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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 372]   CLASS 372,COHERENT LIGHT GENERATORS
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

This is a restricted class for coherent light generator systems wherein an assembly of electrical, mechanical, and optical components produces an intense, coherent, directional beam of light by stimulating electronic, ionic, or molecular transitions to lower energy levels.

The generators of this system consists of (a) a medium which may be solid, liquid or gaseous, comprising a system of particles, molecules, or atoms; (b) means including a source of energy for setting the particles, molecules, or atoms into an excited energy state; and (c) means to abstract electromagnetic wave energy produced by the relaxation of the system of particles, molecules, or atoms to a lower energy state. The means to abstract electromagnetic wave energy provides for escape from said substance of substantially coherent electromagnetic radiation in the optical or Quasi-optical wavelength range. In general, the wavelength of the emitted radiation lies in the range from the ultraviolet to the far infrared of the electromagnetic spectrum, corresponding to a wavelength range extending from 100 to 2,000,000 angstroms.

The generators of these systems when combined with other diverse systems or devices will be classified with the diverse system or device.

SECTION II - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

128Surgery,   appropriate subclasses for lasers used in surgery.
204Chemistry: Electrical and Wave Energy,   in particular subclasses 157.41 and 157.61 for the use of lasers in a reaction.
219Electric Heating,   subclass 121.6 for lasers use in electric arc heating.
250Radiant Energy,   subclasses 423+ for lasers used to generate ions; subclasses 281+ for lasers used in ionic separation systems; and subclass 493.1 for other radiant energy generators.
252Compositions,   subclasses 301.16+ , 301.36, and 301.4+ for compositions used as the active medium in lasers; and subclasses 372+ for gas compositions used as the active medium in lasers.
257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 13 , 79 through 103 and 918, for incoherent light emitting injection luminescent devices, and subclasses 80 through 85 for incoherent semiconductor light emitting sources combined with semiconductor light responsive devices. In general, to avoid excessive duplication of the same patents in both Classes 372 and 257, patents with claims reciting coherent light generators (lasers) are not to be cross-referenced in the aforementioned subclasses in Class 257 unless those patents contain disclosure of a light emitting semiconductor device which is NOT a laser or coherent generator.
356Optics: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclasses for lasers used in optical measuring and testing.
359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 27 for holographic systems having a particular laser source; and subclasses 333+ for laser used as amplifiers. Search other subclasses for the lenses, reflectors, etc., used in laser systems.
376Induced Nuclear Reactions: Processes, Systems, and Elements,   subclasses 103 and 122 for lasers used for nuclear fusion; and subclass 326 for the combination of a laser and a nuclear reactor.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 14 for laser in integrated optical circuit.
398Optical Communications,   various subclasses for optical communication systems which may use a laser, subclasses 43 through 103for optical multiplexing communications systems which utilize lasers.
438Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process,   subclasses 22+ for methods of making radiation emissive devices of the semiconductor barrier layer type.
505Superconductor Technology: Apparatus, Material, Process,   subclasses 150+ for high temperature (Tc 30 K) superconducting devices, particularly subclass 180 for laser generators using high temperature superconducting material.
520Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   for pertinent subclass(es) as determined by schedule review.
522Synthetic Resins or Natural Rubbers,   subclass 2 for the use of a laser in preparing or treating a synthetic resin or natural rubber.
708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 191 and 800+ for computations which include electro-optic means.

SECTION III - GLOSSARY

ACOUSTO-OPTIC

The effect, on the properties of a beam of light, by sound energy, interacting with the light within a volume of matter.

ACTIVE MEDIA

The material, in which most of the atoms can be placed in an excited state (i.e., population inversion state), so that an electromagnetic wave of the proper frequency passing through it can stimulate a cascade of photons.

BIREFRINGENT

The property of dividing a ray of light into two polarized rays (known as the ordinary and extraordinary rays), the directions of polarization of the rays being at right angles to each other.

