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 [Search a list of Patent Appplications for class 172]   CLASS 172,EARTH WORKING
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SECTION I - CLASS DEFINITION

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CLASS SUBJECT MATTER

This is the generic class for subject matter relating to working the earth in situ. Earth working involves physical treatment of the earth and includes beating, compacting, crushing, cultivating, cutting, digging, furrowing, harrowing, leveling, mixing, plowing, pulverizing, rolling, scraping, scratching, smoothing, and tilling.

The earth is usually worked by an earth working element carried on an apparatus traversing the ground but hand held tools such as hoes are also included.

This class also takes subject matter, not otherwise classified relating to the cutting and removal of sod or turf from the ground.

Apparatus comprising means other than earth working means supported on or attached to a vehicle for manipulation in a manner consistent with the use of the means as an earth working means is classifiable in this class if the means is identified in a claim by name only and the claim contains no feature otherwise inconsistent with classification in Class 172. However, lines with other classes have in many cases not been cleared so that where the bulk of the existing art has been classified on a basis other than indicated above such classification is continued.

(1) Note. CLAIMS NOT CONTROLLING IN PATENTS PRIOR TO 1930. Patents prior to 1930 have not necessarily been classified by claims so that the placement of these old patents does not necessarily indicate lines of classification. In view of the large numbers of old patents in this class many of these patents have been classified in accordance with their total disclosure. This is especially true of the patents in subclasses 332+. Most of the patents, however, regardless of their age have been placed in accordance with their claimed subject matter.

SECTION II - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS

SUBJECT MATTER RELATING TO SNOW REMOVAL, TO WORKING THE EARTH FOR INDUSTRIAL PURPOSES, TO COMPACTING EARTH FOR ROADS OR PAVEMENT AND TO WORKING HARD MATERIAL IN SITU

Class 37, Excavating, generally relates to removing snow or to working the earth for industrial purposes as by making a ditch or moving earth by a conveyor or scoop. In many cases the devices found in Class 37 for these purposes are indistinguishable structurally from devices found in Class 172. Classification turns on emphasis for a certain use, such as snow removal or ditch digging. Class 37 formerly contained subclasses 143 through 181 entitled "Scrapers" which included subject matter relating to scraping the earth by means of a blade or such subject matter in combination with other earth working means such as harrows or rollers. The devices in these subclasses were typically road graders or bulldozers for working or moving the earth for industrial purposes. These subclasses were abolished and the art found in them was for the most part incorporated into Class 172 and is to be found in subclasses 4.5, 26.5, 26.6, 777-809 and other appropriate subclasses. Some of the art was specialized to ditch filling and was placed in Class 37 subclass 142.5. The remaining patents were not drawn to scraping blades or such blades combined with simple earth working means and were transferred to appropriate subclasses in Class 37 or other classes. Class 37, subclasses 104+, Railway Graders, and subclasses 381+, Road-Grader Type, were not cleared. Patents in these subclasses should be drawn to devices more specialized than the general utility scrapers or "road graders" which were classified in abolished subclasses 143-181.

Class 299, Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material, as the title indicates, generally provides for the working of hard earth material such as rock and also the working of ice in situ. However, a tool which is actually of general utility in earth working, such as a ripper tooth or scraper and traverses the earth without relative movement with respect to its support (as by rolling or cyclical driving) is classifiable in Class 172 even if solely disclosed for disintegrating rock.

Class 404, Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus, subclasses 117, 121, and 122+, for a roller device which performs a simple compacting function on the earth. See the note to Class 172, under the class definition of Class 404.

JOINTS

Many of the patents relating to earth working devices claim joints between parts of the device. A claim to a joint between two disclosed earth working portions of an earth working apparatus, e.g., a claim to a joint between a plow share and moldboard, is classifiable in Class 172, subclasses 681+. Also, a claim to an overload release joint between implement parts, e.g., between a tractor and a device solely disclosed as an earth working type of implement, is classifiable in Class 172, subclasses 261+ and a claim to a spring biased joint for biasing an earth working tool is classifiable in Class 172, subclasses 705+. However, other claims to joints, per se, are classifiable in the various classes relating to joints. Thus, joints of general application are classifiable in Class 403, Joints and Connections. An articulated joint between a tractor and a trailing vehicle, as long as that vehicle is not solely disclosed as an implement, is classifiable in Class 280, Land Vehicles, subclasses 400+.

The Search Notes below also contain lines with other classes.

