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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 370]   CLASS 370,MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATIONS
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

A. This is the generic class for multiplexing or duplexing systems, methods, or apparatus.

(1) Note. Multiplexing includes for example, time division multiplexing (TDM) frequency division multiplexing (FDM), orthogonal and quasiorthogonal multiplexing techniques, phantom connections and plural channel adaptive systems.
(2) Note. Selective or telemetering systems which may be analogous to multiplexing techniques are not classified here but elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)
(3) Note. The distinction between multiplexing and selective or telemetry is: in multiplexing, the information is unrestricted as to content, e.g., a teletype-writer which uses an alphabet to transmit unlimited information, whereas in selective or telemetry devices, the information is restricted as to content, e.g., a transducer measuring a single parameter. B. This class includes elements and circuits forming subcombinations having a utility unique to multiplexing such as rotary distributors used as multiplexers, synchronizers used to control distribution of multiplexed channels, bridge duplex circuits, resonant circuits having a special utility in a frequency division multiplexing system.
(1) Note. Multiplex modulators, per se, are not classified in this class. See classification elsewhere. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

A. Electrical circuits which may be used in multiplexing systems but are not unique to multiplex communications are classified in the appropriate class for such circuits. (See References to Other Classes, below.)

B. Significantly claimed multiplex techniques in combination with the subject matter of Class 178, Telegraphy, Class 375, Pulse or Digital Communications, Class 379, Telephonic Communications, or Class 455 Telecommunications are classified in Class 370, Multiplex Communications.

C Significantly claimed apparatus external to this class, claimed in combination with apparatus under the class definition, which perform multiplexing operations, are classified in the class appropriate to the external device. (see paragraph B above). (See References to Other Classes, below for examples.)

D Nominally claimed apparatus external to this class in combination with apparatus under the class definition, is classified in this class unless provided for in the appropriate external class. For example, a nominally recited coupled network which includes significant multiplexing operations is classified herein.

E. Multiplexing systems and related devices found in other classes, for which see below

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

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73Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for significantly claimed apparatus external to this class (370) which perform multiplexing operations.
246Railway Switches and Signals,   appropriate subclass for multiplexed railway signalling information.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclass 562 for multiplexed data-transmission links utilized in a servo systems.
324Electricity: Measuring and Testing,   appropriate subclass for significantly claimed apparatus external to this class (370) which perform multiplexing operations.
327Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 407+ and 415+ for converging and diverging signal switched paths, respectively.
329Demodulators,   subclasses 300+ for frequency shift keying demodulator; subclasses 304+ for phase shift keying demodulator; subclasses 311+ for pulse demodulator; subclasses 315+ for frequency modulation demodulator; subclasses 345+ for phase modulation demodulator; and subclasses 347+ for amplitude modulation demodulator.
332Modulators,   subclasses 100+ for frequency shift keying modulator; subclasses 103+ for phase shift keying modulator; subclasses 117+ for frequency modulator; and subclasses 149+ for amplitude modulator.
332Modulators,   subclasses 106+ for multiplex pulse modulation, subclasses 119+ for multiplex frequency modulation, subclasses 144+ for multiplex phase modulation, and subclasses 151+ for multiplex amplitude modulation.
333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 1 for plural transmission lines or networks; subclass 4 for balanced transmission lines; subclass 117 for hybrid-type networks; and subclasses 165 through 167 for wave filters.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 1.1 through 16.1for selective systems analogous to multiplexing systems (including foreign art collection FOR 107 for a selective loop system), subclass 853.1 for geophysical systems which may include multiplexing means, and subclasses 870.11-870.15 for telemetering which may include multiplexing means.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclass 141 for multiplex in analog to or from digital conversion.
342Communications: Directive Radio Wave System and Devices (e.g., Radar, Radio Navigation),   subclasses 1 through 25for radar systems which may include multiplexing systems.
345Computer Graphics Processing and Selective Visual Display Systems,   appropriate subclasses for display communications which may include multiplexing means.
348Television,   appropriate subclasses for television signal transmission which may use multiplexing techniques.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclass 425 for multiplex facsimile information.
360Dynamic Magnetic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclasses 18+ for multiplex magnetic information.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclass 189.011 and 230.01+, for a static memory system with the handling of signal information or the addressing of memory locations respectively analogous to multiplexing techniques particularly subclasses 189.02 and 230.02 for such a system having multiplexed signals in each of the respective systems.
369Dynamic Information Storage or Retrieval,   subclass 102 for plural information signals multiplexed on an optical storage track..
380Cryptography,   subclasses 255 through 276for a communication system using cryptography.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1+ for stereo, especially subclasses 2+ for broadcast and multiplex stereo.
385Optical Waveguides,   subclasses 1+ , 4+, or 16+ for optical waveguides with modulation or switching.
398Optical Communications,   subclasses 41 through 42for duplex optical communication and subclasses 43-103 for multiplex optical communication.
702Data Processing: Measuring, Calibrating, or Testing,   Class appropriate subclasses for significantly claimed apparatus external to this class (370) which perform multiplexing operations.
709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multiple Computer or Process Coordinating,   appropriate subclassesfor general purpose programmable computers which may include multiplexing techniques wherein data is transferred between the computers and processing of the data by the computers occurs before or after the data transfer operation.
710Electrical Computers and Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output,   subclass 316 for data processing intra-system connection which may use a bus switch.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclass 3 or replacement with spare devices, subclasses 4.1 through 4.5 for reconfiguring transmission facility, and subclasses 712-717 for transmission facility testing.
725Interactive Video Distribution Systems,   appropriate subclasses for video signal transmission which may use multiplexing techniques.

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

BANDWIDTH

The width of a communications channel.

LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN)

A relatively short distance data communication network linking computers and other devices utilizing some type of standard control.

MULTIPLEXING

The simultaneous transmission of two or more information signals in either or both directions over a common (same) transmission medium in such a manner that the information signals may be discretely recovered.

PROTOCOL

A specific set of rules about data format and data transmission timing between two devices.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 200]    200PHANTOM:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein an additional channel is derived from two suitable arranged pairs of wires called side channels, and each pair of wires is a channel itself and at the same time acts as one conductor of the phantom channel.
(1) Note. The phantom channel is added by differentially modulating the longitudinal, common mode signals of each wire channel at one end of both wire channels and by detecting the difference at the other end of said wire channels. Signals from the phantom channel thus are canceled from the output of the individual wire channels, but appear as the difference between values of common mode currents carried by the wire channels.

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178Telegraphy,   subclass 45 for a phantom connection on a loaded circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 201]    201CROSSTALK SUPPRESSION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including special arrangements to eliminate interference among multiplexed channels.

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278,and 282+, for a transmit/receive interaction control in a duplex system.

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178Telegraphy,   subclasses 69+ for circuit maintenance.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 417 for telephone cross talk suppression, in general.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 13 , 47, 71.1+, 83, 93, and 94.1+ for noise and feedback suppression in a one-way audio signal transmission system.
455Telecommunications,   subclass 24 , 63.1-65, 135, 222-224, 278.1, 283-288, 296-312, and subclasses 501-506 for noise suppression in a radio system in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 202]    202AMPLITUDE COMPRESSION OR EXPANSION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein magnitude or a signal is reduced prior to transmission and a corresponding magnitude restoration is performed at reception.

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477,for a multiplex system using bandwidth conservation technique.
521,for a multiplex system with time compression or expansion.

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333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 14 for a companding device.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   appropriate subclasses for a code converter which may include bandwidth reduction.
348Television,   subclasses 384.1 through 440.1for bandwidth reduction relating to analog television signal processing.
358Facsimile and Static Presentation Processing,   subclasses 426.01 through 426.16for bandwidth reduction relating to video processing.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 240.01 through 240.29for digital television bandwidth compression system.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 29+ for audio bandwidth compression or expansion.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 203]    203GENERALIZED ORTHOGONAL OR SPECIAL MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein (a) a multiplexed channel is uniquely identified and separated from other multiplexed channels by members of a pair of mathematical functions having a sum of products or having an integral that is zero or sometimes one under specified conditions, or (b) particular mathematical processes are used to achieve multiplexing techniques.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include TDM or FDM techniques.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 400+ for orthogonal transformations.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 204]    204Plural diverse modulation techniques:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter wherein a wave carrier of information is being modified by more than one modulation technique.

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478,for a system employing both time division and frequency division multiplex.

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332Modulators,   subclass 108 for multiplex pulse modulation, per se; subclasses 119+ for multiplex frequency modulation, per se; subclasses 144+ for multiplex phase modulation, per se; and subclasses 151+ for multiplex amplitude modulation, per se.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   appropriate subclass for nonmultiplexed pulse or digital modulation in combination with analog modulation.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems, and Devices,   subclasses 2+ for broadcast or multiplex stereo systems using plural diverse types of modulation.
455Telecommunications,   subclass 102 for plural modulations of nonmultiplexed analog signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 205]    205Pulse width and pulse position modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Subject matter wherein information is contained in the time duration of a pulse (pulse width) and in the time of occurrence (pulse position) of one pulse after a reference pulse.

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332Modulators,   subclass 108 for multiplex pulse modulation, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 206]    206Quadrature carriers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter wherein two carrier frequencies are 90 degrees in phase (i.e., quadrature or orthogonal in phase), e.g., sin2 wt and cos2 wt.

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 235 for equalizing of digital quadrature channels.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 19+ for quadrasonic stereo channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 207]    207Having a signaling constellation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Subject matter wherein supervisory information is transmitted or received in a symbol pattern different from the symbol pattern carrying the primary information, and wherein the symbol patterns are generated using quadrature modulation technique (e.g., QAM, QPSK, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 208]    208Particular set of orthogonal functions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter wherein a special set of orthogonal functions are used to achieve multiplexed transmission (e.g., Legendre polynomials, Bessel functions).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 209]    209Walsh functions:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 208.  Subject matter wherein the set of orthogonal functions consist of Walsh functions.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclass 410 for a Walsh transformation using an electric digital calculating computer in a nonmultiplex communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 210]    210Fourier transform:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter utilizing a special mathematical relationship that provides a connection between information in the frequency domain and the time domain.

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708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 403+ for a Fourier transform using an electric digital calculating computer in a nonmultiplex communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 211]    211Level multiplex:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 203.  Subject matter wherein two or more information signals, each of the signals having a unique amplitude or level, are combined to form a combined signal wherein the individual information signals are separable by amplitude or level.

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 286+ for a pulse waveform with two or more discrete amplitude levels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 212]    212PULSE WIDTH (PULSE DURATION) MODULATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein information is contained in the time duration of a pulse.

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213,for pulse position modulation.

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332Modulators,   subclasses 109+ for a multiplex pulse width modulator, per se.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 238 for nonmultiplex pulse width modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 213]    213PULSE POSITION MODULATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein information is contained in the time of occurrence of a pulse after a reference pulse.

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212,for pulse width modulation.

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332Modulators,   subclasses 112+ for a multiplex pulse position modulator, per se.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 239 for nonmultiplex pulse position modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 214]    214SIMULTANEOUS TELEGRAPHY AND TELEPHONY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including concurrent transmission of bidirectional pulse information signal and audio signal over a single transmission channel.

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379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 108.01+ for alternative transmission of a telegraph or telephone signal over a single channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 215]    215PHASE MODULATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein information is contained in a shift in phase of a carrier frequency with respect to a reference phase.

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332Modulators,   subclasses 144+ for a multiplex phase modulator, per se.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 110+ for angle modulation of transmitting signals; and subclasses 205+ for phase modulation of receiving signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 216]    216FAULT RECOVERY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a corrective action is taken to return a faulty device or system to a satisfactory operating condition.
(1) Note. Data flow congestion is not considered to be a fault.

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229+,for data flow congestion prevention or congestion control in a multiplex system.
241+,for the diagnostic testing of a normal or abnormal operation of a multiplex communication element or system without any necessary corrective action.

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714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclasses 2+ for fault recovery of generic information processing system which is not limited to multiplex communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 217]    217Bypass an inoperative switch or inoperative element of a switching system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.  Subject matter including a switching system or network which has a provision for alternate routing when the system is fault.

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244,for fault detection of a switching system.
250+,for testing of a standard operation of a switching system.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 3.43 and 3.44 for selective communication monitoring in a faulty condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 218]    218Packet switching system or element:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter wherein information routed in the switching system is organized by one or more bytes preceded by an address header.

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389,for packet switching, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 219]    219Standby switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 218.  Subject matter wherein the provision for alternate routing of packet switched traffics is a spare or backup switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 220]    220Standby switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 217.  Subject matter wherein the provision for alternated routing in the switching system is a spare or backup switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 221]    221Bypass an inoperative station:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.  Subject matter wherein a faulty node or terminal is excluded from service.

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714Error Detection/Correction And Fault Detection/Recovery,   appropriate subclasses for fault detection and recovery of a digital data system which is generic and not limited to multiplex communications, particularly subclasses 3+ for reconfiguration of a system to provide correction in response to a fault.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 222]    222In a ring or loop network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Subject matter wherein the inoperative station is an element in a closed path transmission system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 223]    223Using a secondary ring or loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 222.  Subject matter wherein the inoperative station is bypassed by using an auxiliary closed transmission loop.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 224]    224Loopback of signals on the secondary ring or loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 223.  Subject matter wherein information on the secondary loop is transmitted in reverse direction with the normal transmission loop.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 225]    225Bypass an inoperative channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 216.  Subject matter wherein another path or channel is selected and substituted for a path or channel that is malfunctioning.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 226]    226In a repeater system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Subject matter wherein the communication system has at least one retransmission station wherein an alternate communication channel is provided to convey information when a primary channel or link is failed.

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242,for fault detection of a repeater system.
246+,for testing of a standard operation of a repeater.
274,for a quadruplex repeater.
279,and 293, for a duplex repeater.
315+,for a repeater in communication over free space.
492,for repeating information via a frequency channel.
501+,for repeating information via a time channel.

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379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 4 for nonmultiplex telephone alternate routing around a faulty repeater.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 227]    227Using a spare channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.  Subject matter wherein the multiplex repeater system has a primary and a backup or protection line, and the backup line is activated to route information data when the primary channel is malfunctioning.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 228]    228Spare channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Subject matter wherein the multiplex system has a primary and a backup line, and the backup is activated to routed information data when the primary channel is malfunctioning.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclass 2.9 for selective communications with a spare channel.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclasses 4.1 through 4.5for replacement with spare transmission facility or channel which is not a multiplex communication system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 229]    229DATA FLOW CONGESTION PREVENTION OR CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including provisions for (a) avoiding or (b) regulating an actual or potential traffic overload condition.

