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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 400]   CLASS 400,TYPEWRITING MACHINES
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is the generic class for an apparatus wherein a user of the apparatus causes an intelligible character* to be imprinted on a record-medium* by a type-member* that is impressed on the record-medium, said type-member being selected from a plurality of different type-members, and the selected type-members being impressed serially to form a sequence of characters that record intelligible information.

This class includes a method of using the apparatus described above.

(1) Note. The definition as written above is intended to emphasize the major difference between this class (400) and the class of printing. The difference is that as a general rule in this class each character* is imprinted serially by a type-member* that is selected from an assortment of type-members, the assortment containing only one of each type-member to be impressed, and the selection being made in sequence to imprint one character after another to form a word, and one word after another to form the text to be read. In the printing class, on the other hand, a plurality of type-members are arranged to be printed simultaneously to form a print-line* or a page* or a plurality of pages of printed text.
(2) Note. The word "intelligible" in the definition of this class does not limit the character to a visible character. A character that is invisible to the human eye can be intelligible to a "scanner" that "reads", for example, infrared light emanations, and thus be intelligible within the definition stated above.
(3) Note. Explanatory note regarding placement of patents within the class. A typewriter includes many elements, often numbering in the hundreds and even thousands of elements. Because of this, many patents in the typewriter art include claims that recite elements of a typewriter that are named in a claim for the purpose of setting forth the environment of the inventive structure. In such patents, the mere naming of various elements in a claim will not necessarily be the basis of placing a patent having such a claim into the schedule as an original patent. Original placement will be based upon the inventive concept emphasized in a patent claim rather than on the basis of all the elements that are merely named in a claim.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

The relationship of this class (400) to classes which warrant specific mention is as follows:

Class 101, Printing, involves the imprinting on a record-medium* of a multitude of character symbols simultaneously to form a print-line* or a page* or a plurality of pages of printed text. The significant difference between this class (400) and Class 101 lies in the term "simultaneously". In Class 101 plurality of type-face* elements are assembled. If a plurality of occurrences of a particular character are to be printed, a corresponding number of type-faces representing that character are included in the assemblage. When the entire assemblage of type-faces is inked and impressed against a record-medium, all the type-faces will be imprinted simultaneously. In this class (400) only one type-face element is provided for each character to be imprinted, and the type-faces are impressed in sequence to form the text. Two exceptions should be noted. In a stenographic typewriter, the typist may select two or more characters to be imprinted to form a syllable of a word, and may then select two or more characters to form another syllable of a word. One or more of the characters selected for one syllable may be selected again to form another syllable, but only one type-face for each character to be imprinted is provided in the stenographic typewriter. In a logotype typewriter a plurality of type-face elements may be preassembled to form a word or symbol, but the logotype type-face is one of the type-face elements of the typewriter, and the logotype type-face element is selected as one of the type-face elements in the sequence of characters to be imprinted serially. Various subcombinations of elements are usable either in a Class 101 printing press or in a typewriter of this class (400). Among such subcombinations are a ribbon-feeding or ribbon-inking mechanism, a record-medium feeding mechanism, etc., but the placement of a patent to such subcombination will be governed by the environment of the machine.

Class 178, Telegraphy, includes in subclasses 4 and 23 disclosures of printing telegraph systems that are similar in some aspects to a typewriter. In general, Class 178 involves a telegraphic system including one or more signal-sending units, one or more signal-receiving units, and electrical circuitry, the system being capable of (a) transmitting a signal over great distances, or (b) boosting or amplifying the signal, or (c) mixing signals that have been generated in a plurality of sending units, transmitting the mixed signals over a single line and unmixing the signals at a plurality of receiving units so that each receiver will transcribe only its own signal from the single line, or (d) selecting the receiving units that will be controlled by the sending units. Class 178 also provides, in various subclasses, for subcombinations including key-board*, key* element, type wheel, and other elements that are peculiar to printing telegraph systems. This class (400) as related to Class 178, involves a typewriter that is (a) directly coupled to a second typewriter by electrical or mechanical linkage over a short distance (e.g., "master-slave" relationship), or (b) coupled by way of a "storage" or "memory" circuit to itself or to a second typewriter (e.g., "input-output" relationship), or (c) controlled to modify the typing signals generated by a typist to create a text different from that which would be produced by the unmodified generated signals (e.g., by "justification" (see subclass 1). This class (400) will also accept subcombinational aspects of a telegraphic printer that embody typewriter subcombinations not provided for in Class 178. Examples of such subcombinations include: ribbon* feed, carriage* feed, record-medium feed, type-head* structure, key-board mechanism, type-bar* action, tabulator structure, etc.

Class 234, Selective Cutting (e.g., Punching), the relationship of this class (400) to Class 234 is fully set forth in the class definition of Class 234, in section V, paragraph E. Reference is made to the relationship between Class 234 and Class 400, Typewriting Machines, in that note.

Class 235, Registers, the relationship of this class (400) to Class 235 is set forth in the "SEARCH CLASS" 400, Typewriting Machines, that appears under the definition of Class 235, subclass 60.

Class 346, Recorders, provides for an ink* jet means for recording intelligence. This class (400) provides for a typewriter structure in which the usual type-face* element that impresses a character symbol against a record-medium is replaced by an ink jet for imprinting a character symbol on a record-medium. To be placed as an original into this class, a patent should clearly recite the typewriter structure that controls the ink jet to form characters successively.

Class 358, Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing, includes in subclasses 1.1-1.18 disclosures involving a data-processing system that generates a printout of the results produced by the processing system. The significant subject matter of such a system is proper for Class 358.

OTHER CLASSES INCLUDING MATERIAL HANDLING OR MATERIAL FEEDING

See References to Other Classes for subcombinations that may be included in a typewriter to feed a record-medium* or a ribbon* or other sheetlike or weblike material. For a patent to be placed as an original into this class (400) the claimed subject matter of such patent should be clearly related to a typewriter (e.g., be directed to one or more ink*-ribbon spools in a typewriter, sheet, or web feeding involving line-space* distances or format control in a typewriter, etc.).

SEARCH NOTES TO OTHER CLASSES INCLUDING SUBCOMBINATIONS USABLE IN A TYPEWRITER

See References to Other Classes for subcombinations that may be included in a typewriter for various purposes needed during the operation of a typewriter. For a patent to be placed as an original into this class (400) the claimed subject matter of such patent should be clearly related to a typewriter (e.g., be directed to a device for cleaning a type-face* of a typewriter, a bell for indicating the occurrence of the end of a print-line* in a typewriter, etc.).

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   subclass 246 include an attachment for cleaning. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
40Card, Picture, or Sign Exhibiting,   subclass 341 for a copyholder that is not part of a typewriter, but which may be used in conjunction with a typewriter for advancing material that may be copied from during typing. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclasses for a linkage that is usable as an actuating mechanism of a typewriter. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
108Horizontally Supported Planar Surfaces,   appropriate subclasses for a support for sheet or web material. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
116Signals and Indicators,   subclass 148 and 200 for an indicator or a bell. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
118Coating Apparatus,   subclass 200 for coating apparatus applicable to a typewriter to re-ink a ribbon*. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
221Article Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses and especially subclass 33 for dispensing of a sheetlike article. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
222Dispensing,   appropriate subclasses for dispensing of liquid. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
226Advancing Material of Indeterminate Length,   appropriate subclasses for feeding of web material. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
242Winding, Tensioning,   or Guiding appropriate subclasses for the winding of web material onto a roll or the unwinding of web material from a roll. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
248Supports,   subclass 442.2 for a support for a copyholder. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
271Sheet Feeding or Delivering,   subclass 8 for appropriate sheet-feeding structure. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
276Typesetting,   subclass 28 for justification in a type setting machine. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
281Books, Strips, and Leaves,   subclass 45 for a book or leaf holder. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   subclasses 838+ for a reflector usable in a typewriter. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
384Bearings,   appropriate subclasses for guide structure usable in a typewriter. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
434Education and Demonstration,   subclass 176 , 202, and 227 for a key-board* for teaching or learning purposes. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)
462Books, Strips, and Leaves for Manifolding,   appropriate subclasses and especially subclass 73 for the holding and formation of books, strips and leaves for manifolding. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
493Manufacturing Container or Tube From Paper; or Other Manufacturing From a Sheet or Web,   subclass 411 , 413, 430, 433, and 451 for the folding of zigzag or fan folded material. (Class Including Material Handling Or Material Feeding)
492Roll or Roller,   for a roll, per se, not elsewhere provided for, especially subclasses 49+ for concentric layered annular roll structure and subclasses 57+ for single annular member roll structure. (Other Classes Including Subcombinations Usable In A Typewriter)

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

In the typewriter art certain words and terms have acquired distinct and specialized meanings. The following Glossary will define and explain the terms so as to facilitate understanding of, and simplify, the definitions of the subclasses to follow. Throughout the class definition and the subclass definitions, an asterisk (*) following a word or term will indicate that it has been defined in this section. For a term that is defined in this Glossary and used in the title or definition of a subclass, the individual words of the term are separated by a hyphen (-) to indicate that the term is alphabetized in this Glossary as if it were a single word.

APRON

A member closely adjacent to the cylindrical platen* of a typewriter that serves to guide a record-medium* into close contact with the platen. It is usually a thin sheet of relatively rigid material having a length dimension approximating the length of the platen and is arcuately shaped to approximately the radius of the platen whereby it conforms to part of the periphery of the platen. It is usually located underneath the platen and closely adjacent thereto so that the record-medium is guided between the apron and the platen to be partially wrapped around the platen. The apron may also serve as a mounting for feed-rollers* that cooperate with the platen to move the record-medium in a line-space* direction.

AUXILIARY-RECORD-PROGRAM

A set of instructions used in a programmed-control-system* of a typewriter, which set of instructions may be readily removed from the typewriter so that another set of instructions may be inserted into the typewriter to perform a different or a modified sequence of typing functions.

CARRIAGE

A mechanism for supporting a record-medium* or for supporting a type-head-carrier*, which mechanism is provided with means to effect relative movement between the record-medium and a type-head-carrier that is at the print-point*, the movement occurring along a line that is parallel to the print-line*. A "carriage-feed" means effects carriage movement in the direction that causes character* symbols to be imprinted in succession, thus "carriage feed" also effects character-space* and word-space* distances. In most typewriters used for typing a European language said direction is from left to right, but there are some typewriters capable of imprinting successive characters from right to left even though the words will be read from left to right, and there are other typewriters intended to imprint successive characters from right to left because the words will be read from right to left. In any event, the carriage-feed direction is always the direction that causes characters to be imprinted in succession. In some typewriters the record-medium is held to a platen that is mounted on a carriage, and the "platen carriage" (together with the record-medium) is moved relative to the main frame of the typewriter. Each successively actuated type-member* is impressed at a print-point that is stationary relative to the main frame. The platen-carriage (e.g., right to left) is opposite to the direction in which successive characters are imprinted and read (e.g., left to right). (The directions mentioned apply except as noted above.) In some typewriters the record-medium is held to a platen that does not move during the imprinting of a print-line. The type-member is on a type-head* that is on a type-head-carrier that is mounted on a carriage, and the type-head carriage is moved relative to the main frame of the typewriter. Each successively actuated type-member is impressed at a print-point that is moved relative to the main frame. The "type-head carriage" movement (e.g., left to right) is in the direction in which successive characters are imprinted and read (e.g., left to right). In both forms of typewriter noted above, the term carriage feed is applied to movement of the carriage in the direction that effects imprinting of successive characters and words*. Thus, for a platen-carriage typewriter, carriage feed is usually from right to left (but note the exception above), whereas for a type-head-carriage typewriter, carriage feed is usually from left to right. Either typewriter is also capable of carriage reversal, which is in the direction opposite to carriage feed, and is used for "carriage return" (e.g., to start a new print-line) or is used for carriage backspace (e.g., to move a carriage a distance equivalent of one or more character-spaces in a reverse direction).

CARRIAGE-RACK

A bar having teeth or notches along one of its sides, which bar is affixed to a carriage*, and which teeth or notches cooperate with a pawl* or a pinion gear to enable or cause movement of the bar and the carriage to which it is affixed. There may be provision for adjustment of the bar relative to the carriage, but the adjustment is usually made at the time of manufacture of the typewriter, or may be made subsequently during a period of time when the typewriter is not being used for typing. When a carriage-rack cooperates with a pawl, it acts as a ratchet*, and for a discussion of how a pawl and ratchet operates as a carriage-feed mechanism, see the definition of pawl in this Glossary,

CASE-SHIFT

Case-shift is the relative movement between a record-medium* and a type-face* or a type-die* that is at the print-point*, which movement is effected by pressing a case-shift key* concurrently with the pressing of a character* key. In most typewriters, selection of which character is to be imprinted in sequence is made by selection of the character keys. In a typewriter with a case-shift, a choice of upper-case* (i.e., "CAPITAL" letter) or lower-case* (i.e., "small" letter) form of the selected letter is possible by concurrently pressing or not pressing the case-shift key. Analogous choice of other characters that appear on the various character keys is also possible with the case-shift key. In some typewriters case-shift is effected by moving into one of two positions (or in other typewriters one of three positions) any of (a) a type-bar-segment*, or (b) a platen, or (c) a type-head* that carries at least two fixedly related type-face elements; in all of these the movement occurs in a plane substantially parallel to the plane occupied by the type-face at the print-point. In some typewriters a type-head is on a type-head-carrier* and includes a type-set-assemblage* thereon, and in such typewriters case-shift is effected by moving the type-head so that the chosen type-face (i.e., upper-case or lower-case) will be impacted against the record-medium. In some typewriters, case-shift may also be used to imprint a character in a different font* or a character in a different language for specialized uses.

CHARACTER

A single symbol imprinted on a record-medium* by a type-member* and intended to be read by the human eye, or intended to be "read" by a mechanical or electrical scanner, for the purpose of conveying intelligence to the reader (i.e., human reader or mechanical "reader"). It forms one of the elements needed to form a word*. In most typewriters a character is formed by impressing a single type-member against a record-medium, usually via an inking means. However, a single character may also be formed by impressing a plurality of different type-members either simultaneously or successively in the same zone or area of the record-medium. A character may be (a) one of the letters in an alphabet, either upper-case* (i.e., "CAPITAL" letter), or lower-case* (i.e., "small" letter), or (b) one of the numeral digits (i.e., "0" through "9"), or (c) a punctuation mark [e.g., comma (,), colon (:), etc.], or (d) one of a variety of signs and symbols incorporated into a typewriter intended for general usage [e.g., dollar sign ($), ampersand symbol (&), etc.]. The number or variety of characters that a particular typewriter may imprint is limited only by the size of the typewriter and the area allotted to the key-board* and the type-members of that typewriter.

CHARACTER-SPACE

Character-space is the distance that the carriage* or the record-medium* is moved to effect the separation of one imprinted character* from a subsequently imprinted character of the same word*. In most alphabets the width of one character (i.e., the distance that it extends along the print-line*) differs from the width of another character. In many typewriters the character-space distances are in equal increments of carriage feed. Due to the fact that successively imprinted characters have different widths, the spaces between the successive characters are unequal. To compensate for different widths, some typewriters are provided with mechanism to vary the carriage feed. This mechanism causes the carriage feed to be proportional to the width of the character imprinted by a type-face*. The unequal increments of carriage feed produced by this mechanism results in equal spaces between successively imprinted characters, thereby improving the uniformity and appearance of the typing.

COLLATING-TABLE

A platform or support used while a plurality of sheets or webs are arranged or assembled according to an orderly system. The sheets or webs may include record-medium* pieces or transfer-medium* pieces in any desired order or sequence and the assemblage of pieces comprises that which is to be typed on. The term "collating" as used in this class (400) is used to describe a simple structure that is used for collating, usually manually. It differs somewhat from the term collating as applied to a machine that accomplishes a similar result of arranging or assembling plural sheets or webs.

CONDENSED-BILLING

A term used in the typewriter industry for the production of a condensed or summary record of a succession of typed documents (e.g., bills or numerical data). The operation includes the typing of plural copies (e.g., an "original copy" and one or more "carbon copies", or duplicate "original copies") simultaneously on plural record-medium* pieces. At least one of the pieces is intended to be complete as to heading, address, and other information that is to be sent to one user. At least another piece is to be retained by the typist, and is not required to be complete; that is, it may omit much of the information, but may be a composite or summary or condensed record of the information that is to be sent. The record-medium on which the condensed-billing is typed is therefore moved in line-space* distances that differ from the line-space distances of the complete record medium.

DENOMINATIONAL-STOP

A component of the carriage* mechanism that causes stopping of the carriage in any of selected denominational column positions. In a denominational column a sequence of numerical digits is imprinted on one print-line* and further sequences of numeral digits are imprinted in successive print-lines, one print-line below the previous print-line. The distinguishing characteristic of a denominational column is that the decimal point of successive print-lines of numeral digits is in vertical array, or in the instance where the decimal point of successive numbers is not actually imprinted, the "units" digit of the successive numbers is in vertical array. Thus the position where the carriage will be stopped to imprint each of a succession of numbers will depend on whether the first digit of a sequence of numeral digits is to be a "hundreds" digit, or a "tens" digit, etc. A denominational-stop is usually a "counter stop" (see the discussion under the definition of tab-rack* in this Glossary).

FEED-ROLLER

A rotatable element having a cylindrical or cylindroidal periphery that contacts a surface of a sheet or web of record-medium* material or transfer-medium* material and enables or causes movement of the sheet or web. Usually a feed-roller cooperates with a second element and the sheet or web lies between the feed-roller and the second element, the opposite surfaces of the sheet or web being closely adjacent to the corresponding surfaces of the feed-roller and the second element and in nonsliding contact therewith. When the second element is a platen* the feed-roller serves as a "pressure roller" to urge the sheet or web toward the platen, and the platen is rotated to cause feed movement of the sheet or web. When the second element is another feed-roller either or both of the feed-rollers may be driven for rotation, the rollers being rotated in opposite rotational directions to cause feed movement, and the two feed-rollers cooperate to form a feed-roller couple.

FONT

A complete assortment of type in the same style and size to imprint character* symbols having a substantially uniform appearance. Examples of font include elite and pica (both refer to size of type), italic (i.e., having slope to the right), and cursive (i.e., having flowing lines connecting individual characters in a style resembling handwriting), these being only a few of the fonts used in various typewriters.

FUNCTION

In general, an operation performed on or by a typewriter during use of the typewriter for typing. As used by the typewriter industry, however, the term "function" is limited to an operation other than (a) impressing a type-member* against a record-medium* to imprint a character* (which thereby concurrently effects a character-space*), or (b) effecting a word-space*. Examples of typewriter operations considered by the industry to be functions are: backspace, carriage return, case-shift*, tabular stopping, line-space* (i.e., for record-medium feed), ribbon feed, and similar typewriter movements.

INK

A substance (usually fluid, may be viscous or solid) that is applied to the surface of a record-medium* in the configuration of a typed character* symbol to make the character visible to a reader of the typed text. An important property of ink is its ability to form a "permanent" symbol, that is, a symbol that is not easily erased (or erased only with great difficulty), and it is this property that aids the production of an original copy of the typed text. (See the definition of transfer-medium* in this Glossary, section III, for a discussion of the difference between original copy and carbon copy.) A fluid ink may be applied directly to a type-face*, from which type-face the ink is directly imprinted onto a record-medium. A viscous ink may be applied to the record-medium via an ink-impregnated ribbon*, and the ink therein will "flow" by capillary action from unused portions of the ribbon into the used portions of the ribbon. A solid ink may be applied via a so-called "carbon-ink" ribbon, which is often a single-use or one-use ribbon because all or most of the coating of the ribbon is imprinted onto the record-medium when a type-face is impacted thereagainst. A "hecto-graphic" ink is a particular form of ink that is soluble and is used to form a "master" plate used in a "spirit duplicating" copying process.

KEY

An element on a typewriter, located on a key-board*, which element is pressed to cause either (a) the actuation of a type-member* to imprint a character* that corresponds to the selected key, or (b) the actuation of a selected function* of the typewriter. In a manual typewriter a key is usually pressed by a finger of a user, and the movement of the selected key is transmitted via a system of levers and links into movement of a corresponding type-member actuator or function actuator. In some typewriters and external power source assists the actuation. In other typewriters keys are pressed successively in response to signals to the typewriter by a human or mechanical operator. The key referred to in (a) above (i.e., a character key) also causes a character-space* movement of the carriage* as well as actuation of the type-member.

KEY-BOARD

That portion of a typewriter which is located so as to face and be adjacent to the user of a typewriter, and containing the key* elements that are to be pressed in succession to produce a text that is being typed, or pressed as needed to actuate a particular function* of the typewriter.

LINE-SPACE

The distance caused by relative movement between a record-medium* and a print-point* of a type-member* against the record-medium, which movement effects separation of one print-line* of typed text from a subsequently imprinted line of typed text on the same page* of text. It is effected by incremental relative movement that occurs in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which a print-line is formed. In most typewriters the type- member is impressed in substantially the same area of the typewriter and the record-medium is effectively held to a platen* which moves incrementally between successive print-lines, but in some typewriters the type-member and its actuating mechanism moves in a corresponding direction in incremental movements between successive print-lines. Thus, in most typewriters, line-space movement is a specific form of record-medium movement, but line-space movement is a determinate, incremental movement in selected units of distance or in multiples or fractions thereof. If a unit of distance is considered as one line-space, the multiples would include two or three line-spaces and the fractions would include one-half, one and one-half, or two and one-half line-spaces, all these distances being selected by the user of a typewriter according to the needs of the user. The most significant aspect of line-space movement is that it is related to a preceding or succeeding print-line on the record-medium as distinguished from record-medium movement which is not related to a print-line, but rather is an indeterminate movement.

LOWER-CASE

A "small" letter, similar in appearance to this text, as opposed to upper-case*. The names lower-case and upper-case are derived from the printing art during the period when type-faces* were handpicked and handset, the type being picked from a tray in which the capital or upper-case type were held in compartments physically located above the compartments for the small or lower-case type.

MAGNETIC

A property of nature resulting in attraction or orientation of a ferrous material relative to a body having such a property. Examples of such a body include the earth, a loadstone, and a coil of wire in an electrical circuit, all of which have, or can generate, a magnetic field. Magnetism is used to produce a force, as in a magnetic solenoid, or to transmit a force, as in a magnetic clutch. Magnetic also describes a property inherent in an auxiliary-record-program* containing ferrous particles capable of being oriented or reoriented relative to the auxiliary record, the orientation of the particles being sensed to effect a typing operation in response to the sensing.

MARGIN

The distance from an edge of the record-medium* to the closest character* symbol of a print-line* to that edge. The term is most usually used when a plurality of print-lines are typed and the first imprinted characters of each of the print-lines are all equally spaced from the edge. When typing any language that is read from left to right, the left margin is the distance from the left edge to these first characters and will usually be parallel to that edge, whereas the right margin is the distance of the right edge to the last characters of the successive print-lines. However, because the number of characters in a print-line is subject to chance, the right margin will usually not be equally spaced from the right edge unless "justification" is performed. For a discussion of justification, see (1) Note to the definition of subclass 1 below.

MARGIN-STOP

A member that is used to stop the movement of a carriage* when the carriage reaches the margin* of the record-medium*. The margin-stop of a platen* carriage (see the definition of carriage in this Glossary) is usually mounted on the platen carriage for movement therewith and cooperates with a stop fixed to the frame of the typewriter, whereas the margin-stop of a "typehead-carriage" (see the definition of carriage in this Glossary) is usually mounted on the frame of the typewriter and cooperates with a stop mounted on the type-head carriage for movement therewith, but in either typewriter one margin-stop may be set for various margin distances for the left margin and another margin-stop may be set for various margin distances for the right margin.

PAGE

A unit of printed text corresponding to that which would appear on one leaf or sheet of a book, newspaper, or document. It usually refers to a sheet of text, but in the instance where text is imprinted on a web (i.e., of indeterminate-length material), it refers to that length of web which will subsequently be cut to form a sheet of determinate length.

PAPER-FINGER

A member that is in substantial contact with a platen* or with a record-medium* that is supported or backed by the platen, which member thereby ensures contact of a record-medium with the platen. It is usually an elongated element, and in those typewriters wherein the platen is cylindrical the paper-finger is arcuate and conforms to the periphery of the platen for a substantial length of the paper-finger in order to hold the record-medium to the platen.

PAWL

A moveable member having a protruding portion that engages a notch between two adjacent teeth of a ratchet* to cause or enable intermittent movement of the ratchet. The movement of a pawl is usually two-way, that is, oscillation or reciprocation, and the protruding portion of the pawl engages a notch between two adjacent teeth of the ratchet and moves relative to the ratchet over or around one of the teeth to engage a notch between the next two adjacent teeth. In one form of pawl and ratchet mechanism, the pawl is driven while engaged in a notch between the teeth to thereby drive the ratchet, and then is retracted to reengage a notch between the next teeth. In another form of pawl and ratchet mechanism, the ratchet is urged to be moved, but its movement is restrained by the pawl; movement of the pawl momentarily releases the ratchet for movement of the ratchet, and return of the pawl to a notch between the next teeth again restrains the ratchet. In either mechanism a plurality of pawls, or a pawl with a plurality of protruding portions may be used alternately.

PITCH

The term "pitch" in the typewriter art derives from its usage in mechanics or machinery, where it refers to the distance between two things in series, e.g., two adjacent threads of a screw or two adjacent teeth of a toothed wheel or rack, etc. As used in the typewriter art, "pitch" refers to a line-space* distance or to a character-space* distance, as such distances are caused by mechanical elements in the typewriter. Some typewriters are capable of imprinting different character* sizes due to easily replaceable type-head* elements. In order to maintain a proper or pleasing appearance to the type text, it is necessary, when such a change in character size is made, also to change the character-space and line-space distances in proper proportion to that of the character size. Such a typewriter is therefore also capable of having the pitch changed when character size is changed.

PLATEN

An element that serves as a support or backing for a record-medium* while a type-member* is impressed against the record-medium and thereby prevents movement of the record-medium during impression; or an element that serves as a support or backing for a record-medium and also moves the record-medium toward the type-member for impression of the type-member against the record-medium. Although from the derivation of the word "platen" it should comprise a flat or planar plate, in the typewriter art it is not so limited. In most typewriters the platen is a cylinder having a generally smooth surface, and the record-medium is partially wrapped around the periphery of the cylinder. In use the cylinder is rotated until the location of the record-medium corresponds to the desired location of the print-line* to be imprinted thereon, and after the desired line has been imprinted, the cylinder is rotated an increment corresponding to a desired line-space*, thereby moving the record-medium. Some typewriters do include a flat platen, which may be a plate having dimensions corresponding to the record-medium (i.e., sheet), or may be a bar platen having dimensions corresponding to the height of a character* and the length of a print-line, or may be an anvil having dimensions corresponding to the height and width of a single character.

PRINT-LINE

A single row of imprinted, spaced character* symbols and word* groups that is part of the text being typed. It is usually a straight row, but particular characters of the line may be offset therefrom, as, for example, to imprint subscript (i.e., slightly below the line) or superscript (i.e., slightly above the line), or to imprint a mathematical or chemical formula without negating its characteristics as a line. It is usually formed and read across a page, either from left to right as in European languages, or from right to left, as in Semitic languages, but may also be formed and read parallel to one of the side margins* of a page* (i.e., "up" or "down"), as in some Oriental languages.

PRINT-POINT

Print-point is the typewriter industry term for the area or spot on the record-medium* that a type-member* is impressed against to imprint a character* on the record-medium. The print-point may be fixed or movable relative to a typewriter main frame as discussed in the definition of carriage* in this Glossary.

PROGRAMMED-CONTROL-SYSTEM

Means for regulating the operation of a typewriter to perform a predetermined sequence of operations for typing, which means include a set of instructions which may be replaced or modified at will, to which instructions the typewriter mechanism responds by performing the sequence of operations. The instructions may be in the form of a tangible article such as a tape or card or disc with visible or invisible indicia thereon, or may be in the form of an intangible "computer program" including a "memory" and related circuitry, but in any event, must be related to the operation of a typewriter to be considered for this class.

RATCHET

A movable member having teeth thereon and at least one notch between the teeth, which notch is engaged by a protruding portion of a pawl* to cause or enable intermittent movement of the ratchet. The manner in which a pawl and ratchet mechanism is used in a typewriter is discussed under the definition of pawl in this Glossary, section III. Ratchet teeth may be part of a "ratchet wheel" or of a "ratchet rack", and the action of the pawl is similar in both instances. However, since a ratchet wheel is circular, its motion will be a one-way rotational intermittent motion; and since a ratchet rack is linear, its motion will be a one-way rectilinear intermittent motion.

RECORD-MEDIUM

A piece of material, usually paper but not limited to paper, on which material is recorded an imprint of a type-member* that is impressed against the material to form a character* to be read. The material may be a relatively thin "sheet" having a determinate width and a determinate length, or may be a "web" having a determinate width and an indeterminate length. The recording is usually by way of an ink* that coats the material in the form of a line representing a character; but other kinds of recording may be done, as, for example, embossing, which deforms the surface of the material to raise or lower the surface into a line representing the character, or perforating, which punches a plurality of holes in the material that taken together form a representation of a character.