SECTION III - REFERENCES TO OTHER CLASSES

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

7Compound Tools,   appropriate subclasses for miscellaneous compound tools, especially subclass 115 for a cutter combined with a pitch fork and subclass 116 for a cutter combined with a spade or shovel (e.g., a bayonet and a shovel). Hand tools comprising combinations of various earth working portions are classifiable in Class 172, Earth Working.
15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   appropriate subclasses for cleaners, including scrapers. Class 172 takes cleaners for cleaning earth working parts, which cleaners are intended to be attached to the earth working apparatus.
16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 110.1+ for handles for earth working devices, such as plows or hoes.
29Metal Working,   subclass 14 for machines and processes of making plow and cultivator irons, subclasses 891+ for processes of making agricultural devices, and see the subclasses there cited.
30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses, for cutters of general utility and cutters for merely making a slit in sod. A cutter for earth working purposes such as making a slit in the soil (e.g., a colter) is classifiable in Class 172. Thus a patent to a cutter with a claim restricted to earth working or a sole disclosure of earth working is classifiable in Class 172, except that a patent to a hand device with the cutting edge extending generally in the direction of the handle is classifiable in Class 30 even though it is restricted to earth working. Also a tool for merely cutting a plant below the surface of the earth is classifiable in Class 30.
37Excavating,   subclasses 196+ for snow- removing apparatus which may be identical with earth working apparatus except that it is disclosed as principally for snow removal, subclasses 307+ for dredging apparatus, subclasses 347+ especially subclasses 366+ for ditchers which may be very similar to earth working apparatus for Class 172 except that they are disclosed as making an industrial ditch or trench rather than a furrow, by more than mere scraping operation, subclasses 104+ for apparatus specialized to forming the bed or slopes of a railway, subclasses 381+ for apparatus specialized to working on roads and involving something more than mere scraping or earth working apparatus of general utility, subclasses 394+ for cable operated apparatus including cable operated scrapers involving more than the scraper, per se, and a cable attached to the scraper, subclasses 403+ for a scraper convertible to or combined with a scoop, shovel or other material pick up means, subclasses 411+ for scoops which are distinguishable from scrapers classified in Class 172 in that they have a bottom for transporting material, and appropriate subclasses for digging or moving earth in general.
47Plant Husbandry,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 1.01 and 58.1 for subject matter relating to earth working combined with other functions relating to plant husbandry such as heating the earth or spraying a plant. However, a moldboard type plow with heating means for the plow is classifiable in Class 172 subclass 755.
56Harvesters,   appropriate subclasses for subject matter relating to severing or chopping of crop material without disturbing the soil and also subject matter relating to gathering or raking crop material without substantially disturbing the soil. The line is essentially one of disclosed use. If a device is described as a nonearth disturbing harvesting device the patent is placed in Class 56 rather than Class 172 even if the structure claimed is the same as that which may be found in Class 172. An exception is that if a harvester is claimed by name only and the claim is otherwise drawn to merely a mounting or manipulating means which is consistent with the functioning of the named harvester as an earth working device then the patent may be classifiable in Class 172.
  • With respect to the stalk chopper art, if the chopper is disclosed as one which operates by the action of a cutter member against the ground, without a ledger plate it is assumed that the soil is disturbed and classification in Class 172 results. Choppers operating above the ground level are classifiable in Class 56.
  • Generally Class 172 takes the combination of or the conversion between a Class 56 apparatus and a Class 172 apparatus, or an apparatus disclosed as having either an earth working or a harvesting function without change. Thus a Class 172 type lawn edger combined with or convertible to a harvester is found in Class 172, subclass 14, the combination of other types of Class 172 devices with a harvester is in Class 172, subclasses 27+ and the combination of a Class 172 device with a rake is in Class 172, subclasses 29+. An exception to the above is that a hand rake combined with or convertible to an earth working means is classifiable in Class 56, subclasses 400.04+.
60Power Plants,   subclasses 325+ , especially subclass 427 for hydraulic-type power plants operated by liquid supplied from a pump. Many such power plants are used in earth working apparatus. A claim to a power plant for an earth working apparatus reciting only a tractor mounting for the plant and a rockshaft actuated by the power plant is classifiable in Class 60. If the claim goes beyond this and claims some detail of the apparatus which may be only a lift arm on the rockshaft or a draft sensing means it is classifiable in Class 172.
72Metal Deforming,   subclasses 462+ for dies for forming plow and cultivator irons.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclasses for machine elements and mechanical movements, especially subclasses 11+ for power take-offs.
76Metal Tools and Implements, Making,   subclass 85 for attachments other than abrading attachments for sharpening earth working tools. An earth working apparatus combined with a sharpening device is in Class 172, subclass 437. However, when the earth working apparatus as claimed is only a support for the attachment the claim is classifiable in Class 76.
91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   appropriate subclasses for servomotors, per se. Many such servomotors are used in earth working apparatus. A claim to a servomotor for an earth working apparatus reciting only a tractor mounting and rockshaft operated by the motor is classifiable in Class 91. However, further detail such as a lift arm on the rockshaft or a draft sensing means causes classification in Class 172.
104Railways,   subclass 169 for apparatus for reciprocating an earth working device, claimed by name only, over the ground and subclass 244.1 for a vehicle or earth working device claimed by name only guided along a field by a furrow feeler. Class 172, subclasses 23+ has significantly claimed earth working apparatus driven from or guided by a stationary object or previously formed furrow.
111Planting,   appropriate subclasses for earth working means combined with planting means, especially subclasses 118+ for earth working means combined with means for inserting liquid or gas into the soil, subclasses 25+ for planting means with earth marking means, subclass 33 for earth marking means comprising means to make an intermittent mark in the earth to indicate the points where material should be planted, subclasses 52+ for frame arrangements, subclass 82 for hand propelled planters, and subclass 99 for dibbles. A Class 172 device generally may comprise the earth working subcombination of a planting device. A planter may be recited by name only as a support for an earth marker or an earth working tool in a claim classifiable in Class 172. A support for an earth working portion identified as a planting boot in a claim is not considered too much for Class 172.
152Resilient Tires and Wheels,   appropriate subclasses for tires and wheels which may be structurally similar to earth working apparatus but are not intended to have an earth working function.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   appropriate subclasses for subject matter relating to unearthing and separating an object from the earth (e.g., a potato digger). A Class 172 device may cut plant roots as it traverses the ground or may turn a furrow which has objects in it such as potatoes but devices in Class 172 do not separate an object from the adjacent earth. A Class 172 device may be a subcombination of a Class 171 device; for example, a plow for Class 172 may lift earth with potatoes in it, the potatoes then being separated from the earth, the complete device being classifiable in Class 171.
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   appropriate subclass for subject matter directed to driving or impacting a tool, when such subject matter includes combined features peculiar to tool driving, but which does not include features limiting the subject matter to a specific tool art, such as specific shape of the work contacting portion of a tool, related tools, or an opposed work support, and see particularly subclasses 184+ driving or impacting means mounted on a wheeled vehicle. Class 172 has not been cleared as to subject matter in conflict with this line.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses for subject matter relating to forming elongated holes in the earth. Apparatus for forming a plurality of small holes in the earth for aerating the soil or for like purposes is classifiable in Class 172, subclasses 21+ .
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 14.1+ for vehicle trains comprising a tractor and a trailing vehicle which may be an implement claimed by name only, subclasses 53.1+ for devices in which the motor of the motor vehicle is used as a source of external power for a device which may be an implement claimed by name only, and subclass 401 for power steering devices which may be controlled by a feeler element running in a furrow. An implement described in a claim as comprising a frame and an earth working means carried thereby is considered to be claimed by more than name only so that the claim would be classifiable in Class 172. The line between Class 172 and subclasses 53.1+ of Class 180 is set out in the Search Class Note of subclass 35 in class 172.
192Clutches and Power-Stop Control,   subclass 62 for plow-lifting type clutches, per se.
241Solid Material Comminution or Disintegration,   appropriate subclasses for subject matter relating to comminuting or disintegrating material other than the earth in situ.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   appropriate subclasses for lifting means of general utility for lifting a load, which means may be structurally similar to a means for manipulating an implement.
280Land Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for the running gear or other feature of a general utility land vehicle, not restricted by disclosure to an earth working or harvesting implement. Attention is directed to subclass 1.5 for a vehicle with a means for engaging the body of a walking attendant; subclasses 6.15+ for a vehicle including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame; subclasses 32.5+ for a vehicle with a worker"s support or shade; subclass 32.7 for a vehicle including a riding attachment; subclasses 43+ for a vehicle including a wheel vertically movable relative to the running gear for the purpose of altering a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof; subclass 47.11 for a vehicle including steering of other than a mere swinging axle by an attendant positioned about, rather than upon, the vehicle; subclasses 47.131+ for a tiltable vehicle stabilized by an article or an attendant; subclasses 47.34+ for handle-propelled vehicles; subclasses 82+ for tongue trucks; subclasses 98+ for vehicles having running gear specifically constructed to enable execution of arcuate travel within a reduced radius of curvature (i.e., short turn); subclass 108 for general utility vehicles including tongue antivibrators; subclasses 124.1+ for general utility vehicle running gear including suspension means; subclasses 137.5+ for general utility vehicle running gear including a turnable axle lacking suspension means; subclasses 160+ for means for fending obstacles from contact with the wheels of a vehicle; subclasses 400+ for an articulated vehicle or plural interconnected vehicles (i.e., vehicle train); subclasses 763.1+ for a vehicle with a retractable ground support; subclasses 771+ for vehicles including occupant controlled steering; subclasses 847+ for vehicle dust or mud guards; or subclasses 855+ for wheel scrapers and cleaners. Further, regarding an articulated vehicle or vehicle train as provided in subclasses 400+ of this class (Class 280), particular attention is directed to subclasses 405.1+ for a load distribution connection between sections of the articulated vehicle or the plural vehicles, subclasses 411.1+ for multiple trailing vehicles, subclass 414.5 for a trailing vehicle having a vertically adjustable wheel, subclasses 415.1+ for a convertible interconnection between the articulated vehicles, subclass 419 for a steering connection between articulated vehicles, subclasses 420+ for articulated vehicles with service connections therebetween, subclasses 442+ for a wheel on a trailing vehicle steered by articulative movement between the vehicles, subclasses 446.1+ for condition responsive draft connections, subclasses 449+ for overload releasing draft connections, subclasses 456.1+ for plural laterally adjustable draft connections, subclass 476.1 for a wheel draft connection, subclasses 477+ for connection facilitating means in a draft connection, and subclass 490.1 for a vertically adjustable draft member, the adjustment being merely for the purpose of placing the draft member at a proper height for facilitating the connection between the articulated vehicles.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 49+ for hand forks and shovels. Hand forks and shovels are distinguished from Class 172 apparatus such as a hand hoe in that the row of tines or blade extends in the general direction of the handle from an end thereof and is designed to engage and lift a load.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   appropriate subclass for subject matter relating to recovering valuable material from the earth or breaking up hard, solid material in situ. In working the earth surface, the line between Class 172 and Class 299 turns on described hardness of material worked, Class 299 taking a cutter or device for working hard solid material in situ. Clay type earth or loose gravel is considered soft material whereas solid rock, coal or road pavement is considered hard material. However, a device for merely drawing a cutter back and forth like a plow even in a hard surface is classified in Class 172 if specific cutter structure is not recited.
301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 41.1+ for wheels which may be structurally indistinguishable from earth working tools but which are not intended to work the earth.
384Bearings,   subclass 157 for a plain bearing and 460 for an antifraction bearing for plow or colter disks which may include the bearing support.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for a joint between two members which does not involve any structure of the members other than that which cooperates to effect the joint.
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclass 117 , for an earth compacting roller with vibrating or impact means, subclass 121, for a sheep"s foot roller, subclasses 122+, for a rotating drum, roller or tire to compact earth and subclasses 133.05+, for earth tamping means.
414Material or Article Handling,   appropriate subclasses.
418Rotary Expansible Chamber Devices,   for rotary expansible chamber-type pumps or motors, per se.
451Abrading,   subclasses 415+ for an abrasive attachment for sharpening earth working tools. An earth working apparatus combined with a sharpening device is in Class 172, subclass 437. However, where the earth working apparatus, as claimed, is only a support for the attachment, then classification is in Class 451.
492Roll or Roller,   for a nonearth working roll, per se, not elsewhere provided for, and see the notes thereunder.
D8Tools and Hardware,   subclasses 1+ for tools and implements for agriculture, forestry and horticulture.
D15Machines Not Elsewhere Specified,   subclasses 10+ for agricultural or construction machinery.