COHERENT LIGHT

A single frequency of light. A light beam in which the electric vector at any point in it is related to that at any other point by a definite, continuous sinusoidal function.

DIFFRACTION

The bending of a light ray in passing the edge formed by contiguous opaque and transparent areas.

ELECTRO-OPTIC

The effect, on the properties of a beam of light, by an electrical field, interacting with the light within a volume of matter.

GLOW DISCHARGE

A type of discharge in which a uniform glow is created through the entire volume of a gaseous active media rather than a channel or spark discharge through a restricted portion of the active media.

INTERFERENCE

The interaction of two light waves which, as a result of their relative phases, produce a cancellation or reinforcement of wave energy.

LASER

A device for generating a very narrow, intense beam of coherent light. The name is derived from the initial letters of "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". In the emission of ordinary light the molecules or atoms of the source emit their radiation independently of each other, and consequently there is no definite phase relationship among the vibrations in the resultant beam. The light is incoherent. The laser, by means of an optical resonator, forces the atoms of the material within the resonator to radiate in phase. The emitted radiation is stimulated by the excitation of atoms to a higher energy level by means of energy supplied to the device.

LIGHT

In this class, light includes not only optical wavelengths, i.e., that part of the spectrum extending from the near infrared, through the visible, to the ultraviolet, but also includes those portions of the spectrum which extends from the near infrared through the long wavelength, far infrared, and from the ultraviolet to X-rays and gamma rays at the shortest wavelengths.

LIGHT, VISIBLE LIGHT

Visible light is radiation which stimulates the optical receptors of the eye, and having a wavelength from 3850 to 7600 Angstrom units. The term light is used to refer to wavelengths in the above-mentioned range and, often, also to refer to the ranges immediately adjacent, i.e., the ultraviolet and infrared ranges which are nonvisible.

MODE

One of several states of electromagnetic wave oscillation that may be sustained in a given resonant system. Each type of vibration is designated as a particular mode, and has its own particular frequency and electric and magnetic field configurations.

OPTICS, OPTICAL

The science of light and vision and the construction of optical instruments.

OPTICAL ELEMENT

A structure which performs a basic optical function, i.e., the structure when exposed to or placed in the path of a group of light rays will cause a deviation of the rays in accordance with a regular pattern, a blocking of the rays, or a modification in the character or properties of the light.

OPTICAL FIBER

A light guidance system that is cylindrical in shape. The fiber relies upon modal transmission to transmit light along its axial length. Light enters one end of the fiber and emerges from the opposite end with only minimal loss.

OPTICAL SYSTEM

A combination of two or more similar or diverse optical elements which are optically related.

REFLECTION

Light striking a surface and returning back into the medium from which it came.

REFRACTION

The deviation of light which results when a ray of light passes obliquely from a medium of one density to a medium of another density.

RESONANT CAVITY

A mode-selecting low-loss optical structure in which the laser action takes place by the build-up of electromagnetic field intensity upon multiple reflection.

SEMICONDUCTOR

An electronic conductor, with resistivity between that of metals and that of insulators, in which the electrical charge carrier concentration increases with increasing temperature over some temperature range. Over most of the practical temperature range, the resistance has a negative temperature coefficient. Certain semiconductors possess two types of carriers, negative electrons and positive holes. The charge carriers are usually electrons, but there may be also some ionic conductivity.

SEMICONDUCTOR LASER

A light-emitting diode that uses stimulated emission to produce a coherent light output.

SPECTRUM

The band of colors produced by separating a beam of white light into its component frequencies.

THIN FILM

A film of optically transparent material, usually deposited by sputtering or evaporation, that may be made in a pattern on a substrate or used as insulation between successive layers of components, and generally on the order of a few wavelengths thick.

THIN FILM WAVEGUIDE

A thin dielectric guide film of high refractive index formed adjacent to a substrate or support region of lower refractive index. The thin film relies upon modal transmission to transmit light along its length. Light enters one end of the thin film where it is processed (e.g., modulated or switched) and emerges from the opposite end.