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241+,for the diagnostic testing of a multiplex communication element or system without any necessary action for regulating the traffic overload condition.

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704Data Processing: Speech Signal Processing, Linguistics, Language Translation, And Audio Compression/Decompression,   subclass 270.1 for speech assisted network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 230]    230Control of data admission to the network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 229.  Subject matter having means for regulating the amount of data entering a multiplex network so as to prevent an overloading or a further overloading of the network.

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235,for regulating the flow of data between switches or nodes in a network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 230.1]    230.1Traffic shaping:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein the data admission control provides consistent packet/cell flow.
(1) Note. Consistent cell flow may be achieved by varying delay.

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395.1through 395.72 for generic message transmission using fixed length packets, and 395.4-395.43 for scheduling in generic message transmission using fixed length packets.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 231]    231End-to-end flow control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein a signaling between an originating terminal point and a destination terminal point regulates the amount of information transmitted into the network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 232]    232Based on data flow rate measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Subject matter wherein the control of data flow overload is based on a measurement of the amount of information transmitted per unit time.

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252+,for determination of communication parameters which may includes a measurement of data flow rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 233]    233Measurement of the peak data flow rate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Subject matter wherein the control of data flow overload is based on a measurement of a maximum value of data flow rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 234]    234Measurement of the average data flow rate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 232.  Subject matter wherein the control of data flow overload is based on a measurement of a medial value of the data flow rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 235]    235Flow control of data transmission through a network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 229.  Subject matter having means to regulate the amount of information transmitted through the network once the data is in the network.

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230+,for regulation the flow of data at a network entry point.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 235.1]    235.1Using leaky bucket technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Subject matter wherein network flow control is achieved by a technique which utilizes packet storage having scheduled output therefrom at a uniform rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 236]    236Including signaling between network elements:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Subject matter wherein supervisory or control information is transmitted between switches or nodes to control data flow between switches or nodes.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 236.1]    236.1Using RM (Resource Management) cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein fixed length packets which indicate current network bandwidth (e.g., cell rate) and congestion conditions are fed back to a network source.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 236.2]    236.2Using OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance) cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Subject matter wherein performance monitoring cells related to congestion are distributed to network elements.

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241.1,for diagnostic testing using OAM cells.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 237]    237Congestion based rerouting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Subject matter wherein data is communicated on an alternate channel when a preferred or desired channel is unavailable due to excessive amounts of information already being carried on the preferred or desired channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 238]    238Least cost or minimum delay routing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 235.  Subject matter wherein data is communicated on a channel or channels based upon the determination that the selected channel or channels will have the lowest (a) toll, expense, or (b) delay.

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455Telecommunications,   subclass 445 for radiotelephone least cost call routing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 238.1]    238.1ATM least cost routing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 238.  Subject matter wherein data is communicated in a network utilizing fixed length asynchronous transfer mode packets (i.e., ATM cells) based upon a determination that a selected channel or channels will have the lowest toll or expense.

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395.1through 395.72, for message transmittal using fixed length ATM packets in general.

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455Telecommunications,   subclass 445 for cellular radiotelephone least cost routing.
709Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Multiple Computer or Process Coordinating,   subclass 241 for computer-to-computer least weight routing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 239]    239Using antijabber circuit:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 229.  Subject matter having circuitry for disabling a device which is transmitting more information than allocated or transmitting for a greater period of time than allocated.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 240]    240In a star coupler:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 239.  Subject matter wherein the antijabber circuit is in a coupling means that distributes signals from one or more inputs among a larger number of outputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 241]    241DIAGNOSTIC TESTING (OTHER THAN SYNCHRONIZATION):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein at least part of a multiplex system is to be evaluated for its performance.
(1) Note. This subclass may include a sole monitoring operation, i.e., a terminal which displays or indicates the operating state of the multiplex communication system or element.
(2) Note. Testing for the purpose of synchronization in the multiplex communication via time channels is not classified in this subclass.

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216+,for fault recovery in a multiplex system.
229+,for preventing or controlling an overload condition in a multiplex system.
503+,for monitoring of synchronization which may include testing for the purpose of synchronization.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 500+ for a generic conditional responsive alarm system.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 224 for testing of a digital communication system.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 1.01 through 35,for testing of a telephone system.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclasses 25+ for diagnostic testing of a generic information processing system organization which is not limited to multiplex communication, and subclasses 712+ for generic transmission facility testing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 241.1]    241.1Using OAM (Operation, Administration and Maintenance) cells:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter which utilizes performance monitoring cells to perform diagnostic testing.
(1) Note. Performance monitoring may generate a subsequent alarm.
(2) Note. Diagnostic testing may detect loss of signals, frames, or pointers, or failure of equipment.

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236.2,for data flow congestion prevention or control using OAM cells.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 242]    242Fault detection:
 Subject matter under subclasses 241 wherein the multiplex communication system is tested for any nonstandard operating condition.

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216+,for multiplex communication systems which take corrective actions in response to the detection of a fault.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 243]    243Of a repeater system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein a retransmission station in the multiplex system is tested for any nonstandard operating condition.

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226,for fault recovery by alternate routing in a repeater system.
246+,for testing of a standard operation of a repeater.
274,for a quadruplex repeater.
293,for a duplex repeater.
315+,for a repeater in communications over free space.
492,for a repeater communicating information by combining or distributing via frequency channels.
501+,for a repeater communicating information by combining or distributing via time channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 244]    244Of a switching system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein a multiplex switching system is tested for any nonstandard operating condition.

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217+,for fault recovery by bypassing a faulty switch.
250+,for testing of a standard operation of a switching system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 245]    245Of a local area network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 242.  Subject matter wherein a communication network over a limited geos:graphical area is tested for any nonstandard operating condition.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 246]    246Of a repeater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter including the testing of a standard operation of a multiplex signal retransmission station.
(1) Note. The repeater is often a duplex or a bidirectional repeater.

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226,for fault recovery by alternate routing in a repeater system.
243,for fault detection of a repeater system.
274,for a quadruplex repeater.
293,for a duplex repeater.
315+,for a repeater in communications over free space.
492,for a repeater communicating information by combining or distributing via frequency channels.
501+,for a repeater communicating information by combining or distributing via time channels.

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 213 for testing of a digital repeater.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 4 for testing of a bidirectional telephone repeater.
714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclass 713 for generic testing of a communication channel including a repeater.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 247]    247Having a dedicated test line or channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 246.  Subject matter wherein a specified transmission link or channel is committed for the testing of a repeater system.

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251,for testing of a switching system with dedicated test line or channel.
438+,for channel assignment using a separate control line or bus for access control.
524,for communication via time channels using a dedicated signaling channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 248]    248Path check:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein a link through a multiplex system or a connection established through a multiplex switching network is monitored for circuit continuity.

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351+,for locating a path through a multiplex switching system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 249]    249Loopback:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein an equipment is tested by connecting a received path to a transmitted path and monitoring the output as an indication of the condition of the equipment.
(1) Note. Included are arrangements providing loopback within a single terminal.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 250]    250Of a switching system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter including an evaluation of a multiplex switching system.

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217+,for bypassing a faulty switch.
244,for fault detection of a switching system.
360+,for controlling the switching of signals through a circuit switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 251]    251Having dedicated test line or channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Subject matter wherein a specified transmission link or channel is committed for the testing of a switching system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 252]    252Determination of communication parameters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 241.  Subject matter wherein a particular communication parameter is measured (e.g., traffic noise ratio, freeze out ratio, etc.).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 253]    253Measurement of flow rate of messages having an address header:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 252.  Subject matter wherein the communication parameter is the amount of information transmitted per unit time over a network, and wherein information signal is represented by one or a group of bytes preceded by identification information indicative of a source or destination station.

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232+,for measurement of data flow rate to control the admission of data to the multiplex network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 254]    254NETWORK CONFIGURATION DETERMINATION:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including apparatus or techniques for determining what or how network elements are interconnected.

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351+,for pathfinding or routing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 255]    255Using a particular learning algorithm or technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter wherein the network uses a set of rules for solving a problem (configuration determination) in a well defined number of steps and also has an ability to create or adjust its own set of such rules.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 256]    256Spanning tree:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 255.  Subject matter wherein one node from a plurality of nodes in the network is selected as a root or base node with branches interconnecting other nodes to the root node, and wherein the network configuration is determined by the relationship between the branch nodes and the root node.

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408,for packet routing in a switching network having nodes interconnected in a hierarchy to form a tree.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 257]    257In a bus system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 254.  Subject matter involving the configuration determination in a network having a common transmission line (bus) forming a communication path between a plurality of the user"s terminals with the network.
(1) Note. Terminal address determination is properly classified in this subclass.

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457,for initialization of a token passing communication system (i.e., IEEE 802.4).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 258]    258In a ring system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 257.  Subject matter including the configuration determination in a bus network having a closed transmission path.

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453,for initialization of a token passing loop or ring communication system (i.e., IEEE 802.5).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 259]    259SPECIAL SERVICES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including provisions for subscriber services normally provided with additional fees in a multiplex communication network.
(1) Note. Examples of the special services are conferencing, repertory dialing, call forwarding or transfer, paging, and call waiting, etc.

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348Television,   subclasses 14.01 through 14.16for interactive videophone which may include multiplex communication.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 201.01 through 218.01for special services in a telephone system which are not limited to a multiplex communication system
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 260]    260Conferencing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Subject matter which enables three or more terminals to be included in a single call connection.

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348Television,   subclasses 14.08 through 14.1for video conferencing.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 202.01 through 206.01for telephonic conferencing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 261]    261Technique for setting up a conference call:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 260.  Subject matter including details of a process or procedure for connecting conferees.
(1) Note. This subclass includes supervision or control in connecting a call.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 262]    262Operator setup of the conference:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Subject matter wherein an operator assists in connecting conferees.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 263]    263Conferee signals combined or distributed via time channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 260.  Subject matter wherein conferee signals are assembled or separated via different time periods.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 264]    264Using plural diverse channel communications with a dedicated signaling channel (i.e., ISDN):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter including a digital communication network which simultaneously provides diverse data services including voice, data, or video, the network typically provides the user or subscriber access to information bearing channels and an indicating channel (i.e., 2 B-Channels + 1 D-Channel).
(1) Note. ISDN is an abbreviation of Integrated System Digital Network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 265]    265Particular technique for combining diverse information types:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter including specific details of techniques for combining voice with nonvoice data signals for transmission in the conference communication.
(1) Note. The nonvoice data signals may be related or unrelated to the voice signal
(2) Note. This subclass may include nominal video signal and significant multiplexing technique.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 266]    266Using summation of conferee signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 263.  Subject matter including a technique for adding conferee signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 267]    267Digital summation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter including a technique for adding discrete type conferee signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 268]    268Including cancellation of certain signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 267.  Subject matter wherein the digital summation is combined with a subtraction of certain signals (e.g., canceling one of the conferee signals).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 269]    269Including cancellation of certain signals:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Subject matter wherein the summation is combined with a subtraction of certain signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 270]    270Distribution of signals to multiple agent stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Subject matter having a central controller which receives incoming signals and distributes signals to operators at more than one station in the system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 271]    271Special feature of multiplex telephone terminal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 259.  Subject matter including structural details of a telephone used to provide special services to a subscriber in the multiplex communications.

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379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 157 through 158and 201.01-218.01 which may have special service telephone terminals without dealing with multiplex communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 272]    272SEXTUPLEX:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for the simultaneous transmission of six messages, three in each direction over the same transmission medium.

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273+,for a quaduplex system.
276,for a duplex system.
297,for a diplex system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 273]    273QUADRUPLEX:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for the simultaneous transmission of four messages, two in each direction over the same transmission medium.

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272,for a sextuplex system.
276,for a duplex system.
297,for a diplex system.

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178Telegraphy,   subclass 66.1 for simplex transmission with pulsating currents.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 274]    274Repeater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter in which a retransmission station is adapted to quadruplex work.

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279,and 293, for a radio and a wire duplex repeater, respectively.
315+,for a repeater used in communication over free space.
492,for a repeater used in multiplex communications over frequency channels.
501,for a repeater used in multiplex communications over time channels.

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178Telegraphy,   subclasses 70+ for a repeating system other than quadruplex repeater.
330Amplifiers,   appropriate subclasses, particularly subclass 61 for amplifier (one-way repeater).
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 211+ for a pulse or digital repeater communication system.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 338+ for a two way repeater, specific to telephony and acting usually through varying current and contact pressure rather than by current interruptions.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 7+ for analog repeater communication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 275]    275Duplex diplex:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 273.  Subject matter wherein quadruplexing is achieved by diplexing two duplex systems or by duplexing two diplex systems.

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276,for a duplex system.
297,for a diplex system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 276]    276DUPLEX:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for effectively transmitting messages simultaneously, one in each direction, over the same transmission medium.
(1) Note. Circuits convertible to full duplex operation are also classified here.
(2) Note. Full duplex describes two data paths which allow simultaneous data transmission in both directions. Half duplex describes one data path which allows data transmission in either of two directions, but only one direction at a time.

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272,for a sextuplex system.
273+,for a quadruplex system.
275,for a duplex diplex system.
296,for a circuit convertible to half duplex.
297,for a diplex system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 277]    277Communication over free space:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein multiplex communication signals are transmitted over a medium which is not a wire or a waveguide.
(1) Note. A waveguide may be used in this communication system for other purpose (e.g., for coupling).

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   appropriate subclasses for digital communications not limited to multiplex communications.
398Optical Communications,   subclasses 41 through 42for duplex optical communication and subclasses 43-103 for multiplex optical communication.
455Telecommunications,   appropriate subclasses for nonmultiplex radio communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 278]    278Transmit/receive interaction control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter having means at a station to reduce, neutralize, or prevent transfer of an unwanted communication energy between a transmitter and a receiver so that the transmitted communication energy (e.g., carrier or message signal) does not adversely affect the receiver, or so that the received communication energy does not adversely affect the transmitter.
(1) Note. Means may be provided to feed a portion of the transmission energy to the receiver, or a portion of the received energy to the transmitter for monitoring or cancellation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 279]    279Duplex repeaters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter including circuitry for compensating attenuation losses of duplex signals or for increasing the communication range for extension terminal equipment at either end of a duplex transmission line.