RIBBON

A piece of elongated and relatively thin transfer-medium* material impregnated with, or carrying, ink* that is to be applied to a record-medium*, which material is interposed between the record-medium and a type-face* that is at the print-point*. When the type-face is impressed against the record-medium (with the ribbon therebetween) a portion of the ink on the ribbon will be transferred to the record-medium to form a readable character* symbol corresponding to the symbol on the type-face that was impressed against the record-medium. Although in most typewriters the ribbon is an elongated relatively narrow strip of material, these dimensions are not critical in its usage as a ribbon. (For example, a ribbon may be narrow and sufficiently short to be held in the hand of a typist while being temporarily positioned adjacent to the print-point, or a ribbon may be elongated and as wide as the record-medium to be typed on.) What is critical in its usage as a ribbon for making an original copy is (a) its location directly between the record-medium and the type-face that is at the print-point, and (b) the use of a "permanent" or not easily erasable ink; the combination forms an original copy of the typed text, in contrast to a carbon copy. (See the definitions of transfer-medium and ink in this Glossary for a discussion of carbon copy). Among the various forms of ribbon used in a typewriter are: (a) a fabric ribbon coated or impregnated with "permanent" ink, the ribbon being reusable many times or until the ink therein is depleted, and producing an original copy; (b) a carbon-ink ribbon coated with permanent ink, the ribbon being usually a single-use ribbon due to the operation wherein all or most of the coating is deposited on the record-medium during the impact of a type-face thereagainst, and producing an original copy (see the definition of transfer-medium in this Glossary, for a discussion of the difference between the permanent ink used in a carbon-ink ribbon, and the carbon coating of a "carbon-paper" transfer-medium); (c) a "hectographic" ribbon that uses a soluble ink and produces a "master" plate subsequently used in a spirit duplicating copy process; (d) a carbon-paper ribbon coated with a substance containing carbon or other pigment to produce a carbon copy that is easily erasable; (e) a "correction" ribbon that is used to correct an error in typing as discussed in the definition of subclass 697 below. It should be noted that in early typewriter technology the term "ribbon" usually referred only to a fabric ribbon mentioned above; therefore, unless a disclosure particularly describes a ribbon by an intended function or specific coating, it should be assumed that a fabric ribbon is disclosed.

SPACE-BAR

An element on a typewriter, located on a keyboard*, which element is pressed to cause a carriage-feed movement of the carriage* without an imprint of a character*, thereby to separate one word* from another word on a print-line*.

TAB

A tab is an abbreviated form of the term "tabular", which term refers to a columnar arrangement of character* symbols on a page* of text. A "column" of text is formed by imprinting a particular symbol on one print-line* and subsequently imprinting the same or another particular symbol on another print-line directly below the first print-line (i.e., equally spaced from one of the side edges of the record-medium*), and repeating the typing until a plurality of print-lines have been formed, all of which are in vertical array. The particular symbol may be the first letter of the first word* in each of the successively imprinted print-lines, and two or more columns are usually arranged in such a "column-set" arrangement, each of the columns being arrayed at a preset distance from an edge of the record-medium. The particular symbol may be the decimal point or the "units" digit of a set of numeral digits representing a number; this arrangement is termed "denominational". The terms "column" and "tabular" are also discussed in (1) Note and (2) Note to subclass 284, the term "denominational" is also discussed in (1) Note to subclass 285, and the term column set is discussed in (3) Note to subclass 284 and defined in subclass 285.1. It should also be noted that, in some disclosures, the term "tab" has been used as an abbreviation of an element which is better known as a "tab-stop" element and is discussed in this Glossary under tab-rack*.

TAB-RACK

A component of the carriage* mechanism that causes stopping of the carriage in any of selected tabular (see tab* in this Glossary) positions. A tab-rack is an elongated member extending parallel to the direction of carriage movement and having a length substantially the same as the extent of carriage movement. On the tab-rack a plurality of "tab-stop" elements are mounted, each of said elements being movable transversely of the length of the tab-rack form a "clear" position at which the element is passive to a "set" position at which the element is able to cooperate with a "counter-stop" element. In operation, relative movement between the tab-rack and the counter stop is effected in the lengthwise direction of the tab-rack until a set tab stop abuts against the counter stop. Usually the tab-rack is connected to the carriage and its tab stop abuts a stationary counter stop, thereby stopping the carriage. The same result may be achieved by mounting the counter stop on the carriage and abutting the counter stop against a set tab stop on a stationary tab-rack, thereby stopping the carriage. A plurality of counter stops may be provided, one of which counter stops may be set to stop the carriage in a preset column or denominational position. A typewriter capable of tabular operation is provided with at least three key* elements for regulating the operation. One of the keys, labelled "set" (or a variant thereof) is depressed by the typist to move a selected tab-stop element from its passive position to its set position on the tab-rack. Another key, labelled "tab" (or a variant thereof), or unlabeled but having a distinctive shape, is depressed by the typist to concurrently (a) release the carriage from its normal carriage-feed mechanism to enable unrestrained movement of the carriage, and (b) set a counter stop into a position where it will abut against the set tab stop when the counter stop and tab stop engage one another, whereby the movement of the carriage will be stopped in the tabular position. A third key, labelled "clear" (or a variant thereof), is depressed by the typist to move any of the previously set tab stops back to its passive position on the type-rack.

TOGGLE-LINKAGE

An assemblage of at least two links, pitmans, bars, or struts and at least three pivots, an end of one link being connected to an end of the other link by a pivot that is common to both links. Each of the links also has a pivot at the end remote from the common pivot, which common or intermediate pivot is movable from a first (or "broken") position at which the common pivot is not in line with the other two pivots to a second (or "straightened") position at which the common pivot is substantially in line with the other two pivots, or which common pivot is movable from said second position to said first position. Such movement is accomplished by a force applied to the common pivot in a direction approximately at right angles to either link, thereby moving the remote pivots relatively away from each other (i.e., when the common pivot moves to the second position) or relatively toward each other (i.e., when the common pivot moves to the first position).

TRANSFER-MEDIUM

A piece of material, relatively thin as compared to its other dimensions, and flexible so as to conform to various configurations as required in a typewriter, which material is impregnated or coated on one or both of its opposite surfaces with a preparation of ink* or gelatin or other substance-containing carbon or other pigment that is capable of being transplaced from a surface of said material onto a surface of an adjacent record-medium*. Among the various forms of transfer-medium used in a typewriter are: (a) a "permanent" ink transfer-medium in the form of an elongated, narrow ribbon*, a wide ribbon, a disc, etc., all of which have the property that the character* symbol imprinted with the use of this transfer-medium is not easily erased, thereby producing an "original copy" text; (b) a "carbon-paper" transfer-medium, so called because one of its surfaces is coated with a substance containing carbon or other pigment having the property that the character imprinted with this transfer-medium is easily erased, thereby producing a "carbon copy" text; (c) a "hectos:graphic" ink transfer-medium, using an ink that is soluble in a particular solvent and is used to form a "master" plate that is subsequently used in a "spirit duplicating" copying process, and (d) a "correction" transfer-medium that is coated with a substance containing a pigment of the same color as that of the record-medium, and is used to correct an error in typing (as discussed in the definition of subclass 697 below).

TYPE-BAR

An elongated member having at one end a type-member* (i.e., a type-die* or a type-face*) element and at its other end a connection to one or more key* elements. In most manual type-writers, the number of type-bars corresponds to the number of keys provided, and the type-bars are pivoted to a type-bar-segment* so that the various type-faces are all impressed at approximately the same print-point*, but many variations of the construction are to be found. The type-bars may be pivoted to individual linkages, or may be slidable to print position. In some typewriters a single key may actuate a plurality of type-bars; in others, a plurality of keys may be depressed simultaneously to actuate a single type-bar; and in others (e.g., stenographic typewriters), there may be a plurality of character* symbols simultaneously imprinted.

TYPE-BAR-SEGMENT

A type-bar-segment is an arcuate member that serves to support all the type-bar* members for pivotal motion so that each of the type-member* elements carried by the type-bar members will be impressed onto the record-medium* at approximately the same print-point*. In some manual typewriters the type-bar-segment is moved to effect case-shift*. (This occurs because the type-member (i.e., type-face* or type-die*) that is at the print-point has been moved as a result of moving the type-bar-segment, so that an upper-case* or a lower-case* form of character* symbol is imprinted on the record-medium according to the choice of the typist.) The difference between a type-bar-segment and a type-face-carrier* (which also permits a type-bar to move relative thereto) is that a type-face-carrier moves both for selection of a character and for choice of upper-case of lower-case, whereas a type-bar-segment moves only for choice of upper-case or lower-case.

TYPE-DIE

An element that is impressed against a record-medium* to deform or pierce the surface of the record-medium into a representation of a character*. It is that portion of a type-member* that projects from the body of the type-member and contacts the surface of the record-medium to raise or lower the contacted surface relative to the uncontracted surface into a line representing a character, or to form one or more perforations in the contacted surface, which perforations taken together represent a character.

TYPE-FACE

An element that is impressed against a record-medium* to imprint a line representing a character*. It is that portion of a type-member* that projects from the body of the type-member, and contacts the surface of the record-medium to form the character by ink* applied to the type-face and transferred to the record-medium, or by ink applied via an ink ribbon* or similar transfer material that lies between the type-face and the surface of the record-medium.

TYPE-FACE-CARRIER

A type-face-carrier is a mechanism on which is mounted a plurality of type-member* elements (i.e., type-face* or type-die*) for movement of any one type-member relative to the remainder of the type-members mounted thereon. Usually a group of type-faces comprising a type-set-assemblage* is mounted on a type-face-carrier, face-carrier, and the type-face-carrier is capable of various kinds of movement. A typist will select one key* element from among the many key elements available, causing the type-face-carrier to move to a position at which the selected type-face will impact against a record-medium* to imprint the selected character* symbol (e.g., a particular letter, or a particular number, etc.) on the record-medium. A typist may choose to effect case-shift* or not effect case-shift, thereby to choose from the character symbols available on one key element the one symbol (e.g., the upper-case* or the lower-case* form of the same letter, etc.) thereby causing the type-face-carrier to move to a position at which the chosen type-face will imprint the chosen symbol. The mechanism also causes or enables relative movement between the type-face and the record-medium (e.g., movement of the type-face toward the print-point*) to imprint the selected or the chosen character or symbol on the record-medium. (See this Glossary, section III, under the definitions of the terms type-bar-segment* and type-head-carrier* for the differences between those mechanisms and a type-face-carrier).

TYPE-HEAD

A type-head is an element comprising one or more type-member* elements integral one with the other(s). In most manually powered type-writers a type-set-assemblage* is distributed among a plurality of type-heads, each of which as two type-face* elements. Some of these type-heads include a type-face for imprinting a particular letter in lower-case* and a type-face for imprinting the same letter in upper-case*, the choice being made by a case-shift* mechanism. Other type-heads in these manually powered type-writers include a type-face for imprinting a number and a type-face for imprinting a symbol (see the definition of character* in this Glossary for examples of a symbol), the choice of which is to be imprinted also being made by the case-shift mechanism. In some electrically powered typewriters a single type-head includes a complete type-set-assemblage, and said type-head is mounted on a type-head-carrier*. In such typewriters the single type-head is moved for selection of the type-face to be imprinted, or for the choice of the case to be used. In the definitions of the subclasses that follow, the term "type-head" has usually been reserved for the element that includes a type-set-assemblage on an electrically powered typewriter, and the element on the type end of a type-bar* has usually been referred to as a type-face.

TYPE-HEAD-CARRIER

A type-head-carrier is a mechanism on which is mounted at least one type-head* that includes a type-set-assemblage* (e.g., a group of type-face* elements) thereon for movement of the type-head relative to the type-head-carrier. Usually a type-head-carrier and the type-head mounted thereon are capable of various kinds of movement. A typist will select one key* element from among the many key elements available, causing the type-head to move (e.g., by oscillating and/or tilting) to a position at which the selected type-face will impact against a record-medium* to imprint the selected character* symbol (e.g., a particular letter, or a particular number, etc.) on the record-medium. A typist may choose to effect case-shift* or not effect case-shift, thereby to choose from the character symbols available on one key element the one symbol (e.g., the upper-case* or the lower-case* form of the same letter, etc.) that is to be imprinted, thereby causing the type-head to move to a position at which the chosen type-face will imprint the chosen symbol. The mechanism also causes or enables movement of the type-head (i.e., by movement of the type-head-carrier) between the type-face and the record-medium (e.g., movement of the type-face toward the print-point*) to imprint the selected or the chosen character or symbol on the record-medium. The difference between a type-head-carrier and a type-face-carrier* (which also carries a type-set-assemblage that moves both for selection of a character and for choice of upper-case or lower-case) is that a type-face-carrier supports individually movable type-face elements, whereas a type-head-carrier supports a type-head wherein all the type-face elements are integral therewith.

In some typewriters that use a type-head-carrier a single type-head includes a complete type-set-assemblage, and this type-head may be removed from its carrier and be replaced with a different type-head having a different font* (e.g., the style, character size, alphabet, or symbols that the typewriter can produce). In some typewriters that use a type-head-carrier plural type-heads may be provided, each including a complete type-set-assemblage (e.g., in different fonts, etc.) or each including only part of a complete type-set-assemblage (e.g., one-half of an assemblage on one type-head and the other half of that assemblage on the other type-head).

TYPE-MEMBER

An element having on a surface thereof a type-die* or a type-face* which is impressed against a record-medium* to imprint a character* in or on the surface of the record-medium. In most typewriters there is only one type-member corresponding to each character* that is to be typed, and the user of the typewriter selects from the assortment of type-members provided in the apparatus one type-member at a time to be imprinted, and serially imprints the selected type-members to form the characters representing the text to be typed.

TYPE-SET-ASSEMBLAGE

A group of type-face* elements including a multiplicity of type-faces for imprinting the different character* symbols that a typewriter is capable of imprinting in the same font* of type. In many typewriters a type-set-assemblage is carried on a plurality of type-bar* members that include all the type-faces that the typewriter can imprint, either in upper-case* or in lower-case*, or in the various character symbols. In other typewriters a single type-head* includes all type-faces that the typewriter can imprint in the same font, and that type-head can be removed from the typewriter to be replaced by a type-head for another type-set-assemblage of a different font. In still other typewriters two or more type-heads are provided to comprise one type-set-assemblage, or to comprise two or more type-set-assemblages in different fonts.

TYPEWRITER-ACTUATED-CONTROL

Typewriter-actuated-control is intended to refer to a mechanism wherein a first part of a typewriter moves to accomplish its intended first-part function, and during said movement the first part engages a second part to move the second part, thereby accomplishing a second function as the second part is moved. A simple example of a typewriter-actuated-control exists in the instance of a typewriter wherein the ribbon* vibrator has means for opening the guide means of the vibrator for the purpose of facilitating insertion of a new ribbon. When the vibrator is next lifted or raised to enable the ribbon to cover the print-point* to imprint the next character*, the upward movement of the vibrator for typing causes engagement of elements that "automatically" causes closing of the vibrator guide to its normal position without special intervention of the typist to accomplish the guide-closing function.

UNIVERSAL-BAR

A member that is part of a drive train of a typewriter, which member is driven by any of a multiplicity of elements and which member serves to drive any of a different multiplicity of elements. A universal-bar may be driven, for example, by a space-bar*, or by a character* key* element that causes imprint of a character and also drives the universal-bar either directly or via a type-bar* member or associated linkage. The universal-bar may then serve to drive a carriage-feed mechanism or a ribbon-feed mechanism or a character-counter mechanism or all these exemplary mechanisms concurrently.

UPPER-CASE

A capital letter, similar in appearance to this text, as opposed to lower-case*. The derivation of the terms upper-case* and lower-case is discussed in the definition of lower-case in this Glossary. See the definitions of character* and case-shift* in this Glossary for the forms of symbols that are imprinted when the case-shift mechanism is in the upper-case mode.

VIBRATOR

Vibrator is the typewriter industry term for an element or an assemblage of elements that (a) guides a ribbon* or constrains the ribbon for movement along its elongated dimension, and (b) is located on the typewriter adjacent to the print-point*, and (c) moves at least a portion of the ribbon that is so guided transversely to its elongated dimension from a first position adjacent to but not covering the print-point to a second position covering the print-point. The first position is a normal, or "rest" position that permits the print-line* to be seen by a typist, and the second position places the ribbon over the print-point so that a type-face* will be impressed against the ribbon to imprint a character* on a record-medium*. The vibrator movement may be controlled so as to move different zones of the ribbon to the print-point, each of which zones extends longitudinally and is spaced transversely to the others, whereby different colored characters may be imprinted.

WORD

For purposes of this class, a word is one or more imprinted character* symbols that are grouped together and separated from other groups of characters to convey intelligence or information to a reader. Usually a word consists of one or more letter characters that taken together as a group may also be spoken by people of a national or ethnic folk, but especially for purposes of this class, a word may consist of more number characters as well as letter characters, the words then conveying information in a cryptos:graphic "language".

WORD-SPACE

The distance that separates the last character* of one word* of imprinted text from the first character of a subsequent word of the same text on the same line of text.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 1]    1INCLUDING JUSTIFICATION OR QUADDING OF PRINT-LINE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein more than one print-line* of character* symbols is imprinted on a record-medium* to form a page* of text, and wherein significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "justification" as that term is discussed and defined in (1) Note below, or significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "quadding" as that term is discussed and defined in (2) Note below, either operation modifying the print-lines of a page of text.
(1) Note. When typing in a language that is read from left to right, a typist can predetermine the left margin (i.e., the distance from the left edge of the record-medium to the first character of the print-line). The right margin (i.e., the distance from the right edge of the record-medium to the last character of the print-line) is subject to chance and depends on the number of character symbols and word* groups in the print-line; therefore, the right margin will usually not be even. "Justification" corrects the uneven right margin by expanding or contracting the print-line as necessary to make all the print-lines of uniform length. Justification is usually accomplished by typing a rough draft to form a print-line that ends within a "justification zone" and then retyping with the addition or subtraction of "unit" spaces to or from the character-space* or word-space* distances on the print-line. The characters and spaces in a print-line may be stored in a justification circuit which may include a "memory" and circuitry to modify the memory by the addition or subtraction of unit spaces described above to expand or contract the print-line. Justification may also be accomplished by typing on a stretchable record-medium as described in subclass 14 below.
(2) Note. The term "quadding" is derived from the printing and type setting arts, where the word "quad" refers to a piece of metal that is of less height than a type-face* and is used to form a blank space in the printed line. By introducing quads in sufficient numbers and appropriate positions, a printed line could be printed as "quad right" (i.e., the last character of successively printed lines uniformly spaced from the right edge of a page) or printed as "quad left" (i.e., the first character of successively printed lines uniformly spaced from the left edge of a page) or printed as "quad center" (i.e., the first and the last character of the same printed line equally spaced from the left and the right edge of the page, respectively). A similar appearance of text and successively imprinted print-lines can be accomplished on a typewriter by quadding to control the location of the first or the last character (or both of said characters) of a print-line. In addition, the quadded print-lines may also be expanded or contracted in an operation similar to justification [described in (1) Note above], so that the text that has been subjected to a quadding operation will also appear to be justified.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 2]    2Including quadding of print-line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein more than one print-line* of character* symbols is imprinted on a record-medium* on a page* of text, and wherein significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "quadding" as that term is discussed and defined in (2) Note of subclass 1 above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 3]    3By programmed-control-system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "justification" as that term is discussed and defined in (1) Note of subclass 1 above, and wherein the justification is accomplished by way of a programmed-control-system*.
(1) Note. The programmed-control-system is not particularly described in the patents of this subclass (3), but rather is referred to as a "register" of a "memory" that is modified, or a variant of such terminology. However, it is clearly described as a means for modifying the operation of a typewriter to produce a justified print-line*.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 1.1 through 1.18for static presentation processing (e.g., processing data for printer, etc.).
715Data Processing: Presentation Processing of Document, Operator Interface Processing, and Screen Saver Display Processing,   subclasses 243 through 253for document layout processing and subclasses 255 through 272 for document edit, composition, or storage control processing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 4]    4On auxiliary-record-program (e.g., tape, card, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 3.  Subject matter wherein the programmed-control-system* includes a set of instructions that may be readily removed from the typewriter so that another set of instructions may be inserted into the typewriter to perform a different or modified sequence of justifying operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 5]    5Magnetic record:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein an auxiliary-record-program* includes or contains ferrous particles capable of being oriented or reoriented relative to the auxiliary-record-program, the orientation of the particles being sensed to effect the control of the typewriter or the justification of a print-line* typed thereby.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 6]    6With error-correcting storage register:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the programmed-control-system* includes a "memory" circuit and means for amending or modifying the program in the event that a typist has made a mistake in the typed text or in the justification thereof so that the text may be retyped with the mistake rectified.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

74,for error detection and correction of a program for selection of type-face* elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 7]    7Including artificial or end-of-line hyphen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 4.  Subject matter wherein the auxiliary-record-program* includes provision of determining if and where a "hyphen" will be imprinted at the end of a print-line* and provision for inserting the hyphen properly.
(1) Note. A hyphen is a punctuation mark comprising a short line used to indicate the end of a syllable in a word* which has been divided so that one or more syllables of that word appear on one print-line and the remainder of the syllables of that word appear on a succeeding print-line.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 8]    8By using "no-print" device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "justification" as that term is discussed and defined in (1) Note to subclass 1 above, and wherein the justification is accomplished with the use of a means for not printing or suppressing the imprinting of one or more character* symbols of a print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 9]    9By interword or intercharacter spacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "justification" as that term is discussed and defined in (1) Note of subclass 1 above, and wherein the justification is accomplished by adding to or subtracting from the character-space* or the word-space* distances in a print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 10]    10Variable carriage-feed mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein the character-space* or the word-space* distances are varied for justification by moving the carriage* in irregular or unequal increments of movement.
(1) Note. The variable carriage-feed mechanism that may be used for the typewriter of this subclass is of the kind that, per se, is found in subclass 303.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

303,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 11]    11Carriage slidable relative to its carriage-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a carriage* that is attached to a tab-rack* that enables the carriage to be moved in a character-space direction and wherein the character-space or the word-space* distances are varied for justification by moving the carriage along the tab-rack in varying or irregular increments required for justification.
(1) Note. A fuller explanation of the relationship between the various elements of a carriage-feed mechanism will be found in the definitions of tab-rack and the various definitions of subclasses indented under 283.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 12]    12By interword spacing only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein the justification is accomplished by adding to or subtracting from the word-space* distances in a print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 13]    13Including plural space-bars for different spacings:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 12.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with two or more space-bar* elements on the key-board* of the typewriter, each of which space-bar* elements will effect a word-space* distance different than the other(s), and wherein justification is accomplished by using one or another of the space-bars during the imprinting of the print-line* according to what distances are needed to justify the print-line.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 14]    14By typing line on stretchable medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "justification" as that term is discussed and defined in (1) Note to subclass 1 above, and wherein the justification is accomplished by typing print-line* of character* symbols on a material that is capable of being elongated.
(1) Note. In this subclass justification is accomplished by typing a print-line on a stretchable ribbon* to an extent less than that of the desired print-line, and subsequently adhering either the ribbon or the characters* that have been imprinted on the ribbon to the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 15]    15Including justification indicator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the typing operation known as "justification" as that term is discussed and defined in (1) Note to subclass 1 above, and wherein the typewriter is provided with means for helping the typist to know the need for justification or the number of character-space* distances required for justification.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

703,for other indicator means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 16]    16FOR TYPING OR FORMING CONTINUOUS OR DISCONTINUOUS LINE (E.G., BY "LINER"):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter capable of producing a mark on a record-medium*, which mark is long in proportion to its breadth.
(1) Note. The mark may be formed by a penlike instrument that applies ink* to the record-medium in a continuous stroke or movement of the instrument relative to the record-medium (e.g., by moving the record-medium with respect to a stationary pen), or may be formed by impacting the record-medium with a succession of short marks (e.g., each produced by a dash) that overlap to form a continuous line, or the marks may be separated, but taken as a whole form a dotted line or a dashed line.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 17]    17Including programmed-control-system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein a programmed-control-system* is used for giving instructions to which the typewriter responds by forming said mark (e.g., a line) in the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 18]    18By scriber (e.g., pen, pencil, etc.) or with scriber guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein said mark is formed or produced by contacting the record-medium* with an instrumentality that is provided with ink*, pigment, or coating material that is visible to the eye, and by moving the record-medium, or the instrumentality while the record-medium is coated on the record-medium, or wherein said mark is formed or produced by such an instrumentality with the help of a device, which device is used by an operator to direct the course or path of the instrumentality while in contact with the record-medium.
(1) Note. In this and the indented subclasses, the scriber is disclosed as an addition to a usual or standard typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 19]    19For writing in script:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality is moved relative to the record-medium* in a path that forms cursive letters (i.e., joined together in flowing strokes as formed in handwriting).
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 20]    20Rotatable disc scriber:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 18.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality is a plate turned on an axis and having a thin peripheral edge that is coated with ink* that is transferred to the record-medium* as the plate is turned while the edge is in contact with the record-medium and while relative movement between the plate axis and the record-medium occurs.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 21]    21Responsive to carriage movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a carriage* that carries a platen* that supports the record-medium*, which carriage is movable in a direction parallel to a print-line*, and wherein said mark is formed as a result of the carriage being moved while a marking instrument or device is brought into contact with the record-medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

299,for a similar structure that imprints a succession of the same character* symbol.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 22]    22Underscoring concurrently with character imprinting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 16.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with type-face* elements that are selectively impressed against the record-medium* to imprint character* symbols on the record-medium, and wherein a mark is imprinted at the same time that a character is imprinted, the mark being a short line that is imprinted underneath any of the selected characters.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 23]    23FOR TYPING ON FLAT RECORD-MEDIUM OR AGAINST FLAT PLATEN:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the significance is attributed to a typewriter in which the record-medium* that is being typed on is planar or in which the record-medium is backed by a platen* that is planar.
(1) Note. In the definition of the term platen in the Glossary, section III, there is a discussion of some of the various forms of platen. Included therein is a discussion of the difference between a flat or planar platen and a cylindrical platen. This and indented subclasses are the loci of disclosures wherein a typewriter is provided with a significant flat or planar platen.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

648,for a cylindrical platen in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 24]    24For typing on a book:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter particularly intended for typing on a book.
(1) Note. A "book" is an assemblage of pages* or sheets that have been fastened or bound together. One of the characteristics of a book that is significant in this subclass or the subclasses indented hereunder is that pages are turned to be inverted for recording of information thereon. As a consequence of such use, the number of pages on one side of the binding will increase as the number of pages on the other side of the binding decreases, resulting in unequal thicknesses of material on each side of the binding.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 25]    25Including a type-head (e.g., cylinder, disc, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-head* element that carries type-face* elements thereon.
(1) Note. A type-head is distinguished from a type-face* in that a type-head carries in one member a complete (or substantially complete) type-set-assemblage* that includes many type-faces.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 26]    26Against cylindrical backing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Subject matter wherein the book that is being typed on is supported against movement away from the type-face* that is impressed against the book, the support being an elongated member that is circular in cross section.
(1) Note. The back or supporting is similar in configuration to a cylindrical platen*, but the book is not partially wrapped about the platen as in the usual typewriter where the record-medium* encompasses the platen through approximately 180°. In this typewriter, the book is approximately tangent to the surface of the cylindrical backing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 27]    27Including adjustment of typewriter relative to book (e.g., to compensate for book thickness):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to modifications made in the position of operating portions of the typewriter that are required due to the configuration of the book that is being typed on.
(1) Note. See the (1) Note of subclass 24 for one of the configurations of a book that requires special adjustments to be made to a typewriter to type on a book.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 28]    28Including adjustment of book support relative to typewriter (e.g., for top or bottom of book, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 24.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to modifications made in the position of that portion of a typewriter that holds a book in position to be typed on.
(1) Note. This subclass also provides for a support that holds a book upright so that the top or the bottom of a book may be typed on.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 29]    29For typing on flat blueprint or drawing (e.g., "platenless" typewriter):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which the record-medium* that is being typed on has length and width dimensions that are substantially greater than the corresponding dimensions of the typewriter, and wherein the typewriter is moved in directions parallel to said dimensions to properly locate the typewriter relative to the record-medium.
(1) Note. The term platenless has been ascribed to such a typewriter because it does not have a platen* ( in the usual sense of the word) connected thereto. Instead, the drawing board or other large, flat surface that ordinarily supports a blueprint or drawing also supports the typewriter, and serves as the platen for this form of typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 30]    30For typing on carton or package:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which the record-medium* that is being typed on is a three-dimensional object that has flat surfaces defining its sides, and wherein either the typewriter or the object may be moved to enable the typewriter to type on one of the surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 31]    31By multidirectional movement of typewriter structure (e.g., "Elliot-Fisher" structure):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter that is mounted relative to a flat platen* so that the typewriter, its key-board*, type-bar* members, and all its operating mechanisms move as a unit in the widthwise and lengthwise dimensions of the platen.
(1) Note. The term Elliot-Fisher derives from the names of the persons to whom the invention and development of this form of typewriter is ascribed.
(2) Note. This subclass also includes structure for levelling the carriage* frame relative to the flat platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 32]    32Bottom-strike typewriter including type-bar action or bar platen or anvil platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which type-face* elements impact against a flat platen* from underneath the platen, to structure that moves a type-bar* carrying a type-face element from its rest position to its impact position, or to a bar platen (e.g., a platen having dimensions corresponding to the height of a character* and the length of a print-line*), or to an anvil platen (i.e., a platen having dimensions corresponding to the height and width of one character).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