SECTION IV - GLOSSARY

ACTUATOR

A device comprising both a means for imparting movement to an element and a means for holding the moved element against returning to a position from which it has been moved. Thus, an actuator may comprise a servomotor, a mechanical power take-off from a motor or rolling wheel, a hand operated lever and ratchet or merely a handle and a bracket for holding the element moved by the handle in position. In the case of a mere handle actuator, however, the handle must be intended to be used merely to move an element to an adjusted position where it is held in place by a holding means. If the handle is intended to be used by an attendant so as to hold an element in intermediate positions by continued application of force by the attendant then the handle is not considered an actuator. See subclasses 329+ for devices with such handles. If the handle is disclosed as usable as an actuator to merely move and hold and, alternatively, also as a guiding means to move and hold by force exerted by the attendant then the handle is considered to be both an actuator and an attendant hold means and is classified accordingly in the first appropriate subclass and cross referenced down if necessary.

A device comprising merely a means for moving by direct application of draft force is not considered an actuator. For example, an implement hitched to a tractor and provided with a latch and a movable hitch whereby the draft force of the tractor on the movable hitch moves an earth working element with respect to the implement frame and the latch holds the element in different positions is not considered to be provided with an actuator, as the term is used in this class. See subclass 605 for such devices.

Also, a device comprising merely a screw bolt or the like is not considered an actuator, being merely a clamping or an adjusting means.

ADJUSTABLE

An adjective describing the capability of two parts of being selectively held in different positions with respect to one another by some means other than an attendant. A mere clamp which cooperates with a member such that by loosening the clamp the member could be set in any desired position and reclamped (e.g., clamp and spike tooth) is not considered to be an adjusting means. However, any specific structure such as selectively usable apertures, teeth, slots, etc., for the purpose of permitting the selective change of the relative positions of two parts is included under this definition.

Despite the above limitation on the meaning of "adjustable" if a claim emphasizes the feature of adjustability it is classifiable in an "adjustable" subclass even if structurally the feature comprises a mere clamp.

EARTH WORKING ELEMENT

Synonymous with "tool".

IMPLEMENT

A combination of parts comprising an earth working device. It may mean merely an earth working portion or a complex combination of parts including a tractor. Usually it indicates a complete device which as an entity may be readily attached to a tractor in the field.

LATERAL

A direction which is transverse of the line of draft of a tool over the earth unless some other meaning is clearly indicated by the context.

LONGITUDINAL

A direction which is parallel to the line of draft of a tool over the earth unless some other meaning is clearly indicated.

TOOL

That portion of the apparatus which actually works the earth.

SUBCLASSES

[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 1]    1PROCESSES:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Methods.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

37Excavating,   subclass 195 for methods of excavating.
47Plant Husbandry,   subclass 58.1 for methods of earth working combined with an additional nonearth working step such as adding fertilizer or treating the soil.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 1 for methods of earth working combined with an additional step of removing or separating a plant or buried object from the earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 2]    2AUTOMATIC POWER CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working element and a means for sensing a condition or change of condition, which condition or change of condition may or may not occur, a separate control means and a separate power means for changing a condition of operation of the apparatus, said three means being so related that the sensing means controls operation of the controlling means and the control means controls operation of the power means, all without the intervention of a human operator.
(1) Note. The "power means" of the definition comprises a motor or a mechanical power take-off. For purposes of this definition a spring is not considered a power actuating means.
(2) Note. Apparatus in which a movement of the sensing means develops power which directly moves the power means is not included (e.g., a sensing means connected to a piston in a hydraulic transmission to directly cause movement of a piston in the power lift cylinder). See subclass 239 for such apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

465,for an actuator for lifting a tool for transport comprising a servo-motor with a follow up control.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 9 for unearthing devices having automatic control.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 14.5 for a connection between a motor vehicle and a trailer (including a broadly claimed implement) effective to automatically control the vehicle on occurrence of an overload on the connection, and subclasses 282+ for a motor vehicle provided with a safety-promoting means which is responsive to the sensing of acceleration, deceleration, or tilt of the vehicle.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 699+ , for material moving devices with a vertically swinging load support of the tilting shovel or fork type with automatic control for effecting an operation of the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 3]    3Motive power control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the power means controlled is for propelling the apparatus over the ground.
(1) Note. This subclass includes brake or clutch control for the propelling means.
(2) Note. The mere recitation of an implement by name only in combination with a power driven propelling means therefor having a mechanism for controlling the propulsion means in response to a condition of the implement, as for example, a mechanism for disengaging the clutch of a tractor when a pulled implement strikes an obstruction, is not enough for classification under this definition. See Class 180, Motor Vehicles, subclass 14.5 for such devices.
(3) Note. The mere recitation of an implement in combination with a power driven propelling means therefor including a means for adjusting the implement and a mechanism for con­ trolling both the propelling means and the adjusting means for the implement is included in this definition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 14.5 for vehicle trains with automatically responsive means for controlling the propelling means. A broadly named implement is considered a vehicle for Class 180.
901Robots,   subcollection 1 for a mobile robot device.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 4]    4Constant depth type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the sensing means contacts or senses the surface of the ground and acts to maintain the earthworking element at a preselected depth therein.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 4.5]    4.5Land leveller type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is a ground leveling tool, (e.g., a scraper, etc.) which is so controlled that the contour of the finished portion of the earth which is being worked will be substantially straight in a longitudinal direction regardless of the irregularities of the original surface of said portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 5]    5Obstruction sensing type (includes plant sensing):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus wherein the condition sensed is the location of an obstruction or plant.
(1) Note. A stake or other object which has been previously placed in position for the purpose of controlling an earth working implement which is intended to approach such object is not considered to be an obstruction within this definition since its sensing is not considered to be a condition which may or may not occur. See search notes below for such apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