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178Telegraphy,   subclasses 70+ for a telegraphic nonmultiplex repeater.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 7+ for a nonmultiplex telecommunication repeater system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 280]    280Time division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter wherein duplex transmission and reception signals access a transmission medium in separate time intervals at such a rate as to give the appearance of a simultaneous transmission and reception.

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345+,for a wireless multiplex communications via time channels not limited to a duplex system.

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455Telecommunications,   subclass 73 for a push-to-talk transceiver.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 281]    281Frequency division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 277.  Subject matter wherein simultaneous transmission and reception between communicating stations occur in separate portions of the frequency spectrum of the transmission medium.
(1) Note. Classification here requires more than merely two stations in communication on different frequencies. Full duplex operation (i.e., simultaneous transmission and reception by each station) is required.

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343+,for wireless multiplex communications via frequency channels not limited to a duplex system.

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455Telecommunications,   subclass 23 for a nonmultiplex frequency carrier wave repeater system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 282]    282Transmit/receive interaction control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter having means at a station to reduce, neutralize, or prevent transfer of an unwanted communication energy between a transmitter and a receiver so that the transmitted communication energy (e.g., carrier or message signal) does not adversely affect the receiver, or so that the received communication energy does not adversely affect the transmitter.
(1) Note. Means may be provided to feed a portion of the transmission energy to the receiver, or a portion of the received energy to the transmitter for monitoring or cancellation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 283]    283Artificial line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Subject matter in which an electrical equivalent of a transmission line is used to balance out an effect of local transmission current on a local receiving device so the local receiving device responds only to signals from the remote transmitter.

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333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 4+ for plural channel systems with balance circuits and subclass 23 for an artificial line in a wave transmission lines or network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 284]    284Differential:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Subject matter wherein a signal is subtracted from a composite to achieve separation of transmitted and received signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 285]    285Bridge:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Subject matter wherein the duplex system comprises a circuit type wheatstone-bridge in which substantial neutrality of a receiving apparatus to transmitted currents is obtained by impedance balance.

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333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclass 117 for a hybrid circuit, per se.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclass 345 for a hybrid circuit used with a telephone repeater and subclasses 402+ for hybrid circuit used in telephone line interfacing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 286]    286Echo suppression or cancellation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Subject matter having means to reduce undesirable effects caused by reflected communication signals.

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379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 406+ for this subject matter in a nonmultiplexed telephone circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 287]    287Disabling or inhibiting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein the echo cancellation or suppression is performed by blocking a certain signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 288]    288Using an attenuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein a device is used to reduce the magnitude of the reflected communication signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 289]    289Having residual echo cancellation or suppression:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein an apparatus is provided to cancel or suppress the echo remaining after the main echo has been suppressed.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 290]    290Using a particular adaptive filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter having a filtering apparatus which adapts itself to the varying echo signal to suppress or cancel the echo in the main or primary signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 291]    291Using a transversal filter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 290.  Subject matter wherein the filtering apparatus is consists of one or more tapped delay lines with a summing or weighing circuit.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 292]    292Using a training sequence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Subject matter wherein a particular information signal is communicated to teach an echo canceler or suppressor how to cancel or suppress an echo.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 293]    293Duplex repeaters or extenders:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter including circuitry for compensating for attenuation losses of duplex signals or for increasing the communication range for extension terminal equipment at either end of a duplex transmission line.

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178Telegraphy,   subclasses 70+ for a telegraphic nonmultiplex repeater.
330Amplifiers,   for an amplifier which may be used as a repeater.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 338+ for a telephonic nonmultiplex repeater.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 7+ for a nonmultiplex telecommunication repeater system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 294]    294Time division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein duplex transmission and reception signals access a transmission medium in separate time intervals at such a rate as to give the appearance of a simultaneous transmission and reception.

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498+,for combining or distributing information via time channels not limited to a duplex system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 295]    295Frequency division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein simultaneous transmission and reception between communicating stations occur in separate portions of the frequency spectrum of the transmission medium.
(1) Note. Classification here requires more than merely two stations in communication on different frequencies. "Full duplex operation" (i.e., simultaneous transmission and reception by each station) is required.
(2) Note. FDM duplex systems (i.e., FDM signals simultaneously transmitted and received) are classified here.

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480+,for combining or distributing information via frequency channels not limited to a duplex system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 296]    296Convertible to half duplex:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 276.  Subject matter wherein the transmission and reception of signals occur alternately rather than substantially simultaneously, but where the circuitry is convertible to full duplex operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 297]    297DIPLEX:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter for the simultaneous transmission of two messages in the same direction over the same transmission medium.
(1) Note. This subclass is the home for diplex telegraphy.

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275,for combination of duplex and diplex means in a quadruplex system.
276+,for a duplex system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 298]    298LOW SPEED ASYNCHRONOUS DATA SYSTEM (E.G., TELETYPEWRITER SERVICE):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein the multiplex feature is unique to a system in which data flow is normally slow and data is not recurring at exactly the same periods.
(1) Note. Examples of such systems are teletypewriter and telegraphy.
(2) Note. A signal transmission speed lower than 300 symbols per second may be considered a low speed transmission in the scope of this class.

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178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclass for nonmultiplex asynchronous data systems including a teletypewriter.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 299]    299Data switching exchange:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter including switching of input lines to selected output lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 300]    300Data assembly or formatting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter in which data bytes are grouped or regrouped in particular orders, (e.g., formatting by removal of start or stop bits).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 301]    301Transmitting time of transition and logic state:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter in which a representation of the time elapsed between a previous scan and a data transition from one logic state to another is transmitted along with information about the logic value of the data either before or after the transition.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 302]    302Channels separated in frequency:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter wherein channels of a low speed asynchronous data system are tuned to respective separate frequencies.

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295,for a frequency division duplex system.
343+,for combining or distributing information via frequency channels in communication over free space.
480+,for combining or distributing information via frequency channels not limited to carrying low speed asynchronous data.

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334Tuners,   appropriate subclasses for a tuner, per se, that is adjustable to a particular frequency by adjusting the inductance or capacitance of the tuned circuit.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 150.1+ for radio receiver signal selection based on frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 303]    303Rotary distributor:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 298.  Subject matter having a signal supply means which rotates for successively connecting lines, stations, instruments (e.g., a sunflower), or having switches which are selectively controlled by a code selection mechanism (e.g., keyboard).

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178Telegraphy,   appropriate subclasses for rotary distributor.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 304]    304Synchronizer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 303.  Subject matter having rotary distributors with means for controlling the relationship in phase, frequency, or speed between them.

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503+,for a generic multiplex synchronizing device.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclass 395 for a system for synchronizing the rotary motion of a plurality of shafts where adjustable gearing is utilized to control the rotation of at least one of the shafts.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 82 , 83, and 87 for an electrical system having a plurality of supply circuits or sources of supply with means for controlling the connection or disconnection of the supply circuits or sources by means responsive to the frequency and/or phase relationship between the circuits or sources (the control may involve the control of the speed or angular relation of a generator or converter with respect to another; see subclass 82 where plural rotary converters are involved and subclass 84 where plural generators are involved); and subclass 123 for miscellaneous electrical switching systems where the switching operation is controlled by the differential speed between two bodies.
318Electricity: Motive Power Systems,   subclasses 41+ for plural electric motor systems having electrical synchronizing interconnection for maintaining synchronization between the motors; subclasses 68+ for plural electric motor systems with means for controlling the running speed of one motor relative to the speed of another motor including such systems for maintaining the motors in synchronism; and subclass 85 for the miscellaneous plural electric motor systems with synchronizing or phasing control for the motors.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 870.11+ for a telemetering system having a rotary distributor; subclass 681 for electric alarm which indicate the synchronism or lack of synchronism of a plurality of shafts; and subclass 318 for a miscellaneous signaling system having synchronized distributors at the transmitter and receiver.
341Coded Data Generation or Conversion,   subclass 192 for a code transmitter with a rotary distributor.
352Optics: Motion Pictures,   subclasses 1+ for motion picture apparatus for recording or reproducing a motion picture with sound accompaniment.
368Horology: Time Measuring Systems or Devices,   subclasses 46+ for clock systems which include a master clock and a secondary or receiving clock where the clocks are electrically controlled or operated; subclasses 52+ for the master clock of such a system with its electrical circuits and connections; and subclasses 59+ for the secondary or receiving clock of such a system with their immediate operating mechanism.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 354+ for a nonmultiplexed synchronizer.
416Fluid Reaction Surfaces (i.e., Impellers),   subclass 34 for plural impellers having synchronizing means.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 305]    305Start-Stop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 304.  Subject matter in which the synchronizer operates to start or stop the distributors simultaneously.
(1) Note. The distributors (at both ends) after starting usually rotate one complete revolution and one or both are stopped at the initial point.

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178Telegraphy,   subclass 4.1 for a remote controlled automatic printing system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 306]    306Nonmechanical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 305.  Subject matter wherein provision is made for controlling the operation of the distributor by means of a start-stop electronic oscillation generator.

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 369 for start-stop synchronization in digital communications not limited to multiplex communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 307]    307TRANSMULTIPLEXERS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter in which conversion from one multiplex technique to a different multiplex technique is performed (e.g., conversion between time division multiplex and frequency division multiplex).

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478,for combined time division and frequency division multiplexing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 308]    308RESONANT TRANSFER TECHNIQUES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein a transfer of information samples is achieved by closing access switches to a common bus for a predetermined portion of a cycle of a resonant frequency determined by reactive components associated with each subscriber line.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 309]    309RESONANT TRANSFER SUBSTITUTES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter utilizing techniques that strictly speaking do not utilize resonant transfer but are closely analogous to and are designed as replacements for resonant transfer techniques.

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308,for a resonant transfer system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 310]    310COMMUNICATION OVER FREE SPACE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter wherein multiplex communication signals are transmitted over a medium which is not a wire or a waveguide.
(1) Note. A waveguide may be used in this communication system for other purpose (e.g., for coupling).

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   appropriate subclass for digital communications not limited to multiplex communications.
398Optical Communications,   subclasses 41 through 42for duplex optical communication and subclasses 43-103 for multiplex optical communication.
455Telecommunications,   appropriate subclass for nonmultiplex radio communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 310.1]    310.1Using ATM as a wireless protocol:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein fixed length asynchronous transfer mode packets are conveyed over free space.

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395.1through 395.72, for message transmittal using fixed length ATM packets in general, and subclasses 329-337 for generic channel assignment in plural contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations.

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455Telecommunications,   appropriate subclasses for wireless telecommunication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 310.2]    310.2Having a plurality of contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.1.  Subject matter wherein plural nonmobile base stations provide service to different geographical areas having their boundaries touch each other on a line or a point.

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328through 338, for generic plural contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations, and subclasses 331-334 for hand-off control in generic plural contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations.

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455Telecommunications,   subclasses 422.1 through 460for zoned or cellular radiotelephone system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 311]    311Signaling for performing battery saving:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter having details of a procedure or supervisory communication used to control a receiver or transceiver so as to conserve power.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 7.32 through 7.38for a pager including battery conservation in a selective communication system.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 343.1 through 343.6for radio receiver battery conservation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 312]    312Message addressed to multiple destinations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein a direction for delivery accompanying message information are transmitted to or received by more than one corresponding remote station or group of remote stations.

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432,for messages addressed to multiple destinations in wired communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 313]    313Portable address responsive receiver:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein a lightweight receiver carried by an individual is selectively communicated to by the use of receiver identification codes.

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340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 7.2 through 7.63for a pager in a selective communication system.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 38.1+ for a code responsive radio receiver.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 314]    314Using time division multiplexing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 313.  Subject matter in which access to the transmission medium is divided into discrete time intervals, and information from respective channels is transmitted in different time intervals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 315]    315Repeater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter having at least a station which retransmits signals of other stations to compensate for attenuation losses or to extend the communication range between a group of stations.

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375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 211+ for a repeater in digital communications.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 7+ for a carrier wave repeater.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 316]    316Airborne or space satellite repeater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein a space-deployed station is used as a relay communicating station.

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455Telecommunications,   subclasses 12.1+ for a space satellite carrier wave repeater.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 317]    317Including noise compensation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 316.  Subject matter including a technique to improve the quality of transmitted signals by eliminating unwanted or interfering signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 318]    318Including power control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Subject matter wherein noise is compensated by controlling the electrical power or amplitude of the transmitted signal.

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455Telecommunications,   subclass 13.4 for space satellite with power control.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 319]    319Multiple access (e.g., FDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 316.  Subject matter having a scheme for reaching a communication medium in which a station is assigned a channel in response to that station"s request for access and the assignment lasting until it is withdrawn.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 320]    320Code division (CDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein spread spectrum codes are allocated to allow multiple signals occupying the same channel bandwidth to be transmitted simultaneously without interfering with one another.

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335,for CDMA in cellular wireless communications.
342,for CDMA in general wireless communications.
441,for CDMA in general wire communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 321]    321Time division (TDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter in which a station is assigned a vacant time slot channel in a time multiplex frame in response to that station"s request for access and the assignment lasting until it is withdrawn.

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337,for a wireless communication time division multiple access in a plurality of contiguous regions, each region being served by a respective fixed station.
347,for a general communication over free space using time channel multiple access.
442+,for a general communication over wire using time channel multiple access.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 322]    322Channel reservation scheme:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.  Subject matter including a technique or method for reserving time slots for a multiple access communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 323]    323Including onboard switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.  Subject matter wherein the airborne or satellite repeater has an apparatus for rearranging the order of the received time slots, comprising a plurality of receiving and transmitting antennas which cover different geographical regions, and wherein received information can be routed to the appropriate transmitting antenna.

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455Telecommunications,   subclass 13.3 for a space satellite with antenna feed network or multiple antenna switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 324]    324Synchronization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 321.  Subject matter including means for insuring that the transmission and reception of time channel multiple access information has a proper time relationship.