408,for a bottom-strike typewriter and its type-bar action mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 33]    33Top-strike typewriter including pivoted type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which type-face* elements impact against a flat platen* from above the platen, and wherein significance is also attributed to structure that moves a type-bar* carrying a type-face from its rest position to its impact position, the movement being arcuate.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

415,for a top-strike typewriter and its type-bar-action mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 34]    34Including carriage-return mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which type-face* elements impact against a flat platen*, and wherein significance is also attributed to movement of the carriage* of the typewriter in a direction opposite to the character-space* direction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

313,for carriage-return mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 35]    35Including case-shift by shifting platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which type-face* elements impact against a flat platen*, and wherein significance is also attributed to movement of the platen to accomplish case-shift* from a lower-case* form of a letter to an upper-case* form of that letter.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

251,for case-shift mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 36]    36Including ribbon-feed mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which type-face* elements impact against a flat platen* at a print-point*, and wherein significance is also attributed to mechanism for feeding a ribbon* relative to the print-point.
(1) Note. Mechanism for feeding a ribbon is found in subclass 223, which subclasses should be searched for ribbon feed, per se.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

223,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 37]    37For typing on manifold set (e.g., with type-die, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which type-face* elements or type-die* elements impact against a record-medium* that is backed by a flat platen*, and wherein significance is also attributed to the use of manifold set that includes carbon paper so that the typewriter produces an original copy and at least one carbon copy.
(1) Note. The terms "carbon paper" and "manifold set" are discussed in (1) Note and (2) Note, respectively, of subclass 497.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

497,for a cylindrical-platen typewriter for typing on a manifold set and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 38]    38Including feeding of wide carbon paper transverse to feed of record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein the record-medium* of a typewriter is fed in a first direction coinciding with the line-space* direction, and wherein said carbon paper is moved (i.e., fed) in a second direction substantially perpendicular to the first direction and the carbon paper has a width dimension that is relatively large and approximately equal to the length of a page* of record-medium.
(1) Note. In some typewriters of this subclass the carbon paper is wound on either a supply roll or a take-up roll or both.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 39]    39Including spool for roll of carbon paper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein said carbon paper is of indeterminate length and is wound on a reel either for supply or take up of the carbon paper or both.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 40]    40Including clamp or guide for carbon paper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein the flat platen* or another portion of the typewriter is provided with means to firmly hold said carbon paper to the platen, or to lead or direct the carbon paper relative to the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 41]    41Including adjustment of platen perpendicular to its surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein the platen* of the typewriter is movable for the purpose of varying its position relative to other portions of the typewriter, the movement occurring along a line at right angles to the flat surface of the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 42]    42Including aligning and feeding manifold set:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 37.  Subject matter wherein said manifold set includes a plurality of pieces of web record-medium* interleaved with a plurality of pieces of web carbon paper, all the pieces being in surface-to-surface relationship and the pieces are positioned so that their corresponding side edges are located adjacent one another or so that a particular indicium that occurs along the length dimension of one piece is located adjacent to a corresponding indicium that occurs along the length dimension of another web, and wherein the manifold set is moved along the flat platen* in a line-space* direction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

606,for aligning and feeding of plural webs in a standard typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 43]    43Including feed of tally strip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the feeding of a tally strip in a flat-platen* typewriter.
(1) Note. The term "tally strip" is discussed in the definition of subclass 586, see the (1) Note thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

586,for a cylindrical-platen typewriter for typing on a tally strip and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 44]    44Including line-spacing mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which type-face* elements impact against a record-medium* that is backed by a flat platen* at a print-point*, and wherein significance is also attributed to effecting relative movement between the record-medium and the print-point in a step-by-step manner so that successively imprinted print-lines* will be spaced apart by line-space* distances.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

545,for line-spacing by incremental rotation of a cylindrical platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 45]    45Platen shifted for line-spacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein line-space distances are effected by moving the flat platen* along a line that is perpendicular to the print-line*.
(1) Note. This subclass also includes some typewriters wherein the platen is shifted for line-spacing and the platen is also shifted for character-spacing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 46]    46Including adjustment of line-space distance or increment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein the extent of the space intervention between two successive print-lines* may be varied.
(1) Note. The difference between the two kinds of adjustment herein provided for is as follows:
If a typist changes the space between one print-line and the next print-line to be typed, by manual intervention for the one print-line which is to be differently spaced, that is an adjustment of line-space* distance. However, if the typewriter is re-set to change the spaces between any plurality of print-lines to make those spaces different from the spaces between a previous plurality of print-lines, that is adjustment of the line-space increment.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 47]    47Including disengagement of line-spacing mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with means whereby structure for effecting the relative movement (i.e., of subclass 44) may be disconnected temporarily.
(1) Note. The disengagement is usually for the purpose of facilitating the loading of a flat platen* with record-medium*. Also found herein is a typewriter wherein the line-spacing* mechanism may be locked against movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 48]    48Work support (e.g., sheet or card holddown or guide, sheet-size platen, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a device or member for backing the record-medium* as type-face* elements are impacted thereagainst.
(1) Note. The device or member may include a flat platen*, per se, for example, characterized as being of dimensions corresponding to a sheet that it will hold, or may include means for holding or guiding the record-medium relative to the flat platen, these being only examples of the subject matter of this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 49]    49Collating-table attachment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a collating-table* that is associated with a flat-platen* typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 50]    50INCLUDING DELAY MEANS FOR PREVENTING MALFUNCTION IN POWERED TYPEWRITER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a source of energy other than that supplied by a typist is used to actuate, or aid a typist to actuate, mechanism for performing first and second sequential operations on a typewriter. The typewriter having a capability of performing each of said operations in an optimum time period from the instant that each operation has been initiated by a signal, until the instant that each operation is complete, and wherein there will be a failure in proper performance of the second operation if the first operation has not reached a first predetermined stage of performance before the second operation has reached a second predetermined state of performance and wherein significance is attributed to sensing an occurrence wherein a signal to initiate the second operation has been given prematurely. As a result of such sensed occurrence, retarding the performance of the second operation to assure the first operation has reached the first stage before the second operation reaches the second stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 51]    51Delay of sequential character rate in programmed-control typewriter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein the sequential operations are regulated by a programmed-control-system*, and wherein the first and second operations are each for typing of a character*, and wherein the retarding of the second operation is by increasing the period of time for performing the second operation from said optimum period to a time greater than said optimum period.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 52]    52Delay by storage of next character to be imprinted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Subject matter wherein the first and second operations are each for typing a character*, and wherein after the second operation has been initiated, it is retarded by holding it from completion for a predetermined period of time.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 53]    53INCLUDING ADJUSTMENT MEANS TO COMPENSATE FOR WEAR:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter whereby attrition of a typewriter part occurs during use of the typewriter, and wherein significance is attributed to changing the position of such part relative to another part to counteract such attrition.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 54]    54SAFETY SWITCH OR CONDITION-RESPONSIVE-CUTOFF SWITCH FOR ELECTRICALLY POWERED TYPEWRITER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein typewriter mechanism is driven with the help of force derived from electrical energy and wherein significance is attributed to a device for influencing a circuit through which the energy is supplied, said device being either for preventing the typist from being harmed, or for interrupting the circuit as a result or characteristic of the state of the environment or the occurrence of a predetermined event in a typewriter.
(1) Note. Examples of devices provided for in this subclass are a switch which cannot be placed in an "on" position unless a cover prevents access to the electrically powered mechanism, and a switch that will automatically turn the power "off" after a preset time interval if the typewriter is left unattended.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 55]    55INCLUDING ADJUSTMENT FOR OPTIMUM PRINTING PLANE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to adjustment of the optimum printing plane of a typewriter as that term is discussed and defined in (1) Note below.
(1) Note. In over simplified terms, a typewriter requires at least two elements for a typing operation. One of these elements is a type-member* that impacts against a record-medium* at a print-point*; another of these elements is a platen* that serves to prevent movement of the record-medium away from the type-member during impact. (Obviously, other structures and mechanisms are also required for operation, but discussion of these may be deferred.) The type-member includes a type-face* that lies in a plane; the platen includes a surface that lies in a plane. In the instance of a cylindrical platen, the platen plane is theoretically tangent to the peripheral surface of the platen, whereas the surface itself is arcuate, therefore not planar, but considering the small area of a character* compared to the area of a cylindrical platen, the difference between the arcuate surface and the tangent plane is minimal; the platen plane can be considered as planar. Theoretically, the platen plane should coincide with the type-face plane when the type-face is at the print-point to ensure an imprinted character that is uniformly legible at any point on its area. Actually, the two planes cannot coincide because of the thickness of the record-medium and the thickness of a ribbon*, both of which lie between the two planes in most typewriters, but at the very minimum the two planes should be parallel, one to the other. Because in an actual typewriter the planes may become out of parallelism with each other, it is necessary to provide means to adjust either the platen plane or the type-face plane, or both, to correct the possible misalignment. Moreover, in an actual typewriter the number or thickness of record-medium sheets may vary. If the record-medium of greater than usual thickness is used, the type-face will impact the surface of the record-medium at a print-point that is further from the axis of the platen than is usual. The type-face plane would not be parallel to the plane of the record-medium at the new print-point. To summarize, the "optimum printing plane" is the plane at which the type-face and the record-medium best meet to form an imprinted character that is uniformly legible at any point on its area, and is the result of adjustments to the typewriter to ensure the coincidence and parallelism of the record-medium with the type-face at the print-point.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 56]    56Responsive to thickness of record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the thickness dimension of the record-medium* (i.e., its dimension perpendicular to a surface area) is measured, and the adjustment of the optimum printing plane is made by the typewriter as a result of such measurement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 57]    57In accordance with the number of sheets of record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the typist determines the number of sheets or record-medium* that is to be typed upon during the typing operation, and wherein the typist makes an adjustment to the typewriter as a result of such determination.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 58]    58By adjustment of platen relative to carriage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the optimum printing plane is adjusted by varying the position of the typewriter platen* with respect to the carriage* on which the platen is supported.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 59]    59By adjustment of carriage (e.g., carriage-guide rollers):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the optimum printing plane is adjusted by varying the position of the carriage* of the typewriter with respect to the print-point.
(1) Note. In this subclass the position of roller elements or the carriage frame on which the carriage moves to and fro is adjusted.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 60]    60Via adjustment of case-shift linkage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 59.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a case-shift mechanism that is connected to the carriage* for choice of upper-case* or lower-case* form of type-face* element, and wherein the optimum printing plane is adjusted by varying the position of the carriage with respect to the case-shift mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 61]    61INCLUDING CONTROL OF FORMAT AND SELECTION OF TYPE-FACE BY PROGRAMMED-CONTROL-SYSTEM (E.G., INPUT TYPEWRITER):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a programmed-control-system* governs the operation of a typewriter so as to control the format of the text to be imprinted on a record-medium* and so as to impress selected or chosen type-face* elements against the record-medium.
(1) Note. The term "format" refers to physical appearance. As used in the typewriter art the term refers to the appearance of a page* of text of typewritten character* symbols. Control of format involves (a) movement of the record-medium in the line-space* direction (i.e., the "Y" direction of a graph) to locate the record-medium at a desired print-line* location and (b) movement of the carriage* (e.g., a platen* carriage or a type-head* carriage) in a character-space* direction (i.e., the "X" direction of a graph) to locate the first-imprinted-character symbol of the print-line along that print-line. Format control also governs such function* operations as carriage return (Found, per se, in subclass 313), tabulation (found, per se, in subclass 284), subsequent line-spacing* (found, per se, in subclass 545), or record-medium feeding (found, per se, in subclasses 578), (these functions being only exemplary) so that the entire format of the printed text on the record-medium is controlled. In some typewriters having format control the typewriter or the program is capable of being modified to change the format as desired. For example, a paragraph of text comprising six print-lines, each print-line having approximately 70 characters thereon, may be changed to a paragraph comprising 12 print-lines, each print-line having approximately 35 characters thereon; or the distance between successive print-lines may be varied as desired to compress or expand the typed text to fit a page.
(2) Note. In the typewriter of this and indented subclasses, the programmed-control-system also governs the operation to select or choose the type-face elements that are to be used to imprint the characters in sequence. The difference between "select" and "choose" as to type-face, is discussed in the glossary under definitions such as case-shift*, type-face-carrier*, type-head, and type-head-carrier*. Briefly, a particular type-face is selected from among the many available from a type-set-assemblage, whereas an upper-case* form of letter (As distinguished from a lower-case* form of the same letter) is chosen from the forms available on one key* element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

70,for selection of type-face by a programmed-control-system.
76,for control of format by a programmed-control-system.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 62]    62Including means for responding to input program or incoming signals and providing output program or signals representing typing operations (e.g., output typewriter):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is governed by an auxiliary-record-program* or is governed by an instrumentality outside of the typewriter, which instrumentality transmits to the typewriter the instructions necessary to control the typing functions* and type-face* selections and choices, and wherein the typewriter also generates an auxiliary-record-program or also generates the instructions necessary to control the typing functions and type-face selections and choices for another typewriter.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass is known as an "input-output" typewriter in the art. The "input" of this typewriter may be from a program in the form of a punched or magnetic tape or other record, or may be in the form of signals from a "computer" or "register" or "memory" outside of the typewriter. The "output" of this typewriter may also be in the form of a program tape or other record, or may be in the form of signals to a "computer" or "register" or "memory", the signals being generated in response to depression of the key* elements on a key-board* by a typist and being transmitted to another typewriter. The typewriter of this subclass is capable of responding to an input and of producing an output. Also a typewriter of this subclass could be one of several typewriters in a chain wherein the "input" of one typewriter is converted to an "output" of that typewriter, which "output" of the first typewriter becomes the "input" of a second typewriter, etc.

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80,for an "output" typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 63]    63Including editing or revision system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter capable of editing or revision as those terms are discussed and explained in the notes below.
(1) Note. The term "revision" is applied to an operation wherein the text of typewritten material is changed. Typically, a typist types a "rough draft" text and generates a "rough draft program". The text is proof-read and various changes are indicated where necessary to add, delete, modify spelling, or otherwise correct the text. The typist or proofreader then locates on the rough draft text and program the portion of text to be changed and reprograms to correct the text. The reprogrammed corrections may be put onto a correction program or onto the rough draft program or onto another instrumentality. The correction program is then combined with the rough draft program to in corporate all the changes and corrections into a master program which is then used to reproduce as many original copies as are desired. A revision system typewriter is sometimes used as an input or as an output, and usually additional equipment is necessary to correlate the changes so that they may be entered properly in the master program.
(2) Note. The term "editing" is applied to an operation wherein the appearance (e.g., the format) as well as the text of typewritten material is changed. An editing system will usually operate similarly to a revision system, but will include changes such as "centering", "indent paragraphing", or other format control changes. An incoming program (i.e., input) will be modified by appropriate equipment to perform format control or character-selection control that is different from the original program.

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709Electrical Computers and Digital Data Processing Systems: Multiple Computer or Process Coordinating,   appropriate subclassesfor data transferring among multiple computer and digital processing systems.
710Electrical Computers and Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output,   subclasses 1+ for transferring data from one or more peripherals to one or more computers for the latter to process, store, or further transfer or for transferring data from the computers to the peripherals.
715Data Processing: Presentation Processing of Document, Operator Interface Processing, and Screen Saver Display Processing,   subclasses 243 through 253for document layout processing and subclasses 255 through 272 for document edit, composition, or storage control processing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 64]    64Including right-hand margin control system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the programmed-control-system* governs the location or extent of the margin* at the right side of the record-medium* that is being typed on.
(1) Note. In this subclass the "input" to the typewriter does not include right-hand margin control and such control is added by the system, or the system does particularly include a right-hand margin control and such control is either retained or is particularly modified by the system. The operation known as "justification" is not included here, but is to be found in subclass 1.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 65]    65Including typing of s:graphical representations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the programmed-control-system* governs the operation of a typewriter so as to imprint character* symbols and also governs the operation of said typewriter so as to produce a graph denoting the imprinted character symbols.
(1) Note. A "graph" is defined as a diagram representing a system of connections or interrelations among two or more things by a number of distinctive dots, bars, etc. The graph or chart produced in this subclass represents the letter characters or number characters that are imprinted by the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 66]    66Including baseplate attachment with electromagnets for input or output operations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a mechanism that is connected as an adjunct to a typewriter, which mechanism is used to convert a typewriter that is operable by a typist depressing the key* elements of the key-board* to a typewriter that is operable by a programmed-control-system*, and which mechanism is located underneath the typewriter and operates the type-face* selecting or choosing means and the function* operations of the typewriter.
(1) Note. Usually the attachment is used to convert a standard typewriter to an input-output typewriter, but it may also be part of the typewriter that is used as a "computer terminal".
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 67]    67Separate interrelated programs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with at least two programmed-control-system* programs, each of which programs is intended for a different sequence of operations to be performed, by the typewriter, and the programs being coordinated to produce a final text.
(1) Note. In this subclass, one of the programs may be for the selection or choice of character* symbols and another program may be for the line-space* or the character-space* control, and both programs are used together.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 68]    68Including message writing (e.g., address program, form-letter program, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 67.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the programs effects the typing of a part of a communication of information and another of the programs effects the typing of another part of the same communication.
(1) Note. An example of the subject matter of this subclass is a program for typing the body of a letter (i.e., "letter" in the sense of a piece of correspondence) that will be sent to various people, and a plurality of programs, each program for typing the address of each of the people to whom the correspondence will be sent.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 69]    69Type-face selection via magnetic program tape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the program-control-systems* includes an auxiliary-record-program* that comprises a band or ribbon* of material containing ferrous particles capable of being oriented or reoriented relative to the band or tape, the orientation of the particles being sensed to effect selection or choice of the type-face* elements that will be impressed against the record-medium* to effect imprint of character* symbols in sequence.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 70]    70INCLUDING SELECTION OF TYPE-FACE BY PROGRAMMED-CONTROL-SYSTEM OR BY REMOTE CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a programmed-control-system or a signal from outside of a typewriter governs the operation of the typewriter so as to impress selected or chosen type-face* elements against the record-medium* to imprint character* symbols successively.
(1) Note. In the typewriter of this and indented subclasses the programmed-control-system is used to select or choose the type-face elements that are to imprint the characters in sequence. The difference between "select" and "choose" as to the type-face element is discussed in the glossary, section III, under definitions such as case-shift*, type-face-carrier*, type-head*, and type-head-carrier*. Briefly, A particular type-face is selected from among the many available from a type-set-assemblage*, whereas an upper-case* form of letter (As distinguished from a lower-case* form of the same letter) is chosen from the forms of that letter available on one key* element.
(2) Note. The signal from outside the typewriter that governs the operation of the typewriter is usually referred to in such functional terms as "reader", "translator", "storage", "input", etc. it is not a remote signal such as that transmitted by a printing telegraph of Class 178. See (1) note to Class 178, Telegraphy, in section IV of the class definition of this class (400), for the distinction between this class (400) and Class 178, Telegraphy.

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61,for selection of type-face and control of format by a programmed-control-system.

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178Telegraphy,   and (2) note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 71]    71Plural typewriters coupled for simultaneous operation (e.g., "master-slave" relationship):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter wherein a first typewriter, while it is operating to type on a record-medium*, produces signals. These signals (i.e., signals from inside the first typewriter, but from outside a second typewriter) are used to govern the operation of the second typewriter concurrently with the operation of the first typewriter, whereby corresponding character* symbols are typed onto a second record-medium at the same time that character symbols are typed onto the first record-medium by operation of the key-board* of the first typewriter.

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77,for a typewriter coupled to an information-recording machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 72]    72Including character-selection latches (e.g., for type-face selection):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter wherein the programmed-control-system* governs the selection or choice of a type-face* element that is part of a type-head* by way of components known in the typewriter industry as "character-selection latches".
(1) Note. The term character-selection latch refers to a component used in a typewriter having a spheroidal type-head that is supported by a type-head-carrier* that is mounted on a type-head carrier* (see the definition of carriage in the glossary). A typewriter of this subclass is provided with a plurality of these components (usually five or six), each of which is hook shaped to "latch" to a common actuator bar or member and is connected to a "whiffletree" arrangement of links. A signal representing a selected character* or function* causes one or character is selected, certain of the components will be latched and when another particular character is selected, other components will be latched or a different permutation of components will be latched. Movement of the common actuator will move those components that have been permutatively latched thereto. Movement of the latched components will move the links of the whiffletree, and movement of the whiffletree links will be converted into tilting and/or rotational movement of a spheroidal type-head to thereby position the selected type-face so that movement of the type-head-carrier to the record-medium* will effect imprint of the selected character, or movement of the whiffletree links will be converted into movement of a selected function* (e.g., case-shift*).
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 73]    73Including particular reader structure and operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for converting the information stored on the program of a programmed-control-system* into the operation of selection or choice of a particular type-face* element and motion of the selected or chosen type-face to the record-medium*.
(1) Note. In the patents of this subclass the converting means (i.e., the "reader") is specifically claimed as a part of the typewriter that controls the operation of the typewriter in specific terms. In other words, the typewriter is more than merely named as a load for the reader. The reader having a named typewriter is classified elsewhere, see the search class note below.

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358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 1.6 for a reader of a programmed control system together with a named typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 74]    74Including error detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a portion of the program of a programmed-control-system* which provides verification of the text to insure that the character* symbols that are being imprinted on the record-medium* are the characters that the programmed-control-system is instructing the typewriter to imprint.

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6,for an error-correcting storage register in a "justification" typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 75]    75Including type-bar selection using mechanical program:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter wherein the type-face* elements are mounted on type-bar* members, and wherein the programmed-control-systems* includes an auxiliary-record-program* that is directly linked to means for actuating the type-bars for selection of the type-faces to be impressed against the record-medium*, or is directly linked to a case-shift* mechanism for choice of the upper-case* or lower-case* form of the type-face to be impressed against the record-medium.
(1) Note. In the typewriter of this subclass a plurality of type-bars are used, each type-bar carrying usually two type-faces thereon, one type-face for upper-case and another type-face for lower-case character. Also the typewriter of this subclass does not use an electrical "reader" of the program for converting the program to signals that cause actuation of the type-faces, but instead, this typewriter actuates the typefaces directly from the program.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 76]    76INCLUDING CONTROL OF FORMAT BY PROGRAMMED-CONTROL-SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a programmed-control-system* governs the operation of a typewriter so as to control the format of the text to be imprinted on a record-medium*.
(1) Note. The term "format" is discussed in (1) Note of subclass 61, above.

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61,for control of format and selection of type-face* by a programmed-control-system.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 77]    77TYPEWRITER CONTROLS OTHER INFORMATION RECORDER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a first typewriter is capable of operation of imprint character* symbols on a record-medium*, and wherein another machine is capable of operation to imprint character symbols or to form indicia on the same or on another record-medium, and wherein operation of the first typewriter concurrently influences the operation of the other machine.
(1) Note. The other machine may be a printing machine, an accounting machine, a card-punch machine, etc.

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71,for a typewriter that controls another typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 78]    78Typewriter controls apparatus used for accounting function:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein the other machine influenced by the first typewriter is a machine which prints indicia on a Record-Medium*, said indicia resulting from a mathematical computation.

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235Registers,   for a mechanical device or a record controlled system for performing a mathematical computation.
705Data Processing: Financial, Business Practice, Management, or Cost/price Determination,   subclasses 30+ for an electrical data processing accounting system.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 79]    79And a tape-punch or card-punch apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 78.  Subject matter wherein operation of the first typewriter also concurrently influences a machine for providing indicia in the form of apertures in a sheet or web of material.
(1) Note. A sheet is a relatively thin piece of material having determinate width and determinate length. A web is a relatively thin piece of material having determinate width and indeterminate length. A card is a sheet that is slightly thicker than a sheet and therefore stiffer than a sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 80]    80Typewriter (e.g., output typewriter) controls tape-punch or card-punch apparatus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 77.  Subject matter wherein the other machine influenced by the first typewriter is for providing indicia in the form of apertures in a sheet or web of material.

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62,for an "input-output" typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 81]    81And imprints the character represented by the punched code on the tape or card:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 80.  Subject matter wherein the apertures denote character* symbols and wherein provision is made for imprinting the character symbols denoted by the apertures on the web or sheet.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 82]    82INCLUDING PLURAL, INDEPENDENTLY SUPPORTED KEY-BOARDS, PLATENS, OR TYPE-SET-ASSEMBLAGES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein there is provided more than one key-board* mounted separate from each other, or there is provided more than one platen* mounted separate from each other, or there is provided more than one type-set-assemblage* mounted separate from each other.

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353,for a typewriter having an auxiliary carriage*.
585,for a typewriter having a divided platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 83]    83DISPLAYING TYPEWRITER-FORMED REPRESENTATION OF PRINT-LINE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the showing to the typist or another person a visible expression or designation of the character* symbols that are to be or are being imprinted on a record-medium* as a print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 84]    84By projecting typed image on screen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Subject matter wherein the visible expression or designation is cast or exhibited by way of an optical system that includes a surface on which the likeness of the print-line* on the record-medium* is visible.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 85]    85Including transparent or translucent record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Subject matter wherein the record-medium* enables passage of light there-through, and the light is transmitted by said optical system onto said surface to exhibit the print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 86]    86OPERATING BY SOUND:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter responsive to the sound of the human voice to perform typing operations.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 87]    87FOR OPERATION BY A HANDICAPPED USER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter intended to be operated by a typist whose physical capacities are limited.

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475,for a typewriter wherein some functions are foot actuated.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 88]    88POCKET TYPEWRITER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter that is sufficiently small to be carried on the person of a user within a pocket or handbag.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 89]    89KEY REASSIGNMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter which changes the relationship between the key designation and the printed character.
(1) Note. The term key designation includes either a change in actuated printing element or key designator (e.g., mask or overlay).

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380Cryptography,   subclass 51 and 55 for a cryptos:graphic typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 90]    90Electrically powered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 89.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter that is operated with the help of electricity.

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380Cryptography,   subclass 55 for an electrical cryptos:graphic typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 91]    91STENOGRAPHIC TYPEWRITER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter intended to be used while typing in "shorthand" or stenos:graphically.
(1) Note. Various terms are used in the art to refer to such a typewriter, including "shorthand", "steno-typograph" and "tachygraphic", and variations of such words. A typewriter capable of stenos:graphic operation has a distinctive appearance that is different from that of the usual typewriter. The keyboard* is arranged so that plural key* elements are pressed simultaneously by the fingers of one or both hands of the typist, and the type-face* elements are impressed against the record-medium* simultaneously in groups. The imprinted character* symbols therefore appear in the record-medium in groups, and the record-medium, which is usually a relatively narrow strip of elongated material, is moved after each group of characters have been imprinted thereon. The stenotypist thus forms groups of characters in succession, each group corresponding to a syllable of a word*, thus the operation of such a typewriter can be rapid and can be used while recording a spoken conversation.

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482,for a key-board specialized for use in a stenographic typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 92]    92Using common-letter type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter wherein the type-face* elements in the stenographic typewriter are of the form or in one of the Fonts* that is normal and usual in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 93]    93Including plural type-faces mounted on carrier and movable for selection of type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the support for the type-bar* members, each of which carries at least one type-face* element, and the selection of two or more type-face elements to type a message stenographically.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 94]    94Electrically powered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a stenographic typewriter that is operated with the help of electricity.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 95]    95LOGOTYPE TYPEWRITER (E.G., WORD TYPING):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which one or more of the imprinting members is formed as an assemblage of type-face* or type-die* elements, each of which elements imprints simultaneously or in quick succession one with the others as if the assemblage was a single element, thus imprinting a plurality of character* symbols on the record-medium* by the one impression of the member.
(1) Note. The difference between this form of typewriter and a printing machine proper for Class 101 is discussed in section IV of the definition of this class (400), under the note to Class 101 in (1) note of section IV.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 96]    96Including date-stamp type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the imprinting members is a typeface* or an assemblage of type-face elements that form character* symbols representing the name or number of a month or day or year.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 97]    97Including signature type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the imprinting members is a typeface* or an assemblage of type-face elements that form character* symbols representing a person"s name as written by that person.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 98]    98Actuation of single key types plural characters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 95.  Subject matter wherein depression of one key* element by a typist will effect the impressing of more than one type-face* element onto a record-medium*
(1) Note. In this subclass separate type-face elements imprint corresponding character* symbols in quick succession when a single key is depressed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 99]    99Characters typed simultaneously:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein depression of one key* element will effect the impressing of more than one type-face* element onto a record-medium* at the same time.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 100]    100PLURAL-KEY-ACTUATED TYPEWRITER (E.G., PERMUTATIVE KEY-BOARD):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which a single type-face* element is caused to be impressed against a record-medium* to imprint a single character* symbol, the actuation of said single type-face being initiated or powered by the pressing of a plurality of key* elements on the key-board*.
(1) Note. As discussed in the definitions of character, key, and type-member* in the glossary, section III, most typewriters are provided with a mechanism whereby a single key element is selected by a typist and pressed to cause a single type-face to be impressed against a record-medium to imprint a single character on the record-medium. In a typewriter of this and indented subclasses a plurality of key elements are pressed by the typist to imprint a single character on the record-medium. This typewriter uses a "permutative" mechanism in the key-lever linkage and the type-bar* or type-head* action linkage which changes the linkages and enables a particular selection of pressed key elements to imprint a selected character and enables another particular selection of pressed key elements to imprint another selected character.