23+,for a stake or other object which has been previously placed in position for the purpose of controlling an earth working implement which is intended to approach an object
38,for driven tools having an obstruction feeling device which moves the implement.
233+,for apparatus having an obstruction feeler for moving an implement to avoid the obstruction, the obstruction feeler providing the power necessary to move the implement or merely unlatching the implement so that it may move.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

56Harvesters,   subclasses 121.4+ for harvester cutters with plant or crop contacting gauges.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 8 for drive triggered by desired object.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 6]    6Electrical:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 5.  Apparatus in which at least one of the sensing, controlling or power means is electrical.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 7]    7Draft responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 2.  Apparatus in which the condition change which is sensed is a change in the force required to move the earth working element along the ground.
(1) Note. For classification under this definition a patent must claim the automatic control feature in some detail. A mere broad reference in a claim to an automatic control as, for example, a mere broad reference in a claim to a top link in a three point hitch broadly described as a link for automatically controlling a power lift is not enough. See Search Notes below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

3,for apparatus including means to automatically control the power means of a vehicle for propelling a tool which may be responsive to the draft force on the earth working tool.
239+,for draft or pitch responsive depth control for implements, the control being other than of the automatic power control type.
439+,for patents with claims of the nature described in (1) Note above.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 446.1+ for articulated vehicles with a hitch responsive to changes in the draft load, there being no disclosure of an earth working element being the cause of the change in draft load, and subclasses 405.1+ for articulated vehicles with an adjustment to distribute the load between the vehicles or from one vehicle to another.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 8]    8Variable rate responsive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Apparatus in which the rate of movement of the power means varies with the magnitude of the sensed force in such a manner that the rate of movement increases or decreases when the magnitude of the sensed force increases or decreases respectively.
(1) Note. This subclass includes, for example, those devices in which a plurality of pumps, a variable capacity pump, or a plurality of successively operated valves are used to operate a fluid servomotor.
(2) Note. A system which has a mere single valve for directing fluid to a servomotor which would provide less restriction to fluid flow upon greater opening of the valve in response to the increased magnitude of the sensed force is not included in this subclass.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 9]    9With manual actuator to select type of condition sensed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Apparatus including means having a manually actuated element which may be set in a plurality of positions, wherein changing the position of the element results in a change in the type of condition (e.g., position of tool, amount of draft force, depth of tool) which causes a change in operation of the apparatus.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those devices having means to operate the power means to raise or lower the earth working means upon the occurrence of an excess draft force (e.g., excess draft release or overload lift type).

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

465,for an actuator adapted to lift a tool for transport on a wheeled frame or broadly claimed implement and comprising a servomotor with a follow-up control, or for a device wherein an automatic draft responsive control is converted to a position control so that the automatic draft control is effective only if the device is disassembled.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

91Motors: Expansible Chamber Type,   subclasses 358+ for expansible chamber motors having working member position responsive feedback control.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 10]    10Sensitivity adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Apparatus having means to selectively adjust the relationship between the power means and the sensing means to change the magnitude of sensed force required to produce a given movement of the power means.
(1) Note. The sensed force in this definition is the force applied directly to the sensing means, for example, in the three-point mast type hitch it is the force applied to the end of the top link and not the force acting directly on the earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 11]    11With excess draft release:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Apparatus in which the earthworking element is normally raised by the power means in response to an increase in the sensed force and having means which is operative when the magnitude of the force exceeds a predetermined amount to release the earth-working element from control by the power means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 12]    12Overload lift type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 7.  Apparatus in which the condition sensed is an abnormal increase in the magnitude of the draft force, the sensing means initiating operation of the power means to cause raising of the earth working element to an inoperative position.
(1) Note. The earth working element may be returned to its previous working condition as part of the cycle of operation.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

261+,for overload responsive devices which are not automatic in their operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 13]    13LAWN EDGER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising means other than a scraper specially intended for working the earth adjacent a fixed structure on the surface of the earth (e.g., a paved walk to edge a lawn) or working the earth adjacent a turf surface (e.g., grooving a plant bed adjacent a lawn).
(1) Note. This definition is intended to provide an art collection of lawn edgers or trimmers. Usually such devices comprise a means for guiding the device along the edge of the pavement. However no special structure need be claimed for classification in this subclass. Patents whose sole specific disclosure or whose claims relate to the described use are considered to come under this definition.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses for hand manipulable implements for merely cutting or slitting grass or sod. Devices which cut so as to form a groove in the soil, however, are classified in Class 172.
56Harvesters,   subclasses 10.1+ , for a motor-driven harvester, particularly subclass 13.7, wherein two or more cutters are provided, e.g., for mowing and for trimming, and subclass 16.9 wherein the motor may drive a mower or a trimmer; subclasses 229+, for a lawn and hedge cutter, and subclass 251, for a lawn edge trimmer combined with a lawn mower. The lawn edge trimmer or cutter of Class 56 merely cuts grass. If a groove is cut in the soil, or the ground is otherwise disturbed, classification is in an appropriate subclass in Class 172.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 14]    14With or convertible to non-earth working implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus in combination with or convertible to an element for performing some work operation other than earth working.
(1) Note. Devices classified here include lawn edgers combined with mowers, brushes or snow removers.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 15]    15Rolling or driven cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus comprising an earth working element which cuts into the ground and has a rolling motion as it is pulled over the ground or is positively moved with respect to its support with a continuous or cyclic motion.

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30Cutlery,   subclasses 292 and 319 for rotary blade cutters.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 16]    16With fixed cutter or furrower:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 15.  Apparatus comprising in addition an earth working element for cutting into or furrowing the earth which does not move relative to its support while working the earth.

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63+,for other driven and nondriven earth working elements.
174+,for other rolling and nonrolling earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 17]    17With wheel or roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus in combination with a ground wheel or ground roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 18]    18Impact or grapple:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 13.  Apparatus comprising (1) an earth working element adapted to be driven generally vertically downwardly in the earth or (2) jaw members for grasping and lifting a portion of earth.

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294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 49+ for hand forks and shovels for digging or grappling earth and not limited to use as lawn edgers.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 19]    19SOD CUTTER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising means for cutting the earth (1) horizontally and vertically or (2) annularly for the purpose of enabling a portion of sod to be removed in an undisturbed condition.
(1) Note. This definition is intended to provide an art collection of sod or plug cutters. Other devices such as subsoilers, or the like, which cut soil and have structure similar to that of a sod cutter but are not used for the purpose of removing a strip of earth in an undisturbed condition are not included. Patents are considered to come under this definition if claims refer to sod cutting or the sole specific disclosure relates to this use.
(2) Note. Patents relating to the handling and/or cutting of sod after it has been cut from the ground are classified under this definition if not otherwise classifiable.

