphorus or phosphorus compounds and subclasses 351+ for the production of nitrogen or nitrogen compounds.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 414]    414Containing oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium, i.e., chalcogen (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 410.  Subject matter wherein the organic substance contains oxygen, sulfur, selenium or tellurium.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M12H) and FI (A62D 3/00 664).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   for the production of the desired inorganic substance or product, subclasses 508+ for substance or products containing selenium or tellurium, subclasses 511+ for substances or products containing sulfur, and subclasses 579+ for substances or products containing oxygen.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 415]    415Containing halogen (EPO/JPO):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 410.  Subject matter wherein the inorganic substance contains fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, or astatine.
(1) Note. The subject matter in this subclass is substantially the same in scope as ECLA (A62D 3/00M12K) and FI (A62D 3/00 665).
(2) Note. The substance that is destroyed maybe a mixture of hazardous or toxic waste with nonhazardous or nontoxic waste. Either component of the mixture being destroyed is sufficient for classification here. Mandatory XR (cross-reference) into subclass(es) for the actual hazardous or toxic substance (component) destroyed is noted.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

210Liquid Purification or Separation,   for processes in general for liquid purification or separation of liquid phases, particularly subclasses 749+ for the use of chemical treatment; and subclasses 911+, an art collection, for the removal of cumulative poison from a liquid. The line between Class 210 and Class 588 is that, if there is a specific statement in the claim that hazardous or toxic waste is destroyed, separated, or converted into an environmentally safe substance, the process is proper for Class 588; however, if purified liquid, e.g., water, is obtained as a desired product, the process is proper for Class 210.
423Chemistry of Inorganic Compounds,   subclasses 462+ for the production of halogen or compounds containing halogen.
  

CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS

[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 900]    900APPARATUS:
 Apparatus used in the destruction, containment, or conversion of hazardous or toxic waste.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

53Package Making,   subclasses 556+ for the apparatus used in a process for a contraction of a cover by stretching or shrinking and subclasses 580+ for the apparatus for forming or partially forming receptacle and subsequently filling.
100Presses,   appropriate subclasses for presses used in contacting hazardous and toxic waste.
110Furnaces,   subclasses 235+ for incinerators for refuse.
126Stoves and Furnaces,   subclass 452 for the process of general heating using solar heat.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 73+ for apparatus used in boring or penetrating the earth.
202Distillation: Apparatus,   for the apparatus used in the processes of distillation.
220Receptacles,   subclasses 62.11+ for multilayer barrier structure.
422Chemical Apparatus and Process Disinfecting, Deodorizing, Preserving, or Sterilizing,   for apparatus acting on hazardous or toxic waste for disinfection or sterilization thereof. See subclasses 243+ , particularly subclasses 292+ for treating a solid article or material with a "chemical" in a liquid, gaseous, or vapor state (e.g., steam sterilizers, steam is considered a "chemical" also when it disinfects, sterilizes, deodorizes, or preserves, since steam so used appears to have a function more than mere heating) wherein the article or material is recovered essentially unchanged from the treatment (a "chemical" is defined as a substance which has a function beyond that of another class, per se, e.g., drying, heating, cleaning, etc.; a recitation that a substance disinfects, sterilizes, deodorizes, or preserves will cause the substance to be considered a "chemical" unless accompanied by positive disclosure that the disinfecting, sterilizing, deodorizing, or preserving is done only by a function provided for elsewhere; e.g., heating, etc.), and subclasses 307+ for heat treating vessel with heating means, not elsewhere provided for.
425Plastic Article or Earthenware Shaping or Treating: Apparatus,   subclass 5 for means of encapsulating normally liquid material, subclasses 6+ for means of making particulate material directly from liquid or molten material, and subclasses 130+ for means of feeding fluent stock from plural sources to common shaping means to form composite product and the rest of the class for shaping of articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 588 subclass 901]    901COMPOSITIONS:
 Compositions used in the destruction or containment of hazardous or toxic waste.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

106Compositions: Coating or Plastic,   subclasses 600+ for the production of cement using hazardous or toxic waste.
252Compositons,   subclasses 625+ for useful products (compositions) that contain radioactive hazardous toxic waste.
501Compositions: Ceramic,   for containment of hazardous or toxic waste in a ceramic.
520-528Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers -Part of the Class 520 Series,   for encapsulating or binding hazardous or toxic waste in a synthetic resin or natural rubber.
  

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