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472,for a key-board in a standard typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 101]    101Having type-faces disposed on pivotable type-bars:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a type-face* element is carried by a type-bar* member that is mounted to be moved in an arcuate path as the type-bar moves from a rest position to a print-point* position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 102]    102Having type-faces disposed on rotatable type-head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 100.  Subject matter wherein a type-face* element is carried by a type-head* element that turns about an axis while the typeface that is to be selected or chosen is moved to a position where the type-face will be impressed against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 103]    103CODE-PRINTING TYPEWRITER (E.G., FOR PRINTING A PATTERN OR MARK):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter that is capable of imprinting a mark or spot of ink* on a record-medium*, the imprint of a succession of such marks or spots forming a particular coded pattern.
(1) Note. A typewriter of this and indented subclasses may be capable of imprinting a succession of character* symbols that together from an intelligible text, but this typewriter is also capable of imprinting a pattern that is sensed or "read" by another machine or a pattern that forms a picture to a human"s eye. In some instances the pattern embodies a sequence of number digits, but the digits represent a pattern of indicia or signs rather than a numerical value.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 104]    104For typing and encoding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is capable of imprinting in a normal or usual English Alphabet as well as capable of imprinting a mark or spot of ink* on the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 105]    105Including magnetic encoding:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 104.  Subject matter wherein the mark or spot of ink* that is imprinted is in the form of ferrous particles capable of being oriented or reoriented by magnetism, or is in the form of ink containing such ferrous particles.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 106]    106Including coded ink (e.g., phosphorescent or color-coded ink, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein the mark or spot of ink* is characterized by having a particular color or pigment or chemical composition, any of which characteristics is significant in determining the coded pattern that is desired.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 107]    107For coding by conductive mark:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein the mark or spot or ink* that forms part of the coded pattern is capable of conducting a current of electricity.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 108]    108For marking laundry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the imprinting of a mark or spot of ink* on an article of apparel that is to be washed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 109]    109FOREIGN-LANGUAGE TYPEWRITER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter that is capable of imprinting character* symbols in an alphabet other than the standard English alphabet.
(1) Note. The standard "English" alphabet is one that is derived from the Roman or Latin alphabet, and therefore is common to languages used in many European countries, including most of the western European countries. This and indented subclasses provide for a typewriter capable of typing in such alphabets as Cryllic (e.g., for Russian, Bulgarian or Serbian), Semitic (e.g., Arabic, Hebrew), Greek, Medieval German, etc., or is capable of typing such oriental languages as Chinese, Japanese, etc., the enumeration being only exemplary.

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484,for a key-board* specialized for use in a foreign-language typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 109.1]    109.1Braille:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 109.  Subject matter wherein the character* symbols are embossed in the record-medium* so as to be discerned by tactile sensation.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass usually forms a character* in the form of a pattern of embossments, each different pattern representing a different letter or number or other symbol. A trained blind person feels the different patterns with his/her fingers and so "reads" the character*s that form the text.

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483,for a key-board* intended for use in a "Braille" typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 110]    110Including oriental language:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 109.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is capable of imprinting character* symbols used in an oriental language.
(1) Note. An "Oriental" language is one that is used by the inhabitants of Asia. Such languages as Chinese, Japanese, Burmese, etc. are examples of Oriental languages.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 111]    111Including semitic language:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 109.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is capable of imprinting character* symbols used in a Semitic language.
(1) Note. A "Semitic" language is one that is used by such people as Arabs and Hebrews. It is characterized by being written and read from right to left.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 112]    112ANNULAR TYPEWRITER (E.G., FOR TYPING AROUND CIRCUMFERENCE OF PLATEN):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter having a cylindrical or partially cylindrical platen* for supporting or backing a record-medium* in which typewriter character* symbols are imprinted on the record-medium in such manner that each successively imprinted character in a direction extending around the periphery of the platen.
(1) Note. Successive characters may be imprinted in a helical arrangement around the periphery, thus requiring no mechanism for line-space* distances, or the platen may be moved axially between successive print-line* typing, thus producing line-spaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 113]    113Including vertically disposed platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein said platen* turns about an axis during use of the typewriter, and wherein said axis extends upwardly relative to the typewriter.
(1) Note. The turning of the platen is in increments corresponding to character-space* distances and may be rotated in one direction for a cylindrical platen or be rotated by increments followed by oscillation in a return direction for a partially cylindrical platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 114]    114Platen axis horizontal and extending front-to-rear:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein said platen* turns about an axis that is disposed to be parallel to the base of the typewriter and parallel to the sides of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 115]    115Power actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Subject matter wherein one or more mechanisms of the typewriter is/are driven with the help of energy derived from a source other than the energy of the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 116]    116MUSIC-ROLL OR MUSICAL-NOTATION TYPEWRITER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter capable of imprinting character* symbols on a music roll, or capable of imprinting character symbols representing the notes used for indicating the signs and tones of a musical composition.
(1) Note. A "music roll" is a web of record-medium* having holes therein, the holes controlling the playing of a "player piano". In the typewriter of this subclass the music roll is also imprinted with the words of the song being played on the player piano, so that a user may sing along with the music being played.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 117]    117Musical-notation typewriter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter capable of imprinting character* symbols representing the notes used for indicating the signs and tones of a musical composition.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 118.1]    118.1TYPING BY HEATED DIE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which character* symbols are successively imprinted or formed in or on a surface of a record-medium* by applying a piece of metal having a form (image) therein directly against said record-medium* and heating said metal to thereby provide the image on the record-medium*.

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120.01+,for apparatus for recording utilizing heat applied indirectly to the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 118.2]    118.2TYPING BY OTHER THAN TYPE-FACE OR TYPE-DIE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which character* symbols are successively imprinted or formed on a surface of a record-medium* by forming the character* portion by portion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   subclasses 467-472.3 for character or font generation and display.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 1.1 through 1.18for processing of data for presentation to the print-head.
715Data Processing: Presentation Processing of Document, Operator Interface Processing, and Screen Saver Display Processing,   appropriate subclassesfor document processing performed by a computer for presentation.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 118.3]    118.3Electroconductive transfer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.2.  Subject matter wherein a recording means conducts current through a resistive layer of the record-medium* or an ink* carrier for generating heat to produce a record upon the record-medium* by the reason of the medium becoming scorched, burned, marked, or otherwise thermochemically changed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.01]    120.01Thermal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.2.  Subject matter wherein a recording means, due to its being in a heated condition, produces a record upon the record-medium* as by reason of the medium becoming scorched, burned, marked, or otherwise thermochemically changed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.02]    120.02Multicolor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.01.  Subject matter wherein the record produced is polychromatic.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.03]    120.03Having multilayered colored transfer material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.02.  Subject matter including an ink* carrier comprising stratified strips, each with a different chromatic ink*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.04]    120.04Having single layer colored transfer material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.02.  Subject matter including an ink* carrier consisting of a single strip having plural regions, each having a different chromatic ink*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.05]    120.05Block driving:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.01.  Subject matter wherein the recording means comprises recording elements grouped into sections capable of being selectively energized.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.06]    120.06Sequentially:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.05.  Subject matter in which at least two of the sections are energized alternately.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.07]    120.07Gradational recording:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.01.  Subject matter wherein the shading of the produced record varies.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.08]    120.08Preheating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.01.  Subject matter wherein the recording means, record-medium*, or ink*-carrier is warmed-up prior to recording.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.09]    120.09Density control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.01.  Subject matter comprising a regulating means for controlling the amount of energy supplied to the recording means to maintain a uniform output on the record.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.1]    120.1By number of heated recording elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.09.  Subject matter wherein the regulating means controls the amount of energy supplied to selected recording elements based on a number of recording elements being simultaneously energized.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.11]    120.11In accordance with output characteristic of recording elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.09.  Subject matter wherein the regulating means responds to variations in resistance values of heat radiating resistor elements constituting recording elements of the recording means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.12]    120.12By voltage regulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.09.  Subject matter wherein the regulating means responds to changes in electrical potential across a heating element used for heating the recording means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.13]    120.13By transfer material or record receiver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.09.  Subject matter wherein the regulating means is responsive to a parameter associated with the ink* carrier, the ink*, or the record-medium*.
(1) Note. Examples of the parameter are: the thickness of the ink* carrier, the thickness of the paper, the volatility of the ink*, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.14]    120.14In accordance with temperature of the recording means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.09.  Subject matter wherein the regulating means responds to variations in temperature of the recording means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.15]    120.15By history of recording elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.09.  Subject matter wherein the regulating means responds to the amount of energy supplied to a particular recording element during its previous use.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.16]    120.16Recording means support or actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.01.  Subject matter comprising a mechanism for holding or moving the recording means from an operative position in which the recording means is pressed against the record-medium* to an inoperative position in which the recording means is released from pressing engagement with the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.17]    120.17Adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.16.  Subject matter comprising means for selectively varying pressure applying the recording means against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 120.18]    120.18Pre- or post-image recording treatment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 120.01.  Subject matter comprising fixing or fusing means for applying substances, energy, or pressure upon the record-medium* or the record.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.01]    124.01Character formation by impact (e.g., wire matrix):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.2.  Subject matter wherein the character* symbol is formed on the record-medium by percussing two or more discrete elements (i.e., impact members) arranged in a group by use of an actuator directly or indirectly against the record-medium*.
(1) Note. The discrete elements are arranged into the configuration of a selected character*, the same or different discrete elements being selectable to arrange such elements into the configuration of a different selected character*, wherein each of the discrete elements is a member that is movable from a rest position where it does not effect imprinting to an active position where it effects printing, and wherein the configuration of a selected character* symbol is formed by moving selected members from a rest position to an active position by energization of actuators in the printhead.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.02]    124.02With signal conditioning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.01.  Subject matter including an electrically powered actuator and means to modify the input power thereof (i.e., the signal) to control operating parameters of the actuator.
(1) Note. These parameters include: length of actuation, strength of actuation, and exact time of actuation.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.03]    124.03Overheat protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.02.  Subject matter wherein the input power is modified to prevent excessive temperatures in the actuator.

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124.13,for details of the structure of the printhead which dissipates heat produced by the printhead.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.04]    124.04Responsive to impact member position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.02.  Subject matter wherein the input power is modified according to the location of the actuators along the print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.05]    124.05Control of drive force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.02.  Subject matter wherein the input power is modified in order to change the strength of the pressure applied by the impact member against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.06]    124.06Manifold form or plural copies:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.05.  Subject matter wherein the force which is applied to the record-medium* by the impact members is varied according to the number of sheets of the record-medium* being printed upon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.07]    124.07With wear or defect compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.02.  Subject matter wherein impact member selection is determined so as to distribute even consumption thereof, or to offset broken or missing impact members.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.08]    124.08Plural printheads:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.01.  Subject matter including more than one discrete groupings of impact members arranged along the print-line*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

82,for typewriters which have more than one printhead, which may be more than one type of printhead.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.09]    124.09Multicolor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.08.  Subject matter wherein the character* symbol or successive character* symbols produced are polychromatic.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

120.02+,for thermal printers which print in multiple colors.
216.1,for ribbon* movement systems which are used in multicolor printers.
240+,for specifics of ribbon*s having multiple colors thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.1]    124.1With inking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.01.  Subject matter wherein ink* is applied to the impact members prior to the impact members percussing the record-medium*.
(1) Note. This is generally done by providing a reservoir for ink* on the printhead, and the impact members are driven through or next to a pad which distributes the ink* onto the impact members.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

470+,for structure which directly inks type-faces in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.11]    124.11Printhead:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.01.  Subject matter including significant structure of the impact member, the actuators, or the housing therefor (i.e., the printhead).
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.12]    124.12Having assembly means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter including structure for interconnecting portions of the printhead together or for connecting the printhead to a support.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

29Metal Working,   various subclasses for methods of assembly of printheads.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.13]    124.13Overheat protection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter including cooling means.
(1) Note. This subclass is limited to patents wherein the printhead has structure for transferring heat therefrom, e.g., fins, fluid flow means, etc.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

124.03,for ways of controlling the power to the printhead to reduce heat buildup.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.14]    124.14With actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter including significant structure of the means for applying percussing force to the impact members (i.e., the actuator).
(1) Note. Patents claiming a printhead having significant actuator structure are classified here.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.15]    124.15Single actuator for simultaneous actuation of plural impact members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.14.  Subject matter including means for concurrently percussing more than one impact member against the record-medium* by use of a single actuator.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.16]    124.16Electrostrictive, magnetostrictive, or piezoelectric:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.14.  Subject matter wherein the percussive force is produced in the actuator by periodic deformation of a dielectric body as a result of an applied electric or magnetic field or electric voltage.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

310Electric Generator or Motor Structure,   subclasses 311+ for specifics of general purpose piezoelectric actuators.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.17]    124.17Actuator having electromagnet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.14.  Subject matter wherein the means for producing the percussive force includes a looped conductor for conducting electrical current which produces a magnetic* field.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 209+ , for details of specific electromagnet structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.18]    124.18Electrical component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.17.  Subject matter including significant structure to an electric circuit or any portion thereof for conducting electric current through the looped conductor.
(1) Note. The electromagnet is not considered to be a part of the "significant structure to an electric circuit" for purposes of classification in this subclass.
(2) Note. This subclass could include, for example, a printhead with an electromagnet having a particular electrical terminal or connector, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.19]    124.19Moving coil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.18.  Subject matter wherein the looped conductor is displaceable relative to the housing responsive to the magnetic* field produced therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.2]    124.2Permanent magnet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.18.  Subject matter wherein the magnetic* field acts against the magnetic* field of a material which is magnetically polarized.
(1) Note. This does not include magnetic* fields which exist for a moving coil.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 229+ for general purpose electromagnets which include a permanent magnet.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.21]    124.21With biasing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.17.  Subject matter including resilient means acting to move the impact members against the force exerted by the magnetic* field.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.22]    124.22Backstop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.21.  Subject matter including significant structure of means for halting movement of the actuator towards its rest position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.23]    124.23Armature structure or mounting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.17.  Subject matter including significant structure of a movable portion of the electromagnet or support means therefor.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

124.31,for details of the attachment of an impact member to an electromagnetically driven actuator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 270+ for details of mounting general purpose electromagnetic* actuators, and subclasses 279+ for structure of armatures used in general purpose electromagnets.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.24]    124.24Impact member guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter including significant structure of means for directing the impact member towards the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.25]    124.25With lubricator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.24.  Subject matter including means for applying a friction reducing substance between the impact member and the directing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.26]    124.26Specific material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.24.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the material which forms the directing means for the impact member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.27]    124.27Including shifting of guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.24.  Subject matter wherein the impact member directing means is movable relative to the housing or to a carriage* which supports the housing.
(1) Note. This is usually done in order to increase the density of output by shifting one set of impact members relative to another on the same printhead.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.28]    124.28Impact member tip arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the layout of the record-medium* contacting portion of the impact members within the housing.
(1) Note. To be in this subclass, the layout should be arranged in other than a straight line.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.29]    124.29Impact member structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.11.  Subject matter including significant structure of the member which causes the impression on the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.3]    124.3Tip cross-section:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.29.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the shape of the portion of the impact member that impacts against the record-medium*.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include impact members which are uniformly circular.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.31]    124.31With attachment or engagement means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.29.  Subject matter including means for connecting or interfacing the impact member with an actuator.
(1) Note. This subclass includes caps which are formed on the impact members.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

124.23,for details of an electromagnetically driven actuator.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 124.32]    124.32Specific material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 124.29.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the material which forms the impact member.
(1) Note. This includes but is not limited to different materials for the impact tip as opposed to the remainder of the impact member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 127]    127TYPING TO PRODUCE EMBOSSED CHARACTER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which imprinting on a record-medium* is accomplished by a type-die* that contacts a surface of the record-medium and permanently deforms the surface to raise or lower the contacted surface relative to the uncontacted surface into a line representing a character*.
(1) Note. An example of the form of typing accomplished by the typewriter of this and indented subclasses is the making of a credit card or an address plate having letters and symbols raised above the surface of the card or plate.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 128]    128Character embossed or typed on nonplanar article (e.g., golf ball, toothbrush, etc):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the record-medium* that the typewriter is typing on, the record-medium being an object having a shape or configuration that is other than flat, and wherein the type-die* permanently embosses a character* symbol in a surface of the object.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 129]    129By type-die mounted on carrier movable for selection of character:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 127.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with a support for a multiplicity of type-die* elements for embossing the different character* symbols that the typewriter is capable of embossing, which support is enabled to be moved relative to the record-medium*, whereby any of the type-die elements may be selected to be impressed against the record-medium; and the selected type-die element may be impressed to emboss a character symbol on the record-medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

138,for similar structure for mounting piercing type-die elements thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 130]    130Including programmed-control-system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein the selection of a type-die*, or the control of a function* of the typewriter, is governed by a programmed-control-system*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 131]    131Electrically powered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein electricity is used to energize selection of a type-die* or the operation of a function* of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 132]    132Type-die reciprocable on carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein the selected type-die* element is moved to and fro relative to the support, the movement occurring for the purpose of impressing the selected type-die against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 133]    133On endless-band carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein the support for the type-die* elements is an elongated, closed-loop strip movable in the direction of its elongation, to select the type-die to be impressed against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 134]    134On rotatable carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 129.  Subject matter wherein the support for the type-die* elements is a member that turns about an axis to select the type-die to be impressed against the record medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 134.1]    134.1Actuated by key-board control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 134.  Subject matter wherein the type-die* element that is to be impressed against the record-medium* is selected by pressing a corresponding key* element located on a key-board*, the pressing of which key causes selection of type-die and movement of the selected type-die to the print-point*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 134.2]    134.2Including type-die movable relative to carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 134.1.  Subject matter wherein the selected type-die* element moves to the print-point* with respect to its support and to the other type-die elements that are on the support.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 134.3]    134.3With magazine for supply of record-medium plates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 134.2.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with means for storing a quantity of record-medium* articles that are to be embossed, said means including a receptacle or container for storing the articles.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 134.4]    134.4On manually held embosser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 134.  Subject matter wherein the member that supports the type-die* elements is part of an instrumentality for embossing character* symbols one at a time in succession, which instrumentality is intended to be grasped in a hand of a user and operated while so grasped.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 134.5]    134.5Including web supply of record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 134.4.  Subject matter wherein the instrumentality is provided with means for storing a quantity of record-medium* in the form of an indeterminate-length strip of material on which character* symbols are to be embossed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 134.6]    134.6Including web supply of record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 134.  Subject matter wherein the support for the type-die* elements is part of an instrumentality, which instrumentality is provided with means for storing a quantity of record-medium* in the form of an indeterminate-length strip of material on which character* symbols are to be embossed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 135]    135TYPING TO PRODUCE PIERCED CHARACTER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a typewriter in which imprinting on a record-medium* is accomplished by a type-die* that contacts a surface of the record-medium and cuts through that surface into the opposite surface to form one or more perforations in the surface, which perforations taken together represent a character*.
(1) Note. An example of the form of typing accomplished in the typewriter of this and indented subclasses is the writing of a bank check or money order representing an amount of money to be paid, the digits representing the amount being pierced or scarified into the surface of the check so that alteration of the check cannot be accomplished without visible indication of an attempt to alter the check.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 136]    136Cutout character for stencil:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the formation of a character* symbol by excising the record-medium* using type-die* elements that sever the record-medium to produce perforations therein, each perforation having an outline of a character symbol.
(1) Note. The record-medium so severed with cutout characters is used as a stencil by placing the stencil on surface and coating the stencil and surface with pigment. When the stencil is lifted from the surface, the pigmented areas on the surface will form the characters that have been cut out of the stencil record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 137]    137Check-protection character:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 135.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the formation or character* symbols on a form that directs a bank of financial institution to pay money, or a form that shows the amount of money to be paid for value received.
(1) Note. The significance of the particular form of character in the typewriter of this and indented subclasses is that such characters cannot be altered without detection; thus, the amount of money that the check represents will not be raised in value.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 138]    138By type-die mounted on carrier movable for selection of character:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 137.  Subject matter+ wherein a typewriter is provided with a support for a multiplicity of type-die elements for piercing the different character* symbols that the typewriter is capable of piercing, which support is enabled to be moved relative to the record-medium* whereby any of the type-die elements may be selected to be impressed against the record-medium and the selected type-die element may be impressed to pierce a character symbol on the record-medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

129,for similar structure for mounting embossing type-die elements thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 138.1]    138.1Electrically powered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.  Subject matter wherein electricity is used to energize selection of type-die* or operation of a function* of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 138.2]    138.2On rotatable carrier (e.g., for scarifying elements, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.  Subject matter wherein the support for the type-die elements is a member that turns about an axis to select the type-die to be impressed against the record-medium*.
(1) Note. In the typewriter of this subclass the type-die elements usually pierce one surface of the record-medium to roughen that surface beyond a level where the surface may be made smooth again. The intent is not necessarily for the type-die to perforate both surfaces of the record-medium, but rather to scarify at least one surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 138.3]    138.3Actuated by key-board control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.2.  Subject matter wherein the type-die* element that is to be impressed against the record-medium* is selected by pressing a corresponding key* element located on a key-board*, the pressing of which key causes selection of a type-die and movement of the selected type-die to the print-point*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 138.4]    138.4Including plural-character type-die:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.2.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the type-die* elements is constructed so as to have type-dies representing or corresponding to more than one character* symbol, whereby when one of such elements is impressed against the record-medium*, a plurality of character symbols will be formed in the record-medium.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass usually imprints an amount of money spelled in letter symbols rather than numeral symbols.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 138.5]    138.5And rotating contact with platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.4.  Subject matter wherein the type-die* elements turn about an axis while being impressed against the record-medium* that is backed up by a platen*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 138.6]    138.6For type-die including piercing or cutting elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.2.  Subject matter wherein the type-die* elements include slender elements, each having a sharp point at one end, or include elements, each having a sharp edge, which sharp point or edges penetrate through both opposite surfaces of the record-medium* as the type-die impacts the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 139]    139INCLUDING TYPE-SET-ASSEMBLAGE MOUNTED ON CARRIER AND RELATIVELY MOVABLE FOR SELECTION AND FOR IMPACT OF TYPE-FACE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with a type-head-carrier* or with a type-face-carrier*, either of which carriers supports a type-set-assemblage* for movement of the type-face* elements thereon relative to the record-medium*, whereby any of the type-face elements may be selected or chosen to be impressed against a record-medium and the selected or chosen type-face element may be impressed to imprint a character* symbol.
(1) Note. The definition of type-head- carrier in the Glossary, section III, discusses the difference between a type-head-carrier and a type-face-carrier. Briefly, a type-head-carrier supports a type-head* wherein all type-faces are integral one with the others, whereas a type-face-carrier supports type-faces that are movable, one with respect to the others. The difference between "selected" and "chosen" is also discussed in the Glossary under the definition of case-shift* and other definitions. Briefly, a particular type-face is selected from among the many available from a type-set-assemblage whereas an upper-case* form of letter (as distinguished from a lower-case* form of the same letter) is chosen from the forms available on one key* element.
(2) Note. In some typewriters movement of the selected or chosen type-face for impact is a relative movement; that is, in these typewriters the platen* (and the record-medium supported thereby) are moved toward the selected or chosen type-face, whereas in most typewriters the type-face moves toward the platen.
(3) Note. The definition of type-bar-segment* discusses the differencebetween a type-bar-segment and a type-face-carrier. Briefly, a type-bar-segment supports a type-set assemblage for case-shift movement (i.e., choice of upper-case or lower-case), whereas a type-face-carrier supports a type-set- assemblage for selection of type-face from among many type-faces as well as for choice of upper-case or lower-case.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 140]    140Including type-faces movable relative to type-face-carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with a type-face-carrier* that supports a type-set-assemblage* comprising a plurality of separate type-face* elements, and wherein the typewriter is also provided with a mechanism for selecting or choosing the particular type-face that is to be impressed against the record-medium* and with a mechanism for moving said type-face toward the print-point*.
(1) Note. In this and indented subclasses the term type-face may include, for example, an element carrying both the upper-case* and lower-case* forms of the same letter, and both forms on the same element are moved together, although only the chosen form of the letter is impressed against the record-medium. The relative movement referred to is that which moves the element for the selected letter away from the other type-face elements of a type-set-assemblage and toward the print-point.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 141]    141Slidable type-faces mounted on reciprocable carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* supports a plurality of type-face* elements each of which elements may be reciprocated relative to the type-face-carrier, and wherein the type-face-carrier may be reciprocated relative to the typewriter.
(1) Note. The direction of reciprocation of the type-face elements is usually perpendicular to the direction of reciprocation of the type-face-carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 141.1]    141.1On rotatable or oscillatable carrier reciprocable along its axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 141.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* may be reciprocated relative to the typewriter and may also be turned in one direction of to-and-fro in opposite directions about an axis of turning, and wherein the reciprocation of the type-face carrier is along a line that coincides with said axis of turning.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 142]    142Slidable type-faces on rotatable carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* supports a plurality of type-face* elements each of which elements may be reciprocated relative to the type-face-carrier, and wherein the type-face-carrier may be turned on an axis relative to the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 143]    143Rotatable type-face-carrier including type-faces on pivotable arms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* supports a plurality of members, each of which members is oscillatable to and fro on its own axis, and each of which members supports one of the type-face* elements of a type-set-assemblage*, and wherein the type-face-carrier may be turned on an axis relative to the typewriter.
(1) Note. Usually the members (i.e., pivotable arms) extend in a direction parallel to the axis of the type-face-carrier and pivot in a direction extending radially of the axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 144]    144Type-face-carrier including type-faces on flexible arms:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* supports a plurality of members, each of which members is resilient and oscillatable to and fro relative to the carrier, and each of which members supports one of the type-face* elements of a type-set-assemblage*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 144.1]    144.1Rotatable or oscillatable carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* may be turned relative to the typewriter either in one direction or to and fro in opposite directions about an axis of turning, thereby to turn the plurality of members and type-face* elements relative to the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 144.2]    144.2Carrier having coplanar flexible arms (e.g., "daisy" wheel, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.1.  Subject matter wherein the type-face carrier* includes the plurality of resilient members, and wherein the members extend radially from the axis of the carrier in substantially the same plane, and each member, and the type-face* element supported thereby, oscillates in a second plane that is coincident with said axis.
(1) Note. The term "daisy" wheel has been applied to this form of type-set- assemblage* and carrier due to its resemblance to a daisy.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 144.3]    144.3Continuously rotated carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.2.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* turns in one direction without stopping during the typing operation of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 144.4]    144.4Manually rotated carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 144.2.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* turns by power applied directly by the typist to the carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 145]    145Type-faces on deformable type-face-carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 140.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* is made of a material that is resilient and supports a plurality of type-face* elements thereon, and wherein the selected or chosen type-face is yieldably displaced relative to the type-faces remaining in the type-set-assemblage* and the displaced type-face is impressed against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 145.1]    145.1Rotatable carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* may be turned on an axis relative to the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 145.2]    145.2Cylindrical carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.1.  Subject matter wherein the type-face-carrier* has the configuration of a cylinder or a cylindroid.

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152,for a type drum having a cylindrical appearance.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 146]    146Including endless-band carrier for type-faces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with a member that supports a type-set-assemblage* for movement of the type-face* elements therewith relative to the typewriter, which member is an elongated, closed-loop strip trained around two or more pulleys and movable in the direction of its elongation to select or choose the type-face to be impressed, and which type-face elements are moved with the strip in a direction substantially perpendicular to the elongation toward the record-medium* to impress the type-face against the record-medium.