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22,for earth perforating devices which have means for removing the earth from a hole made in the earth, there being no intention to remove a piece of sod in an undisturbed condition so that it can be replanted. The earth perforating devices characteristically either disturb the earth or take out a very small diameter core of earth and sod, not intended for replanting.
376,for hand tools of the loop type.
698,for a tool with laterally spaced standards.
699,for subsoilers.
720,for subsurface blades.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

30Cutlery,   for merely cutting turf in a vertical plane.
37Excavating,   subclasses 302 and 303 for devices for excavating stumps and stones, and subclass 3 for peat excavators.
47Plant Husbandry,   subclasses 73+ for plant receptacles of the transplanting type.
111Planting,   subclasses 100+ for plant setting devices.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   appropriate subclasses for separating plants from the soil.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 249+ for a core-forming type earth boring bit provided with means to sever the core and subclasses 403+ for a core-forming type earth boring bit.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 49+ for forks or shovels for lifting plugs of earth or sod and subclass 50.6 for shovels of the grappling type, the grapple having no means to cut the earth in a horizontal plane.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   appropriate subclass for cutting hard, solid earth material in situ, particularly subclasses 36.1+ for a floor working machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 20]    20With means for vertical transverse cutting while moving:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 19.  Apparatus comprising means for making a transverse vertically extending cut in the earth while the apparatus is being propelled over the surface of the earth.
(1) Note. The apparatus may momentarily halt its forward motion while the transverse cut is being made.

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101,for driven earth working elements which are guided for rectilinear reciprocation, which reciprocation may be in a vertical transverse plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 21]    21LAWN AERATOR OR PERFORATION, OR PLUG REMOVER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus for treating earth covered with grass by making a slit or small hole therein so as to either aerate the earth, remove a plug of grass and soil, or merely pierce sod, with a minimum of disturbance of the adjacent earth.
(1) Note. The apparatus found in this subclass is not limited to any specific type of structure but is usually disclosed as being intended to perform the aforementioned aerating and/or plug-removing function.
(2) Note. Apparatus which could incidently be used to perform this function is not included herein, unless the aerating and/or plug-removal of lawns is disclosed as an intended use of the apparatus.

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91+,for cyclically driven carriers which have, movably mounted thereon, hole forming earth-working teeth, blades, or like projections, but which teeth, blades, or projections tear at and snag the soil in working it.
118+,for devices, other than lawn aerators or plug-removers, driven about a horizontal transverse axis.
540+,for roller devices, other than lawn aerators or plug removers, with teeth which make holes in the ground.

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56Harvesters,   subclass 226 for standing grain gatherers with bat members having a vertical movement similar to aerator projections; and subclass 249 for mowers with rollers having aerating devices.
111Planting,   subclasses 89+ for devices for making a cavity in the earth and depositing material in the cavity; and subclass 99 for hand implements for forming a cavity other than a furrow in the ground to receive material.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses for devices for boring holes in the earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 22]    22Earth removing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 21.  Apparatus in which there are means for making a hole in the earth by removing earth from below the surface of the ground to a location above the surface.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

47Plant Husbandry,   subclasses 73+ for plant receptacles of the transplanting type.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 403+ for a core-forming type earth boring bit.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 50.7 for annularly arranged grappling-type hand forks or shovels.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 23]    23DRIVEN FROM OR GUIDED BY STATIONARY OBJECT, OR ANCHORED:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working means adapted (1) to coact with some fixed manmade structure so as to be driven relative to or guided by said structure, (2) to be anchored to some fixed structure such as a tree or stake to be guided thereby, (3) to be operated while anchored to or supported on the earth so as to prevent the apparatus as a whole from having any translatory movement during the earth working operation, or (4) to be guided by a guide means contacting a channel or shoulder previously made in the ground.
(1) Note. The fixed man-made structure may be portable. For example, a tractor carrying a winch intended to pull an earth working element relative to the tractor to work the earth is considered a "fixed installation", provided the earth working element is not carried by the tractor.
(2) Note. A means for feeling an obstruction and merely guiding or directing an implement to avoid such obstruction is not included in this definition. Such means are found in subclass 233. Also, an apparatus comprising merely a tool which shifts on meeting an obstruction is not included.
(3) Note. In connection with section (3) of the above definition the device must have some anchor, ground supporting feet or earth penetrating pilot in addition to the earth working means. However, the pilot may itself have some earth working function.
(4) Note. In connection with section (4) of the definition, in order to come within the definition an apparatus must have an element which does not support any substantial weight and which does not have an earth working function and is disclosed as intended to contact a channel or shoulder made on a previous pass of the apparatus or some other apparatus. A landslide of a plow or the like is not classified under this definition unless it is disclosed as specially intended to be used to guide the apparatus along a previously made shoulder since a landslide which inherently could be used to guide an apparatus along a shoulder is very common in this art.

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104Railways,   subclass 169 for railroad rolling stock or track type apparatus claiming an earth working implement by name only and concerned with means for reciprocating the implement across a field, and subclass 244.1 for means coacting with a furrow for guiding a vehicle or implement claimed by name only.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 400+ for a motor vehicle steered by means extending from a post fixed in a field.
254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 264+ for apparatus for hauling or hoisting a load including a driven device which contacts and pulls on a cable when the load is moved.
901Robots,   subcollection 14+ for the movement in space of a robot arm about its base.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 24]    24Around tree or stake:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Apparatus in which the earth working means is guided in a rotary path by a fixed vertical member not forming a part of the apparatus (e.g., tree or stake).

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25,for an implement rotatable about a vertical axis and carrying an anchor or feet to prevent translational movement of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 25]    25Rotatable about vertical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Apparatus in which the earth working means is rotated about an upright axis while the apparatus is anchored to or supported on the ground so as to prevent translational movement.

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24,for an implement attached to or guided in a rotary path by a fixed vertical member (e.g., tree or stake).
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 26]    26Guided by surface track or previously formed shoulder:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Apparatus comprising a means which is adapted to contact an elongated shoulder or channel on or in the ground in order to guide the apparatus.
(1) Note. See (4) Note of subclass 23 for limitations applicable to this definition.

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13,for a lawn edger which may be guided by the edge of a pavement.

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37Excavating,   for railway grading apparatus guided by a surface truck.
104Railways,   subclass 244.1 for a vehicle guided by a furrow feeler. The vehicle may be an implement claimed by name only.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 47 for a surface object or ground contour engaging guide means which shifts the unearthing unit bodily with respect to the frame in a generally horizontal plane.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 401 for a motor vehicle provided with steering gear which includes a land based steering datum and means on the vehicle for sensing the datum, which means cooperates with a steering motor on the vehicle for the purpose of controlling the course of the vehicle.
280Land Vehicles,   subclass 87.2 for a land vehicle of the wheeled type provided with means whereby one or more of its wheels may be steered by an occupant and wherein the steering means controls also a wheel offset from the principal supporting wheels of the vehicle but which, by its own turning (i.e., pivotable) movement, is able to effect turning movement of certain of the principal wheels; and subclass 776 for a wheeled vehicle of the occupant steered type wherein bias means is provided for maintaining a steerable wheel in engagement with an elongate, more or less vertical surface (e.g., a curb) for a vehicle-steering purpose.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 26.5]    26.5Dragline scraper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 23.  Apparatus comprising a scraper that is adapted to be connected by a cable or the like flexible means to a fixed structure so as to be driven relative to said structure.
(1) Note. The scraper in this definition comprises an approximately vertically disposed blade for smoothing the earth or for cutting into the earth and pushing earth ahead of it in order to move the material from one location to another. The disclosed use may be for scraping earth beneath a body of water or scraping material from a vertical wall. The blade may have spaced teeth, though usually it has a straight edge.
(2) Note. Patents are considered to come under this definition if they are disclosed as intended to be used with a fixed structure, no special limitation being required in the claims. Use with a fixed structure is considered to be established if it is clear from the disclosure that the scraper is dragged back as well as forward by a cable or the like and there is nothing in the disclosure inconsistent with the cable or the like for forward motion being a drag line.