WAVEGUIDE

A system of material boundaries capable of guiding electromagnetic wave. A transmission line comprising a hollow conducting tube within which electromagnetic waves are propagated on a solid dielectric or dielectric-filled conductor.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 1]    1SUPER RADIANT LASER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein coherent light is generated in an inverted medium without the use of cavity feedback.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 2]    2FREE ELECTRON LASER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein laser action is accomplished by sending a relativistic electron beam through a spatially periodic transverse magnetic field.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

74,for lasers which are pumped by an electron beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 3]    3RAMAN LASER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the coherent light is generated as a direct result of the excitation of stimulated Raman scattering.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 4]    4LONG WAVELENGTH (E.G., FAR INFRARED):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the wavelength of the generated light is generally greater than 10 microns.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 5]    5SHORT WAVELENGTH LASER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the wavelength of the generated light is generally less than 400 nanometers (.4 microns).
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 6]    6OPTICAL FIBER LASER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which the laser is constructed in the form of an optical fiber.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 7]    7THIN FILM LASER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the active media of the laser is in the form of a thin film.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 8]    8LASER LOGIC SYSTEM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter where an optical logic function is performed by a laser system.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclass 191 for digital computations which include electro-optical means.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 9]    9PARTICULAR BEAM CONTROL DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein means is provided for controlling some characteristic or parameter of the output beam, such as its amplitude, frequency, pulse rate, direction, etc., and wherein the control is effected prior to the beam"s actual departure from the resonant cavity of the laser.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

330Amplifiers,   subclass 4.3 for modulation of the laser beam after it departs the resonant cavity.
359Optics: Systems (Including Communication) and Elements,   appropriate subclasses for optical devices such as modulators, beam scanners, etc., which may be used as light control devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 10]    10Q-switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein the beam control device alters the losses of a laser cavity for the purpose of generating giant pulses.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 11]    11Absorption type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the Q-switch is made of a passive material which exhibits an absorptivity that changes with increasing irradiance.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 12]    12Electro-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the beam control device includes a material which exhibits an electro-optic effect and has some means of applying an electric field across that material.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 13]    13Acousto-optic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the beam control device includes a material which exhibits an acousto-optic effect and provides some means for creating an acoustic wave within that material.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 14]    14Mechanical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the beam control device utilizes mechanical means to alter the Q of the cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 15]    15Rotating mirror:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical means is a rotating mirror.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 16]    16Rotating prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 14.  Subject matter wherein the mechanical means is a rotating prism.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 17]    17Plural Q-switches:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 10.  Subject matter wherein the Q-switched laser includes more than one Q-switch, either of the same type or of different types.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 18]    18Mode locking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein means is provided for applying to the laser resonator a time-varying perturbation at or near the frequency which corresponds to the average axial mode spacing of the laser, so as to establish a phase relationship between the oscillatory laser modes, resulting in a laser output in the form of a periodic pulse train whose repetition rate is equal to the frequency of the perturbation.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 19]    19Mode discrimination:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein means is provided for either enhancing or suppressing particular modes of oscillation within the resonant cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 20]    20Tuning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein means is provided for selectively varying the output wavelength of the laser.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 21]    21Nonlinear device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter including an optical device which has an output that does not rise or fall in direct proportion to the input.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 22]    22Frequency multiplying (e.g., harmonic generator):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Subject matter in which the nonlinear device provides an output beam whose frequency is a multiple of the frequency of the input beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 23]    23Producing plural wavelength output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein the output is characterized as having a plurality of discrete wavelengths.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 24]    24Scanning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter including means for providing a directional scan of the output beam as it exits the laser cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 25]    25Control of pulse characteristics:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein means is provided for selection or variation of pulse characteristic, i.e., pulse shape, pulse repetition rate, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 26]    26Modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter wherein means is provided internal of the resonant cavity for modifying some characteristic of the laser output beam so that it varies in step with the instantaneous value of a modulating wave or signal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