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350,for synchronization in general time multiplex wireless communications.
503+,for synchronization in general time multiplex communications over wire.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 325]    325Including onboard switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 319.  Subject matter wherein the airborne or satellite repeater has a plurality of receiving and transmitting antennas which cover different geographical regions, and wherein received information can be routed to the appropriate transmitting antenna.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 326]    326Combining or distributing information via time channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 316.  Subject matter wherein information signals are communicated between stations by assembling or separating the signals via different time periods on a common transmission medium.

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345+,for general communication over free space using time channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 327]    327In a trunking system:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Subject matter wherein the repeater is used in a system having two or more stations communicate using one channel of a plurality of channels; the channel is assigned based upon the availability of the plurality of channels, and the assignment is controlled by sending supervisory information over a control channel.
(1) Note. The channel assignment for a communication may vary during the communication between the two stations.
(2) Note. The assignment of a channel bearing supervisory information may vary with time, generally daily.

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340,for a trunking system which does not include a repeater.

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455Telecommunications,   subclass 11.1 for a mobile repeater.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 328]    328Having a plurality of contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein plural nonmobile base stations provide service to different geographical areas having their boundary touching each other on a line or a point, and wherein communications between mobile units navigating in and out of the areas are regulated by the nonmobile base stations.

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455Telecommunications,   subclasses 422.1 through 460for zone or cellular radiotelephone system and subclasses 524-525 for multiple base radio stations system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 329]    329Channel assignment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 328.  Subject matter having details of a process or apparatus for allocating a communication channel to a user or subscriber for transmission of information.

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455Telecommunications,   subclasses 450+ , 464, and 509+ for channel allocation in a cellular radiotelephone system, a private cordless telephone, and radio telecommunications system in general, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 330]    330Having both time and frequency assignment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter wherein the allocation of communication channel includes an assignment of a frequency channel and a time channel or time slot.

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478,for combined time and frequency division.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 331]    331Hand-off control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter including means to switch the control of a mobile communication from one geos:graphical area to another geographical area.

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455Telecommunications,   subclasses 436+ for handoff control in a zoned or cellular radiotelephone system not limited to multiplex communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 332]    332Based upon a particular signal quality measurement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 331.  Subject matter using a process or apparatus which measures a selected signal characteristic which will serve as a basis for making a determination whether or not to hand-off the mobile station.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 333]    333Signal quality determined by bit error rate:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Subject matter wherein the selected signal characteristic is measured by determining a ratio of erroneous bits to the total number of bits communicated at a given time period.

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714Error Detection/Correction and Fault Detection/Recovery,   subclasses 704+ for error rate counting.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 334]    334Using multiple antennas at a station:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Subject wherein a station (usually a base station) uses a plurality of directional antennas for transmitting or receiving information, and wherein signals from another station (usually mobile) are received by two or more of the antennas and the hand-off is performed based upon signal quality measurements received on the two or more antennas.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 335]    335Combining or distributing information via code word channels using multiple access techniques (e.g., CDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter wherein spread spectrum codes are allocated to allow multiple signals occupying the same channel bandwidth to be transmitted simultaneously without interfering with one another.

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320,for CDMA in space satellite communications.
342,for CDMA in general wireless communications.
441,for CDMA in general wire communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 336]    336Combining or distributing information via time channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Subject matter wherein information signals are communicated between stations by assembling or separating the signals via different time periods on a common transmission medium.

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345+,for general communication over free space using time channels.
498+,for general communication over wire using time channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 337]    337Multiple access (e.g., TDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 336.  Subject matter having a scheme for reaching a communication medium in which a station is assigned a vacant time slot channel in a time multiplex frame in response to that station"s request for access and the assignment lasting until it is withdrawn.

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321+,for time division multiple access in satellite communication.
347,for general communication over free space using time channel multiple access.
442+,for general communication over wire using time channel multiple access.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 338]    338Contiguous regions interconnected by a local area network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 328.  Subject matter wherein the base stations in the geographical area communication system are interconnect by a common communication bus, that allows wireless communication devices to communicate with other wireless communication devices or wired communication devices.
(1) Note. The common communication bus typically employs multiple access techniques such as carrier sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD).

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379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 59+ for fixed or base stations connected to an exchange by land lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 339]    339Plural usage of common antenna:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter in which more than two transmitters or receivers operate from a common antenna.

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297,for diplex systems (two transmitters or receivers using a common antenna).

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333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 100+ for a branched transmission lines network and subclasses 24+ for a coupling network.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclass 257 for a cable system.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 3.1+ for a distributive analog system.
725Interactive Video Distribution Systems,   subclasses 62 through 153for video signal transmission which may use common antenna or cable television.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 340]    340Using trunking:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein two or more stations communicate using one channel of a plurality of channels; the channel is assigned based upon the availability of the plurality of channels, and the assignment is controlled by sending supervisory information over a control channel.
(1) Note. The channel assignment for a communication may vary during the communication between the two stations.
(2) Note. The assignment of a channel bearing supervisory information may vary with time, generally daily.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 341]    341Channel assignment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 340.  Subject matter including particular details of apparatus or technique for allocating channels to a communication between two or more stations.

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329,for channel assignment in cellular communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 342]    342Combining or distributing information via code word channels using multiple access techniques (e.g., CDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein spread spectrum coding techniques allow multiple signals occupying the same channel bandwidth to be transmitted simultaneously without interfering with one another.

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320,for CDMA in space satellite communications.
335,for CDMA in cellular wireless communications.
441,for CDMA in general wire communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 343]    343Combining or distributing information via frequency channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein information signals are communicated between stations by assembling or separating the signals via different frequency bands of a common transmission medium.

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480+,for communications over wire using frequency channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 344]    344Multiple access (e.g., FDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 343.  Subject matter having a scheme for reaching a comunication medium in which a station is assigned a frequency channel in response to that station"s request for access and the assignment lasting until it is withdrawn.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 345]    345Combining or distributing information via time channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Subject matter wherein information signals are communicated between stations by assembling or separating the signals via different time periods on a common transmission medium.

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498+,for communications over wire using time channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 346]    346Polling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter in which individual terminals are queried to determine if access to the transmission medium is needed for the transfer of information.

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449,for channel assignment by polling in a wired transmission medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 347]    347Multiple access (e.g., TDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter having a scheme for reaching a communication medium in which a station is assigned a vacant time slot channel in a time multiplex frame in response to that station"s request for access and the assignment lasting until it is withdrawn.

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442+,for communications over wire using time division multiple access.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 348]    348Channel reservation scheme:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 347.  Subject matter including a technique or method for reserving a time slot for communication.

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443,for communications over wire using TDMA with channel reservation scheme.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 349]    349Using messages having an address field as header:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter in which information data is organized in one or more bytes preceded by an identifier indicative of source or destination stations.

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389+,for routing a message which includes an address header.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 350]    350Synchronization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 345.  Subject matter including means for insuring that the transmission and reception of time multiplex information has a proper time relationship.

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324,for synchronization in a TDMA satellite repeater system.
503+,for synchronization in general time multiplex communications over wire.

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455Telecommunications,   subclasses 502+ for synchronized stations in a nonmultiplex analog communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 351]    351PATHFINDING OR ROUTING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including an apparatus or a technique for locating a path through a switching network from a source to a destination.
(1) Note. This subclass includes techniques for reorganizing existing connections to make room for new connections.

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216+,for alternate routing in response to a faulty condition.
248,for testing a connection established through a multiplex network.
254+,for network configuration determination.
431+,for channel assignment techniques.

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359Optical: Systems and Elements,   subclasses 115 through 140for optical multiplex communication and particularly subclasses 118-121 for optical local area network.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 242+ for switching of a nonmultiplex voice communication system which may use a time division controlling signal.
710Electrical Computers and Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output,   subclasses 316 and 317 for a path selecting switch in bus interface architecture.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 352]    352Combined circuit switching and packet switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Subject matter wherein the switching network has both (a) a switch which establishes a path between a source and destination with the path being held for the duration of the communication, and (b) a switch which routes information based on an address associated with the information data in a channel which is only occupied for a duration of the time required to transmit the information data and the associated address.

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357+,for a circuit switch.
389+,for a packet switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 353]    353Switching network having common elements to handle both circuit switched traffic and packet switched traffic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Subject matter wherein same structures in a switching network perform routing of both circuit switched and packet switched data.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 354]    354Switching network having separate elements to handle circuit switched traffic and packet switched traffic:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Subject matter wherein noncommon structures within a switching network respectively and separately perform routing of circuit switched and packet switched data.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 355]    355Routing packets through a circuit switching network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Subject matter wherein packet switched traffic is adapted so as to be routed through a switching network designed for circuit switched traffic.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 356]    356Routing circuit switched traffic through a packet switching network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 352.  Subject matter wherein circuit switched traffic is adapted so as to be routed through a switching network designed for packet switched traffic.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 357]    357Through a circuit switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Subject matter wherein the switching network establishes a path or channel between two or more terminals and permits the exclusive use of the connection between them until the connection is released.
(1) Note. A switching exchange or a concentrator with multiplex signals are placed in ths subclass.
(2) Note. The distinction between multiplexing and selective or telemetry devices is: in multiplexing, the information is unrestricted as to content, e.g., a teletypewriter which uses an alphabet to transmit unlimited information, whereas in selective or telemetry devices, the information is restricted as to content, e.g., a transducer measuring a single parameter.

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200Electricity: Circuit Makers and Breakers,   subclasses 175+ for an automatic multiple contact selective switch.
307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 112+ for class appropriate switching system.
327Miscellaneous Active Electrical Nonlinear Devices, Circuits, and Systems,   subclasses 365+ for a miscellaneous gating circuit.
335Electricity: Magnetically Operated Switches, Magnets, and Electromagnets,   subclasses 108+ for an electromagnetically operated automatic selective switch.
340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 2.2 through 2.31for a channel selecting matrix and subclasses 14.1-14.69 for a decoder matrix which are nonmultiplexing.
379Telephonic Communications,   appropriate subclasses relating to a telephonic device, particularly subclass 290 for multiplexed switches and subclasses 242+ for a switch having nonmultiplexed signals to be switched, and subclass 333 for a concentrator.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 358]    358Switching input signals having different aggregate bit rates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 357.  Subject matter wherein the established path has different number of information bits flow per unit time.

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391,for packet switching with input signals having different aggregate bit rates.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 359]    359Input or output circuit, per se (i.e., line interface):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 357.  Subject matter having details of a circuit or technique for controlling how information is handled at an entrance or exit of the switch.

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419+,for a input or output circuit line interface in a packet switching system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 360]    360Switching control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 357.  Subject matter including procedures, techniques, or apparatus to implement a supervisory function necessary for a proper switching of information from an input of the switching network to an output of the network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 361]    361Folded network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter in which an equivalent N-stage switch is achieved with less than N-stage by "folding" back the output of one stage to connect with the input of a preceding stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 362]    362Bus switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter in which time switching occurs by connecting communication lines to a common line (bus) for a time sufficient to transfer information between the lines (e.g., one time slot).

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710Electrical Computers and Digital Data Processing Systems: Input/Output,   subclasses 1+ for transferring data from one or more peripherals to one or more computers or digital data processing systems for the latter to process, store, or further transfer or for transferring data from the computers or digital data processing systems to the peripheral.of information processing system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 363]    363Having details of control storage arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter which includes a particular method, apparatus, or technique dealing with the storage of supervisory or control information for controlling the switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 364]    364Having plural buses:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 362.  Subject matter having more than one bus line.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 365]    365Separate transmit and receive buses:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 364.  Subject matter having different buses for sending and for accepting information.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 366]    366Including serial-parallel or parallel-serial conversion for input or output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein information in a sequential transmission format is changed to a multipath parallel transmission format, or vice versa, at an entrance or exit of the switching system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 367]    367For distribution to a multiplanar switching network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Subject matter wherein the switching system consists of two or more parallel switching elements such as parallel space switches.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 368]    368Having details of control storage arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 366.  Subject matter which includes a particular method, apparatus, or technique dealing with the storage of supervisory or control information for controlling the switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 369]    369Having time and space switches:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter in which the switching system is organized to have (a) a time stage which reorganizes the order of time slots and (b) a space stage which switches time slots on incoming lines to a desired outgoing line in either order.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 370]    370Having space switch as intermediate stage (e.g., T-S-T, T-S-S, or S-S-T):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Subject matter having a space switch or switches which are not the first or last stages of a circuit switching network (i.e., time-space plus an additional switching stage).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 371]    371Having details of control storage arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 370.  Subject matter which includes a particular method, apparatus, or technique dealing with the storage of supervisory or control information for controlling the switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 372]    372Having time switch as intermediate stage (e.g., S-T-S or T-T-S):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Subject matter having at least a time switch which is not the first or last stages of a circuit switching network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 373]    373Having supervisory signaling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Subject matter wherein control information is communicated between switches to control the switches.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 374]    374Having details of control storage arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 369.  Subject matter which includes a particular method, apparatus, or technique dealing with the storage of supervisory or control information for controlling the switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 375]    375Time switch, per se (e.g., T or T-T):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter in which information in time slots of incoming lines is switched to desired destinations only by storing or delaying the information until the desired instant of readout.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 376]    376Time slot interchange, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 375.  Subject matter having structural details of a device for altering the time sequence of information received in predetermined time intervals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 377]    377Having supervisory signaling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 375.  Subject matter wherein control information is communicated between switches to control the switches.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 378]    378Having details of control storage arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 375.  Subject matter which includes a particular method, apparatus, or technique dealing with the storage of supervisory or control information for controlling the switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 379]    379Data memory addressing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 378.  Subject matter wherein a particular storage control apparatus or technique is utilized to control the writing of incoming data information into a storage device and the reading of data information therefrom for transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 380]    380Space switch, per se (e.g., S or S-S):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein the switching control is for a switching system that has a plurality of inputs and a plurality of outputs wherein any input can be connected to any output for spatially displacing the information.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 381]    381Having details of control storage arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter which includes a particular method, apparatus, or technique dealing with the storage of supervisory or control information for controlling the switching.

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363,for details of control memory in a bus switch.
368,for details of control memory in a switch having serial to parallel conversion or vice versa.
371,and 374, for details of control memory in a combined time and space switching system.
378,for details of control memory in a time switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 382]    382Data memory addressing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Subject matter wherein a particular storage control apparatus or technique is utilized to control the writing of incoming data information into a storage device and the reading of data information therefrom for transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 383]    383Control storage addressing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 381.  Subject matter wherein a particular apparatus or technique is utilized to control the reading or writing of control information from or to a control memory.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 384]    384Having a supervisory signaling feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 360.  Subject matter wherein control information is communicated between stations for switching control.