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37Excavating,   subclasses 394+ , for cable-operated excavating apparatus comprising more than a scraper, per se, and nominally recited hauling cables or like flexible means connected thereto, subclasses 398+ for cable operated wheeled scoops and subclasses 398+ for cable operated scoops. A scoop differs from a scraper in that it has a bottom wall which carries material to be transported, whereas a scraper relies on the surface over which it is moving to support material which it is transporting.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 26.6]    26.6Scraper part rearranged upon reverse movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 26.5.  Apparatus in which the scraper is adapted to be pulled in opposite directions by the cable or flexible means and in which some portion of the scraper apparatus is caused to move to and remain at a different position relative to some other portion when the direction of pull is reversed.
(1) Note. The relative movable portion of the scraper apparatus must comprise more than a mere continuation of the flexible means, such as a bail.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 27]    27WITH MEANS FOR CUTTING OR SHREDDING PLANTS WITHOUT SOIL DISTURBANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working means in combination with an independent spaced means for severing or shredding crops without disturbing the soil, said independent means being used simultaneously with said earth working means.

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39,for a driven earth working element with a cleaner spaced from the ground surface.
66,for earth working elements with a cooperating driven cleaner which may act to sever vines or vegetation collected on the implement.
606+,and the subclasses there noted, for earth working elements with relatively movable cutting or cleaning means to remove vegetation or debris that has collected on the implement.
681+,especially subclass 752 for earth working elements having sharpened edges or portions which may serve to sever crops or vegetation coming in contact with the elements.

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56Harvesters,   appropriate subclasses for plant severing or shredding means, per se, which do not disturb the earth.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 5 for unearthing devices with additional vertical cutter for vegetation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 28]    28Driven:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 27.  Apparatus in which the plant severing or shredding means is driven with a regular cyclic motion relative to its support or frame by a power means in addition to the motion imparted directly to the means by the translation of the device as a whole as it is moved across the surface of the ground being treated.

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35+,for driven earth working elements or cleaners.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 29]    29WITH MEANS FOR SHIFTING SURFACE MATERIAL WITHOUT SOIL DISTURBANCE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working means combined with means (e.g., a rack) for shifting material lying on the surface of the soil which has not been disturbed by the earthworking means without disturbing the soil, said shifting means being used simultaneously with said earth working means.
(1) Note. Living plants, e.g., vines, are not included. Also dead plants which are still standing, e.g., corn stalks, are not included. See subclasses 514+ and 517 for plant deflectors for handling such material. Also, devices which merely clean or remove material from earth working elements are not included, see subclasses 39 and 66 for driven cleaners and subclasses 606+ and the subclasses there noted for non driven cleaners.
(2) Note. For patents to be classified under this definition the means to shift surface material must be disclosed as solely for such purpose. An earth working implement which may be adjusted to travel above the surface of the ground to shift surface material is not included.

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56Harvesters,   appropriate subclasses for rakes or gatherers, per se, or combined with harvesting means, and subclasses 400.04+ for hand rakes combined with earth working elements.
111Planting,   subclass 139 for a trash control accessory claimed in combination with a planting machine.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 19 for unearthing devices with rake or lateral deflector for ground contacting recovered objects.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 30]    30Driven shifting means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Apparatus in which the means for shifting surface material is driven with a regular cyclic motion relative to its support or frame by a power means in addition to the motion imparted directly to the means by the translation of the device as a whole as it is moved across the surface of the ground being treated.

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35+,for driven earth working elements or cleaners.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 31]    31Combined with rolling or vertically acting transverse cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 29.  Apparatus in which the earth working means includes at least one earth engaging blade extending laterally of the direction of travel and being either reciprocable vertically to perform a cutting function or being attached to a rotary carrier which is rotated due to the resistance of the earth as the apparatus is moved over the earth.
(1) Note. The earth engaging blade need not extend the 90° with respect to the line of travel, but may be oblique with respect thereto.
(2) Note. Most of these devices are stalk choppers and the function of the blade is mainly to cut stalks.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 32]    32WITH SEPARATING AFTER EARTH WORKING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working means and a means for acting on the earth severed from the ground or loosened by the earth working means to classify, separate or assort it according to its physical characteristics and return at least a portion of such earth to the ground.
(1) Note. The classifying, assorting, or separating means must be in addition to and distinct from the earth working means which severs the material from the ground.
(2) Note. The classifying, assorting, or separating means is generally of the type found, per se, in Class 209, Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids.
(3) Note. A mere pulverizing or comminuting is not considered separating.

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511,for fenders for preventing soil thrown about by the apparatus from contacting plants, the fender being of the perforated or screening type to permit fine soil to pass.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   appropriate subclasses for means for unearthing plants or objects from the ground and separating them from the earth. The subject matter of Class 171 is characterized by means which discriminate between an object and the earth. In Class 172 the discrimination is between different portions of the earth itself, as between large clods or granules and small clods or granules. For example, a Class 172 device may separate large granules of earth mixed with stones from small granules of earth, while a Class 171 device would separate stones from earth.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 7+ for apparatus for mining material followed by separation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 33]    33WITH POWER DRIVEN MOLDBOARD, CONVEYER OR HANDLER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working means combined with a power driven means for handling the earth after it has been severed from the ground or loosened by the earth working means.
(1) Note. Where the power driven means not only handles the earth but performs a substantial earth working function the apparatus is classifiable in subclasses 35+.
(2) Note. The power driven handling means may comprise for example a conveyer for moving the earth or a means for turning a furrow slice.
(3) Note. A power driven cleaner or comminutor which merely separates earth from an implement without conveying it to a distance is not considered to come within this definition. Such devices may be found in subclass 66.

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37Excavating,   appropriate subclasses for apparatus for working earth or snow and conveying it away for the purpose of making an excavation or the like.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 34]    34COMPLETE APPARATUS ADAPTED FOR USE UPSIDE DOWN:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus , other than hand held devices, so arranged that the whole apparatus may be turned upside down so as to work the earth in that position in addition to its ability to work the earth in its original right side up position.