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134,for an endless-band type-face-carrier* in an embossing typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 147]    147Type-faces arranged in rectilinear row and selected by reciprocable movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with a member that supports a type-set-assemblage* for movement of the type-face* elements therewith relative to the typewriter, which member may be reciprocated along a first straight line for selection or choice of the type-face elements thereon, and on which member the type-face elements are supported in a second straight line that is parallel to said first straight line.
(1) Note. The reciprocating movement defined above is that which is needed for selection of choice of a type-face. There may also be another movement, for example, a pivoting motion toward the record-medium*, imparted to the member for impressing the type-face against the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 148]    148On rotatable carrier having plural rectilinear rows:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 147.  Subject matter wherein the member is reciprocated along said first straight line and also may be turned about an axis that is parallel to said first straight line, and on which member two or more sets of type-face* elements are supported, each set in a straight line parallel to said first straight line.
(1) Note. Each set of type-face elements defined above may comprise all or part of a type-set-assemblage*, or may comprise upper-case* or lower-case* forms of the same letter, or may comprise type-set-assemblage having different font* assortments of type-faces. The rotation of the member enables selection or choice from among the type-faces of different sets of type-faces.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 149]    149Plural type-heads mounted for selective individual type-head-imprinting movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with two or more typehead* elements that are supported on the typewriter to enable motion of each of the typeheads toward the print-point* of the typewriter separately from the other(s) to imprint the selected or chosen type-face* element on the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 150]    150Type-heads arranged for selective individual imprinting movement away from coaxial rest position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein each of the type-head* elements is supported for rotation on its own axis of rotation and each of the type-heads may be moved toward the print-point* of the typewriter separately from the other(s) to imprint the selected or chosen type-face* element on the record-medium* and wherein all of the axes of rotation of all the type-head elements are normally in the same line, the selected type-head being moved away from said line when it is moved toward the print-point.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 151]    151Turret carrier for type-heads:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Subject matter wherein the type-head* elements are each supported on a platform or member, which platform or member is capable of rotation about an axis of rotation, and each of the type-head elements being capable of separate movement toward the print-point* of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 151.1]    151.1Axis of turret carrier parallel to platen axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 151.  Subject matter wherein the print-point* is located on or adjacent to the platen* of the typewriter, which platen is rotatable about an axis, and wherein the axis of rotation of said platform is parallel to the axis of rotation of the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 152]    152Type drum having multiple type-set-assemblages:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a member that is (a) cylindrical or cylindroidal, (b) rotatable about an axis that extends through the cylinder parallel to the circumference of the cylinder, and (c) supporting a plurality of type-set-assemblage* groups of type-face* elements on the circumference of the cylinder.
(1) Note. Usually the type drum extends in length to substantially the full width of the record-medium* and each of the type-set-assemblages extends around the circumference of the type drum. The number of type-set-assemblages provided on the type drum corresponds to the number of character* symbols and character-space* distances that may be included within the width of the record-medium. Selection of type-face for the first character of a print-line* is made from the first type-set-assemblage and selection of the second character of that print-line is made from the next adjacent type-set-assemblage, the action being repeated until the entire print-line has been imprinted.

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145.2,for a cylindrical, deformable type-face-carrier*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 153]    153Imprint by movement of record-medium against type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the relative movement between a selected or chosen type-face* and the record-medium* occurs as result of the record-medium being moved to the type-face for imprint of a character* symbol on the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 154]    154By hammer impacting record-medium against type-face on type-head (e.g., type shuttle, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Subject matter wherein the record-medium* is moved to a type-face* that is supported by a type-head* by means of a striking member that imparts to the record-medium a sudden movement toward the selected or chosen type-face.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 154.1]    154.1Including selection of type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with mechanism for selecting or choosing the particular type-face* that is to be impressed against the record-medium* by the movement of the record-medium toward the type-face.

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161.1,for selecting mechanism on a typewriter having a type-head* movable for imprinting.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 154.2]    154.2Via pulley and cord arrangement (e.g., summing displacements):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an elongated, flexible element trained around a plurality of rotatable wheels, the mechanism being connected to a type-head* that supports the type-face* elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 154.3]    154.3By shortest peripheral path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-head* having a cylindroidal or spheroidal surface having the type-face* elements of a type-set-assemblage* thereon, which type-head is normally in a particular rest position and is moved to a second position at which the selected or chosen type-face will be impressed against the record-medium*, and wherein significance is attributed to movement of the type-head that results in the least amount of type-head movement as it moves from the rest position to the second position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 154.4]    154.4Via coded disc in electric or magnetic circuit (e.g., photoelectric):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter . wherein said selecting mechanism, includes one or more circular plates, each plate being rotatable to a position where particular index characteristics on the plate(s) are related to an arrangement within the mechanism that causes completion of an electrical or magnetic circuit, the completion of the circuit effecting selection or choice of the type-face* desired by the typist.
(1) Note. The index characteristics may be, for example, notches or apertures in the discs, which permit passage of a beam of light that actuates a photoelectric cell when the notches or apertures in several discs are aligned, or may be magnetic code in one or more discs, which completes a circuit when proper alignment of the code disc(s) is accomplished.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 154.5]    154.5Via stepping motor responsive to selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an electric motor that rotates incrementally, the rotation being caused by the selection or choice of a type-face* and the motor being connected to a type-head* that supports the type-face elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 155]    155Via electrical or electromagnetic means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an electrical circuit or an electromagnetic device connected to a type-head* that supports the type-face* elements.
(1) Note. The mechanism or circuit for this subclass may include a commutator, a solenoid, an electromagnetic coil, an induction coil, or other similar device used in the selection or choice of a type-face.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 155.1]    155.1Including plural-function actuation by electromagnet(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an electromagnet powered by an electrical current, and wherein the typewriter includes mechanism for performing at least one other function*, which function is energized by either the same electromagnet that energizes the selecting mechanism or by a different electromagnet powered by an electrical current.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 156]    156Via helical arrangement of projections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes a rotatable cylindroidal member having elements on the cylindrical surface thereof that protrude from the surface, which elements are arranged to form a helix on the cylindrical surface and which elements engage portions of the selecting mechanism to connect the mechanism to a type-head* that supports the type-face* elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 156.1]    156.1Via mechanically permutated bar(s), disc(s), or plate(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes one or more members, each member being either (a) an elongated component that is movable along its length, or (b) a circular component that is rotatable, or (c) a flat and relatively thin component that is movable in a plane parallel to its width and length dimensions, and also having particular index characteristics on the member, which member(s) is/are moved to a position relative to an arrangement within the mechanism where the index characteristics are aligned to enable movement of another component of the mechanism to effect selection or choice of the type-face* desired by the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 156.2]    156.2Via planetary gear arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.1.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes a plurality of toothed wheels in mesh one with the other(s) and at least one rotating and revolving about another, while in mesh therewith, which assemblage of toothed wheels in connected to a type-head* that supports type-face* elements, one of which elements is to be selected or chosen for impression.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 156.3]    156.3Including latch means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 156.2.  Subject matter wherein the assemblage of toothed elements is provided with means to temporarily secure the toothed elements together until the selected or chosen type-face* has been impressed against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 157]    157Including type-faces arranged along helical path(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-head* that is formed as a rotatable, cylindroidal member having type-face* elements on the cylindroidal surface thereof, which type-face elements are arrayed as a helix on the cylindroidal surface, and wherein selection or choice of the type-face that is to be impressed against the record-medium* is made from one of the helically arrayed elements.
(1) Note. The type-set-assemblage* of type-faces may be arranged in one or more helical paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 157.1]    157.1Including particular structure of hammer(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 154.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to said striking member or the means for causing movement of, or supporting, said striking member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 157.2]    157.2Electromagnetically actuated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.1.  Subject matter wherein the striking member is moved by a magnet that is powered by electricity.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 157.3]    157.3For variable impression (e.g., impact control):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.1.  Subject matter wherein movement of the striking member is regulated as to its striking force, whereby the striking force can be changed as desired.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

116,for impact control in a typewriter wherein a type-head* moves toward the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 157.4]    157.4Hammer(s) mounted on endless belt or in helical array:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 157.1.  Subject matter wherein the striking member(s) is/are supported on an elongated, closed-loop strip trained around two or more pulleys and movable in the direction of its elongation, or wherein the striking members are supported on a rotatable, cylindroidal component and are arranged in a helix around the circumference of said component.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 158]    158Including platen for moving record-medium against type-face and mechanism for feeding record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a platen* that is a backup for the record-medium* and is also provided with a mechanism for moving the record-medium in a line-space* direction, which platen also moves the record-medium toward the selected or chosen type-face* for imprint of a character* symbol on the record-medium.
(1) Note. In this subclass the record-medium is moved in a line-space direction by a mechanism other than the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 158.1]    158.1Including moving and feeding by platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 158.  Subject matter wherein the platen* also moves the record-medium* in a line-space* direction by rotation of the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 159]    159Including platen for moving record-medium against type-face and mechanism for inking type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 153.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a platen* that is a backup for the record-medium* and is also provided with a mechanism for applying ink* to the imprinting surface or line of a type-face*, which platen moves the record-medium toward the selected or chosen type-face for imprint of a character* symbol on the record-medium after said type-face has been inked.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 160]    160Imprint by pivoting of type-head-carrier and type-head against record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-head-carrier* that supports a type-head* for movement relative to said carrier so that any of the type-face* elements on the type-head may be selected or chosen to be impressed on the record-medium*, and wherein the type-head-carrier is supported for arcuate movement of said carrier toward the record-medium to imprint the corresponding character* symbol on the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 161]    161Type-head-carrier movable on movable carriage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein said type-head-carrier* is mounted on a carriage* to be arcuately movable toward the record-medium* to impress a selected or chosen type-face* against the record-medium, and wherein said carriage is movable to impart character-space* and word-space* distances to the carriage and the type-head-carrier that is mounted thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 161.1]    161.1Including selection of type-face (e.g., on "golf-ball" type-head):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with selecting mechanism for moving the type-head* relative to its type-head-carrier* to select or choose the particular type-face* that is to be impressed against the record-medium* by movement of the type-head toward the record-medium.
(1) Note. The term "golf-ball" type-head has been applied to the type-heads of this subclass because of the spheroidal configuration of the type-head elements found herein.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 161.2]    161.2Via gear train:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.1.  Subject matter wherein said mechanism for selecting or choosing the particular type-face* is driven by an assemblage of toothed wheels or toothed members in mesh, one with the other(s), which assemblage is connected to a type-head* that supports type-face elements, one of which elements is to be selected or chosen for impression.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 161.3]    161.3Gears mounted on type-head and type-head-carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.2.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the toothed wheels is supported by, or integral with, the type-head* and at least another of the toothed wheels is supported by the type-head-carrier*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 161.4]    161.4Including gear (e.g., rack) reciprocated by transmission mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.2.  Subject matter wherein said toothed member moves to-and-fro in a straight line and is driven by an assemblage of elements that converts movement of various kinds into the straight line movement of the toothed member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 161.5]    161.5Via multiple cam surfaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.1.  Subject matter wherein said mechanism for selecting or choosing the particular type-face* is driven by a plurality of cam surfaces that are connected by way of cam surface followers to the type-head* that supports type-face elements, one of which elements is to be selected or chosen for impression.
(1) Note. A "cam surface" is defined as the edge periphery of a disc that rotates about an axis, the radial distance from the axis to the periphery varying around the periphery. As the disc rotates, the distance of a follower that is in contact with the periphery will increase and decrease relative to the axis of the disc, thus the rotation of the disc will effect substantially radial movement of the follower. The cam surfaces may be on separate disc elements or may be on a single member having separate cam surfaces.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 162]    162Type-head movable for selection of type-face:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with selecting mechanism for moving the type-head* relatively to its type-head-carrier* to select or choose the particular type-face* that is to be impressed against the record-medium* by movement of the type-head toward the record-medium.
(1) Note. The difference between this subclass (162) and subclass 161.1 above is that in this subclass the type-head is movable for selection of the particular type-face, whereas in subclass 161.1 the type-head is mounted on a type-head-carrier that is movable toward the record-medium, and the type-head-carrier is mounted on a carriage* that is movable for character-space* distances.

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154.1,for selecting a mechanism in a typewriter having a hammer movable for imprinting.
161.1,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 162.1]    162.1Via pulley and cord arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an elongated, flexible element trained around a plurality of rotatable wheels, the mechanism being connected to a type-head* that supports the type-face* elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 162.2]    162.2Via shortest peripheral path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-head* having a cylindroidal or spheroidal surface having the type-face* elements of a type-set-assemblage* thereon, which type-head is normally in a particular rest position and is moved to a second position at which the selected or chosen type-face will be impressed against the record-medium*, and wherein significance is attributed to movement of the type-head that results in the least amount of type-head movement as it moves from the rest position to the second position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 162.3]    162.3Via coded disc in electric or magnetic circuit (e.g., photoelectric):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes one or more circular plates, each plate being rotatable to a position where particular index characteristics on the plate(s) are related to an arrangement within the mechanism that causes completion of an electrical or magnetic circuit, the completion of the circuit effecting selection or choice of the type-face* desired by the typist.
(1) Note. The index characteristics may be, for example, notches or apertures in the discs, which permit passage of a beam of light, that actuates a photoelectric cell when the notches or apertures in several discs are aligned, or may be a magnetic code in one or more discs, which completes a circuit when proper alignment of the code disc(s) is accomplished.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 163]    163Via stepping motor responsive to selection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an electric motor that rotates incrementally, the rotation being caused by the selection or choice of a type-face* and the motor being connected to a type-head* that supports the type-face elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 163.1]    163.1Via electrical or electromagnetic means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an electrical circuit or an electromagnetic device connected to a type-head* that supports the type-face* elements.
(1) Note. The mechanism or circuit for this subclass may include a commutator, a solenoid, an electromagnetic coil, an induction coil, or other similar device used in the selection or choice of a type-face.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 163.2]    163.2Including electromagnetically actuated type-head movement toward record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.1.  Subject matter wherein said electromagnetic device causes the type-head* to be moved in the direction of the record-medium* in order to effect the imprint of the selected type-face* element.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 163.3]    163.3Including plural-function actuation by electromagnet(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.1.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes an electromagnet powered by an electrical current, and wherein the typewriter includes mechanism for performing at least one other function*, which function is energized by either the same electromagnet that energizes the selecting mechanism or by a different electromagnet powered by an electrical current.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 164]    164Via helical arrangement of projections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes a rotatable cylindroidal member having elements on the cylindrical surface thereof that protrude from the surface, which elements are arranged to form a helix on the cylindrical surface and which elements engage portions of the selecting mechanism to connect the mechanism to a type-head* that supports the type-face* elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 164.1]    164.1Via pneumatic actuation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism is caused to operate by the energy that is transmitted and said mechanism by way of exertion of a force upon a gaseous material.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 164.2]    164.2Via setting elements actuating selector-command members:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes one or more members, each member being either (a) an elongated component that is movable along its length, or (b) a circular component that is rotatable, or (c) a flat and relatively thin component that is movable in a plane parallel to its width and length dimensions, and also having particular index characteristics on the member, which member(s) is/are moved to a position relative to an arrangement within the mechanism where the index characteristics are aligned to enable movement of another component of the mechanism to effect selection or choice of the type-face* desired by the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 164.3]    164.3Control arm connected to selection gear and movable to engage key-lever-actuated abutment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes a pivotable lever having at one end thereof a toothed portion that is in mesh with a toothed wheel that is associated with and drives the type-head*, which lever has at the other end thereof a portion that will engage any of a plurality of stops when one of the stops is interposed into the path of pivoting of the lever, the inter-position of the selected stop to be engaged being made by the depression of a selected key* element.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 164.4]    164.4Via stop pins actuatable by key-board:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes a plurality of slender, elongated elements that are connected to the type-head* for movement there of, each of said elements being also connected to and moved by the depression of a selected key* element.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 164.5]    164.5Toothed member connected to selection gear and slidable by key-lever movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes a bar having serrations or teeth along one edge thereof, the serrations being in mesh with a toothed wheel that is linked to the type-head* for movement thereof, which bar is reciprocated to various extents in accordance with the selection of a particular key* element and the depression of the selected key.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 164.6]    164.6Selection gear rotated by key-lever movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism includes a toothed wheel connected to the type-head* for movement thereof, which toothed wheel is turned by the depression of a key* element corresponding to the selected character* symbol desired to be typed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 165]    165Simultaneous rotation and translation of type-head by manually powered actuation (e.g., helical shift):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein said selecting mechanism moves a type-head* that is formed as a rotatable cylindroidal member having type-face* elements on the cylindroidal surface thereof, which type-face elements are arrayed as a helix on the cylindroidal surface, and wherein selection or choice of the type-face that is to be impressed against a record-medium* is made by turning the member about its axis of rotation and moving the member along the axis at the same time it is turning, the movement being caused by a hand of the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 165.1]    165.1Via manually powered actuation other than by key-board (e.g., stylus selection):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 162.  Subject matter wherein selection or choice of the type-face* that is to be impressed against the record-medium* is made by a typist who moves a member that is part of a selecting mechanism that does not include a key-board*.
(1) Note. In this subclass (165.1) the typist manipulates a slender, elongated rod (i.e., a stylus) to select or choose the particular type-face for impression.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 165.2]    165.2Including type-head movable to print-point by actuator common to all type-faces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.1.  Subject matter wherein said mechanism includes a type-head* that is moved from a rest position to the print-point* position by a member that causes only such movement, and wherein selection or choice of the type-face* element that is to be impressed against the record-medium* is made by a hand of the typist.
(1) Note. In most typewriters that include a type-head having a type-set-assemblage* thereon, depression of a key* element causes at least two movements of the type-head. One such movements is for selection or choice of the type-face that is to be impressed, and another movement is for moving the type-head against the print-point; therefore an actuator for each key element is required. In a typewriter of this subclass, selection is made by a typist who moves the type-head manually, and movement of the type-head to the print-point is made by a single actuator that only moves the type-head to the print-point. A typewriter with this kind of mechanism is often called a "toy" typewriter.
(2) Note. In this subclass (165.2) selection of the particular type-face may be made by rotating the type-head manually or with the aid of a rack and pinion that is manually powered.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 165.3]    165.3Selection by rotatable dial:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.2.  Subject matter wherein the type-head* has affixed thereto a plate bearing indicia, letters or character* symbols corresponding to those which may be imprinted on the record-medium*, which plate is turned by a hand of the typist to thereby turn the type-head for selection or choice of the type-face* to be impressed against the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 166]    166Including impact control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the arcuate movement of said type-head-carrier* toward the record-medium* is regulated as to its impression force, whereby the impression force can be changed as desired.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

157.3,for impact control in a typewriter wherein a hammer moves the record-medium toward a selected type-face*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 167]    167Including rebound control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the type-head-carrier* is supported for arcuate movement from a rest position to a print-point* and for return arcuate movement from the print-point to the rest position, and wherein the return movement is regulated as to the force with which the type-head* is returned whereby the type-head will come to rest gently, or wherein the return movement is stopped as soon as the type-head reaches its rest position whereby the type-head is prevented from springing away from its rest position after return.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 168]    168Articulated-support joint:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the type-head-carrier* is supported for arcuate movement from a rest position to a print-point* and for return arcuate movement from the print-point to the rest position, and wherein significance is attributed to the connection between the type-head-carrier and its support, which connection enables the arcuate movement to occur.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 169]    169Detenting to fix type-head for imprinting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with mechanism on the type-head-carrier* to temporarily secure the type-head* to the type-head-carrier while said carrier is moving toward the record-medium* whereby the selected or chosen type-face* element will not move relative to the type-head-carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 170]    170Including movable printing anvil within type-head:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 160.  Subject matter wherein the type-head* is a hollow member having type-face* elements on the exterior surface thereof, and wherein the member is provided with one or more elements adjacent to the interior surface of the member, which element(s) move(s) to engage the interior surface opposite to the type-face element that has been selected or chosen to be impressed against the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 171]    171Plural type-set-assemblages selectively moveable from a storage station to a printing station:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with more than one type-set-assemblage*, only one of which assemblages is actively in use during any particular period of time, the other(s) of the assemblages being retained inactively at a location on or adjacent to the typewriter for easy removal from the inactive location to the active location.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 172]    172Type-faces mounted on type chips and removable from storage for printing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-set-assemblage* comprising type-face* elements all of which elements are separate and separable one from the others, and all of which elements are supported in or on a type-face-carrier* from which carrier each selected or chosen type-face is taken for impression of the type-face against a record-medium* and replaced into the carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 173]    173With means for exposing last-typed character:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for showing the typist the character* symbol that was imprinted just prior to the time that the typist wished to see the character.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

124.01+,for similar subject matter in a "matrix" printer typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 174]    174Type-head, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 139.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the type-head* that bears a type-set-assemblage* in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 175]    175Detachable from carrier (e.g., inter-changeable):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Subject matter wherein the type-head* may be removed from the type-head-carrier* and replaced thereon or another type-head replaced on the type-head-carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 176]    176HAVING FLUID-PRESSURE POWER DRIVE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter or a portion thereof is caused to operate by energy that is derived from or transmitted via the exertion of force upon a fluid (i.e., a flowable material).
(1) Note. The most usual fluid employed in these typewriters is air, but a liquid may also be employed as a fluid-pressure means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 177]    177Including pneumatic decoder for perforated tape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is controlled for operation by a mechanism that includes (a) a strip having holes therein, and (b) means for moving the strip relative to a bar having holes therein whereby the strip will cover the holes in the bar except when a hole in the strip matches a hole in the bar, and (c) means for passing air or gas through the holes in the bar when a hole in the bar is uncovered by a hole in the strip, whereby a signal or pulse is generated by the passage of air or gas through a hole in the bar, and (d) means for converting the signals or pulses so generated into one or more operation(s) of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 178]    178For producing typewriter-control tape (e.g., perforated tape, etc.)
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the energy of said fluid is used to form indicia on a strip that will subsequently be used to regulate the operation(s) of a typewriter.
(1) Note. The fluid pressure may be applied to a punch (or a plurality of punches) that cause a tape to be perforated, or may be applied to form indicia on a tape that will control a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 179]    179For type-face selection or choice:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the energy of said fluid is used to select or choose a type-face* element that is to be impressed against a record-medium*, or is used to cause the selected or chosen type-face element to be impressed against the record-medium to imprint a character* symbol thereon.
(1) Note. In this subclass the typewriter usually operates by a typist depressing a key* element, the movement of the key producing the air pressure that actuates a type-bar* (to which the selected type-face is affixed) from rest position to the print-point* position.
(2) Note. The terms "select" and "choose" (or variants of those terms) and the differences between the terms are discussed in the Glossary under definitions such as case-shift*, type-face-carrier*, type-head* and type-head-carrier*. Briefly, a particular type-face is selected from among the many available from a type-set-assemblage*, whereas an upper-case* form of letter (as distinguished from a lower-case* form of the same letter) is chosen from the forms available on one key* element.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 180]    180Including key-board driven by external pneumatic source:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein the energy of said fluid is used to depress the selected key* elements on the key-board* of the typewriter, and wherein the force exerted upon the fluid is applied by means outside of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 181]    181By pneumatic actuation of type-face or type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 179.  Subject matter wherein the energy of said fluid is used to cause a selected or chosen type-face* element or a type-bar* carrying such element to be impressed against the record-medium* to imprint a character* symbol thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 182]    182For movement of carriage or platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 176.  Subject matter wherein the energy of said fluid is used to cause motion of either the carriage* or the platen* of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 183]    183Including line-spacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Subject matter wherein the motion of either the carriage* or of the platen* is such as to effect line-space* distances to the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 184]    184HAVING TYPEWRITER-CONTROLLED RECIPROCABLE ELECTROMAGNETIC DRIVE FOR PLURAL FUNCTIONS IN SAME TYPEWRITER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with means to actuate the operation of more than one function* thereof, each of said means including a magnetic* motor energized by electricity and movable to-and-fro in a straight line, and the actuation of each of said means being initiated by a typist who is typing on the typewriter that is being actuated.
(1) Note. The "motor" of this subclass is usually a solenoid energized by electricity and initiated by pressing a switch that is connected to a key* element other than a character* key. For similar structure wherein character key elements actuate type-bar* action mechanisms, see subclass 359.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

359,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 185]    185HAVING POWER-DRIVEN OPERATOR FOR PLURAL FUNCTIONS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with means to actuate the operation of more than one function* thereof, each of said means being energized by force other than that supplied by the typist.
(1) Note. For the purposes of this and indented subclasses, the operation of line-space* means is considered to be equivalent to the operation of record-medium* feeding means and effectively is only a single function.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 186]    186Via continuously rotated power roll selectively connected to operate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein the energizing force drives one function* or another function at the will of the typist by way of a continuously rotated power roll.
(1) Note. The term "continuously rotated power roll" is defined below in subclass 370 as that structure is applied to operate selected type-bar* members. In this subclass (186) a similar structure is used to operate a selected one of plural functions or is used to operate an auxiliary function.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

370,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 187]    187Usable selectively (e.g., for powered or manual operation, alternative usable functions, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 185.  Subject matter wherein the energizing force drives one function* or another function at the will of the typist, or wherein the energizing force is either used or not used to operate the typewriter at the will of the typist.
(1) Note. When the energizing force is not used to drive the typewriter, the typist supplies the force needed to drive the typewriter-actuating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 188]    188FOR TYPING ON REVERSE SURFACE OF RECORD-MEDIUM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a record-medium* has a first surface which faces toward a platen*, and the record-medium has a second surface which faces toward a type-face* when the type-face is at a print-point*, and wherein significance is attributed to imprinting character* symbols on the first surface of the record-medium.
(1) Note. The characters are usually in mirror image, and the record-medium is either transparent so as to be able to read the characters through the record-medium, or the record-medium is a "hectograph" master. See Glossary, section III, for further discussion of hectograph under terms ribbon* and transfer-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 189]    189By simultaneous use of both surfaces of same ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 188.  Subject matter wherein a ribbon* is used as a transfer-medium* for imprinting said character* symbols on said first surface, and wherein the same ribbon is used as a transfer-medium for imprinting corresponding character symbols on another record-medium surface or on a surface of another record-medium at the same time the character symbols are imprinted on the first surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 190]    190By use of "carbon paper":
 This subclass is indented under subclass 188.  Subject matter wherein carbon paper is used as a transfer-medium* for imprinting said character* symbols on said first surface.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 497 in this class for a discussion of the term carbon paper.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 191]    191INCLUDING INTERPOSED INKING DEVICE (E.G., RIBBON) FOR RECORD-MEDIUM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a transfer-medium* which is intended to be positioned between a record-medium* and a type-face* to have simultaneous surface contact with the type-face and the record-medium to form a character* on the record-medium, or to the manner of renewing the transfer characteristics of the transfer-medium while it is on the typewriter, or to the manner of holding the transfer-medium on the typewriter, or to the manner of moving the transfer-medium relative to the print-point* on the typewriter.
(1) Note. A transfer-medium which is only for correction of an error in typing is found in this class, subclass 697.
(2) Note. Inking a type-face directly for forming a character without the use of an interposed transfer-medium is found in various subclasses in this class indented under subclass 383.
(3) Note. This subclass (191) provides for an interposed inking member having a configuration other than an elongated ribbon*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

383,and see (2) Note above.
697,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 192]    192Moved by continuously rotating power drive intermittently applied:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* having a length dimension and a width dimension, and wherein movement along either dimension is imparted to the ribbon by way of a rotated power drive intermittently applied, the rotation of the drive shaft not stopping during the operation of the typewriter.
(1) Note. The term "rotated power drive intermittently applied" is defined below in subclass 365 as that term is applied to operate selected type-bar* members. In this subclass (192) a similar structure is used to cause feeding of a ribbon or actuation of the vibrator* for a ribbon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

365,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 193]    193Inking device handheld during typing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is manually supported between the record-medium* and the type-face* as the type-face is impressed against the record-medium through the transfer-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 194]    194Endless ribbon or cartridge therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* in the form of a closed-loop band having an elongated dimension.
(1) Note. The ribbon may be driven in a single direction, thus avoiding need for ribbon-reversing structure.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