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496,for signaling in multiplex communications via frequency channels.
522+,for signaling in multiplex communications via time channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 385]    385Having a separate signaling network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 384.  Subject matter wherein a communication system distinct from the switching system is provided for the communication of signaling information (i.e. CCITT Signaling System No. 7).

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524,for a dedicated signaling channel in general communication via time channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 386]    386Particular switching network arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 357.  Subject matter includes details of a physical arrangement of switching elements in a switching system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 387]    387Multiplanar switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 386.  Subject matter wherein the switching system consists of two or more parallel switching elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 388]    388Multistage switch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 386.  Subject matter wherein the switching system consists of two or more sequential switching elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 389]    389Switching a message which includes an address header (e.g., packet switching):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Subject matter wherein information data to be switched is organized with one or more bytes preceded by an identification information indicative of a source or destination station.
(1) Note. The switching of the message having an address header is commonly called packet switching.

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473,and 474, for handling of packet data other than switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 390]    390Replicate messages for multiple destination distribution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein copies of the same information is being made for transferring to more than one destination.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 391]    391Switching input signals having different aggregate bit rates:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein the switch has plural input lines, and information bits per unit time flow in each line are different from one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 392]    392Processing of address header for routing, per se:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter having details of techniques or apparatus which process the address information field for switching the packet of information.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 393]    393Address concatenation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 392.  Subject matter wherein information concerning the address of nodes or switches in the route of a packet are serially linked together in the packet to provide information for the route of packets.
(1) Note. For example, the packet is transmitted through a plurality of nodes, and the address of all the nodes in the route will be added to the address field of a packet.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 394]    394Sequencing or resequencing of packets to ensure proper output sequence order:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein a rearrangement of packets order is performed before being outputted to ensure that the packets are outputted in the same order as the packets received by the network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.1]    395.1Message transmitted using fixed length packets (e.g., ATM cells):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein information is conveyed using fixed size packets or protocol data units.
(1) Note. ATM denotes Asynchronous Transfer Mode.

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238.1,for ATM least cost routing and subclasses 310.1-310.2 for ATM used as a wireless protocol.

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455Telecommunications,   subclasses 422.1 through 460for a zoned or cellular telephone system, subclasses 436-444 for hand-off in a zoned or cellular telephone system, subclass 445 for call routing in a zoned or cellular telephone system, subclass 455 for channel seizing in a zoned or cellular telephone system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.2]    395.2Connection set-up/disconnect (e.g., Connection Admission Control):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.1.  Subject matter including connection negotiation prior to start of packet transmission.

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230through 234, for monitoring of ATM channel parameters in congestion control.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.21]    395.21Based on traffic contract (including using setup messages, QoS, delay/bandwidth requirement):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.2.  Subject matter wherein connection admission control is based upon a particular traffic contract.
(1) Note. A traffic contract consists of a) service category (e.g., CBR (Constant Bit Rate), VBR (Variable Bit Rate), UBR (Unspecified Bit Rate), or ABR (Available Bit Rate)), b) connection traffic/cell rate descriptor (e.g., PCR (Peak Cell Rate), MBS (Maximum Burst Size), or MCR (Minimum Cell Rate)), and c) QoS (Quality of Service) parameters.

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395.43,for information scheduling which may include service category (e.g., CBR or VBR).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.3]    395.3Connection identifier assignment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.1.  Subject matter including assigning identification of a connection within a packet header which determines the route to be taken by the packet.
(1) Note. The assignment can be for switched or permanent connections.

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711Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Memory,   subclasses 203 through 209for virtual addressing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.31]    395.31Including routing table:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.3.  Subject matter which utilizes a routing database table.

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379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 272 through 277for telephonic centralized switching station routing.
709Electrical Computers and Data Processing System: Multiple Computer or Process Coordinating,   subclasses 238 through 244for computer-to computer data routing.
711Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Memory,   subclass 221 for address formation using table.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.32]    395.32Employing particular searching function (e.g., hashing, alternate, re-routing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.31.  Subject matter wherein the routing table is accessed by a specific lookup technique.

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711Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Memory,   subclass 216 for address formation hashing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.4]    395.4Assigning period of time for information to be transmitted (e.g., scheduling):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.1.  Subject matter including determining when to transmit packets into a fixed length packet network.
(1) Note. Scheduling includes the techniques of Round Robin (RR), Weighted Round Robin (WRR), Bandwidth On Demand (BOD), Quality of Service (QoS), and those utilizing delay parameters, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.41]    395.41Based on bandwidth allocation (e.g., Weighted Round Robin):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.4.  Subject matter wherein the time period assignment is dependent on throughput (e.g., cell rate) allocation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.42]    395.42Based on priority:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.4.  Subject matter wherein the time period assignment is dependent on channel precedence.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.43]    395.43Based on service category (e.g., CBR, VBR, UBR, or ABR):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.42.  Subject matter wherein scheduling is determined by both traffic and quality of service parameters negotiated prior to the setup of a connection.

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395.21,for connection set-up/disconnect involving traffic contract including CBR, VBR, UBR, or ABR.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.5]    395.5Multiprotocol network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.1.  Subject matter including conversion of a protocol into a protocol having fixed length packets.

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466through 467, for adaptive protocol conversion in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.51]    395.51Utilizing a plurality of ATM networks (e.g., MPOA, SONET, or SDH):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.5.  Subject matter including multiple networks which convey asynchronous transfer mode packets.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.52]    395.52Internet Protocol (including TCP/IP or UDP/IP) over fixed length packet network (e.g., IP over ATM):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.5.  Subject matter including transmission of OSI layer 3 or layer 4 protocol data into a uniform length packet network.
(1) Note. Details of adaptation are classified elsewhere. See search notes below.
(2) Note. TCP/IP denotes Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol and UDP/IP denotes User Datagram Protocol/Internet Protocol.

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395.6through 395.65, for adapting details, subclass 395.65 for adapting details of connectionless protocols such as IP or UDP into fixed length packets, subclasses 465-473 for adaptive communication techniques including conversion between protocols in general, and subclass 474 for assembly or disassembly of messages having address headers.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.53]    395.53Emulated LAN (LANE/ELAN/VLAN, e.g., Ethernet or token ring legacy LAn over a single ATM network/LAN):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.5.  Subject matter which simulates functions and protocols of a traditional/legacy LAN.
(1) Note. LANE, ELAN, VLAN denote LAN Emulation, Emulated LAN, and Virtual LAN, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.54]    395.54Address resolution (e.g., ARP, or NHRP):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.5.  Subject matter including mapping from one address to another.
(1) Note. This includes mapping of a layer 3 address to a layer 2 address or determining a destination hardware address.
(2) Note. Examples include ARP (Address Resolution Protocol), and NHRP (Next Hop Resolution Protocol).

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475,for address transmitted communication techniques in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.6]    395.6Adapting detail (e.g., converting to/from ATM, or detail of ATM Adaptation Layers (AALs)):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.1.  Subject matter wherein data is formatted/mapped into fixed length packets or vice versa.

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466through 467, for adaptive protocol conversion in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.61]    395.61Adapting constant bit rate (CBR) data (e.g., voice, or narrow band ISDN over ATM, or using AAL1):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.6.  Subject matter wherein data having an unchanging bit rate is formatted/mapped into fixed length packets or vice versa.
(1) Note. Typically, this involves AAL1 format.
(2) Note. Included here are details of adapting connection-oriented, constant bit rate (CBR) or isochronous data, for example, voice data which is transferred on ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) lines or details of using AAL1.

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395.5through 395.54, for a multiprotocol network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.62]    395.62Detail of clock recovery or synchronization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.61.  Subject matter providing specifics of recovery of a timing reference signal or other synchronization.

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503through 520, for time channel synchronization in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.63]    395.63Adapting frame relay/X.25 data (e.g., using AAL 3/4):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.6.  Subject matter wherein frame relay/X.25 data is formatted/mapped into fixed length packets or vice versa.
(1) Note. Typically, this involves AAL 3/4 format.
(2) Note. Frame relay and X.25 are particular data types as defined by the International Telecommunications Union Telecommunications.

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395.64,for adapting connection-oriented VBR data into fixed length packets, in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.64]    395.64Adapting connection-oriented variable bit rate (VBR) data (e.g., MPEG/HDTV packet video/audio over ATM or using AAL2):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.6.  Subject matter wherein connection-oriented data having a changing bit rate is formatted/mapped into fixed length packets or vice versa.
(1) Note. Typically, this involves AAL 2 format.
(2) Note. Connection-oriented communication involves a) establishing a connection, b) data transfer, and c) releasing the connection.

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395.5through 395.54, for a multiprotocol network, subclass 395.63 for adapting frame relay/X.25 into fixed length packets, and subclass 395.65 for adapting connection-less VBR data into fixed length packets.

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725Interactive Video Distribution Systems,   appropriate subclasses for interactive video distribution systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.65]    395.65Adapting connectionless variable bit rate (VBR) data (e.g., adapting 802.X, or using AAL5):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.6.  Subject matter wherein connectionless data having a changing bit rate is formatted/mapped into fixed length packets or vice versa.
(1) Note. Typically, this involves AAL5 format.
(2) Note. Included here is adapting traffic which is typically highly bursty, e.g., data from local area networks (LANs).
(3) Note. Connectionless communication is one which takes place without connection establishing.
(4) Note. 802.X is a particular type of connectionless variable bit rate data.

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395.5through 395.54, for a multiprotocol network, subclass 395.52 for a multiprotocol network involving IP over a fixed length packet network, subclass 395.53 for a multiprotocol network which is an emulated LAN, and subclass 395.64 for adapting connection oriented VBR data into fixed length packets.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.7]    395.7Having detail of switch memory reading/writing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.1.  Subject matter wherein details of reading from or writing to a memory device in a network switch are provided.

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412through 418, for a queuing arrangement in general.

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365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   subclasses 189.011 through 225.7for read/write circuits in static information storage and retrieval.
711Electrical Computers and Digital Processing Systems: Memory,   appropriate subclasses and particularly subclass 100 173 for storage accessing and control, and subclass 216 for address formation hashing in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.71]    395.71Having input or output storage or both:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.7.  Subject matter including buffers or queues at each switch input or at each switch output or both.

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412through 418, for input or output queuing or both in general.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 395.72]    395.72Having central (e.g., common) storage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.7.  Subject matter including a common or singular buffer or queue in the network switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 396]    396Distributed switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.  Subject matter wherein the routing of a message from a source to a destination is performed by a plurality of nodes which share the control of switching and routing functions of the network.

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400+,for non-ATM packet distributed switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 397]    397Employing logical addressing for routing (e.g., VP or VC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 396.  Subject matter wherein packets of information are communicated between two or more stations on physical paths or circuits which may vary with time during a connection, and are identified using a transparent addressing scheme.
(1) Note. The time varying paths or circuits are also called virtual paths (VP) or virtual circuits (VC).

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399,for employing logical addressing for routing in ATM centralized switching.
409,for employing logical addressing for routing in non-ATM distributed switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 398]    398Centralized switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 395.  Subject matter wherein the switching network consists of one switch node with a plurality of inputs and a plurality of outputs.

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422+,for non-ATM packet centralized switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 399]    399Employing logical addressing for routing (e.g., VP or VC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 398.  Subject matter wherein packets of information are communicated between two or more stations on physical paths or circuits which may vary with time during a connection, and are identified using a transparent addressing scheme.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 400]    400Having a plurality of nodes performing distributed switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter having a switching architecture in which a plurality of switch nodes are provided such that the switching function is spread out over a geos:graphical area.

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396+,for ATM distributed switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 401]    401Bridge or gateway between networks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter having a device for interconnecting two or more networks at a media-access level of a data-link layer.

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402,for a bridge which interconnects two or more bus networks wherein the buses have a plurality of terminals connected thereto.
404,for a bridge which interconnects two or more closed transmission path network having a plurality of terminals connected thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 402]    402Bridge between bus systems:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 401.  Subject matter wherein networks interconnected by the bridge are characterized by having a common transmission line with a plurality of terminals connected thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 403]    403At least one bus is a ring network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 402.  Subject matter wherein at least one of the bus systems is a closed loop transmission bus.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 404]    404Ring or loop forms backbone for interconnecting other networks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 403.  Subject matter wherein a closed path transmission system serves as a central switch for switching information to and from other networks.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 405]    405The other networks are ring or loop networks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 404.  Subject matter wherein the backboned ring or loop interconnects other closed transmission line networks having a plurality of terminals connected thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 406]    406Plurality rings or loops to form a mesh network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter having a plurality of nodes wherein each node is connected to at least two closed transmission path communication links.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 407]    407Interconnected star couplers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter having interconnection between plural couplers that distributes signal from one or more transmission line input among a larger number of output lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 408]    408Nodes interconnected in a hierarchy to form a tree:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter having a plurality of nodes wherein one of the nodes is a root node and other nodes are connected to the root node by branches.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 409]    409Employing logical addressing for routing (e.g., VP or VC):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein packets of information are communicated between two or more stations on physical paths which are varying with time during a connection, and are identified using a transparent addressing scheme.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 410]    410Having a signaling feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 400.  Subject matter wherein supervisory information is communicated between switches to control the switches.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 411]    411Including sorting and merging networks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein pathfinding through a self routing packet switch includes (a) Batcher and (b) Banyan type networks.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 412]    412Queuing arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein pathfinding through a packet switch involves a particular buffer processing arrangement for control of communication of packets in a packet network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 413]    413Having both input and output queuing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Subject matter having a queuing arrangement at both the input and output of the packet switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 414]    414Contention resolution for output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 413.  Subject matter having a particular protocol to resolve the problem of unregulated bidding for an output line by multiple messages from different inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 415]    415Having input queuing only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Subject matter having queues exclusively on inputs to the network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 416]    416Contention resolution for output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 415.  Subject matter having a particular protocol to resolve the problem of unregulated bidding for an output line by multiple messages from different inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 417]    417Having output queuing only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 412.  Subject matter having queues exclusively on outputs of the network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 418]    418Contention resolution for output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 417.  Subject matter having a particular protocol to resolve the problem of unregulated bidding for an output line by multiple messages from different inputs.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 419]    419Input or output circuit, per se (i.e., line interface):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter having means or techniques for controlling how information is handled at an input or output of a switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 420]    420For connecting plural subscribers to a network (i.e., network termination):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 419.  Subject matter wherein the input or output circuit interfaces more than one terminal to a transmission line network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 421]    421Subscribers connected to an input or output circuit by a common bus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 420.  Subject matter wherein the terminals to be connected to a transmission line network by an interface are interconnected to the interface by a common transmission line.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 422]    422Centralized switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter having one single switch node for switching packet type information from a plurality of inputs to a plurality of outputs of the node.