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136,for diverse tools useable alternately only.
241,for an apparatus inverted to engage a ground support with the ground.
371+,for hand tools which may be used in an inverted position.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 35]    35WITH DRIVE MEANS FOR TOOL OR CLEANER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which a power means is provided to move an earth working element with a regular cyclic motion relative to its support independently of or in addition to the motion imparted directly to said element by the translation of the device as a whole as it is moved across the surface of the ground being treated.
(1) Note. The moving means may employ a resilient element or gravity return arrangement during a portion of the movement.
(2) Note. The power means may comprise (1) a prime mover such as an engine or motor (2) a drive from a supporting wheel (other than where there is an integral wheel and earth working element or direct coupling therebetween) or (3) a manual means to continuously rotate the earth working element.
(3) Note. Where no more of the driving means for a driven earth working element is claimed than the driven shaft which supports said element the patent has been construed as a rotary implement subcombination, equally useful as a driven or a rolling earth working element and has been classified in subclasses 518+ unless (1) the claimed structure, attitude, or relation of the element to the ground or to an adjacent, cooperating implement would require a drive means to operate it in the manner disclosed or (2) unless a disclosed drive means (more than a shaft) is claimed either broadly or specifically.
(4) Note. Driven earth working elements as contemplated by this definition usually engage earth which is either undisturbed or which rests on undisturbed earth immediately after it has been treated by another implement. As an exception to the above, driven elements which (1) are contiguous to a ground treating implement to clean it or (2) which are disposed in the path of the furrow slice or earth stream leaving the implement to pulverize said earth have been classified as driven earth engaging elements in subclasses 39, 50+, 66, and 67.
(5) Note. Provision of power means to shift an otherwise undriven earth working element at the option of the operator has not been considered to result in a driven earth working element for this definition in the absence of a regular and cyclic motion. For actuators for shifting earth working elements see subclass 663 and the subclasses there noted.
(6) Note. Some drive connections to an earth working element actually retard the element and constrain it to rotate at a speed slower than that at which it would roll on the ground. Patents claiming such drives have been classified in this and indented subclasses provided that the drive is capable of positively rotating the element if it were not in contact with the earth.

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2+,for driven implements with automatic power control, especially subclass 5 for such implements with obstruction sensing means.
15+,for a lawn edger with a driven cutter.
19+,for driven sod cutters.
21,for driven lawn aerators.
28,for an earth working implement with adriven means for cutting or shredding plants without soil disturbance.
30,for an earth working implement with a driven means for shifting surface material without soil disturbance.
32,for an implement comprising a driven tool with means for separating earth after earth working.
33,for a power driven moldboard, conveyer, or handler.
236+,for an implement with a ground engageable draft responsive lever.
292,for specific propelling means for traversing an implement over the ground.
518+,for rolling, rotating or orbitally moving tools, no detail of a drive for the tool being claimed. See (3) Note of this definition (35).
663+,and the subclasses there noted for power driven actuators for tools.

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15Brushing, Scrubbing, and General Cleaning,   appropriate subclasses for analogous apparatus used for cleaning.
30Cutlery,   appropriate subclasses for general utility cutting implements which may be power operated.
56Harvesters,   subclasses 10.1+ for motor driven harvesters and subclasses 500+ for stalk choppers for cutting dead crop material.
74Machine Element or Mechanism,   subclasses 11+ for power take-offs and subclass 16 for portable assemblies for driving auxiliary attachments.
111Planting,   subclasses 113 , 122, and 158+ for power-operated rotary furrow openers claimed in combination with planting or soil treating devices.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   appropriate subclasses, for analogous apparatus used for unearthing plants or buried objects.
173Tool Driving or Impacting,   appropriate subclass for a means to drive or impact a tool, and particularly subclasses 184+ for such means mounted on a wheeled vehicle. Class 172 has not been cleared as to conflicting subject matter with Class 173, therefor a disclosed use as a drive for an agricultural earth working tool will cause classification in Class 172.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   appropriate subclasses for analogous apparatus used for boring small diameter holes in the earth, for example, for artesian wells, oil wells, post holes, or the like.
180Motor Vehicles,   especially subclass 20 for motor vehicles with rollers, and subclasses 53.1+ for a motor vehicle in which the motor is used as a source of external power to drive an external device. The line between Classes 172 and 180 as to this subject matter is that Class 172 will take a patent in which (1) the external device is claimed as being an earth working implement or (2) the claim includes an external device and the sole specific disclosure relates to an earth working implement, or (3) the external device is claimed by name only and there is also claimed a means for manipulating the device relative to the motor vehicle in a manner consistent with the manner in which an earth working implement would be manipulated.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 29+ for a hard material disintegrating machine having a driven cutter and particularly subclasses 36.1+ for such a machine described as working on a hard, solid floor or road surface.
404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 122+ , for a rotating drum, roller, or tire means to compact the earth and drive means therefore. See search notes thereunder for similar devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 36]    36Subsurface shears or nippers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which plural earth working elements or parts thereof are located below the surface of the ground and are relatively moved by a power means in such fashion that they periodically engage each other and then separate in order to cut or pinch subsurface material or growths.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 37]    37Tool rotated by attendant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is mounted for motion in a circular path and is disclosed as being moved in said path by an attendant, in normal use, through an arc of over 360 degrees.

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329+,for implements which are supported, propelled, guided or held in position by an attendant but are not otherwise driven.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 38]    38With obstruction feeling device for moving or releasing implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a driven earth working element is secured to or carried by a supporting member movably mounted on a main vehicular frame, there being a means on said member or said earth working element adapted to engage a plant, tree, post, or like obstruction in the normal path of traverse of the driven earth working element over the ground to thereby shift or permit a shifting of the driven earth working element out of the path of traverse to clear the obstruction.

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5+,for earth working apparatus in which the operation of the device is controlled automatically by sensing an obstruction or plant.
23+,for earth working apparatus which is controlled by a prepositioned stake, cable, etc.
233+,for nondriven implements with obstruction feelers for moving or releasing the implement to avoid the obstruction.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 39]    39With cleaner or comminutor spaced from ground surface:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is mounted on a support which is provided with a means which is spaced from the original surface of the undisturbed ground and which means is disposed and adapted either (1) to remove earth from an element to be cleaned, or (2) to engage and chop up a slice of earth proceeding from the driven earth working element.

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30,for earth working means combined with driven means for shifting material lying on the surface of the earth without disturbing the soil, the driven means working on material which has not collected on the earth working means rather than on material which is on parts or portions of said earth working means.
49,for a plurality of driven rotary ground engaging tools which cooperate or intermesh one with the other.
66,for driven members which engage a nondriven earth working tool to clean the same or to comminute a furrow slice turned thereby, and 558+ and 606 for nondriven cleaners for non drive tools.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 24 for unearthing devices with comminuting or multiple cutting of recovered plant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 40]    40Vibrating tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which an earth working element, or a portion thereof, is driven so that it has a motion of small amplitude (i.e., it vibrates).
(1) Note. Generally, the implement is driven by reaction forces produced by the rapid rotation of an off-center or unbalanced mass.

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61+,for intermittent drives for tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 41]    41Attendant supported tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a power driven earth working element is adapted to be entirely supported and manipulated by an attendant.
(1) Note. The power supplying means may be supported in any manner desired as on a vehicle, on the ground or carried by the operator.

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37,for a tool which is continuously manually rotated by an attendant.
370,for nondriven tools with attendant attaching means.
371+,for hand held nondriven tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 42]    42Guided by walking attendant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a driven earth working element is mounted on a frame which element or frame is provided with a means to enable a walking attendant to steer, guide or otherwise manipulate the element or frame, such frame being propelled over the earth by the attendant, by the earth working element or by a traction member driven from a prime mover supported on the frame.
(1) Note. This definition is intended to take those implements commonly referred to as "garden tillers", "rotary cultivators" and like devices which traverse the earth and are guided or manipulated as a unit by a walking attendant, there being disclosed a means, generally a handle, for affecting such guiding or manipulation. Devices which are coupled to a horse or tractor propelling means have been excluded and will be found in the subclasses hereinbelow based on the particular tool features or particular manipulative features of the driven tools.

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21+,for earth perforator tools of the lawn aerator type which may be hand guided by a walking attendant, such devices generally being self propelled over the earth.