237,for an ink* ribbon, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 195]    195Mobius strip:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 194.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon is a one-sided surface formed by holding a first end of an elongated rectangle fixed, rotating the opposite end 180 about an axis coincident with a centerline of the rectangle parallel to the long dimension thereof, and securing the opposite end to the first end.
(1) Note. A Mobius strip is a unique topological phenomenon in that an object formed as described above will apparently have two "surfaces", but mathematically and actually will have only one surface. This can be proved by forming a Mobius strip as described and then applying a mark along the surface continuously along the length thereof without lifting the marker from the surface or crossing the edge of the strip. The experimenter will find that the marker will eventually reach the mark initially produced, thus proving the actuality of only a single surface. In a ribbon*, this permits typing against the apparently two "surfaces" without further manipulation of the ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 196]    196Including storage (e.g., in cartridge, etc.) of ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 194.  Subject matter wherein a portion of the band is supported in a holder, and the band and holder are attachable to and removable from the typewriter as a unit to facilitate replacement of the band.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 196.1]    196.1Having ribbon stored in pleated form:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 196.  Subject matter wherein the portion of the band in the holder is folded in a regular pattern of folds that are transverse to the elongated dimension of the band, and are alternately folded in opposite folds.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 197]    197Renovation of used ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* which ribbon during typing is at least partially depleted of ink*, and the ribbon is treated to maintain or increase its efficacy as a transfer-medium while the ribbon is on the typewriter.
(1) Note. Examples of ribbon treatment provided for in this subclass are adding ink to the ribbon, moistening the ribbon, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 198]    198With ink heater (e.g., for melting solid ink):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Subject matter wherein ink* which is on or to be added to the ribbon* is relatively thick, hard, or viscous at normal room temperature, and wherein the typewriter is provided with means for elevating the temperature of the ink to increase its flowability.
(1) Note. Also found in this subclass is a disclosure of means to heat a record-medium* adjacent to the print-point* to promote uniform distribution of the ink imprinted on the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 199]    199By discrete auxiliary band movable with ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is movable in a direction parallel to its longitudinal extent while it is on the typewriter, and the ribbon treatment includes contacting the ribbon with a separate elongated strip of material, said strip moving in face to face contact and concurrently with at least a portion of the ribbon.
(1) Note. The band may be loaded with ink* to replenish the ink supply in the ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 200]    200Selectively actuatable re-inker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is treated by a device which adds ink* to the ribbon; said device being movable at the will of the typist, to either a position on the typewriter at which the device is operative to add ink to a position at which it is inoperative to add ink.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 201]    201Of multicolor ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* which is treated has plural fields of differently pigmented or tinted ink* materials.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 202]    202Renovator attachable to typewriter for replenishing ribbon ink:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 197.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is treated by a device which adds ink* to the ribbon, said device being detachably mounted on the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 202.1]    202.1Attached to ribbon spool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is wound in convolutions on a reel, which is mounted on the typewriter, and the device for adding ink* is mounted in or on said reel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 202.2]    202.2And includes refillable chamber (e.g., reservoir) for liquid ink:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Subject matter wherein the device for adding ink* to the ribbon* comprises a container which can be resupplied with flowable ink.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 202.3]    202.3And conveyor or discrete drops of ink:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.2.  Subject matter wherein the ink* from the container is supplied to the ribbon* via a member that transports the ink in separate globulelike portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 202.4]    202.4And re-inking roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.2.  Subject matter wherein the ink* from the container is supplied to the ribbon* via a rotatable member having a cylindrical surface for receiving and transporting the ink.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 203]    203Ribbon disposed within platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon*, and the ribbon is housed interiorly of a hollow typewriter platen*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

242,for a spool mounted on a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 204]    204For typing plural copies simultaneously with ribbon(s) (e.g., duplicate typing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* and wherein plural portions of the same ribbon, or plural ribbons, are positionable relative to plural record-medium* pieces so that a single impact of a type-face* against the record-medium* imprints an identical character* on each of said pieces at the same time.
(1) Note. Proper placement of a patent into this or an indented subclass requires recitation of a transfer-medium in ribbon form. Usually the typewriter of these subclasses is used to type "duplicate original copy" texts of typed material. The term "original copy" refers to typed text that is imprinted with the use of a ribbon coated with ink* to form characters that are not
easily erased from the record-medium. The ribbon used may be an inked fabric ribbon, although in some typewriters a different form of ribbon, called a "carbon ribbon" or a "carbon-ink ribbon" has come into use. An " original copy" is distinguished from a "carbon copy" in at least two respects: an original copy is on a record-medium that is located adjacent to a fabric ribbon or a carbon ribbon at the print-point*, so that a type-face will impact directly or through the ribbon to cause transplacing of ink directly onto the surface of the record-medium, and the character imprinted onto the original may be erased only with difficulty; a carbon copy is on a record medium that under lies an original copy and a sheet of transfer-medium, usually consisting of "carbon paper", and the character imprinted onto a carbon copy is erased easily.
(2) Note. In placing a patent as an original into this or one of the subclasses indented hereunder, consideration must be taken of the intent of the patent as determined by various criteria. The primary criterion is the intent to produce a plurality of original copy texts. This is determined by a positive disclosure of at least one of the following criteria: (a) at least two record-medium pieces are imprinted each via a ribbon with "permanent" (i.e., not easily erasable) ink, (b) the ribbon(s) being used are reversible (i.e., fed in two opposite directions so that the ribbon is used and reused). If the specification is not clear as to plural original copy texts, the patent may be cross-referenced herein, but placed as an original patent into subclass 497 as appropriate. The use of carbon paper in typing carbon copies is found in this class, subclass 497.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

497,and see (2) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 205]    205Including holder for short length of ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Subject matter wherein there is provided a device for supporting at least one ribbon* in position relative to a platen* to receive a type-face* impact and wherein the length of the ribbon or ribbons supported by said device approximates the platen dimension along the print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 205.1]    205.1Holder movable to inoperative position on typewriter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 205.  Subject matter wherein the device, while mounted on the typewriter, is selectively positionable by the typist to move the ribbon* or ribbons supported by the device to a position where the ribbon or ribbons will not receive the type-face* impact.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

206.2,for a similar holder for plural ribbons.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 206]    206Using plural ribbon(s) [e.g., additional ribbon(s)]:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Subject matter wherein the imprinting of identical character* symbols on the record-medium* pieces is accomplished by the concurrent use of more than one ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 206.1]    206.1Including "carbon paper" ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein at least one ribbon* is a ribbon formed from carbon paper.
(1) Note. See (1) Note under subclass 497 in this class for a discussion of the term carbon paper.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 206.2]    206.2And ribbon holder movable to inoperative position on typewriter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein there is provided a device for supporting at least one ribbon* in position on the typewriter to receive a type-face* impact, and wherein said device, while mounted on the typewriter is selectively positionable by the typist to move the ribbon or ribbons supported by the device to a position where the ribbon or ribbons will not receive the type-face impact.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

205.1,for a similar holder for a short length of ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 206.3]    206.3On plural coaxial spools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein ribbon*-receiving reels are provided to mount the ribbons on the typewriter, and wherein at least two of the reels are so mounted on the typewriter, as to have a common centerline about which the reels may rotate in paying-out or taking-up the ribbons.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 206.4]    206.4On single spool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein at least one ribbon*-receiving reel is provided to mount the ribbons on the typewriter, and wherein more than one ribbon is convoluted on a single reel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 207]    207Package for ribbon facilitating mounting of ribbon on typewriter (e.g., ribbon cartridge):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* housed in a receptacle, and wherein the ribbon and receptacle are attachable to and removable from the typewriter as a unit, or the receptacle contributes in simplifying attachment of the ribbon to the typewriter.
(1) Note. A ribbon spool for a typewriter with no additional package structure is found in this class, subclasses 242+.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

242+,and see (1) Note above
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 208]    208Package attached to typewriter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 207.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* and the receptacle remain on the typewriter during typing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 208.1]    208.1And includes separable assemblage of spools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* receptacle comprises a pair of interconnected ribbon-receiving reels, and wherein the reels are disconnected from each other when attached to the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 209]    209For bottom-strike typewriter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a ribbon* specialized for use in a typewriter in which type-face* elements impact against the platen* (and thereby impact against a record-medium* that is backed by the platen) at a print-point* located adjacent to an underneath part of the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 210]    210For boldface typing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to imprinting character* symbols formed of lines having greater than normal thickness.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

304,for varying carriage feed to accomplish a similar result.
466,for a type-face* configuration which accomplishes a similar result.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 211]    211Including mechanism for shifting ribbon laterally at print-point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon and provision is made for moving the ribbon in a direction transverse to its elongated dimension, such movement occurring in an area of the typewriter adjacent to the print-point*.
(1) Note. In this subclass (211) the transverse movement occurs by reason of the entire ribbon and the spool(s) on which the ribbon is wound or mounted being moved in the transverse direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 212]    212Via electrically powered actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Subject matter wherein the movement of a ribbon* in a transverse direction is accomplished with the help of force derived from electrical energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 213]    213For impact of successive type-face on one field of ribbon in path not parallel to longitudinal extent of ribbon (e.g., "zigzag", oblique, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Subject matter wherein type-face* elements strike the same print-point* of a typewriter in a series of impacts against a ribbon* that moves in a length direction between successive impacts and that has a zone of a particular color, the dimensions of which zone correspond to the length and to at least part of the width of the ribbon, and wherein succeeding elements impact the zone at areas of the zone that are spaced widthwise as well as lengthwise of the ribbon.
(1) Note. The path of the successive impacts on the ribbon so moved may be zigzag, oblique, sinusoidal, etc., as the ribbon moved longitudinally and transversely of the print-point.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 213.1]    213.1Via ribbon vibrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Subject matter wherein the transverse movement of the ribbon* is accomplished by a ribbon vibrator*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

215+,for a ribbon vibrator and means for moving the vibrator.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 214]    214Plural ribbons shiftable laterally (e.g., by duplicate vibrators):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Subject matter wherein more than one ribbon* is mounted on the typewriter, and provision is made for such transverse movement to be given to each of the ribbons.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 215]    215By ribbon vibrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Subject matter wherein at least a portion of an elongated ribbon* is constrained for movement within a vibrator* and wherein the vibrator moves the constrained portion transversely to the elongated dimension of the ribbon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

213.1,for a ribbon vibrator producing a particular path on the ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 215.1]    215.1Including vibrator shiftable during use of nonfeed character key (e.g., for typing accent mark, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with means for normally moving the carriage* to the extent of a character-space* for each depression of a character* key* and with means for normally moving the vibrator* concurrently with carriage movement, and wherein significance is attributed to a mode of operation in which a character key is depressed to move the vibrator without concurrent movement of the carriage.
(1) Note. The mode of operation defined above enables two type-face* elements to be impacted successively at the same print-point* on the record-medium* so that a letter and an accent mark for that letter may be imprinted.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 215.2]    215.2With retardation of vibrator return after type-face impact (e.g., with dashpot):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein the vibrator* movement is regulated in such a manner that the ribbon* is temporarily held at its print-point* covering position for receiving successive type-face* impacts without completely uncovering the print-point after each impact.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for a disclosure wherein the print-point remains covered by the ribbon when typing at a normal rate, but if the typist stops typing, the vibrator moves the ribbon to permit viewing the print-point.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 215.3]    215.3With elevation and holding of vibrator above print-point (e.g., to facilitate ribbon insertion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein provision is made for selectively lifting and sustaining the vibrator* in a position higher than the print-point* to facilitate access to the vibrator.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 215.4]    215.4With inactivation of vibrator (e.g., for cutting a stencil):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein provision is made for selectively controlling the movement of the vibrator* in a manner such that the typist may choose to not have the vibrator move transversely so that the ribbon* will not cover the print-point* during typing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 216]    216Including variable throw of vibrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.  Subject matter wherein provision is made for changing the extent of transverse movement imparted to the vibrator* so as to change the extent the ribbon* is moved transversely relative to the print-point*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 216.1]    216.1For diverse-field (e.g., plural-color) ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* has zones with different characteristics, each zone having dimensions that correspond to the length and to at least part of the width of the ribbon, and the change in the extent of the transverse vibrator* movement is for changing the ribbon zone which is over the print-point* to receive the type-face* impact.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 216.2]    216.2With typewriter-controlled change of field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein a first part of a typewriter moves to accomplish its intended first-part function, and during said movement the first part engages a second part to move the second part, and wherein movement of the second part causes movement of the vibrator* that changes the ribbon* zone that is over the print-point*.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for a typewriter wherein the typist may preset the typewriter to imprint selected columns of type in different colors of ink*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 216.3]    216.3By movement parallel to print-line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein the vibrator movement is in the same direction as the longitudinal extent of the print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 216.4]    216.4Vibrator throw controlled via alternate pins selectively inserted in slots:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein an assemblage of elements for moving the vibrator* to change ribbon* zones includes one member or members having plural peg-like projections selectively positionable in respective elongated openings in another member or members, and wherein the extent of vibrator movement is controlled according to which of the pins is positioned relative to its respective opening.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 216.5]    216.5Field selection by selectively positioned stop faces to limit vibrator movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 215.1.  Subject matter wherein an assemblage of elements for moving the vibrator* to change ribbon* zones includes a member having a surface which, during vibrator movement, is intended to contact an abutment surface on another member, and wherein the extent of vibrator movement for zone selection is controlled by the position of said abutment surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 216.6]    216.6To compensate for case-shift:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to accommodating the extent of transverse vibrator* movement to take into account relative change of position between a record-medium* and a type-face* as a result of case-shift*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 217]    217To shift impact path (e.g., during ribbon reversal):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 211.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is intended to receive multiple type-face* impacts along a first zone extending parallel to the elongated dimensions of the ribbon, and wherein significance is attributed to the manner of moving the ribbon transversely relative to its elongated dimension so that subsequent type-face impacts will be in a different zone transversely spaced from the first zone.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 217.1]    217.1By adjustable ribbon guide spaced from supply spool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is wound in convolutions of a reel and is led from the reel past the print-point* via a member which causes the ribbon to follow a predetermined path, and wherein the transverse movement of the ribbon is caused by selectively changing the position of said member relative to the print-point.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 218]    218Ribbon-reversing mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* and the provision is made for moving the ribbon relative to a print-point* in a first direction as character* symbols are imprinted on a record-medium* during typing, and wherein significance is attributed to a manner of causing the ribbon to move relative to the print-point in a direction opposite to said first direction for further typing of characters on the record-medium using the same ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 219]    219Including means responsive to depletion of ribbon supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is moved to the print-point* from a location where the ribbon has been stored on the typewriter, and wherein there is means for detecting when such ribbon storage has been exhausted to cause the ribbon to move in the opposite direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 219.1]    219.1Including an electric switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein said detecting means includes a device for influencing an electrical circuit used in the operation of a member or members controlling the direction of movement of the ribbon*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 219.2]    219.2Including lever retained in spool by wound ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is stored on the typewriter in convolutions on a reel, and wherein said detecting means includes a member mounted on the reel and held in a first position by the convoluted ribbon, said member being movable to a second position to influence ribbon direction-changing means when the ribbon has been unwound from engagement with the member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 219.3]    219.3Including sensor for diameter of wound ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is stored on the typewriter accumulated in wound convolutions, and wherein said detecting means includes a detecting member which is biased against the outermost convolution in a manner such that said member moves as the number of convolutions increases or decreases and wherein the movement of said member influences the ribbon direction-changing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 219.4]    219.4Sensor received in depression in core of spool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.3.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is stored on the typewriter in convolutions around a cylindrical surface of a reel, and wherein said cylindrical surface includes an opening or cavity which receives said detecting member when all the convolutions have been exhausted from the reel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 219.5]    219.5Including projection from ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* includes a protuberance from a surface thereof, and said detecting means includes a member actuated by said protuberance to influence ribbon direction-changing means when the ribbon storage is exhausted.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

239,for a ribbon, per se, having a protuberance for actuating reversing mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 220]    220Alternative pawl-and-ratchet drive including ratchet directly connected to spool or spindle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Subject matter wherein opposite ends of the ribbons* are attached respectively to first and second cylindrical members, the first member having a first ratchet* secured thereon to be driven by a first pawl* and thereby move the ribbon in the first direction by winding it on the first member, and the second member having a second ratchet secured thereon to be driven by a second pawl and thereby move the ribbon in the opposite direction by winding it on the second member, and wherein means are provided for causing the first pawl to be operative in its driving relationship with the first ratcher while the second pawl is caused to be inoperative, or for causing the second pawl to be operative in its driving relationship with the second ratchet while the first pawl is caused to be inoperative.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

236.1,for pawl-and-ratchet drive for ribbon feeding.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 220.1]    220.1Including common pawl member (e.g., double-toothed pawl):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein the first and second pawls* are formed as integral parts of a single component.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 220.2]    220.2Including member interposed in pawl drive path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 220.  Subject matter wherein the means for causing a pawl* to be inoperative includes an element having a surface positionable in the path of the pawl to prevent engagement of the pawl with its ratchet*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 221]    221Alternative gear drive including gear directly connected to spool or spindle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Subject matter wherein opposite ends of the ribbon* are attached respectively to first and second cylindrical members, the first member having a first toothed-driven wheel secured thereto, and the second member having a second toothed-driven wheel secured thereto, the first and second driven wheels being driven by a toothed driving wheel selectively engageable with either of the driven wheels or being driven by first or second driving wheels engageable respectively with the first or the second driven wheels, the driving wheel or wheels having a different axis of rotation than the driven wheels, and wherein shiftable means are provided to selectively cause a driving wheel to operatively engage the first driven wheel to move the ribbon the first direction by winding the ribbon on the first member, or to cause a driving wheel to operatively engage the second driven wheel to move the ribbon in the opposite direction by winding the ribbon on the second member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

236.2,for gear drive for ribbon feeding.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 221.1]    221.1And gears mounted on ends of axially shiftable common shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Subject matter wherein a first driving wheel is secured to one extremity of a rod having an elongated dimension and a second driving wheel is secured to the opposite extremity of the same rod, the rod being shiftable in opposite directions parallel to the elongated dimension of the rod to either engage the first driving wheel with the first driven wheel or to engage the second driving wheel with the second driven wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 221.2]    221.2And gears mounted on ends of pivoted common shaft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Subject matter wherein a first driving wheel is secured to one extremity of a rod having an elongated dimension, and a second driving wheel is secured to the opposite extremity of the same rod, the rod being movable about an axis perpendicular to its elongated dimension to either engage the first driving wheel with the first driven wheel or to engage the second driving wheel with the second driven wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 222]    222Alternative clutch drive including clutch member directly connected to spool or spindle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Subject matter wherein opposite ends of the ribbon* are attached respectively to first and second cylindrical members, the first member having a first driven coupling device secured thereto, and the second member having a second driven coupling device secured thereto, the first and second driven coupling devices being driven by a driving coupling device selectively engageable with either of the driven coupling devices or being driven by first or second driving coupling devices selectively engageable respectively with the first or the second driven coupling devices, the driving coupling device or devices being coaxial with the driven coupling devices and the driving and driven devices having a one-to-one drive ratio, and wherein shiftable means are provided to selectively cause a driving coupling device to operatively engage the first driven coupling device to move the ribbon in the first direction by winding the ribbon on the first member, or to cause a driving coupling device to operatively engage the second driven coupling device to move the ribbon in the opposite direction by winding it on the second member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 223]    223Ribbon-feeding mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* and significance is attributed to a manner of moving the ribbon relative to a print-point* in a direction parallel to the longitudinal extent of the ribbon as character* symbols are imprinted on a record-medium* or to the manner of regulating such ribbon movement.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

36,for ribbon feed in a flat-platen typewriter.
218,for ribbon reversing wherein ribbon feeding is disclosed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 224]    224For feeding ribbon angularly to print-line at print-point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the lengthwise dimension of at least a portion of the ribbon* which is at the print-point* extends in a direction other than parallel to the print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 224.1]    224.1Ribbon fed perpendicular to print-line at print-point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.  Subject matter wherein the lengthwise dimension of the portion of the ribbon* which is at the print-point* extends at a right-angle to the print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 224.2]    224.2Ribbon is full-page wide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.1.  Subject matter wherein a dimension of the ribbon* transverse to the longitudinal extent of the ribbon is approximately the same as the dimension of the record-medium* parallel to the print-line*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

246,for a cylindrical member for convoluting thereon a ribbon of similar dimension.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 225]    225Including electrically powered drive means (e.g., solenoid, stepping motor, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein movement of the ribbon* is accomplished with the help of force derived from electrical energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 226]    226For feeding ribbon partial character-space before impact and partial character-space after impact:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon is moved relative to the print-point* in incremental distances approximating the width of a character* as characters are imprinted on the record-medium*, and wherein the ribbon is moved a portion of such incremental distance prior to a type-face* contacting the ribbon, and the ribbon is moved the remaining portion of such incremental distance after the same type-face contacts the ribbon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

232,for ribbon feeding at a particular feed rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 227]    227For narrow carbon ribbon (e.g., carbon ink, "single use", etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* being moved is a carbon-ink ribbon or a "carbon-paper" ribbon.
(1) Note. See the definition of ribbon in the Glossary, section III, for a discussion of carbon-ink and carbon-paper ribbons, and see (1) Note under subclass 497 for a discussion of the term carbon-paper.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 227.1]    227.1Ribbon destroyed after use:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein provision is made for treating the ribbon* on the typewriter after the ribbon leaves the print-point* so as to render illegible any type-face* impressions on the ribbon or to make the ribbon useless for further typing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 227.2]    227.2Or for alternately used fabric ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 227.  Subject matter wherein a "fabric" ribbon* is also mounted for use on the typewriter and provision is made for either moving the fabric ribbon relative to the print-point* or for moving the "carbon-paper" or "carbon-ink" ribbon relative to the print-point, the ribbon which is so moved being selectable by the typist which is so moved being selectable by the typist.
(1) Note. See the definition of ribbon in the Glossary, section III, for a discussion of fabric ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 228]    228Including pin-feed-engaging ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is moved by contacting the ribbon with elements that are movable in a ribbon-feeding direction, which elements either pierce the ribbon or move into preformed openings in the ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 229]    229Mounted with movable type-face-carrier or type-head-carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is attached to a type-face-carrier* or is attached to a type-head-carrier* either of which carriers moves relative to a stationary record-medium* for imprinting the character* symbols along the print-line*, whereby the ribbon moves with either the type-face-carrier or the type-head-carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 230]    230With fast rewind of ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is supplied to the print-point* from a coiled supply of the ribbon so that the supply is depleted while the ribbon is moved in a first direction during imprinting of character* symbols, and wherein provision is made for rapidly moving the ribbon in the opposite direction to replenish the coiled supply, no character symbols being imprinted during such rapid movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 231]    231With prevention of ribbon feed (e.g., for nontype operation, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein there is a drive mechanism for moving the ribbon* relative to the print-point*, and wherein significance is attributed to stopping or disconnecting such drive mechanism while a function* is performed on the typewriter.
(1) Note. It is usual to have ribbon movement depend on carriage* movement as the carriage is moved in the direction of the print-line* while character* symbols are imprinted so that a fresh ribbon surface is presented for each type-face* impact. There are other carriage movements (e.g., for spacing between words, backspace, etc.) where no imprint takes place and so a fresh ribbon surface is not needed as a result of the latter movements. This subclass (231) provides for disclosures wherein ribbon drive mechanism is disconnected for carriage movements when no imprinting takes place.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 232]    232Including feed at particular feed rate (e.g., "creep" feed):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is moved a predetermined distance relative to the print-point* each time a character* is imprinted on the record-medium*, and wherein significance is attributed to the speed at which the ribbon is so moved or to the distance the ribbon is so moved.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

226,for feeding ribbon a partial character-space* before type-face* impact and a partial character-space after type-face impact.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 233]    233Ribbon feed from supply only during carriage return:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein a carriage* is moved in a first direction along a print-line* as character* symbols are imprinted, and the carriage is moved in a second direction opposite to the first direction to begin another print-line, and wherein the ribbon* is moved to the print-point* from a location where the ribbon has been stored on the typewriter, such movement of the ribbon from storage taking place only when the carriage is moved in the second direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 234]    234Including ribbon tensioner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for maintaining the ribbon* in a relatively taut or non-sagging condition as the ribbon is moved relative to the print-point*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 235]    235Drive applied by means directly engaging ribbon in advance of takeup:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is accumulated at a location on the typewriter after the ribbon has moved past the print-point*, and wherein the ribbon is moved in the direction parallel to its longitudinal extent by a motion-transmitting mechanism which contacts the ribbon at a place on the typewriter between the print-point and the accumulated location of the ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 235.1]    235.1Drive applied by pinch-roller couple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Subject matter wherein the motion-transmitting mechanism includes a pair of rotatable cylindrical members positioned with respect to each other, and to the ribbon*, in a manner such that one member engages one surface of the ribbon, and the other member engages the opposite surface of the ribbon, whereby rotation of the members in opposite rotational directions moves the ribbon toward the location wherein the ribbon is accumulated.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 236]    236Drive applied directly to spool or spool spindle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein one end of the ribbon* is attached to a cylindrical member, and wherein the ribbon is moved past the print-point* by rotating the member about its axis to wind the ribbon in convolutions thereon, said member being rotated by a motion-transmitted mechanism, and said mechanism including a component rigidly secured to the cylindrical member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 236.1]    236.1By a pawl driving a ratchet on the spool or spindle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the component secured to the cylindrical member is a ratchet*, and wherein the motion-transmitting mechanism includes a pawl* for moving the ratchet.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

220,for pawl-and-ratchet drive used with ribbon reversing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 236.2]    236.2By a gear driving a gear on the spool or spindle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein the component secured to the cylindrical member is a first toothed wheel, and wherein the motion-transmitting mechanism includes a second toothed wheel engageable to rotate the first toothed wheel, said first and second toothed wheels having different and non-coextensive axes of rotation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

221,for gear drive used with ribbon reversing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 237]    237Ribbon, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* and significance is attributed to the structure or characteristics of the ribbon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

194,for an endless ribbon.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 238]    238Having leader portion (e.g., for threading, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a modification of either end of the ribbon*.
(1) Note. Such modification may be for various reasons including facilitating attachment to a spool, facilitating threading of the ribbon through a guide, or permitting handling without soiling the typist"s fingers with ink*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 239]    239With ribbon-reversing indicator or device on ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is of a kind which, when in use on a typewriter, is intended to be moved in either of opposite directions relative to a print-point*, and wherein significance is attributed to a modification of the ribbon which either alerts the typist that directional change of the ribbon is desired or controls the mechanism for changing the directional movement of the ribbon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

218,for a mechanism for moving a ribbon in either of opposite directions.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 240]    240Including differently pigmented fields:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* has plural zones impregnated or coated with a coloring agent intended to be transferred from the ribbon to the record-medium* during typing, the coloring agent in one zone being ink* of a first color, and the coloring agent in another zone being of a different shade or color than the first color.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 240.1]    240.1Including correction-material field:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein one of the zones includes a coloring agent which is a coating of a color approximating the color of the record-medium*, which coating will adhere to the ink*, of an imprinted character*, or wherein one of the zones includes a chemical agent which eradicates the ink that has been imprinted on the record-medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

697,for an error-correcting sheet or tape.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 240.2]    240.2With prevention of bleeding between adjacent fields:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a manner of impeding the migration of the coloring agent from one zone to another zone next to it.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 240.3]    240.3Including fields arranged transversely to elongated dimension of ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein each zone has a dimension that corresponds to the width and to only a part of the length of the ribbon*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 240.4]    240.4Including more than two fields:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* has at least three zones.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 241]    241Particular ribbon material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 237.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the substance from which the ink*-carrying portion of the ribbon* is made.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 241.1]    241.1Synthetic material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein the substance is a compound formed from chemical reaction involving elements, radical, or simpler compounds.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for disclosure of a ribbon* wherein the ink*-carrying substance of the ribbon is a "man-made" substance rather than a substance which occurs naturally.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 241.2]    241.2Wherein ink is entrapped in ribbon material (e.g., microcapsules, micropores, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.1.  Subject matter wherein the substance includes a component having extremely small orifices or openings or chambers therein, the orifices or openings or chambers each holding a discrete quantity of ink*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 241.3]    241.3Particular weave pattern:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon is formed from interlaced thread-like elements, and wherein significance is attributed to the manner in which such elements are arranged relative to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 241.4]    241.4Including ink-impervious backing for ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* has first and second surfaces, the first surface contacting a record-medium* to imprint a character* by transferring ink* from the ribbon to the record-medium when the second surface is contacted by a type-face*, and wherein the second surface of the ribbon is formed of a substance through which ink is incapable of passing to preclude direct contact of the type-face with ink.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 242]    242Ribbon spool or mount therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon* in the form of an elongated tape that is spirally wound around a cylindrical member, and wherein significance is attributed to said member or to holding the member and the ribbon wound thereon on a typewriter.
(1) Note. The member (i.e., spool) may have flanges extending radially to retain the spiral convolutions of the ribbon wound thereon, or may be a core having no flanges.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

203,for a spool mounted within a platen*.
207,for a package for ribbon spool(s) simplifying mounting the ribbon and spool on a typewriter.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

242Winding, Tensioning, or Guiding,   subclasses 600+ and 118+ for a spool to support wound material.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 243]    243Universally adaptable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a modification of, or an attachment for, the cylindrical member which facilitates holding the member on any of diverse shapes or kinds of supports on a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 244]    244Including ribbon-reversing indicator or device on spool or mount:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein the cylindrical member is intended to be rotated in either of opposite directions depending on whether the ribbon is to be wound thereon or to be unwound therefrom, and wherein significance is attributed to a modification of such cylindrical member which either alerts the typist that a change in directional rotation of the member is desired, or which controls the mechanism for changing the directional rotation of the member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

218,for a mechanism for moving a ribbon in either of opposite directions.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 245]    245Including magnetic retainer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein magnetic* force is used to hold the cylindrical member in position on the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 246]    246Spool for full-page-wide ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein the cylindrical member is intended to accommodate a ribbon* having a dimension transverse to its longitudinal extent which dimension is approximately the same as the dimension of the record-medium* parallel to the print-line*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