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398+,for ATM centralized switching.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 423]    423Including a bus for interconnecting inputs and outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 422.  Subject matter including a closed path for interconnecting input interfaces and output interfaces of a packet type switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 424]    424Including a ring or loop for interconnecting inputs and outputs:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 423.  Subject matter including a closed path for interconnecting input interfaces and output interfaces of a packet type switch.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 425]    425Star configuration:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 422.  Subject matter wherein a data distribution system containing a central node or hub connected to one end of each of three or more branches and each other end of the branches is connected to a member of a local area network multiplex system, and all routing of network data takes place through the central node.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 426]    426Having a signaling feature:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 422.  Subject matter wherein supervisory information is communicated between switches to control the switches.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 427]    427Space switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 389.  Subject matter wherein messages are transferred from inputs to outputs of a switch node by temporarily providing a physical path between the inputs and outputs in order to route the messages.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 428]    428Store and forward:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Subject matter including facilities which permit (a) a storage of all or part of a message when no outgoing link to a destination is free and (b) a subsequent transmission to the destination when such a link becomes free.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 429]    429Particular storing and queuing arrangement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 428.  Subject matter having a particular buffer processing arrangement for controlling the flow of information.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 430]    430FDM switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Subject matter wherein signals to be switched are frequency division multiplexed in the transmission medium having a frequency spectrum divided into segments and respective information channels are transmitted in different segments.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 431]    431CHANNEL ASSIGNMENT TECHNIQUES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter having details of a technique for allocating usage of a communication channel or channels to subscriber terminals.

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329+,for channel assignment in a communication over free space with a plurality of contiguous regions served by respective fixed stations.
341,for channel assignment in radio trunking communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 432]    432Messages addressed to multiple destinations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter wherein a direction for delivery accompanying message information are transmitted to or received by more than one corresponding remote station or group of remote stations.

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312,for messages addressed to multiple destinations in wireless communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 433]    433Only active channels transmitted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter wherein the system adapts to changing traffic conditions by sending only data from active channels and by suppressing data from inactive channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 434]    434Concentrator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 433.  Subject matter in which a switching device is used to reduce the number of transmission channels required to serve remote stations by allocating a transmission channel to a remote station only when the remote station requests service (e.g., by going off hook).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 435]    435TASI (Time Assignment Speech Interpolation):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 434.  Subject matter including telephone switching equipment whereby a user"s line is connected to an idle line when he starts talking and is disconnected when he stops talking.

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381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 41+ for speech analysis.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 436]    436Combined time and frequency assignment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter wherein the assignment of a communication channel includes assignment of a frequency channel and a time channel or time slot.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 437]    437Adaptive selection of channel assignment technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter having an automatic selection of a technique that provides an optimum channel assignment performance.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 438]    438Using a separate control line or bus for access control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter wherein the assignment of a channel is controlled by a supervisory signal communicated on a line which is distinct from the line used for communicating information signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 439]    439Control line is used to request or reserve access:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 438.  Subject matter wherein the control line is used by a station to send a demand for having a channel assigned or for using a communication line.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 440]    440Dual bus dynamic queuing (i.e., DQDB):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 439.  Subject matter wherein a first bus carries information in time slots and a second bus carries time slot reservation and request signal for controlling access of information in the time slot of the first bus.
(1) Note. DQDB stands for distributed queue dual bus.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 441]    441Combining or distributing information via code word channels using multiple access techniques (e.g., CDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter wherein spread spectrum coding techniques allow multiple signals occupying the same channel bandwidth to be transmitted simultaneously without interfering with one another.

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320,for CDMA in space satellite communications.
335,for CDMA in cellular wireless communications.
342,for CDMA in general wireless communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 442]    442Combining or distributing information via time channels using multiple access techniques (e.g.,TDMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter having a scheme for reaching a communication medium in which a station is assigned a vacant time slot channel in response to that station"s request for access and the assignment lasting until it is withdrawn.

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321+,for TDMA in space satellite communications.
337,for TDMA in cellular wireless communications.
347,for TDMA in general wireless communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 443]    443Using channel reservation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 442.  Subject matter wherein a specific time slot channel is exclusively reserved to a certain station to access the communication media.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 444]    444With priority resolution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 443.  Subject matter wherein the access to a reserved channel is based on an order of importance assigned to each station.
(1) Note. The permitted transmission may be for the first actuated transmitter, or for a transmitter given priority in accordance with a program, a condition, or time.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 445]    445Carrier sense multiple access (CSMA):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter having a reservation scheme for reaching a communication medium in which a station is assigned a carrier; the idle state of a communication channel is determined by sensing the presence or absence of a carrier signal on the channel.
(1) Note. CSMA with collision detection (CSMA/CD) or a listen while talk scheme (LWT) is the basis of the Ethernet protocol. In this scheme, a user listens to a channel while sending out a message and immediately ceases transmission before it is completed when a collision with another simultaneous transmitting user is detected.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 446]    446Using a star coupler:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Subject matter wherein a passive coupler distributes information signals from one or more input lines among a larger number of output lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 447]    447Arbitration for access between contending stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 445.  Subject matter wherein an order of importance is assigned to stations or information to resolve situations in which plural stations attempt to gain access to the same communication channel at the same time.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 448]    448Using weighted back-off timing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 447.  Subject matter wherein after a data collision is detected, the stations which caused the collision vary the amount of time before an attempt to transmit again according to a priority scheme.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 449]    449Polling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter in which individual terminals are queried to determine if access to the transmission medium is needed for the transfer of information.

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346,for polling in wireless communications.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 450]    450Passing a signal identifying the idle or busy state of a channel (e.g., token passing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 449.  Subject matter in which a signal indicative of an occupancy or nonoccupancy state of a communication channel is sent to control access to the communication channel.
(1) Note. The signal identifying the idle or busy state of a channel is also called the token.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 451]    451On bus:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 450.  Subject matter in which the idle or busy signal is passing on a common trunk line to which a number of terminals can be connected through couplers.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 452]    452On ring or loop:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 451.  Subject matter in which the idle or busy signal is passed from station to station on a closed transmission path.
(1) Note. Token passing buses are normally implemented by the creation of a logical loop or ring using a token passing list which contains the order of which token is to be passed.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 453]    453Initialization or reinitialization of network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Subject matter having means for (a) starting or (b) resetting a communication network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 454]    454Having multiple idle or busy signals simultaneously on the network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Subject matter wherein more than one idle or busy signal is present on the loop or ring since multiple frames of information which contain the signals are present on the loop or ring at the same time.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 455]    455Including priority resolution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Subject matter wherein an order of importance is assigned to stations or information to resolve situations in which plural stations attempt to gain access to the same communication channel at the same time.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 456]    456Idle or busy signal erasure or frame erasure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 452.  Subject matter involving the suppression or elimination of an idle or busy signal to ensure that a proper idle or busy signal is on the loop or ring.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 457]    457Initialization or reinitialization of network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 450.  Subject matter having means for (a) starting or (b) resetting a communication network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 458]    458Using time slots:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter wherein access to a transmission medium is performed by using an assigned time period.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 459]    459Having indication of idle or busy state of time slot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 458.  Subject matter wherein a time slot is assigned based on a test indicating an occupancy or nonoccupancy state of the network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 460]    460On ring or loop network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 459.  Subject matter wherein the indication of idle or busy state of a time slot is applied to a ring or loop network.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 461]    461Arbitration for access between contending stations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 458.  Subject matter including techniques or apparatus to resolve the right of a terminal to use a time slot channel when two or more terminals desire to use the channel simultaneously.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 462]    462Arbitration for access to a channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter including techniques or apparatus to resolve the right of a terminal to use a common communication channel when two or more terminals desire to use the channel simultaneously.

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444,for TDMA with priority channel reservation.
447,for CSMA with arbitration for access between contending stations.
461,for arbitration for access using time slots.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 463]    463Details of circuit or interface for connecting user to the network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 431.  Subject matter having means or techniques for handling the transfer of information from one or more terminal to the transmission line network.

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359,for line interface input or output circuit, per se, in a circuit switch system.
419+,for line interface input or output circuit, per se, in a packet switch system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 464]    464COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUES FOR INFORMATION CARRIED IN PLURAL CHANNELS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter including details of methods or apparatus for formatting, converting, combining, or distributing information signals for transmission or reception via more than one time or frequency channel.

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280,and 294, for time division duplex system.
281,and 295, for frequency division duplex system.
298+,for low speed asynchronous system which may include techniques for data formatting, or techniques for combining or distributing information via channels separated in frequency or in time.
310+,for communication over free space wherein information may be combined or distributed via channels separated in frequency or in time.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 465]    465Adaptive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter in which the transmission format changes or adapts automatically, or is programmed for changing traffic requirements, or accommodates a plurality of sources having diverse characteristics, (e.g., rates or data format).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 466]    466Converting between protocols:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Subject matter including means for converting format and timing of message exchanges between two systems governed by different set of communicating rules.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 467]    467Conversion between signaling protocols:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 466.  Subject matter including means for converting format and timing of control or supervisory information exchanges between two systems governed by different set of communicating rules.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 468]    468Assignment of variable bandwidth or time period for transmission or reception:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Subject matter including adaptive allocations of different frequency bandwidths or different time period durations for a transmission or reception.

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477,for transmission bandwidth conservation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 469]    469Processing multiple layer protocols:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Subject matter including adaptive processing of information which is compliant with rules as set forth in a tiered (layered) structured communication.
(1) Note. An example of a multiple layer network is the Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model which comprises seven layers respectively named: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation and Application. Each layer assumes an independent function which could be individually modified without destabilizing the entire system protocols.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 470]    470Frame length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Subject matter having varying time period to transmit a recurring number of data bits along with control information.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 471]    471Message having an address header:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 470.  Subject matter in which information data is organized in one or more bytes preceded by an identifier indicative of source or destination stations.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 472]    472Byte length:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Subject matter wherein byte lengths adapt to changes in traffic conditions.
(1) Note. A byte is a digital word comprised of a group of related pulses.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 473]    473Transmission of a single message having multiple packets:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 465.  Subject matter wherein the system adapts to transmit only a single message formed by plural packets.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 474]    474Assembly or disassembly of messages having address headers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter including (a) a process of combining into a collective unit plural messages having each an address header, or (b) a process of decombining a collective unit of messages.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 475]    475Address transmitted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter in which identifying information indicative of the receiving or transmitting station accompanies the data transmission.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 476]    476Byte assembly and formatting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter in which received data is grouped into a predefined order (format) either with or without a format conversion.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 477]    477Transmission bandwidth conservation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter having means for accommodating more information per unit time on a given transmission medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

468,for adaptive assignment of variable bandwidth or time period for transmission or reception.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

348Television,   subclasses 384.1 through 440.1for video bandwidth reduction.
375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 240.01 through 240.29for digital television bandwidth compression system.
381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 29+ for audio bandwidth compression or expansion.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 478]    478Combined time division and frequency division:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter wherein information signals are combined or distributed via both time and frequency channels.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

330,for channel assignment having both time and frequency in communication over free space.
436,for channel assignment having both time and frequency.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 479]    479Combining or distributing information via code word channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter in which each multiplexed channel consists of a unique code word which carries the information.
(1) Note. Separation of each multiplexed channel is usually achieved by correlation detection.
(2) Note. PCM or pulse code modulation, which is a particular technique for transmitting digital signal, should not be classified in this subclass if its use is not to make a channel distinct in multiplex communications.
(3) Note. A synchronizing word which may use a particular coding sequence for synchronization purpose is classified in subclasses 503+.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

375Pulse or Communications,   subclasses 130 through 153for spread spectrum having nonmultiplex code word communication.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 480]    480Combining or distributing information via frequency channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter wherein information signals are communicated between stations by assembling or separating the signals via different frequency bands on a common transmission medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

281,and 295, for a frequency division duplex system.
302,for a low speed asynchronous system using frequency channels.
343,for multiplex communication over free space via frequency channels
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 481]    481Multiple frequency translations:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter wherein a group of signals occupying a definite frequency band is transferred from one position in the frequency spectrum to another in such a way that the arithmetic frequency difference of signals within the band is unaltered.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 482]    482Particular carrier generation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter including features specific to a generation of a basic frequency wave (carrier wave); such basic wave is modulated by an information bearing signal (modulating signal) in a modulation process.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 483]    483Using angle modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter using a modulation in which an angle of a sine wave carrier is a characteristic varied from its normal value by modulation.
(1) Note. Phase and frequency modulation are particular forms of angle modulation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

215,for phase modulation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 484]    484Digital analysis or synthesis of a group:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter in which a frequency multiplex composite spectrum is produced or resolved into its constituent channels by digital processing techniques (e.g., digital filters).