330Amplifiers,   subclass 4.3 , subclass 7.51 for laser modulators in which the means modifying the output beam is positioned external of the resonant cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 27]    27Polarization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.  Subject matter wherein the characteristic modified is the polarization of the output beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 28]    28Frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.  Subject matter wherein the characteristic modified is the frequency of the output beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.01]    29.01Having particular beam control circuit component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter comprising a specific electrical component or a group of electrical components that control a light beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.011]    29.011Feedback circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein a fraction of an output signal from the specific electrical component or group of electrical components is returned to input.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.012]    29.012Power supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein the specific electrical component or group of electrical components is a source of power for the coherent light generator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   various subclasses for electrical power supply, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.013]    29.013Having particular electrode structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein an electrical component that (1) emits or collects electrons or ions or (2) controls electron or ion movement by means of an electric field for a beam control device and has specific details.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.014]    29.014Controlling light intensity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein the electrical component or collection of electrical components are specially designed to regulate a magnitude of an optical output.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.015]    29.015Controlling current or voltage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein the electrical component or collection of electrical components are specifically designed to regulate a supply of current or voltage to the coherent light generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.016]    29.016Controlling beam phase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.01.  Subject matter wherein the electrical component or collection of electrical components are specifically designed to regulate angular relationship between current and voltage.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.02]    29.02Optical output stabilization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9.  Subject matter comprising means for maintaining a constant level for a parameter or characteristic of an optical output.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.021]    29.021Power:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02.  Subject matter wherein a parameter of dissipated energy or power is maintained at a constant level.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   various subclasses for electrical power supply, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.022]    29.022Cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02.  Subject matter wherein a resonant cavity is controlled to maintain a constant level of optical output stabilization.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 29.023]    29.023Phase:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02.  Subject matter wherein a parameter or characteristic of phase is controlled to maintain a constant level of optical stabilization.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 30]    30Pulse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02.  Subject matter wherein the output of the laser is pulsed and some parameter characteristic of the pulse is stabilized such as pulse width, pulse repetition rate, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 31]    31Amplitude:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02.  Subject matter wherein the stabilized parameter is the amplitude.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 32]    32Frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.02.  Subject matter wherein the stabilized parameter is the frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 33]    33PARTICULAR OPERATING COMPENSATION MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means to overcome an effect which is deleterious to the operation of the laser.
(1) Note. For example, means for compensating for parasitic oscillation, thermal lensing, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 34]    34PARTICULAR TEMPERATURE CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means for controlling the temperature of the laser or the temperature of its component parts.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 35]    35Liquid coolant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter including a liquid coolant.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 36]    36Heat sink:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 34.  Subject matter including details of a heat sink.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 37]    37HAVING AN APPLIED MAGNETIC FIELD:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including means for applying a magnetic field to some portion of the laser.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.01]    38.01Having feedback circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry returns a fraction of an output signal to an input.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.02]    38.02For driving or controlling laser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry is used to drive or control a laser function of the coherent light generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.03]    38.03Switch (e.g., thyratron, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry is a switch.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   various subclasses for electrical switches, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.04]    38.04Power supply:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry is a source of power for the coherent light generator.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

323Electricity: Power Supply or Regulation Systems,   various subclasses for electrical power supply, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.05]    38.05Electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry contains details of a conducting element that (1) emits or collects electrons or ions or (2) controls the movement of electrons or ions by means of an electric field for the coherent light generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.06]    38.06Optical pumping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry controls flashing means of the coherent light generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.07]    38.07Controlling current or voltage to laser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry regulates the supply of current or voltage to the coherent light generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.08]    38.08Having noise suppression circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry reduces or eliminates undesired signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.09]    38.09Having fault protection circuitry:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 38.1.  Subject matter wherein the particular component circuitry causes the coherent light generator to cease operation or change an operating characteristic in response to a sensed nonstandard operating condition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