224.2,for a mechanism for feeding ribbon of similar dimension.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 247]    247Means auxiliary to ribbon mechanism (e.g., shield, guide, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 191.  Subject matter wherein the transfer-medium* is a ribbon*, and wherein significance is attributed to a device used in conjunction with the ribbon, but which device does not itself effect the imprint of a character* or function* of the typewriter, or which device is not provided for in any of the subclasses indented under subclass 191.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 248]    248Including guide for ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Subject matter wherein the device is a member for conducting or leading the ribbon* from its place of storage on the typewriter to the print-point* or from the print-point to a place of storage on the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 248.1]    248.1Ribbon guide opening expandable to facilitate ribbon insertion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the member includes a pair of components between which the ribbon* extends, said components having first and second positions movable relative to each other and being spaced further from each other at said second position than at said first position to facilitate placement of the ribbon between the components at said second position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 248.2]    248.2And typewriter-actuated closing of guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.1.  Subject matter wherein a first part of a typewriter moves to accomplish its intended first-part function, and during said movement the first part engages a second part to move the second part, and wherein movement of the second part causes relative movement of said components from said second position to said first position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 248.3]    248.3Including electrical, magnetic, or pneumatic guide means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 248.  Subject matter wherein the member for conducting or leading the ribbon* is influenced by electrical, magnetic, or pneumatic energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 249]    249Including indicator for depletion of ribbon (e.g., bell, sign, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Subject matter wherein the ribbon* is supplied to the print-point* from a supply of ribbon, and wherein significance is attributed to a device for informing the typist that the supply has been exhausted.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

703,for an indicator of general utility in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 250]    250Including tool for inserting ribbon:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 247.  Subject matter wherein said device comprises an implement for installing the ribbon* in position on the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 251]    251CASE-SHIFT MECHANISM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a means in a typewriter for performing a case-shift* function by effecting relative movement between a record-medium* and a type-face* element that is at the print-point* whereby a typist is enabled to choose which one of two or more forms of character* symbols that may be imprinted by pressing a particular character key* element will be imprinted, the choice being made by the typist who presses or does not press a case-shift key.
(1) Note. As discussed in the definition of case-shift in the Glossary, section III, case-shift is the function* that enables a typewriter to imprint either an upper-case* form or a lower-case* form of character symbol with the same key element, depending on whether the case-shift key is used or not used.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

35,for case-shift in a flat-platen* typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 252]    252Including programmed-control-system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein the operation of the case-shift* mechanism to effect the form of a type-face* that is to be impressed against the record-medium* is governed by a programmed-control-system*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 253]    253Including electronic control or code-bar control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein the operation of a case-shift* mechanism to effect the form of a type-face* that is to be impressed against a record-medium* is governed by either (a) an electrical system involving the flow of electrons in a circuit, or (b) a plurality of members having particular index characteristics thereon, which members are moved to a position relative to an arrangement of element(s) within the mechanism where the index characteristics are aligned one with another to enable movement of another component of the mechanism to effect choice of operation or non-operation of the case-shift mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 254]    254Controlled by typewriter-actuated mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein the operation of the case-shift* mechanism to effect the form of a type-face* that is to be impressed against the record-medium* is governed by an arrangement of parts in the typewriter, which arrangement includes a first part that moves to accomplish its intended first-part function*, and during such movement the first part engages a second part to move the second part, which second part is connected to the case-shift mechanism to accomplish case-shift as the first part moves to accomplish its first-part function.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 255]    255Including plural case-shift mechanisms (e.g., for simultaneous or selective use):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein one typewriter is provided with at least two case-shift* means.
(1) Note. One exemplary use of two case-shift mechanisms is in a typewriter wherein the carriage*, and thereby the platen* that is carried by the carriage, is vertically movable in a case-shift mode, and wherein the type-bar-segment*, and thereby the type-set-assemblage* that is carried by the type-bar-segment, is also movable for case-shifting.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 256]    256Actuated by toggle-linkage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein the case-shift* mechanism includes a toggle-linkage* assemblage that is used to move a portion of the typewriter for case-shifting.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 257]    257For case-shift by type-head (e.g., spherical type-head) movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-head* that includes a type-set-assemblaged*, which type-head is moved by case-shift* mechanism for selection of the form of character* symbol to be used.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass often is provided with a "golf-ball" or spheroidal type-head*. See the definition of type-head in the Glossary, section III, for a discussion of other configurations of type-head elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 258]    258Power-operated mechanism (e.g., for locking shift key):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein the case-shift* mechanism is actuated with the help of force generated by or derived from a source other than the typist.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for power applied for a miscellaneous function* in the case-shift mechanism of the typewriter, including some disclosures of a solenoid used for locking the shift-key element of the key-board.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 259]    259For shifting platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter wherein said force is used to move the platen* in its case-shift* movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 260]    260For shifting type-bar-segment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 258.  Subject matter wherein said force is used to move the type-bar-segment* in its case-shift* movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 261]    261Multiple-shift mechanism (i.e., for type-bar having three or more type-faces thereon):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a plurality of type-bar* members, each type-bar having at least three type-face* elements thereon, only one of which type-face is to be impacted to form only one character* on record-medium* for each pressing of a character key* element, and wherein the case-shift* mechanism is arranged to cause relative movement between a record-medium and the selected type-bar that is at a print-point* into one of at least three positions, whereby a chosen one of the type-face* with respect to the type-bar* that carries the type-face, the movement being a turning motion.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for a typewriter wherein a platen* is shifted vertically, or horizontally, as in a bottom-strike or top-strike typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 262]    262For shifting type-bar-segment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving the type-bar-case-shift* is effected by moving the type-bar-segment* relative to the typewriter thereby moving the type-bar* members and the type-face* elements carried thereby to the platen*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 263]    263For shifting type-bar or type-face on type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving the type-bar* relative to the typewriter, or by moving the type-face* relative to the type-bar, whereby in either event the type-face is moved relative to the platen*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 263.1]    263.1By pivoting type-face relative to type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving the type-face* with respect to the type-bar* that carries the type-face, the movement being oscillatory or arcuate.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 263.2]    263.2By rotating type-face relative to type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving the type-face* with respect to the type-bar* that carries the type-face, the movement being a turning motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 264]    264For shifting platen:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving the platen* relative to the typewriter, thereby moving the record-medium* relative to the type-face* element which will impact thereagainst.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

261,for case-shift by moving platen in a multiple-shift typewriter
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 265]    265Fore-and-aft (e.g., for top-strike or bottom-strike typewriter):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter wherein the movement of the platen* during case-shift* is in a direction that extends between the front and rear of the typewriter and substantially parallel to the bottom of the typewriter.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass is usually one wherein the type-face* impacts against the top of the platen or the bottom of the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 266]    266Mounted on pivotally movable platen carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter wherein the platen* is supported by structure that moves the platen in the arc of a circle for case-shift* purposes.
(1) Note. In most typewriters, the platen- carrier or platen-support structure is a carriage*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 266.1]    266.1With movement of platen out of typing position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein said structure enables the platen* to be removed from adjacent the print-point*.
(1) Note. In the typewriter of this subclass the platen is movable out of typing position or may be entirely removed from the carriage* that normally supports the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 266.2]    266.2Including adjustable counterbalance spring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein the platen* and the structure that moves the platen has mass that exerts a downward force, and wherein the typewriter is provided with a component or assemblage of elements that exerts an upward force on the said structure to compensate for this downward force of said structure, which component or assemblage of elements is resilient and the upward force exerted by the component or assemblage is variable.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 266.3]    266.3Including a yieldable link (e.g., spring, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein said structure includes movable members that effect movement of the platen*, at least one of which members is a resilient member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 267]    267By depression of space-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Subject matter wherein movement of the platen* for case-shift* is accomplished by pressing the space-bar* element on the key-board*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 268]    268For shifting type-face or type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving a type-face* or by moving a type-bar* relative to the typewriter platen*, the direction of such movement being considered to be parallel to a plane in which the print-point* lies, thereby causing a chosen type-face to be impacted against a record-medium* at the print-point.
(1) Note. The type-face may be one of many type-faces on a type-head* containing a type-set-assemblage*, in which event case-shift occurs by moving the type-head so that the chosen type-face will be in position to be impacted. Or the type-face may be movable relative to a type-bar that carries only two (or three) type-faces.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 269]    269By shifting type-bar or type-face on type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving a type-bar*, together with the type-face* supported thereby relative to the platen* or by moving a type-face relative to the type-bar that supports the type-face, thereby moving the type-face relative to the platen.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 269.1]    269.1By pivoting type-face relative to type-bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 269.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by moving a type-face* with respect to the type-bar* that supports the type-face thereby moving the type-face relative to the platen*, the movement being oscillatory.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 270]    270Mounted on type-bar support (e.g., guide pin, type-bar-segment , etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 268.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with structure that sustains the type-bar* members in an operative relationship to enable the type-bars, and the type-face* elements carried by the type-bars, to move from rest position to print-point* position as each type-bar is selected to impact its type-face against the record-medium*, which structure also enables movement of the type-set-assemblage* that is sustained on the structure, the movement of the type-set-assemblage being for the purpose of effecting case-shift*.
(1) Note. In some of the typewriters of this subclass the type-bars are mounted on a type-bar-segment* which moves so that a chosen type-face of the selected type-bar will impact the record-medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 270.1]    270.1Ring hanger support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.  Subject matter wherein said structure includes a generally annular member to which the type-bar* members are connected.
(1) Note. The ring hanger of this subclass is usually used in a top-strike typewriter or bottom-strike typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 270.2]    270.2Including ball-bearing support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.  Subject matter wherein said structure includes a mechanical assemblage known as a "ball bearing" to which the type-bar* members are connected for movement.
(1) Note. A ball bearing is a device in which a shaft or journal turns upon a number of balls running in an annular track.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 270.3]    270.3Including pivoted-lever support (e.g., cantilever spring, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 270.  Subject matter wherein said structure includes elements that are fulcrumed for arcuate movement, which elements the type-bar* members are connected for movement of the type-bars from rest position to print-point* position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 271]    271By choosing from one of a plurality of type-bars operated by a single key:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein choice of which form of type-face* (i.e., upper-case* form or lower-case* form) is to be impressed against the record-medium* is made from one of a group of type-bar* members any of which members may be chosen to be actuated by depressing one particular character* key* element of the key-board*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 272]    272Including key attachment for case-shift:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein case-shift* is effected by a key* element on the key-board* that is pressed, the pressing of the case-shift key being caused by a device that is connected to the typewriter, which device is actuated or operated by the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 273]    273Operated by user"s leg, (e.g., foot, knee, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Subject matter wherein said device is energized by a lower limb of the typist.
(1) Note. A typewriter of this subclass is usually intended to increase typing speed by giving the typist the capability of actuating case-shift* by a key* element that is pressed by action of a foot, knee, etc., rather than pressed by a finger. A typewriter for handicapped persons is found in subclass 87 above.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

87,and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 274]    274For locking case-shift mechanism in position (e.g., rebound lock, cam, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein said relative movement effects a rearrangement of parts on the typewriter to at least two locations relative to the typewriter frame, and wherein significance is attributed to means for maintaining the particular arrangement of parts as desired by the typist until another location of said parts is desired.
(1) Note. In the typewriter of this subclass, the case-shift* mechanism is held by a cam, or is prevented from rebounding out of position into an undesired position. Also included herein is a typewriter wherein the platen* is locked in a raised position.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

663,for other locking mechanism in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 275]    275For locking platen in fore-and-aft position (e.g., by overcenter spring, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter wherein the platen* of the typewriter during case-shift* is in a direction that extends between the front and rear of the typewriter and substantially parallel to the bottom of the typewriter, and said two locations are the extreme front and rear of the extent of movement of the plate, and wherein significance is attributed to means for maintaining the platen in its extreme front or rear location until another location is desired by the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 276]    276For locking shift-key lever in depressed position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 274.  Subject matter wherein the case-shift* function is accomplished by pressing a particular key* element known as a shift key, which shift-key element is connected to a fulcrumed bar for movement of the bar when the shift-key element is pressed by a typist, and wherein significance is attributed to means for maintaining the shift key in the position it has been moved to when it is pressed by the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 276.1]    276.1By toggle-linkage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein said means includes a toggle-linkage* connected between said fulcrumed bar and the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 276.2]    276.2By means pivoted on shift-key lever:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein said means includes a component that is oscillatably mounted on said fulcrumed bar.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 277]    277Including limit stop (e.g., block, chain, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Subject matter wherein said relative movement is halted at the extreme ends of the desired movement by the interengagement of a component that moves with the case-shift* mechanism and a component that is fixed to the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 278]    278Including limit screw:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter wherein at least one of said components is an elongated helically threaded member that is rotatable about an axis extending in its elongated dimension and is movable along its axis as it is rotated about its axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 279]    279CONTROL OF PRINT POSITION ALONG PRINT-LINE BY SIGNAL GENERATED BY PROGRAMMED-CONTROL-SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a programmed-control-system* is provided for transmitting instructions to a typewriter mechanism to govern the location where a type-face* element will be impressed against the record-medium*, the location being along a path parallel to the print-line*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 280]    280Program is indicia on auxiliary member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 279.  Subject matter wherein the instructions are in the form of marking or openings on an element which is supplementary to the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 281]    281Member is punched tape or card:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 280.  Subject matter wherein the supplementary element is an elongated, relatively narrow strip of material, or a sheet of material, said material having apertures formed therein in a particular pattern, and the apertures representing the instructions governing the operation of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 282]    282Program is indicia on record-medium:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 279.  Subject matter wherein the instructions are in the form of markings or openings on the record-medium* itself.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 283]    283CARRIAGE OR CARRIAGE-MOVING OR MOVEMENT-REGULATING MECHANISM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the carriage* of a typewriter, or to movement of the carriage, or to control of movement or stoppage of movement of the carriage, which movement occurs along a line that is parallel to the print-line*.
(1) Note. The definition of the term "carriage" in the Glossary, section III, includes a discussion of the movement referred to the above, the direction of such movement, and the difference between a "platen* carriage" and a "type-head* carriage".
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 284]    284For stopping carriage in tabular position (e.g., column-set positions):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in a direction that enables the character* symbols to be imprinted in succession (i.e., the character-space* direction), and wherein the movement in said direction is controlled such that after the carriage has moved past a predetermined number of character-space distances, the carriage will be stopped in a position corresponding to a print-point* for the start of a column of character symbols.
(1) Note. The term "column" refers to a plurality of print-lines* arranged one above or below another in vertical array (i.e., a particular character of each successive line of type being equally spaced from one of the side edges of a sheet or web record-medium*).
(2) Note. The term "tabular" refers to at least one, but usually a plurality of columns each arranged in vertical array and each parallel to a side edge of a sheet or web as well as to other column(s) that are produced on the sheet or web.
(3) Note. In the typewriter of this subclass the tab-stop elements on the tab-rack* are set in active position to effect typing of a column. The typewriter is thus said to be "column set".
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 285]    285In denominational positions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is used to imprint one or more columns of numeral digits, and wherein the carriage* is stopped in a position such that the decimal point of a succession of numbers typed one below the other(s) will be arranged in vertical array.
(1) Note. In the instance of a "denominational" column the left character* of successive print-lines* will not necessarily be one below the others, depending on whether the left character represents a "hundreds" digit, a "tens" digit, etc. Rather the decimal point will be in vertical array. Moreover, in the instance where the decimal point of successive numbers is not actually imprinted, but is merely understood to be present, the particular character is the basis of the columnar arrangement, is in fact the "units" digit of the successive numbers.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 285.1]    285.1And column-set positions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* may be stopped in a column position and then be further moved and again stopped in a denominational position within said column.
(1) Note. The term "column" is discussed in (1) Note of subclass 284; the term "column set" is discussed in (3) Note of subclass 284; and the term "denominational" is discussed in (1) Note of subclass 285. The typewriter of this and indented subclasses combine features of two forms of tabulation, that is, carriage is brought to a selected column field and the carriage is further brought to a selected denominational position within the selected column field.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 285.2]    285.2Tab-rack stop intercepted by denominational-stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.1.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is stopped by the interengagement of a selected denominational-stop* with a "tab stop" that is mounted on a tab-rack*.
(1) Note. The term "tab stop" is discussed in the definition of tab-rack in the Glossary, section III.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 285.3]    285.3Tab stops grouped in stepped fashion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.2.  Subject matter wherein the "tab stop" elements are arranged on the tab-rack* in sets or assemblages of tab stops, the individual tab stops of each set being in an ascending or descending scale of individually varying length in each assemblage, and each set or assemblage being arranged for a different "columnar" arrangement.
(1) Note. The term "tab stop" is discussed in the definition of tab-rack in the Glossary, section III, and the term "columnar" is a variation of the term "column" which is discussed in (1) Note of subclass 284.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 285.4]    285.4With control of zero or space for decimal point:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the suppression or regulation of the imprinting of a "zero" digit in a sequence of number digits, or wherein significance is attributed to the regulation of the occurrence of a character-space* associated with a "decimal point" in a sequence of number digits or the regulation of the decimal point associated with a sequence of number digits.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 285.5]    285.5With reverse-direction movement of carriage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved in a direction opposed to the normal character-space* direction during the imprinting of numeral digits in denominational columns.
(1) Note. In this subclass the number is imprinted from the most significant to the least significant digit by backspacing the carriage from right to left along the print-line*, or the number is imprinted so that the first denominational digit typed is the least significant digit.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 285.6]    285.6Helically mounted denominational-stop(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to an arrangement of denominational-stop* components, the components being carried on a drum or cylinder in an array that has the configuration of a helix around the surface of the drum or cylinder.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 286]    286Shiftable denominational-stop(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the movement of a denomination-stop* or the interengagement of said denominational-stop with a tab-stop element on a tab-rack*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 286.1]    286.1Step-shaped denominational- or tab-stop(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein either the denominational-stop* components or the "tab-stop" elements on the tab-rack* are arranged in sets or assemblages, the components or elements of each set being in an ascending or descending scale of individually varying length in each assemblage.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 286.2]    286.2Engaging movable tab-rack means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the interengagement of a denominational-stop* with a tab-stop element on a tab-rack* or to the movement of said tab-stop element from inactive position to active position or return from active to inactive position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 286.3]    286.3With latch or lock means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 285.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for temporarily securing against unwanted or undesired movement any parts of the mechanism that is included in the tabulator mechanism for denominational column(s).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

663,for other locking mechanism in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 287]    287Column set by control of mutilated carriage-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to move quickly to its "column-set" position by use of a carriage-rack* that has gaps in the teeth or notches of the bar that is part of the carriage-rack, the length of the gap determining the length of the character-space* distance that is to be jumped in moving the carriage to the column-set position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 288]    288Column set by control of tab-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to move to its "column-set" position by moving a tab-rack* component from an inoperative position to an operative position, the tab-rack having tab-stop elements thereon which are active to govern or regulate the column-set position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 289]    289Column set by control of tab-stops or column­ stops or counter-stops:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved to its "column-set" position and stopped in that position by "tab-stop" elements mounted on a tab-rack*, selected of said elements having been moved from a "clear" position to a "set" position, or the carriage is stopped in a column-set position by a "counter-stop" element.
(1) Note. For further discussion of the terms used and their operation, see the definition of tab-rack in the Glossary, section III.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 289.1]    289.1Tab-stops grouped in stepped fashion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 289.  Subject matter wherein the "tab-stop" elements are arranged in sets or assemblages of tab stops on the tab-rack*, the individual tab stops of each set being in an ascending or descending scale of individually varying length in each assemblage, and each set or assemblage being arranged for a different "columnar" arrangement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 290]    290Forward or reverse tabulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved and is caused to be stopped in a position corresponding to a print-point* for the start of a column of character* symbols, the movement occurring in a character-space* direction, or the carriage is caused to be moved in a direction opposite to the character-space direction and caused to be stopped in a position corresponding to a print-point for the end of a column of character symbols.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass is sometimes also provided with a carriage-shuttling mechanism, which enables the carriage to travel in a forward or a reverse direction directly between tabular positions without having to first return to home position following a tabulating movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 291]    291With impact cushion or rebound check:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved in a first direction and then stopped in a tabular position, and wherein the stopping of the carriage is regulated by a component or assemblage that is yieldable or limited in the movement of said component or assemblage when used to stop the carriage, whereby the energy of movement of the carriage is absorbed and/or any movement in a direction opposite to said first direction is inhibited.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 292]    292With control of carriage velocity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved and then stopped in tabular position, and wherein the speed of movement of the carriage is regulated.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 293]    293By multiple pitch tab-racks or mutilated gear:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved and then stopped in tabular position, the movement and stopping being regulated or governed by either (a) a tab-rack* component in which one plurality of tab-stop elements are spaced to one pitch* distance and another plurality of tab stops are spaced to another pitch distance, or a plurality of tab-racks, each tab-rack having tab-stop elements spaced to a different pitch from one from another, or (b) a toothed driving member having gaps in the teeth of the member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 294]    294Stop-setting or stop-clearing mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to structure for causing movement of a "tab-stop" element from a passive position (i.e., a position at which it will not engage with a "counter-stop" element) to an active (i.e., "set") position (i.,e., a position at which it will engage with a counter-stop element to stop a moving carriage* in a "tabular" position), or for causing movement of a tab-stop element from an active position to a passive (i.e., "clear") position, or wherein significance is attributed to structure for causing movement of a counter-stop element from a passive position to an active position or for causing movement of a counter-stop element from an active position to a passive position.
(1) Note. The terms "tab-stop" element and "counter-stop" element have been discussed in the definition of tab-rack* in the Glossary, section III, and the term "tabular" has been discussed in the definition of tab* as well as in (2) Note to the definition of subclass 284 above.
(2) Note. This subclass provides for a type-writer wherein the tab stop(s) is/are cleared, i.e., moved from active position to inactive position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 294.1]    294.1With stop magazine (i.e., for supply of stops):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a receptacle in which the "tab-stop" elements are contained ready for use, from which receptacle the tab stops are removed to be used for use in the tabulating mechanism, and to which receptacle the tab stops are returned after use in the tabulator mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 294.2]    294.2With key-locking mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with means to prevent activation of the key* element that effects tabulation or the key element that effects any action or function* other than the setting or clearing of a "tab-stop" element during the time that the tab stop is cleared or set.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

663,for other locking mechanism in a typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 294.3]    294.3Drum-mounted tab-stops:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the "tab-stop" elements are carried on a cylindrical member or on a segment of a cylindrical member, either on the inner or the outer periphery of the member or on the radial surface of the member.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 295]    295Stop setting by linear shift or tab-stop or counter-stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the "tab-stop" element or the counter-stop element is set into its active position by moving the tab stop or the counter stop along a straight-line path relative to the structure that supports the element.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 295.1]    295.1Stop shifts horizontally from tab-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Subject matter wherein the "tab-stop" element is set into an active position by moving the tab stop forwardly or rearwardly relative to the tab-rack* component that carries the tab-stop elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 295.2]    295.2Stops shifts laterally along tab-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 295.  Subject matter wherein the "tab-stop" element is set into one position or another position to accomplish the tabulation by moving the tab stop along the length of the tab-rack* component that carries the tab-stop elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 296]    296Stop setting by movement of tab-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the tab-rack* of the typewriter is movable from one position to another relative to the carriage* of the typewriter, and wherein the "tab-stop" element on the tab-rack is set into active position by moving the tab-rack.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 296.1]    296.1Tab-rack rotates about its axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 296.  Subject matter wherein the movement of the tab-rack* is a turning movement that occurs about a center that extends through the tab-rack component along the length of the component.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 296.2]    296.2Plural tab-racks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 296.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with more than one tab-rack* component.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 297]    297Stop setting by partial rotation of tab stop relative to tab-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the "tab-stop" elements are mounted on a tab-rack* component for arcuate motion of the tab stops with respect to the tab-rack, and wherein the tab-stop element is set into active position for tabulation by moving the tab stop with such arcuate motion.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 297.1]    297.1Stop setting by pivoting pawllike stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 294.  Subject matter wherein the "tab-stop" element is set into active position for tabulation by moving the tab-stop element with an arcuate movement.
(1) Note. The tab stop is usually hook- shaped and has a pivot axis on the end remote from the hook.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 298]    298Tab-stop or tab-rack structure, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 284.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the conformation or other characteristics of the tab-stop element, per se, or the tab-rack* component, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 299]    299With rotatable type wheel for repeat printing in response to carriage movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with a type-member* in the form of a disc that turns about an axis and bears on the edge of the disc a plurality of type-face* elements all of which type-faces imprint the same character* symbol on the record-medium* when the edge of the disc is impressed against the record-medium, and wherein the typewriter is provided with means to urge the disc against the record-medium as the carriage* is moved in a character-space* direction, whereby as the carriage so moves as the disc is impressed against the record-medium, a series of the same character symbol is imprinted on the record-medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

21,for a liner responsive to carriage movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 300]    300Key-actuated mechanism for nonfeed of carriage (e.g., "silent" key, locking carriage, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is normally caused to be moved in a direction that enables the character* symbols to be imprinted in succession (i.e., the character-space* direction) by or concurrently with successive pressing of successive character key* elements, but wherein significance is attributed to a mode of operating the typewriter whereby pressing of a particular key element will not cause movement of the carriage.
(1) Note. The purpose of this mechanism is to permit the imprinting of a character* symbol without an accompanying character-space* movement of the carriage, thereby permitting two or more symbols to be imprinted at the same print-point*. The mechanism thus permits a letter and an accent mark, or a letter and a vowel symbol, or two different letters (these being only exemplary of the possibilities), to be imprinted at the same print-point.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 301]    301By disabling carriage-escapement mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein the nonfeed or the nonmovement of the carriage* is caused by temporarily making the normal carriage-feed mechanism ineffective to move the carriage.
(1) Note. For discussion of how the normal carriage-escapement mechanism operates, see the definition of subclass 329.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 302]    302By key actuated independently of carriage feed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Subject matter wherein the nonfeed or nonmovement of the carriage* is caused by the pressing of a special key* element on the key-board*, which special key is used only to prevent carriage movement and has no other effect on the carriage movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 303]    303For varying carriage feed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in a direction that enables the character* symbols to be imprinted in succession (i.e., the character-space* direction), and wherein the movement in said direction is regulated to occur in irregular or unequal increments of movement, the increments corresponding to variable character-space distances or variable word-space* distances.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

10,for a variable carriage-feed mechanism used in a "justification" typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 304]    304For kerning or overlap imprinting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Subject matter wherein the movement of the carriage* in the character-space* direction is regulated to enable (a) imprinting a first character* symbol in a first character-space, moving the carriage to a distance less than a full character-space distance, and imprinting a second character different from the first character partly within the character-space of the first-character, or (b) imprinting a first character symbol in a first character-space, moving the carriage a very short distance relative to the first character-space, and imprinting the first character again almost within the first character-space, but only slightly displaced from the first character.
(1) Note. The operation described in (a) above is known as "kerning" and is sometimes used to form a compound letter symbol out of two standard letter symbols. The operation described in (b) is known as overlap imprinting and is sometimes used to form a "boldface" letter symbol.