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

708Electrical Computers: Arithmetic Processing and Calculating,   subclasses 300+ for a digital filter.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 485]    485Subscriber carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter in which an additional individual subscriber service is provided by adding a carrier channel to an existing communication line.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

340Communications: Electrical,   subclasses 12.32 through 12.39for remote control over power line, subclasses 538-538.17 for signaling over power line, and subclasses 870.18-870.24 for a telemetric carrier signaling system.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 400+ for a super audible telephone carrier system where a super audible carrier wave for transmission of telephone signals is transmitted over an electrical system other than a baseband telephone line.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 486]    486Program distribution:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.  Subject matter wherein scheduled information is distributed over a carrier system (e.g., commercial wired radio broadcast).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

312,for message addressed to multiple destinations.
339,for plural transmitters/receivers operating off of a common antenna.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 77+ for one-way program distribution.
455Telecommunications,   subclasses 3.1+ for a analog signal distribution system.
725Interactive Video Distribution Systems,   for appropriate subclasses.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 487]    487Combined communication of diverse information types:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 486.  Subject matter wherein the program distribution includes plural types of communication media.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 488]    488Connecting filters:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 485.  Subject matter in which a arrangement of filters or filtering techniques are employed for signal combination or separation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

484,for digital filtering used in a carrier system.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

333Wave Transmission Lines and Networks,   subclasses 100+ and 165 through 167 for coupling networks utilized in a manner similar to networks classified here.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 489]    489Bus (distributed stations):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter in which information is transferred over one or more common frequency channel shared by a plurality of stations having the same level of control.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

485,for a telephone subscriber carrier system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 490]    490Combined communication of diverse information types:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 489.  Subject matter wherein distributed information includes plural types of communication media.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 491]    491Pilot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter in which at least one signal wave, usually a single frequency, is transmitted for control purposes, e.g., A.G.C., Doppler correction.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

500,for pilot control signal in multiplex communications over time channels.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 1+ for a stereo system with pilot signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 492]    492Repeater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter having a retransmitting station between communicating stations to compensate for transmission attenuation losses or to extend the range of communication between a group of stations.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

274,for a quadruplex repeater.
279,and 293, for a duplex repeater.
315+,for a repeater used in communication over free space.
501,for a repeater used in multiplex communications over time channels.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

178Telegraphy,   subclass 70 R+ for a telegraphic nonmultiplex repeater.
330Amplifiers,   for an amplifier which may be used as a repeater.
379Telephonic Communications,   subclasses 338+ for a telephonic nonmultiplex repeater.
455Telecommunications,   subclass 23 for a nonmultiplex frequency carrier wave repeater system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 493]    493Combined voice and data transmission:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter having transmission of a composite signal comprising audio and data.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 494]    494Data over voice:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 493.  Subject matter wherein data are transmitted on a carrier frequency higher than the voice frequency range.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 495]    495Data under voice:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 493.  Subject matter wherein data are transmitted on a carrier frequency lower than the voice frequency range.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 496]    496Signaling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter including means for transmitting supervisory or indicating information ancillary to principal information being transmitted (e.g., E and M signaling).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

522,for signaling in multiplex communications over time channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 497]    497Using particular filtering technique:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 480.  Subject matter employing devices that allow signals of certain frequencies to pass for signal combination or separation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 498]    498Combining or distributing information via time channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 464.  Subject matter wherein information signals are communicated between stations by assembling or separating the signals via different time periods on a common transmission medium.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

280,and 294, for a time division duplex system.
326+,336+ and 345+, for combining or distributing information via time channels in satellite, cellular, or general communication over free space respectively.
478,for combined time and frequency division multiplexing.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 499]    499Polarity multiplex:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter in which positive and negative half cycles of a carrier wave are respectively modulated independently by signals from different sources.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

381Electric Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 2+ for broadcast or multiplex stereo which may include polarity multiplex technique.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 500]    500Pilot:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter including a signal (pilot) separable from the usual information transmitted, which signal is utilized for control, maintenance, or improvement of signal quality.

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491,for pilot control signal in multiplex communications over frequency channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 501]    501Repeater:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter having a retransmitting station between communicating stations to compensate for transmission attenuation losses or to extend the range of communication between a group of stations.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

274,for a quadruplex repeater.
279,and 293, for radio and wire duplex repeater respectively.
315+,for a repeater used in communication over free space.
491,for a repeater used in multiplex communications over frequency channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 502]    502Bus extenders:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 501.  Subject matter including at least a common retransmission line to extend the communication range between a group of transmission lines.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 503]    503Synchronizing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter including a means for insuring that the transmission and reception of time multiplex information has a proper time relationship.
(1) Note. Included herein is a phase locked loop synchronizer unique to multiplex and a system analogous to pulse stuffing or deletion which utilize a guard interval but do not stuff or delete, but rather adjust timing to prevent conflict.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

304,for a synchronizer in a low speed asynchronous data system.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 354+ for synchronizing the operations of receiving and transmitting mechanisms.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 504]    504Reference indication consists of a gap:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter in which synchronization is achieved by identifying the absence of data transmission for a predetermined interval (i.e., a gap) and using that absence to identify a reference point within a transmission interval.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 505]    505Pulse stuffing or deletion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter wherein synchronization of a pulse train is achieved by (a) inserting extra pulses into the train when pulses arrive too slow or (b) removing pulses from the train when pulses arrive too fast.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 506]    506Frame or bit stream justification:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 505.  Subject matter wherein a course of action is taken if a receiver station ignores a block of data because an error has occurred or the receiver possesses no more buffer space.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 507]    507Mutual (reciprocal) synchronization:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter wherein the clock frequency adjustment of one station is based upon information about the status of clock signals originating at other stations of the system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 508]    508Transmission time into time slots adjusted based upon propagation delay time:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 507.  Subject matter including means to adjust the time at which a station transmits information into an assigned time period in order to compensate for transmission delays which are related to the length and type of communication media.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 509]    509Using synchronization information contained in a frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter in which the synchronization is performed on a cycle of a recurring number of data bits (frame) rather than on the individual channels or bits in the frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 510]    510Synchronization information is distributed over multiple frames:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 509.  Subject matter wherein the information used for synchronizing the information stream is placed in multiple time locations within a time period defining more than one frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 511]    511Using redundant synchronization words:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 510.  Subject matter wherein plural identical synchronizing words are transmitted so that the words may be compared to ensure the proper recognition of the synchronizing words.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 512]    512Synchronization information is distributed within a frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 509.  Subject matter wherein the information used for synchronizing the information stream is placed in multiple time locations within the time period defining the frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 513]    513Plural synchronization words:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 512.  Subject matter wherein the information used to synchronize the information stream consists of a multiplicity of multibit words which are distributed in the frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 514]    514Unique synchronization word or unique bit sequence:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 509.  Subject matter wherein a particular sequence of bits is utilized to ensure the proper recognition of the synchronizing information so that the information may be properly decoded.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 515]    515Pseudo-random:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 514.  Subject matter in which a maximal or minimum length binary sequence is utilized for achieving synchronization.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

510,for a pseudo-random sequence distributed over a plurality of frames.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 516]    516Adjusting for phase or jitter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter including means to correct errors in the time of occurrence of transmitted pulses.
(1) Note. This includes self clocking in which phase lock loops are used to correct phase errors between a local reference and the received signal for proper synchronization.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 517]    517Including delay device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 516.  Subject matter in which the timing of transmission or reception is determined by propagation of one or more pulses down a delay device.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 518]    518Provide plural phases of a clocking signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Subject matter wherein multiple versions of a clock signal are provided, and wherein each of the clock signals are phase shifted in relation to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 519]    519Delay based upon propagation delay time:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 517.  Subject matter including a measurement of time required for a pulse or a level transition to propagate through a device.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 520]    520Unique synchronization pulse:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 503.  Subject matter in which a synchronization bit has a width, amplitude, phase, or other property which serves to distinguish the synchronization bit from data bits.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 521]    521Time compression or expansion:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter where (a) information is read out at a faster rate than it is stored, resulting in a time compression, or conversely (b) where it is stored at a faster rate than it is read out, resulting in a time expansion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

381Electrical Audio Signal Processing Systems and Devices,   subclasses 34+ for the time compression or expansion of an electrical audio signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 522]    522Signaling (ancillary to main information):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter having means for transmitting or detecting signaling information ancillary to the principal information transmitted by the system (e.g., dial pulse, onhook/offhook, and ringing information all ancillary to the information conveyed by a telephone call).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

496,for signaling in multiplex communications over frequency channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 523]    523Using bit robbing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 522.  Subject matter wherein a bit which is normally used to convey main information is temporarily used for supervisory information. (e.g., the 8th bit of a byte of information is temporarily used for signaling).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 524]    524Using a dedicated signaling channel (i.e., D-channel):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 522.  Subject matter wherein a predefined transmission channel is designated for signaling.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 525]    525Digital tone signal generation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 522.  Subject matter including a generator which creates an encoded binary signal representation of a tone or a wave signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 526]    526Digital tone detection:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 522.  Subject matter including a detector of digital tone or digital wave signals.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 527]    527Superimposed or modulated on principal information:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 522.  Subject matter in which the signaling information is carried on the principal information.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 528]    528Inserted in gaps in main information:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 522.  Subject matter in which gaps in the principal information transmitted are used for the transmission of ancillary data (e.g., signaling data transmitted during gaps in a speech signal).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

433+,for information from a different source inserted in gaps occurred in the principle information, particularly subclass 435 for time assignment speech interpolation.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 529]    529Information superimposed on other information:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter in which the signaling information is carried on information other than the principal information.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 530]    530Staircase wave:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter in which a step wave is used for control purposes.
(1) Note. An example is activating a plurality of gates sequentially.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 531]    531Magnetic core for switching or storage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter in which magnetic cores are used for switching or storage of multiplexed data.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

307Electrical Transmission or Interconnection Systems,   subclasses 401+ for a saturable reactor system which uses a magnetic core.
365Static Information Storage and Retrieval,   appropriate subclasses for magnetic core memory.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 532]    532Multiplexer or distributor and technique for handling low level input signal:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter directed to (a) a scanning or sampling switch (multiplexer) operating above the Nyquist rate, or to (b) a demultiplexer or desampling switch (distributor) so operating, and including a means for improving the accuracy of sampled data, especially for a low level signal.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

303,for rotary distributor in low speed asynchronous data system..
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 533]    533Multiplexer or distributor using pulse amplitude modulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter directed to (a) a scanning or sampling switch (multiplexer) operating above the Nyquist rate, or to (b) a demultiplexer or desampling switch (distributor) so operating, and in which the signals respectively from or to the multiplexer or distributor are transmitting in pulse amplitude modulated format (PAM).
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 534]    534Multiplexer or distributor using electron beam switching device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter directed to (a) a scanning or sampling switch (multiplexer) operating above the Nyquist rate, or to (b) a demultiplexer or desampling switch (distributor) so operating, and utilizing an electron beam switching device such as a cathode-ray tube with target electrode for multiplexing or distribution.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

306,for nonmechanical distributor in low speed asynchronous data system.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 535]    535Multiplexing combined with demultiplexing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter including a system that combines techniques of simultaneous transmission and reception of plural signals over a common transmission medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 536]    536Demultiplexing single signal into plural parallel channels (e.g., parallel transmission for increasing transmission speed):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 535.  Subject matter having a means that derive a group of separate channels from a complex multiplex signal.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

375Pulse or Digital Communications,   subclasses 260+ for a single pulse train transmitted over plural channels.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 537]    537Multiplexing plural input channels to a common output channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter wherein signals from plural input channels are transmitted by time multiplex to a common output channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 538]    538Plural input channels of different rates to a single common rate output channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Subject matter wherein the amount of information transmitted per unit time in each input channel is different from one to another.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 539]    539Multiple levels of multiplexing to form a multiplex hierarchy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 538.  Subject matter having more than one multiplexing stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 540]    540Plural input channels of same rate to a single common rate output channel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 537.  Subject matter wherein all input channels have same amount of information transmitted per unit time.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 541]    541Multiple levels of multiplexing to form a multiplex hierarchy:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 540.  Subject matter having more than one multiplexing stage.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 542]    542Demultiplexing single input channel to plural output channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter having a means that derives a group of separate channels from a complex multiplex signal.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 543]    543Different rate output channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 542.  Subject matter wherein the amount of information transmitted per unit time in each output channel is different from one to another.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 544]    544Same rate output channels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 542.  Subject matter wherein all output channels have same amount of information transmitted per unit time.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 545]    545Conversion of rate from a single input to a single output:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 498.  Subject matter wherein the multiplex system has only one input and one output and the amount of information transmitted per unit time is different at the input and the output
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 546]    546MISCELLANEOUS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Subject matter not provided for above.
  

CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS

[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 901]    901WIDE AREA NETWORK:
 Art collection of the multiplex communication system consisting of multiple communication systems interconnected to form a larger communication system encompassing a larger area than that provided by any one of the interconnected communication systems.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 902]    902Packet switching:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 901.  Subject matter wherein the information data to be switched by the communication systems is organized with one or more bytes preceded by an identification information indicative of a source or destination station.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 903]    903OSI Compliant Network:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 902.  Subject matter wherein the communication system complies with a multilayer reference model as set forth by the Open System Interconnection standard.
(1) Note. The Open System Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model recommends a seven-layer model; Layer 1 to 7 are respectively called: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application.
(2) Note. The structured layer approach allows partitioning complex communication rules or protocols into independent functions which could be individually modified or updated without destabilizing the entire set of rules or protocols.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 904]    904Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 903.  Subject matter wherein the OSI compliant network complies with a set of communication standards for providing integrated voice and data services to users.
(1) Note. Broadband services are also provided for this set of standards.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 905]    905Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 903.  Subject matter wherein asynchronous packetized information is conveyed in regularly occurring time periods of uniform duration.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 906]    906Fiber Data Distribution Interface (FDDI):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 903.  Subject matter wherein the network elements are interconnected by counter rotating, dual ring fiber optic media wherein the communication on the network is controlled used a token passing protocol.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 907]    907Synchronous optical network (SONET):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 903.  Subject matter wherein the network is defined by a standard which describes a point-to-point connection over a fiber optic network which provides a digital communications hierarchy which resolves incompatibilities between North America and European digital hierarchies and is characterized by the STS-1 frame format which consists of 810 bytes.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 908]    908LOCAL AREA NETWORK:
 Art collection of the multiplex communication system wherein a plurality of user"s terminals are interconnected by a common communication media.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 909]    909Token ring:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 908.  Subject matter in which an idle or busy signal, indicative of the status of the communications channel or path, is passed from station to station on a closed transmission path.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 910]    910Carrier sense multiple access (e.g., Ethernet, 10Base-T):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 908.  Subject matter having a reservation scheme for reaching a communication medium in which a station is assigned a carrier; the idle state of a communication channel is determined by sensing the presence or absence of a carrier signal on the channel.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 911]    911Bridge (e.g., brouter, bus extender, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 908.  Subject matter having a device for interconnecting two or more local area networks.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 912]    912PACKET COMMUNICATIONS:
 Art collection of the multiplex communication system wherein the information data to be communicated by the communication systems is organized with one or more bytes preceded by an identification information indicative of a source or destination station.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 913]    913Wireless or radio:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 912.  Subject matter wherein the packets are transmitted or received over free space.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 914]    914RATE CONVERTER:
 Art collection of the multiplex communication system which receives information at one bit rate and transmit at another bit rate.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 915]    915TIME DIVISION CELLULAR RADIO SYSTEMS:
 Art collection of the multiplex communication system having plural nonmobile base stations providing service to different geos:graphical areas which may overlap or may be contiguous, and wherein mobile stations are in communication with the nonmobile stations by information signals combined or distributed via separated time periods on a transmission medium.
  