361Electricity: Electrical Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1 through 138for safety and protection of electrical devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 38.1]    38.1PARTICULAR COMPONENT CIRCUITRY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter comprising specific circuitry for operating components of the coherent light generator.
(1) Note. This subclass includes pulse forming networks for driving a flash lamp, Q-switch, or modulator.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 39]    39PARTICULAR ACTIVE MEDIA:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the media in which most of the atoms can be placed in an excited state (i.e., population inversion state), so that an electromagnetic wave of the proper frequency passing through the media can stimulate a cascade of photons, is specified.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 40]    40Amorphous (e.g., glass):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter where the solid active media does not have a definite crystalline structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 41]    41Insulating crystal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter where the solid active media is an electrically nonconductive composition of matter having definite crystalline structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 42]    42Utilizing color centers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 41.  Subject matter wherein color centers are formed within the crystal material which consist of displaced electrons that are trapped in regions of positive charge or of a "hole" or region of electron deficiency, which behaves like a "negative electron" or "positive hole", which can be trapped or localized in well-defined sites and which can impart color to the crystal material.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 43.01]    43.01Semiconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter wherein the active media of the coherent light generator or laser is a semiconductor.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 44.01]    44.01Injection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43.01.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor includes a p-n junction which converts forward-bias electrical input directly into coherent optical output power via a process of stimulating emmission in the region near the junction.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 13 , 79 through 103, and 918 for incoherent light emitting injection luminescent devices, and subclasses 80 through 85 for semiconductor light emitting sources combined with semiconductor light responsive devices.
438Semiconductor Device Manufacturing: Process,   subclasses 22+ for methods of making radiation emissive devices of the semiconductor barrier layer type.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 44.011]    44.011Crystal orientation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.01.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor includes a layer that has a predetermined angle with respect to an edge or a facet at which a crystal is sliced.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 45.01]    45.01Particular confinement layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.01.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor includes a layer specifically designed to hold carrier and/or radiation within a boundary.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 45.011]    45.011With strained layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.01.  Subject matter wherein the layer has a lattice constant different from that of the semiconductor substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 45.012]    45.012With superlattice structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.01.  Subject matter wherein the layer consists of a series of alternating epitaxial layers of two types of material, each layer having a thickness below a critical thickness.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