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210,for a ribbon used for boldface typing.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 305]    305By force-feed or screw-feed mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in a carriage-feed (i.e., character-space*) direction through irregular increments by a mechanism that positively engages the carriage or a portion affixed thereto and that positively moves in a direction to thereby move the carriage therewith in said direction, or wherein the carriage is caused to be moved by the rotation of a helically threaded member.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

328,for force-feed mechanism in an equal increment carriage feed.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 306]    306Proportional to variable widths of imprinted characters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Subject matter wherein the irregular or unequal increments of movement of the carriage* correspond to the various widths of the character* symbols that are imprinted on the record-medium*.
(1) Note. In the definition of the term character-space* in the Glossary, section III, there is a discussion of the reason for variable carriage feed. Briefly, in this mode of operation the carriage is moved along the print-line* to the extent that a particular character extends along the print-line. Therefore the distances between adjacent characters are more nearly equal one to another, and the resulting text appears uniform and gives a pleasing appearance.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 306.1]    306.1By settable elements (e.g., pins, bars, slides, etc):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the irregular increments of carriage* movement are caused by drive means that includes a movable member that is provided with components that may be set into active position to engage with another portion of the drive means, which component may be cleared out of active position so as not to engage with the other portion of the drive means, the selection of the amount of increment of carriage movement being made by setting or not setting the components.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 306.2]    306.2By ratchet wheel and controlled pawl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the irregular increments of carriage* movement are caused by drive means that includes a pawl* that is oscillated and caused to move into engagement with the teeth of a ratchet* in the form of a ratchet wheel.
(1) Note. The term "ratchet wheel" is defined in the definition of ratchet.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 306.3]    306.3Including multiple pawls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.2.  Subject matter wherein the drive means is provided with a plurality of pawl* members.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 306.4]    306.4And multiple wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.3.  Subject matter wherein the drive means is also provided with a plurality of ratchet wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 307]    307By ratchet rack and controlled pawl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the irregular increments of carriage* movement are caused by drive means that includes a pawl* that is oscillated and caused to move into engagement with the teeth of a ratchet* in the form of a ratchet rack.
(1) Note. The term "ratchet rack" is defined in the definition of ratchet.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 307.1]    307.1Including multiple pawls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 307.  Subject matter wherein the drive means is provided with a plurality of pawl* members.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 307.2]    307.2By cooperating toothed members (e.g., gear, segment, rack, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 306.  Subject matter wherein the irregular increments of carriage* movement are caused by drive means that includes at least two components, each of which is formed with notches or teeth, the notches of one component intermeshing with the notches of the other so that movement of one component is transmitted to the other component.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass are drive means having gears or differential gears, or gear and rack. or gear segment and gear, in many arrangements of such components.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 308]    308Carriage backspace mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in a direction opposite to the typing (i.e., character-space*) direction that enables the character* symbols to be imprinted in succession, and wherein the movement in said opposite direction is regulated to occur in increments corresponding to character-space distances but in the direction opposite to the character-space direction.
(1) Note. The backspace increments may be regular (i.e., corresponding to equal character-space distances), or the backspace increments may be irregular or unequal or variable (i.e., corresponding to variable character-space distances, mechanism for which is found in subclass 303).
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 309]    309Backspace proportional to variable width of imprinted characters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in irregular or unequal increments, the increment of movement for any particular movement corresponding to a variable character-space* distance equivalent to the various widths of the character* symbols that were imprinted on the record-medium* just prior to the need for backspacing.
(1) Note. See the definition of character-space in the Glossary, section III, for a discussion of the need for variable carriage feed. This discussion is amplified in (1) Note to the definition of subclass 306. In the typewriter of this subclass the backspace distance is the same amount, but in the opposite direction, as the variable character feed, and is for the purpose of returning the carriage to exactly the same print-point* that the carriage was before a particular character was imprinted.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 310]    310Including powered drive means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved by way of energy supplied to the typewriter by other than the typist.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass is powered by such energy as an electric motor, a solenoid, a continuously rotated power roll the power of which is intermittently applied, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 311]    311Including pawl and escapement wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved by the actuation of a key* element that moves a pawl* that interengages with one of the teeth of a toothed wheel to drive the carriage in a backspace direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 312]    312Including pawl and escapement rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 308.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved by the actuation of a key* element that moves a pawl* that interengages with one of the teeth of a ratchet* rack to drive the carriage in a backspace direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 313]    313Carriage-return mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in a direction opposite to the typing (i.e., character-space*) direction that enables the character* symbols to be imprinted in succession, and wherein the movement in said opposite direction is regulated to retrogress the carriage back to the beginning of a print-line*.
(1) Note. The carriage is usually returned until it is stopped by a margin* regulator or margin-stop* element. In some typewriters the carriage return may be modified to stop at a preset position to permit the first character of a new print-line to be indented from the margin*.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

34,for carriage return in a flat-platen* typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 314]    314With concurrent line-spacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein the record-medium* is moved in a line-space* direction during approximately the same time that the carriage* is returned to the beginning of a print-line*.
(1) Note. The line-spacing movement may occur at the beginning or at the end or during the carriage-return movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 314.1]    314.1Using electromagnetic drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter wherein the carriage*-return movement is powered by a solenoid or similar electromagnetic means.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 314.2]    314.2For selected number of line-spaces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter wherein the record-medium* is moved in a predetermined number of line-space* increments during the carriage-return movement, and wherein the predetermined number may be changed at the will of the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 314.3]    314.3With disconnection of return by margin-stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to disablement of the mechanism that returns the carriage* when the carriage engages the margin* regulator that is located at the beginning of a print-line*, wherein the carriage-feed drive may regain control of the carriage movement.
(1) Note. The term "margin regulator" is defined in the definition of subclass 342.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 314.4]    314.4Initiated by user"s leg or foot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to starting the return of the carriage* by a movement of a lower limb of the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 314.5]    314.5Initiated by actuator adjacent key-board:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to starting return of the carriage* by movement by a typist of a key* element on or near the key-board*.
(1) Note. In most manually powered typewriters, the carriage return is by way of a lever adjacent to the platen*. The typewriter of this subclass is usually electrically powered, and pressing of a key initiates the return.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 314.6]    314.6By return-clutch means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 314.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* return is powered by way of a clutch mechanism that is provided in the typewriter especially for carriage-return purposes.
(1) Note. A "clutch" is a mechanism for intermittently connecting a rotating driving shaft to a driven shaft by way of faces that are connected, one face to each shaft, and intermittently connected to one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 315]    315Responsive to carriage position:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* return is initiated as a result of the carriage having moved in the character-space* direction to a predetermined location relative to the typewriter.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass is usually electrically powered.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 316]    316Partial return (e.g., for start of paragraph, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a return of the carriage* to a position short of the normal or usual return to a margin* of the page*.
(1) Note. The partial return is usually to a position where a new paragraph will be started at a location on the record-medium* that is indented from the margin of the text.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 317]    317Including power drive (e.g., electric, spring, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is returned by way of energy applied to the mechanism other than energy supplied by the typist at the time of carriage return.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 317.1]    317.1For bidirectional drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved in its return movement and in its feed movement by way of energy applied to the mechanism other than energy supplied by the typist.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 317.2]    317.2By spring-driven motor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter wherein the carriage is moved in its return movement by way of energy that is stored in a resilient or yieldable component connected to a drive train that moves the carriage.
(1) Note. The power for winding the spring to store energy that will subsequently be used during typing to return the carriage whenever so desired by the typist maybe supplied by an electric motor or may be supplied by the user of the typewriter. Disclosures of this form of spring energy are properly classified herein because the energy is stored and not applied by the typist at the time of carriage return.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 317.3]    317.3Powered via engagement of a clutch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved in its return movement by way of energy that is applied by way of a clutch connection.
(1) Note. A "clutch" is a mechanism for intermittently connecting a rotating driving shaft to a driven shaft by way of faces that are connected, one face to each shaft, and intermittently connected to one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 318]    318Initiated by actuator adjacent key-board:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to starting return of the carriage by movement by a typist of a key* element on or near the key-board*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 319]    319Carriage-feed mechanism (e.g., escapement, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused or enabled to be moved in a direction that enables the character* symbols to be imprinted in succession (i.e., the character-space* direction), and wherein the movement in said direction is regulated to occur in regular or equal increments of movement, each increment corresponding to a character-space distance or a word-space* distance.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 320]    320For carriage on which a type-head-carrier is mounted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* supports a type-head-carrier* for movement of both the carriage and the type-head-carrier in said direction that enables the character* symbols to be imprinted in succession (i.e., the character-space* direction).
(1) Note. As discussed in the Glossary, section III, under the definition of carriage, in some typewriters the record-medium* is held by a platen* that is mounted on a "platen carriage" that is moved in said direction (i.e., the character-space direction) thereby moving the record-medium for character-space and word-space* distances.
In the typewriter of this subclass the record-medium does not move during the imprinting of characters symbols. Instead the type-face* elements are impacted against a record-medium at a different print-point* for each character. The type-face elements are on a type-head* that is mounted on a type-head-carrier that is supported on a "type-head carriage" that moves relative to the stationary record-medium, thereby moving the successively impacted type-faces for character-space and word-space distances.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 320.1]    320.1With concurrent movement of carriage for record-medium and carriage for type-head-carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 320.  Subject matter wherein a typewriter is provided with two carriage* mechanisms, one of which carriage (i.e., a "platen carriage") supports a platen that holds a record-medium* for movement of both the platen and the record-medium in a character-space* direction and the other of which carriage (i.e., a "type-head* carriage") supports a type-head-carrier* for movement of both the type-head carriage and the type-head-carrier in a character-space direction.
(1) Note. As discussed in the Glossary, section III, under the definition of carriage, usually the direction of carriage feed for a platen carriage is from right to left, whereas the direction of carriage feed for a type-head carriage is from left to right (but note the note exceptions discussed in that definition).
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 321]    321With repeat spacing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is urged to be moved in successive increments of movement (the increments corresponding to character-space* distances) a plurality of said increments occurring upon the pressing of one key* element on the key-board*.
(1) Note. The typewriter of this subclass is usually one that is electrically powered, thus enabling repeat spacing with one pressing of a space key or space-bar*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 322]    322By electric or magnetic power:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the movement of the carriage* is caused by electricity or magnetism.
(1) Note. The electricity is supplied to an electric motor or to an electromagnet (e.g., a solenoid) which effects carriage-feed movements to the carriage. Also included in this subclass is a typewriter wherein a spring motor is assisted by an auxiliary electric motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 323]    323Carriage-feed in two directions (e.g., continuous typing in both directions):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is urged in a first direction and the movement in said first direction is regulated as defined in subclass 319, and wherein said carriage is alternately urged in a second direction that is opposite to said first direction and the movement in said second direction is also regulated as defined in subclass 319.
(1) Note. A "print-line*" is usually formed by imprinting successive characters* in the order in which they are read. However, some typewriters are capable of imprinting successive characters in reverse order, that is, the first character imprinted is the last character of the print-line, the second character imprinted is the next-to-last character of the print-line, etc. In the typewriter of this subclass the first print-line may be imprinted in regular order and the second print-line may be imprinted in reverse order, the text being imprinted alternately from left to right, and then from right to left in "continuous" typing action.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 323.1]    323.1In selected direction (e.g., for semitic language, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 323.  Subject matter wherein one of said first or second directions is chosen for the primary or significant direction of carriage* movement.
(1) Note. The purpose of this mode of operation is to imprint successive character* symbols in a character-space* direction that is opposite to that which is used in the usual typewriter. In most typewriters, characters are imprinted from left to right to conform to most European languages, therefore a platen carriage that moves the record-medium* effects movement of the platen carriage from right to left whereas a type-head carriage that moves a type-head-carrier effects movement of the type-head carriage from left to right. Certain Semitic languages, e.g., Arabic and Hebrew, are written from right to left, therefore in the typewriter of this subclass, the carriage movement feed direction is selectively changed to be reversed from the directions referred to above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 324]    324Word-space concurrent with typing of last character of word:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a carriage*-feed mechanism that produces a word-space* whenever the last character* symbol of a word* has been imprinted on the record-medium*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 325]    325By space-bar mechanism (e.g., separate connection to escapement), or paragraph-indentation key:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the actuation of a carriage*-feeding movement as a result of pressing a space-bar*-key* element, or wherein significance is attributed to the actuation of a carriage-feeding movement that moves the carriage a distance equivalent to a plurality of character-space* increments as a result of pressing a single key element.
(1) Note. The distance referred to is that needed to start a new paragraph in a text wherein the first letter of a paragraph is indented from the margin* of the body of the text.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 326]    326With compensator for tilt of typewriter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to mechanism that counterbalances the force of gravity acting on a carriage* when the typewriter is inclined to the horizontal.
(1) Note. A typewriter is usually operated while it is in a horizontal position. The carriage therefore moves horizontally, and the weight of its mass does not affect its movement. However, if the typewriter is tilted and its carriage is moved along a line that is inclined to the horizontal, the weight of the carriage will affect its movement. Disclosures in this subclass provided for means to compensate for the weight of the carriage due to tilting of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 327]    327For diagonal print-line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a mode of operating a typewriter whereby successively imprinted character* symbols form a print-line* that is inclined relative to the top or bottom edge of a rectangular sheet.
(1) Note. The diagonal print-line is usually formed by concurrently feeding the carriage* and feeding the record-medium* between successive imprints of characters.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 328]    328By force-feed or screw mechanism (e.g., direct drive, screw-biasing carriage, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in a carriage-feed (i.e., character-space*) direction by a mechanism that positively engages the carriage or a portion affixed thereto and that positively moves in said direction to thereby move the carriage therewith, or wherein the carriage is caused to be moved in said direction by a helically threaded element that is rotated and cooperates with another complementary element on the carriage to move the carriage.
(1) Note. In this subclass the carriage may be moved by a spring that is biased or tensioned by a screw, or the carriage may be moved by a pawl* engaging and moving a ratchet* wheel.

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305,for force feed in a variable-feed carriage mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 328.1]    328.1Including pawl and toothed rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 328.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved by a pawl* that engages in a notch between two teeth of a ratchet* rack, which rack is connected to the carriage to cause movement of the carriage when the pawl moves while in engagement with the rack.
(1) Note. The term "rack" as used in this definition is discussed under the definitions of pawl and ratchet in the Glossary, section III.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 329]    329Carriage escapement controlled by pawl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is urged by a source of power to be moved in a direction for imprinting successive character* symbols on the record-medium* (e.g., a character-space* direction), and the movement in said direction is regulated by a mechanism that (a) restrains the carriage against movement, and (b) releases the carriage momentarily to be urged to move, and (c) again restrains the carriage against movement, which mechanism includes a member or members having movement relative to the carriage or to a portion connected thereto, the relative movement between the member(s) and carriage effecting the restraint and momentary release of the carriage to produce the increments of movement corresponding to character-space and word-space* distances.
(1) Note. The regulating mechanism defined above is usually a pawl* and ratchet* mechanism as these members are defined in the Glossary, section III.
(2) Note. Movement of the carriage during carriage feed is related to movement of the type-face* element to the print-point* for impressing the type-face against the record-medium*. These movements occur in various terms applied in the typewriter art. In all the sequences a typist initiates the operation by pressing a key* element which causes movement of a type-face (e.g., a type-face on a type-bar*, a type-face on a type-head*, etc.) from its rest position. In "full-drop" escapement the sequence is (a) the type-face is impressed at the print-point, (b) the carriage starts its movement through a full character-space distance, and (c) the carriage completes a character-space and stops. In a "half-drop" escapement the sequence is (a) the carriage starts its movement but stops momentarily approximately halfway in a character-space, (b) the type-face is impressed at the print-point, and (c) the carriage continues its movement through the remainder of the character-space. In "speed" escapement (also known as "reverse" escapement) the sequence is (a) the carriage starts its movement through a full character-space distance, (b) the carriage completes a character-space and stops, and (c) the type-face is impressed at the print-point. In all the sequences the type-face is returned to its rest position and the key* is also returned to its rest position. The differences between the various sequences are primarily in the time available to enable a type-bar (which carries the type-face element) to move from rest position to print-point position and back to rest position (a) as related to the time available for a next-actuated type-bar to perform the same movements without interference from the previously actuated type-bar, and (b) as related to the time available to move the carriage through a carriage space.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 329.1]    329.1Means to ensure engagement of pawl at start of print-line (i.e., overbanking control):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to structure that will positively cause a pawl* of the regulating mechanism to contact the carriage* or a portion (e.g., a ratchet*) connected thereto whenever the carriage has been properly positioned at the beginning of the print-line* (i.e., in most typewriters at the left margin* or the print-point* proper for the imprint of the first character* symbol of a print-line).
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 329.2]    329.2Carriage-feed initiated and completed during depression of character key (e.g., "speed" or "reverse" escapement):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter wherein a key* element that is used to cause imprint of a character* symbol is pressed, the pressing of said key element initiating (a) the movement of a type-face* from its rest position to the print-point*, and (b) the movement of the carriage* through a character-space* distance, and wherein the movement of the carriage is started and completed through a complete character-space before the type-face impacts the print-point.
(1) Note. The differences between "full-drop" escapement, "half-drop" escapement, and "speed" or "reverse" escapement are discussed in (2) Note to the definition of subclass 329 above.

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330.2,for "half-drop" escapement and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 329.3]    329.3Pawl rocker spring regulating device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter wherein a pawl* is supported by a component, which component is mounted for oscillation relative to a carriage-rack* or to a ratchet* disc or wheel and is urged into engagement with the teeth or notches of the carriage-rack or the ratchet disc by a yieldable element, and wherein the force with the yieldable element urges the component is adjustable.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330]    330Via ratchet wheel connected to pinion and carriage-rack:
 The regulating mechanism includes (a) a carriage-rack* affixed to the carriage*, and (b) a rotatable gear having teeth that are engaged with teeth or notches in the carriage-rack, and (c) a ratchet* that is in the form of a rotatable disc or wheel and is joined to the rotatable gear, and (d) a pawl* that cooperates with the ratchet, the assemblage of parts cooperating to effect the restraint and momentary release of the carriage.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.1]    330.1And plural pawls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Subject matter wherein the regulating mechanism includes more than one pawl* member.
(1) Note. Usually two pawls are provided, one of the pawls disengaging from between two adjacent teeth of a ratchet* momentarily, and the other of the pawls holding the ratchet against movement in excess of one increment.

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332.1,for escapement mechanism having plural pawls and one or more ratchet racks.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.2]    330.2For half-drop escapement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to an action of the pawl* and ratchet* mechanism that restrains, momentarily releases, and again restrains the movement of said carriage* to produce a "half-drop" escapement.
(1) Note. The term half-drop escapement is discussed in (2) Note to subclass 329 above, wherein the action of various forms of carriage escapement (including "speed" escapement) is discussed and compared.

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329.2,for "speed" escapement and see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.3]    330.3Mounted on pivotable pawl carrier or rocker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.1.  Subject matter wherein said pawl* members are supported by a component, which component is mounted for oscillation relative to said ratchet* disc or wheel to enable one or another of the pawls to engage one or another of the teeth or notches of the ratchet disc or wheel, whereby the disc or wheel, and thereby the carriage*, is alternately restrained against movement, released for movement, and restrained against movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.4]    330.4Including pawl(s) fixed to rocker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.3.  Subject matter wherein one or more of said pawl* members are integral with or fixedly secured to said component.
(1) Note. This subclass includes some typewriters wherein the component or rocker includes fixed offset pawls.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.5]    330.5And slidable pawl:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.4.  Subject matter wherein at least one of said pawl* members is mounted for rectilinear movement relative to said oscillatable component.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.6]    330.6Including pawl pivoted about axis parallel to rocker axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.4.  Subject matter wherein said component oscillates about a first axis and one of said pawl* members oscillates about a second axis that is parallel to said first axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.7]    330.7Mounted on movable (e.g., rotatable, slidable) pawl carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.1.  Subject matter wherein said pawl* members are supported by a component, which component is mounted for movement relative to said ratchet* disc or wheel to enable one or another of the pawls to engage one or another of the teeth or notches of the ratchet disc or wheel, whereby the disc or wheel, and thereby the carriage*, is alternately restrained against movement, released for movement, and restrained against movement.
(1) Note. The movement of the component or pawl carrier may be reciprocation or rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 330.8]    330.8Including particular structure of pawl (e.g., pivoted, unitary, with roller, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the construction of manner or mounting of said pawl* member.
(1) Note. Included herein are typewriters wherein the pawl is pivoted in a particular way, or is a unitary member, or is provided with a roller at the ratchet*-engaging end thereof, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 331]    331Including plural ratchet wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Subject matter wherein the regulating mechanism includes more than one ratchet* that is in the form of a rotatable disc or wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 331.1]    331.1Including particular structure of ratchet wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the construction of the rotatable ratchet* disc or ratchet wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 331.2]    331.2Including cushioned escapement support (e.g., rocker, pawl buffer, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the construction of the support for the pawl* member or of the component on which the pawl is oscillatable, or of the ratchet* wheel with which the pawl cooperates, which construction is characterized in that it is provided with yieldable or resilient means.
(1) Note. The support absorbs excess movement or the force or shock of movement of the carriage* or its driving or escapement mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 331.3]    331.3Including particular structure of mount for ratchet wheel (e.g., bearing, clutch, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 330.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the construction of the support for the rotatable ratchet* disc or ratchet wheel that enables the disc or wheel to rotate.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 332]    332Via toothed rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter wherein the regulating mechanism includes (a) a ratchet* that is in the form of a bar having teeth or notches along one of its sides, and (b) a pawl* that cooperates with the ratchet, the assemblage of parts cooperating to effect the restraint and momentary release of the carriage*.
(1) Note. In a "platen-carriage" typewriter (see the discussion of platen carriage in the definition of carriage in the Glossary, section III), the ratchet is usually a carriage-rack*. In a "type-head carriage" typewriter (see the discussion of type-head* carriage in the Glossary, section III) the ratchet [defined in (a) above] is usually fixed to the frame of the typewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 332.1]    332.1And plural pawls:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Subject matter wherein the regulating mechanism includes more than one pawl* member.
(1) Note. Usually two pawls are provided, one of the pawls disengaging from between two adjacent teeth of a carriage-rack* momentarily, and the other of the pawls holding the carriage-rack against movement in excess of one increment.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

330.1,for escapement mechanism having plural pawls and one or more ratchet* wheels.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 332.2]    332.2Mounted on pivotable pawl carrier or rocker:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.1.  Subject matter wherein said pawl* members are supported by a component, which component is mounted for oscillation relative to a carriage-rack* to enable one or another of the pawls to engage one of the teeth or notches of the carriage-rack, whereby the carriage* is alternately restrained against movement, released for movement, and restrained against movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 332.3]    332.3Mounted on movable (e.g., rotatable, slidable) pawl carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.1.  Subject matter wherein said pawl* members are supported by a component, which component is mounted for movement relative to said ratchet* bar to enable one or another of the pawls to engage one or another of the teeth or notches of the ratchet bar, whereby the ratchet bar, and thereby the carriage*, is alternately restrained against movement, released for movement, and restrained against movement.
(1) Note. The movement of the component or pawl carrier may be reciprocation or rotation.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 332.4]    332.4Including particular structure of pawl (e.g., slidable, pivoted, unitary, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.1.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the construction or manner of mounting of said pawl* member.
(1) Note. Included herein are typewriters wherein the pawl is pivoted in a particular way, or is slidable relative to the carriage-rack* with which it cooperates, or is a unitary member, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 332.5]    332.5Including plural toothed racks (e.g., pivoted, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Subject matter wherein the regulating mechanism includes more then one ratchet* that is in the form of a bar having teeth or notches along one of its sides, or includes a bar having teeth or notches along more than one of its sides.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 332.6]    332.6Including particular structure of rack (e.g., toothed, slidable, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the construction of the ratchet* bar.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 333]    333Universal-bar or actuator therefor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to the universal-bar* in the drive train of the carriage-feed mechanism or of any other mechanism of the typewriter, or to a means for moving the universal-bar.
(1) Note. Included in this subclass is a typewriter wherein the universal-bar is actuated by a key* lever.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 333.1]    333.1Connected to actuator for another function:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein the universal-bar* is part of the drive train for a function* of the typewriter in addition to the carriage*-feed function.
(1) Note. The term "carriage feed" is defined in the definition of subclass 319. The other function mentioned above may be the vibrator* for the ink*-ribbon* feed, or the ink-ribbon feed itself.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 333.2]    333.2Adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for varying the relationship of the universal-bar* to the drive train of which it is a part.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 333.3]    333.3Actuated by type-bar or type-bar action:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a universal-bar* which is caused to be moved by a type-bar* or by the actuating mechanism of a type-bar.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 334]    334Carriage-feed-release mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved and the movement is controlled by a movement-regulating mechanism that engages the carriage or a portion affixed thereto, which mechanism may be temporarily disconnected from the carriage to enable unregulated movement of the carriage.
(1) Note. This subclass provides for a disclosure wherein the carriage may be disengaged from a carriage-feed spring which, per se, is provided for in subclass 336.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

553,for a line-space* actuator that also has an effect on the carriage-feed release.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 334.1]    334.1By disengagement of clutch between ratchet wheel and pinion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.  Subject matter wherein the regulating mechanism that enables carriage feed includes a rotatable gear having teeth with teeth or notches in a carriage-rack* and a ratchet* in the form of a rotatable disc or wheel that is joined to the rotatable gear, and also includes a clutch that connects the gear to the disc wheel, and wherein significance is attributed to means for disconnecting the clutch to disconnect the gear from the disc or wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 334.2]    334.2By disengagement of escapement pawl(s):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.  Subject matter wherein the regulating mechanism that enables carriage feed includes a pawl* or pawl members that engage with teeth or notches in a carriage-rack*, and wherein significance is attributed to means for disconnecting the pawl or pawls from the carriage-rack to enable temporary unregulated movement of the carriage*.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 334.3]    334.3From carriage-rack:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 334.2.  Subject matter wherein the means for temporarily disconnecting the pawl* or pawl members from the carriage-rack* acts by moving the carriage-rack away from the pawl or pawl members.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 335]    335With particular connection to carriage (e.g., gear train, pulley and strap, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to means for enabling or causing carriage-feed movement, which movement is regulated to occur in regular or equal increments of movement, and which means is not provided for in previous subclasses.
(1) Note. Included herein are such means as gear drive, a pulley and strap connection, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 336]    336Spring-biasing carriage for feed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a yieldable element that urges the carriage* of a typewriter to be moved in a carriage-feed (i.e., character-space*) direction, the movement being regulated by a mechanism previously provided for in this schedule.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 336.1]    336.1Torsion spring in rotatable barrel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter wherein said yieldable element is in the form of an elongated member wound in a plurality of spiral convolutions housed within a hollow drum, one end of the member being fixed to the drum to effect rotation of the drum when the yieldable element is tensioned.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 337]    337Carriage-retarder mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused to be moved in either a character-space* direction or in a direction opposite to said character-space direction, and the movement in either of said directions in controlled to slow or decelerate said movement or to maintain a uniform rate of movement whereby acceleration is controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 338]    338Including governor responsive to speed or momentum:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein said movement of the carriage* is controlled by a regulator that acts as a result of a tendency for the velocity of the carriage to increase, the action of the regulator being to inhibit said tendency.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 338.1]    338.1Using centrifugal force:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 338.  Subject matter wherein the regulator utilized the tendency of a mass that is rotating about an axis to be impelled away from that axis by the rotation, the action of the regulator being to control the velocity of the carriage.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 338.2]    338.2Using inertial force retarder (e.g., flywheel, weight, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 338.  Subject matter wherein the regulator utilizes the tendency of a mass that is in motion to remain in motion or the tendency of a mass that is at rest to remain at rest, the action of the regulator being to control the velocity of the carriage.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 339]    339Using fluid or fluent-material retarder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein said movement of the carriage* is controlled by a regulator that utilizes the movement of a flowable substance as a means to control the velocity of the carriage.
(1) Note. The flowable substance used includes a gas, a liquid, or a fluent material such as sand or small particles in a device sometimes termed a "dashpot" or similar structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 340]    340Using frictional retarder (e.g., strap, disc, drum, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein said movement of the carriage* is controlled by a regulator that utilizes the motion of two surfaces in close contact with each other, and the consequent resistance to such motion due to the close contact, as a means to control the velocity of the carriage.
(1) Note. Among the various structures used as friction retarder or friction brake means are: a drum, a disc, a helically wrapped spring, a strap, etc., any of which cooperate with a surface moving relatively thereto for causing a frictional retarding force to be generated.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 341]    341Carriage-buffer stop or rebound control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 337.  Subject matter wherein significance is attributed to a regulator that is located at the end of travel of a carriage* and controls the stopping of the carriage when the carriage reaches the end of its travel, or inhibits a tendency for the carriage to bounce or retract from its stopping position when it reaches the end of its travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 342]    342Margin-regulator (e.g., adjustable margin-stop) mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 283.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is caused or enabled to be moved in either a character-space* direction or an opposite direction, and wherein significance is attributed to a margin-stop* for controlling the movement of the carriage in either of said directions by stopping the carriage at a preset point, which point is adjustable relative to the typewriter, and which point corresponds to either the left margin* or the right margin of the record-medium* that is being typed on.
(1) Note. In most typewriters the right-hand margin regulator (i.e., of a typewriter that imprints successive character* symbols from left to right) is usually combined with a mechanism to prevent further typing on the print-line*, although the preventing mechanism may be disengaged at the will of the typist to enable imprinting of several additional characters on the same print-line.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

671+,for a lock responsive to the end of a type print-line.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 343]    343With intermediate margin-stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 342.  Subject matter wherein the typewriter is provided with one margin-stop* for the left margin* and another margin-stop for the right margin, and is further provided with a third margin-stop between the one and the other margin-stops.
(1) Note. The third margin-stop is used selectively. That is, for a particular text, the typist may require the temporary use of a margin-stop located at a margin other than the usual left-hand or right-hand margin. The intermediate margin-stop is then used for this temporary purpose.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 344]    344With other typewriter function controlled by margin-stop (e.g., signal, line-space):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 342.  Subject matter wherein said margin-stop* also regulates the action or nonaction of another typewriter function*.
(1) Note. In this subclass the margin-stop causes the ringing of a bell or the actuation of a signal in response to the travel of the carriage* to the end of a print-line* or the margin-stop causes platen*-increment rotation for line-spacing and the end of a carriage* movement to the end of a print-line.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 345]    345Carriage-arrest function (e.g., "overbank"):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 344.  Subject matter wherein the carriage* is moved in a carriage-return direction and the movement in that direction is stopped in a controlled manner to prevent or inhibit shock to the mechanism or rebound from the stopping position.
  
[List of Patents for class 400 subclass 346]    346Print-line locking function:
 T