[List of Patents for class 370 subclass 916]    916MULTIPLEXER/DEMULTIPLEXER:
 Art collection of the multiplex communication system including methods or apparatus for formatting, converting, combining, or distributing information signals for transmission or reception via more than one time or frequency channel.
  

FOREIGN ART COLLECTIONS

The definitions for FOR 100-FOR 196 below correspond to the definitions for only the following abolished subclasses under Class 370 from which these collections were formed: 53-57, 58.1-58.3, 59, 60, 60.1, 61-65, 65.5, 66-68, 68.1, 69.1, 70-84, 85.1, 85.11, 85.15, 85.2-85.9, 91-93, 94.1-94.3, 95.1-95.3, 97-99, 100.1, 101-103, 104.1, 105, 105.1-105.5, 106-109, 110.1-110.4, and 111-125. See the Foreign Art Collection schedule for specific correspondences. [Note: The titles and definitions for indented art collections include all the details of the one(s) that are hierarchically superior.]

FOR 100SIMULTANEOUS TELEGRAPHY AND TELEPHONY:
 Foreign art collection including concurrent transmission of bidirectional audio signal and a pulse information signal over a single transmission channel.
  
FOR 101MULTIPLEX SWITCHING:
 Foreign art collection including techniques unique to the switching of multiplexed channels, including multiplexing and subsequent switching of nonmultiplexed channels.
  
FOR 102Pathfinding:
 Foreign art collection including apparatus and techniques for locating a path through a switching network from a desired input to a desired output.
  
FOR 103Drop channel:
 Foreign art collection including one or more channels of a multiplexed composite signal removed and replaced with other channels without demultiplexing all channels down to base band.
  
FOR 104Concentrators:
 Foreign art collection including a switching device used to reduce the number of transmission channels required to serve remote stations by allocating a transmission channel to a remote station only when the remote station requests service (e.g., by going off hook).
  
FOR 105FDM switching (frequency division multiplexing):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter wherein the signals to be switched are frequency division multiplexed.
  
FOR 106TDM switching (time division multiplexing):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which access to a transmission medium is divided into discrete time intervals and information from respective channels is transmitted in differing time intervals.
  
FOR 107Control processing:
 Foreign art collection including specifics of circuits for controlling the time division switching.
  
FOR 108Distributed:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter where the control circuits are dispersed throughout the system.
  
FOR 109T-S (time-space) or S-T:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the switching is organized to have only a time stage (which reorganized the order of time slots) and a space stage (which switches time slots on incoming lines to a desired outgoing line) in either order.
  
FOR 110Packet or addressed data:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter wherein the time division multiplexed data to be switched is organized with one or more bytes preceded by an address header.
  
FOR 111Combined with circuit-switching:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which packet information is combined and switched with nonpacket (e.g., synchronous) data.
  
FOR 112Store and forward:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which store and forward facilities are provided.
  
FOR 113Special services with switching (e.g., conference):
 Foreign art collection including the provision of special subscriber services (i.e., those not normally provided without additional fees) claimed with multiplex switching.
  
FOR 114TST (time-space-time):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the switching is organized to have first a time state (one which reorganizes the order of the time slots) followed by a space stage (which switches time slots on incoming lines to the desired outgoing lines) followed by another time stage.
  
FOR 115STS (space-time-space):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the switching is organized to have first a space stage (one which switches time slots on incoming lines to a desired outgoing line) followed by a time stage (which reorganizes the order of the time slots) followed by another space stage.
  
FOR 116Folded network:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which an equivalent N-stage switch is achieved with less than N-stages by "folding" back the output of one stage to connect with the input of a preceding stage.
  
FOR 117Space stage, per se:
 Foreign art collection including structure of a stage which switches incoming lines to outgoing lines.
  
FOR 118Time only:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which information in time slots of incoming lines is switched to desired destinations only by storing or delaying the information until the desired instant of readout.
  
FOR 119Bus switch:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which time switching occurs by connecting the lines to be connected to a common bus for a time sufficient to transfer information between the lines (e.g., one time slot).
  
FOR 120Time slot interchangers, per se:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter having a particular time slot interchanger/ structure.
  
FOR 121With signalling feature:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter having signalling equipment located at a switching exchange facility of a time division multiplex network.
  
FOR 122FREQUENCY DIVISION:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the frequency spectrum of the transmission medium is divided into segments and respective information channels are transmitted in differing segments.
  
FOR 123Multiple frequency translations:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which multiple translations in frequency are performed on at least one information signal in a frequency division multiplex system.
  
FOR 124Carrier generation:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter features specific to a carrier generator.
  
FOR 125Angle modulation:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which at least one carrier in a frequency division multiplex system is angle modulated.
  
FOR 126Filtering techniques:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which devices that allow signals of certain frequencies to pass are employed for signal combination or separation in a frequency division multiplex system.
  
FOR 127Digital analysis or synthesis of group:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which an FDM composite spectrum is produced or resolved into its constituent channels by digital processing techniques.
  
FOR 128Subscriber carrier:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which additional individual subscriber service is provided by adding carrier channels to an existing communication line.
  
FOR 129Connecting filters:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which arrangements of filters or filtering techniques are employed for signal combination or separation.
  
FOR 130Program distribution:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter wherein program information (e.g., commercial radio broadcast) is distributed over a carrier system.
  
FOR 131Bus (distributed stations):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which information is transferred over one or more frequency division busses shared by a plurality of distributed stations.
  
FOR 132Pilot:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which at least one pilot signal is transmitted for control purposes, e.g., A.G.C., doppler correction.
  
FOR 133Repeaters:
 Foreign art collection including subclass matter including a repeater having features unique to frequency division multiplexing.
  
FOR 134Signalling:
 Foreign art collection including means for transmitting signalling information ancillary to the principal information being transmitted, e.g., E and M signalling.
  
FOR 135TIME DIVISION:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which access to the transmission medium is divided into discrete time intervals, and information from respective channels is transmitted in differing time intervals.
  
FOR 136Polarity multiplex:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which positive and negative half cycles of a carrier wave are respectively modulated independently by signals from different sources.
  
FOR 137Adaptive systems:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the transmission format (a) changes or adapts automatically, (b) is programmed for changing traffic requirements, or (c) accommodates a plurality of sources having diverse characteristics, (e.g., rates, data format).
  
FOR 138Only active channels transmitted:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the system adapts to changing traffic conditions by sending only data from active channels and by suppressing data from inactive channels.
  
FOR 139TASI (time assigned speech interpolation):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which time assigned speech interpolation (TASI) is used to transmit only active channels.
  
FOR 140Frame length:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the frame length adapts to changes in traffic conditions.
  
FOR 141Byte length:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the byte length adapts to changes in traffic conditions.
  
FOR 142Rate:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter (a) in which the bit rate per channel transmitted adapts to changes in traffic conditions or (b) in which different data rates are accommodated.
  
FOR 143Bus transmission:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which information is transferred to over one or more conductors which form time division communication paths between a plurality of terminals.
  
FOR 144Contention:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter having means to resolve situations in which plural stations attempt to gain access to the bus in the same time slot.
  
FOR 145Carrier sense:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the idle state of the bus is determined by sensing the presence or absence of a carrier signal on the bus.
  
FOR 146Token passing:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a signal (token) indicative of the occupancy of the communication channel is used to control access to the communication channel.
  
FOR 147Loop or ring:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the token passing access technique is used in transmission paths having an output continuously fed back to an input.
  
FOR 148Priority:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a particular order of transmission is assigned to stations or information.
  
FOR 149Variable channel assignment:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which allocations of information channels to transmission channels may be changed based upon changing demands.
  
FOR 150Polling:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which individual terminals are queried to determine if access to the transmission medium is needed for the transfer of information.
  
FOR 151Plural bus:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which more than one bus is used to convey information between stations.
  
FOR 152With separate control bus:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a separate bus is provided to transmit control information to the station (e.g., clock, address or control busses).
  
FOR 153Loop or ring:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which plural concentric loop or ring busses are used to convey information between stations.
  
FOR 154Bridge between bus systems:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a connector (bridge) is used to interconnect separate bus communication systems.
  
FOR 155Interconnection between ring or loop:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a connector (bridge) is used to interconnect separate transmission circuits having an output continuously fed back to an input.
  
FOR 156Loop or ring:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the bus for communicating between stations is configured in a closed loop.
  
FOR 157Asynchronous and nonsynchronous:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a channel allocated a transmission interval on an irregular basis.
  
FOR 158Address transmitted:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which address information accompanies the transmission of data.
  
FOR 159Multiple access, discrete address:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter which permits multiple access to a transmission medium by identifying each transmitter and/or receiver with a discrete address.
  
FOR 160Packet:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which time division multiplexed data is organized with one or more bytes preceded by an address header.
  
FOR 161Combined with synchronous information:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which packet information is combined with data for causing the transmission and reception of time division multiplex information to have proper time relationship.
  
FOR 162Star, tree, or mesh networks:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the network over which the packets are to be transmitted consists of switching nodes, wherein the nodes are interconnected to form a star-shaped, tree-shaped, or mesh-shaped network.
  
FOR 163Variable channel assignment:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the allocation of information channels to transmission channels occurs on an as-needed (i.e., nondedicated) basis.
  
FOR 164Polling:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which individual terminals are queried to determine if they need access to the transmission medium for the transfer of information.
  
FOR 165Time division multiple access:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter having a reservation scheme for access to a communication media in which any station is assigned a vacant time slot channel in a time division multiplex frame on the media in response to that station"s request for access and the assignment lasting until it is withdrawn.
  
FOR 166TDM pulse repeater:
 Foreign art collection including repeaters which use time division multiplexing techniques.
  
FOR 167Pilot:
 Foreign art collection including a signal (pilot) separable from the usual information transmitted which signal is utilized for control, maintenance, or improvement of signal quality.
  
FOR 168Byte assembly and formatting:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which received data is assembled into a particular data format either with or without format conversion.
  
FOR 169Synchronizing:
 Foreign art collection including means for insuring that the transmission and reception of time division multiplex information has the proper time relationship.
  
FOR 170Reference indication consists of a gap:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which synchronization is achieved by identifying the absence of data transmission for a predetermined interval (i.e., a gap) and using that absence to identify a reference point within a transmission interval.
  
FOR 171Pulse stuffing or deletion:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter wherein synchronization of a pulse train is achieved by stuffing extra pulses into the train when pulses arrive too slow or deleting pulses from the train when pulses arrive too fast.
  
FOR 172Mutual (reciprocal) synchronization:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter wherein the clock frequency adjustment of one station is based upon information about the status of clock signals originating at other stations of the system.
  
FOR 173Moving satellite:
 Foreign art collection which includes means for the synchronization of stations used in a satellite communications system.
  
FOR 174Distributed:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the synchronization word or words are spread out within a frame or over plural frames.
  
FOR 175Frame:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which synchronization is performed on a cycle of a recurring number of data bits (frame) rather than on the individual channels or bits in the frame.
  
FOR 176Channel:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which synchronization is performed on each individual channel as a whole.
  
FOR 177Bit phase or jitter:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter which corrects for errors in the time of occurrence of transmitted pulses.
  
FOR 178Unique synchronization word:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the synchronization word has an unique code or bit sequence.
  
FOR 179Unique synchronization pulse:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a synchronization bit has a width, amplitude, phase, or other property which serves to distinguish the synchronization bit from data bits.
  
FOR 180Plural synchronizing words:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a plurality of different synchronizing words are utilized.
  
FOR 181Pseudo-random:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a maximal length binary sequence is utilized for achieving synchronization.
  
FOR 182Including delay device:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the timing of transmission or reception is determined by propagation of one or more pulses down a delay device.
  
FOR 183Time compression or expansion:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter where information is read out at a faster rate than it is stored, resulting in a time compression, or conversely where it is stored at a faster rate than it is read out, resulting in a time expansion.
  
FOR 184Signalling (ancillary to main information):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter with means for transmitting and/or detecting signalling information ancillary to the principal information transmitted by the system (e.g., dial pulse, on-hook/off-hook, and ringing information all ancillary to the information conveyed by a telephone call).
  
FOR 185Digital tone signal generation:
 Foreign art collection including a generator which creates a digital signal which represents a tone or a wave signal.
  
FOR 186Digital tone detection:
 Foreign art collection including a detector of digital tone or digital wave signals.
  
FOR 187Superimposed or modulated on principal information:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the signalling information is superimposed or modulated on the principal information.
  
FOR 188Inserted in gaps in main information:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which gaps in the principal information transmitted are used for the transmission of ancillary data, e.g., signalling data transmitted during gaps in a speech signal.
  
FOR 189Multiplexers/distributors (hierarchy and level):
 Foreign art collection including subject matter directed to scanning or sampling switches (multiplexers) operating above the Nyquist rate, or to demultiplexers or desampling switches (distributors) so operating.
  
FOR 190Apparatus and techniques for handling low level input signals:
 Foreign art collection including means for improving the accuracy of sampled data, especially for low level signals.
  
FOR 191Pulse amplitude modulation:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which the signals respectively from or to the multiplexer or distributor are transmitting in pulse amplitude modulated format (PAM).
  
FOR 192Electron beam switching device:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter utilizing an electron beam switching device such as a cathode-ray tube with target electrode for multiplexing or distribution.
  
FOR 193Staircase wave:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which a step wave is used for control purposes such as activating a plurality of gates sequentially.
  
FOR 194Magnetic core for switching or storage:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter in which magnetic cores are used for switching or storage of multiplexed data.
  
FOR 195TRANSMISSION BANDWIDTH CONSERVATION:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter having means for providing more information per unit time on a given transmission medium.
  
FOR 196MISCELLANEOUS:
 Foreign art collection including subject matter not provided for above.
  
FOR 197Message transmitted using regularly occurring fixed length time intervals (e.g., ATM):
 Foreign art collection wherein asynchronous pack information is conveyed in regularly occurring time periods of uniform duration.
  

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