257Active Solid-State Devices (e.g., Transistors, Solid-State Diodes),   subclasses 15+ for Quantum well supperlattice.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 45.013]    45.013With saturable absorption layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 45.01.  Subject matter wherein the layer has an energy bandgap less than that of the semiconductor.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 46.01]    46.01Particular current control structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.01.  Subject matter wherein the p-n junction of the semiconductor is specifically designed to control a current flow in an active region.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 46.011]    46.011Transverse junction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.01.  Subject matter wherein the p.n junction is set across the layer of the active region.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 46.012]    46.012Channeled substrate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.01.  Subject matter wherein the substrate of the semiconductor is cut in grooves.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 46.013]    46.013Having oxidized region:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.01.  Subject matter wherein the particular current control structure includes an area that is oxidized.
(1) Note. An area that is oxidized when it is combined with oxygen or it is changed from a lower to a higher positive valence.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 46.014]    46.014Having air gap region:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.01.  Subject matter wherein the p-n junction structure includes a space between layers.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 46.015]    46.015Having implant region:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.01.  Subject matter wherein the p-n junction structure includes a layer is created by implantation of ions.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 46.016]    46.016Disordered region:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46.01.  Subject matter wherein the p-n junction include layers that are structured in different orders or positions.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 49.01]    49.01Particular coating on facet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.01.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor has a specified layer covered on at least one facet.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.1]    50.1Monolithic integrated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44.01.  Subject matter wherein electrical elements or circuits formed within a semiconductor substrate.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.11]    50.11With diffraction grating (Bragg reflector):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.1.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor includes a series of very fine, closely spaced parallel slits, or of very narrow, parallel reflecting surfaces to produce a succession of spectra when light is incident thereon at a specific angle.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclass 563 for diffraction grating.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclass 10 for electro-optic diffraction grating
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.12]    50.12Laser array:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.1.  Subject matter including a group of many similar, basic, complex, or integrated devices without separate enclosures.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.121]    50.121Multiple wavelength emissive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.12.  Subject matter wherein a light output of the laser array has a plurality of discrete wavelengths.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.122]    50.122Independently addressable
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.12.  Subject matter, wherein the integrated devices of the laser array are separately controlled.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.123]    50.123Phase locked:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.12.  Subject matter, wherein a plurality of active regions of the laser array are sufficiently close to each other that light from each active region is coupled to the light from the adjacent active region.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.124]    50.124With vertical output (surface emission):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.1.  Subject matter wherein a light output of the laser array is perpendicular to a surface of the semiconductor.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.21]    50.21Having photodetection means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.1.  Subject matter including a device for monitoring a light emitted from the semiconductor laser.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.22]    50.22Having an amplifier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.1.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor device includes a device that produces as an output an enlarged reproduction of the essential features of its inputs.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 333+ for optical amplifier.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 50.23]    50.23Having lens:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.1.  Subject matter wherein the semiconductor device includes an optical device made of glass or a piece of transparent material which focuses light to form an image.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 362+ for compound lens system.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 51]    51Liquid:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter wherein the physical state of the active media is a liquid.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 52]    52Chelate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter where the liquid active media is in the form of a solution of a material having a trivalent rare earth bonded to several organic groups or liquids and dissolved in a suitable solvent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

40,for rare-earth chelates dissolved in a solid plastic host material.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 53]    53Dye:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter where the liquid active media is a dye media dissolved in a suitable solvent.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

40,for an active media including a dye dissolved in a solid plastic host material.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 54]    54Particular structural features:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Subject matter including particular structure for containing or transporting the liquid active media through the laser.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 55]    55Gas:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter wherein the active media is in a gaseous form.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 56]    56Metal vapor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the gas is a vaporized metal.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 57]    57Excimer or exciplex:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein the active media is a dimer or hetero nuclear complex, which is bound in the excited state and free or essentially free in the lower state.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 58]    58With means for controlling gas flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter having means for moving gas through an activation area.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 59]    59Gas maintenance (e.g., purification, replenishment, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter including means for maintaining the operational level of the active medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 60]    60Including a specified gas additive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter wherein a gas different from the active medium is added to the active medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 61]    61Discharge tube feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 55.  Subject matter including a discharge tube having a specified feature.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

313Electric Lamp and Discharge Devices,   appropriate subclasses for discharge devices, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 62]    62Segmented:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein the means which confines the discharge is formed of individual segments.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 63]    63Backflow feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter having gas flow means which bypasses the discharge path.
(1) Note. A use of this means is, for example, pressure and equalization.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 64]    64Waveguide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter wherein a waveguide resonator provides the necessary feedback to establish oscillation.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 65]    65Support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Subject matter including particular support means for the discharge tube.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 66]    66Active media with particular shape:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter where the active media has a particular distinguishing shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 67]    67Disc-shaped active media:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 66.  Subject matter where the active media has a cross sectional dimension which is substantially greater than its thickness.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 68]    68Plural active media or active media having plural dopants:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39.  Subject matter where the active media exists as two or more separate and distinct bodies or as a single body doped with ions of two or more different chemical elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 69]    69PARTICULAR PUMPING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which a particular mechanism is set forth for exciting the active media.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 70]    70Pumping with optical or radiant energy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter in which the pumping means excites the active media with optical or radiant energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 71]    71End-pump laser:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the active media is excited by optical or radiant energy directed through an end surface of the active media.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 72]    72Pump cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the pumping means is included within a housing which interacts with the pumping means so as to enhance its operation as, for example, by cooling the pumping means, filtering out undesirable wavelengths, focusing the radiation, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 73]    73High-energy particles:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the pumping means is a nuclear reactor, radioactive material, or other source of high-energy particle radiation capable of exciting the active media.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 74]    74Electron beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 73.  Subject matter in which the high-energy particles take the form of an electron beam.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 75]    75Semiconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the pumping means is a light emitting semiconductor device.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 76]    76Plasma:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the pumping means is an ionized gas of sufficient temperature to radiate electromagnetic energy.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 77]    77Exploding or combustible material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the pumping means is in the form of a material which burns or explodes giving up energy which excites the active media.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 78]    78Heat:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the pumping means is a source of heat, and heat, per se, excites the active media.
(1) Note. Where heat is not the primary form of the exciting energy but merely appears in the spectral range of the radiant energy generated by the pump source, search appropriate subclasses under subclass 70 for the particular energy source.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 79]    79Solar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the ultimate source of the pump energy is the sun.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 80]    80Excited phosphor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 70.  Subject matter in which the pumping means comprises a phosphor excited or energized by any of the various forms of radiations and which, on excitation, will provide a characteristic emission matched to the desired input of the laser.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 81]    81Electrical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter in which the pumping means creates an electrical discharge through the active media which directly excites the active media.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

43+,for electrical excitation of semiconductor lasers.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 82]    82Inductive or capacitive excitation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter in which electrical energy is introduced into the electrical discharge path by means of an inductive or capacitive coupling mechanism.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 83]    83Transversely excited:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter in which the electrical energy creating the electrical discharge is introduced into the active media transverse to the optical axis of the laser.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 84]    84Traveling wave:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 83.  Subject matter in which the electric discharge is obtained through a progressive wave of current being propagated in a gaseous active medium from one end of the discharge channel to the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 85]    85Glow discharge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter in which a uniform glow-type discharge through the entire volume of a gaseous active media is created rather than a channel or spark discharge.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 86]    86Having an auxiliary ionization means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter in which the apparatus includes more than one means for ionizing at least a portion of the active media prior to or at the same time as the electrical discharge which directly excites the active media.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 87]    87Having particular electrode structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 81.  Subject matter in which at least one electrode has particular structure.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 88]    88Hollow electrode:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 87.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the electrodes is hollow.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 89]    89Chemical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter wherein the excitation of the active media results from the direct production of the excited states by a chemical reaction.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 90]    90Gas dynamic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter wherein the necessary conditions for lasing are created solely by a thermal expansion of the laser gas media to supersonic flow speeds.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 91]    91With depopulation of lower states:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 69.  Subject matter wherein the specified pumping means includes means for selectively depumping a lower level to achieve the required population inversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 92]    92PARTICULAR RESONANT CAVITY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including particulars of a mode-selecting low-loss optical structure in which the laser action takes place by the build-up of electromagnetic field intensity upon multiple reflection.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 93]    93Folded cavity:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter wherein the cavity is folded or includes reflective surfaces or other optical structures for bending the optical axis of the resonant cavity.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 94]    94Having a ring configuration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 93.  Subject matter wherein the cavity is in the configuration of a ring or closed loop.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 95]    95Unstable resonator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter in which the resonant cavity is designed so that radiation, upon repeated reflection between the primary and feedback reflection surfaces, will progressively move transversely of the optical axis until it clears an edge of the feedback reflector and escapes from the cavity as output radiation.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 96]    96Distributed feedback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter in which the feedback structure comprising the resonant cavity is distributed through and integrated with the active medium of the laser and is created by substantially time constant, spatially periodic perturbations in the transmission characteristics of the medium along the length thereof, which may take the form of variations in the gain, index of refraction, propagation constant, or other parameter of the medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 97]    97Plural cavities:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter including at least two resonant cavities.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 98]    98Specified cavity component:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter wherein a particular cavity component or particular component within the cavity is specified.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 99]    99Reflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the specified component has a surface which is reflective or partially reflective.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 100]    100Prism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the specified component is a geometric solid figure whose end faces are congruent polygons, and whose sides are parallelograms.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 101]    101Lens or lens system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the specified component is a lens or a system of lenses.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 102]    102Grating:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the specified component has a periodic structure capable of dispersing light in accordance with its wavelength.
(1) Note. For example the periodic structure may consist of alternate opaque and transparent sections, alternate reflecting and nonreflecting sections, or alternate high index of refraction and low index of refraction sections.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 103]    103Window, aperture and mask:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the specified component is an opening for admission of light, or a transparent cover.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 104]    104Aerodynamic window:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Subject matter wherein the window is formed by a window gas driven at a high, jet stream velocity across the laser beam such that the jet streams serve the same function as a solid window.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 105]    105Birefringent material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the specified component includes a material exhibiting birefringent properties.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 106]    106Polarizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Subject matter wherein the specified component is a device which produces polarized rays.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 107]    107Mirror support or alignment structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter including significant details of structure for support or alignment of a mirror.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 108]    108Specified output coupling device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Subject matter including significant details of an output coupling device.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 109]    109MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter not provided for in any of the preceding subclasses of this class.
  

CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS

[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 700]    700Optical delay:
 Subject matter including disclosure of means for optically subjecting coherent light to a time delay.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 701]    701Nozzle:
 Subject matter including disclosure of a nozzle which may be used to influence the flow of an active media in a coherent light generator.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 702]    702Isotope:
 Subject matter which includes disclosure of the interaction of coherent light and isotopes.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 703]    703Optical isolater:
 Subject matter wherein there is disclosure of an optical means for isolating coherent light.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 704]    704Summary reference:
 Subject matter wherein there is a summary statement of coherent light generation means or prior art devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 372 subclass 705]    705Neat thing:
 Subject matter which includes disclosure of an unusual feature or utilization of a coherent light generator.
  

FOREIGN ART COLLECTIONS

The definitions below correspond to abolished subclasses from which these collections were formed. See the Foreign Art Collection schedule of this class for specific correspondences. [Note: The titles and definitions for indented art collections include all the details of the one(s) that are hierarchically superior.]

FOR 100Output stabilization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 9. Foreign art collections including means for stabilizing a parameter or characteristic of the output.
  
FOR 101WITH PARTICULAR COMPONENT CIR:
 This subclass is indented under the class defini. Foreign art collections including particular cir for operating specific components of the generator.
(1) Note. Included are, for example, pulse forming networks for driving the flash lamp, Q-switch or modulator, light detection and feedback for stabilizing frequency amplitude, etc.
  
FOR 102Semiconductor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 39. Foreign art collection wherein the active media is a semiconductor.
  
FOR 103Injection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 43. Foreign art collection wherein the laser is a p.n junction semiconductor device which converts forward-bias electrical input directly into coherent optical output power via a process of stimulated emission in the region near the junction.
  
FOR 104Particular confinement layer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Foreign art collection wherein there is present a layer specifically designed to provide for carrier and/ or radiation confinement.
  
FOR 105Particular current control structure
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Foreign art collection wherein there is a means which is specifically designed to provide for control of the current flow in the area of the active region.
  
FOR 106Transverse junction:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46. Foreign art collection wherein the p.n junction is transverse to the active layer.
  
FOR 107Channeled substrate
 This subclass is indented under subclass 46. Foreign art collection wherein the substrate has a channel in the substrate region adjacent the active region.
  
FOR 108Particular coating on facet:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Foreign art collection having a specified coating on at least one facet.
  
FOR 109Monolithic integrated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 44. Foreign art collection wherein the laser is monolithically integrated with another laser or with other semiconductor devices which form an integral part of the laser.
  

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