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56Harvesters,   subclasses 16.7+ , for a motor-driven lawn mower that is steered by a walking attendant.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 19.1+ for a motor vehicle steered by a walking attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 43]    43With ground support vertically adjustable relative to frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 42.  Apparatus comprising a frame, a driven tool supported by said frame and ground support means vertically adjustable relative to the frame.
(1) Note. For the meaning of adjustable see "adjustable" in the class definition.

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78,and 80, for other driven earth working elements combined with wheel substitutes.
387+,for nondriven earth working elements combined with wheel substitutes.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 44]    44Subsurface shaft or bar (e.g., rod weeder):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a driven earth working element in the form of a narrow elongated shaft or bar is disposed transversely to the line of draft and is rotatably supported wholly below the surface of the earth.
(1) Note. The usual purpose of the subsurface rotary shafts of this subclass is to stir up the soil usually to loosen weeds.
(2) Note. The elongated rod may be articulated or provided with projecting elements such as teeth.
(3) Note. The rod is generally rotatably supported at the lower end of "gooseneck" type standards and there may be a number of such standards some rotatably supporting the rod and others disposed forwardly of or to the rear of the rod and carrying at the lower ends thereof earth working teeth such as plows, chisels, etc.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 45]    45Flails:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a tooth, tine or like earth working part is so freely pivotally mounted on a driven rotary carrier that during carrier rotation centrifugal forces cause the free end of said tooth, tine, or like to swing to a radial position relative to the axis of rotation of such carrier.
(1) Note. This definition includes teeth or tines which are freely pivotally connected to a rotary carrier by means of a flexible chain.

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91+,for other teeth, tines or like earth working parts which are movably mounted on a driven carrier, the movement being caused (1) by a drive means or (2) by flexure of a resilient tooth, tine or like earth working part on encountering an overload or (3) by the turning of a rolling blade when the same contacts the ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 46]    46Coaxial tools oppositely rotated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which two or more earth working elements are journaled in a frame for movement in circular paths about a common axis of rotation, the drive means for such earth working elements being so arranged that said elements rotate in reverse directions relative to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 47]    47With specific relationship of mast type hitch (i.e., three point hitch) to implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the driven earth-working element is part of an implement associated with a three point hitch (mast-type hitch) wherein significance is attributed to the cooperation of the implement with the hitch, or the implement includes a mounting for an additional three point hitch at the rear thereof for connection to another implement.
(1) Note. See this class, subclass 439, the definition and notes thereunder for a definition of a mast-type hitch.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 48]    48Plural driven tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus employing a plurality of separate earth working elements or groups of elements, each of which is driven so as to move with respect to one another during operation, and each of which is connected, through a linkage, to a drive means that drives the tool in a predetermined manner.
(1) Note. Included herein are patents wherein the tools are driven by a common driving element such as a drive chain or camshaft, and those wherein the tools are mounted on shafts connected to individual gears of a row of intermeshing gears.

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84+,for plural earth working elements which are alternately raised from and lowered into the ground in a "hoeing" or "spading" type movement.
91+,for an earth working implement comprising a carrier means such as a chain or wheel which forms the support for earth-engaging teeth and has an orbital movement while the teeth supported by it also move with respect to it.
96+,for a tool having multiple earth-engaging elements (e.g., elongated teeth) which are mounted on a single support and (a) are pivoted freely thereon, (b) have a spring connection thereto, or (c) consist of spring elements so that they are movable with respect to each other, but not in a predetermined manner.
100,for an earth working implement in which a plurality of teeth or like earth working parts or portions are mounted on a flexible or articulated member which is driven in a closed path or circuit relative to a frame upon which said teeth, parts, or portions and member are supported.

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173Tool Driving or Impacting,   subclass 52 , and see the search notes therein for a single advance causing or controlling means or manipulating means for plural tool drives.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 49]    49Contiguous cooperating or intermeshing rotary ground engaging tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Apparatus in which separate earth working elements travel in circular paths in contact with the earth and in which (1) said paths intersect and overlap or (2) said earth working elements are disposed immediately adjacent each other to cooperate in treating the intermediate earth.

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36,for driven earth working elements which cooperate in the manner of shears or nippers under the surface of the earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 49.5]    49.5Rotating about vertical axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 49.  Apparatus in which the axes, about which the earth working elements travel, are disposed in a generally vertical direction.
(1) Note. This subclass includes patents whose sole specific disclosure is to an implement in which the elements cooperate to work a continuous strip of soil.

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59,for patents in which the tools, as disclosed, are laterally spaced so as to leave a strip of unworked soil between the tools.
111,for patents wherein a single tool, rotating about a vertical axis, is disclosed and claimed.

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111Planting,   subclass 160 for a power- driven earth working tool, rotatable about a vertical axis, which is claimed in combination with a planting machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 50]    50Diverse tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Apparatus which include a plurality of driven earth working elements which are not identical.
(1) Note. Differences in size or shape constitute matter for this definition but mere differences in rotary displacement (phase), position or attitude are excluded and are classified in a pertinent subclass herebelow on the basis of the features of each individual earth working element. For example, mirror images are not considered to be differences of shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 51]    51All rotary:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus in which each of the diverse driven earth working elements moves through at least a complete turn in a circular path about an axis.

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69,for similar arrangements wherein a rotary tool is driven by a diverse rolling tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 52]    52Parallel axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 51.  Apparatus in which the axes of rotation of the diverse earth working elements are parallel to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 53]    53Rectilinearly reciprocating tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus in which at least one of the driven, diverse earth working elements is moved back and forth in a straight line path.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 54]    54Oscillating tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 50.  Apparatus in which at least one of the driven, diverse earth working elements is moved back and forth through an arcuate path.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 54.5]    54.5Tool reciprocates or oscillates within a generally horizontal plane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Apparatus in which the earth working elements are moved back and forth either in a generally straight-line path, or in a generally arcuate path, or both, within a generally horizontal plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 55]    55Plural groups of disks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Apparatus in which the plural driven earth working elements consist of two or more groups of earth working elements, each group comprising a plurality of generally circular platelike members handled as a unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 56]    56Staggered tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Apparatus in which the plural driven earth working elements are individually spaced both laterally and in the direction of draft or travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 57]    57Laterally spaced tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 48.  Apparatus in which the plural driven earth working elements individually spaced transversely of the direction of travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 58]    58Longitudinal axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Apparatus in which the axes of cyclic movement of the spaced earth working elements are parallel to each other and to the direction of draft.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 59]    59Vertical axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Apparatus in which the axes of cyclic movement of the spaced earth working elements are parallel to each other and are disposed perpendicular to the earth"s surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 60]    60Transverse axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 57.  Apparatus in which the axes of cyclic movement of the spaced earth working elements are coaxial or parallel to each other and are diposed perpendicular to the direction of draft.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 61]    61Intermittent drive for tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a power drive to an earth working element is periodically interrupted.
(1) Note. Such intermittent drives generally employ mutilated or interrupted gears or cam operated drive clutches.

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36,for subsurface shears or nippers which comprise earth working portions which are periodically brought into engagement one with the other and then separated in order to cut or pinch subsurface material or growth, the means for imparting such movement generally being a power drive which is periodically interrupted.
40,for a vibrating earth working element.
90,for an apparatus supported by an irregular or off center ground wheel or support which gives an intermittent motion to an earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 62]    62With spring return:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 61.  Apparatus in which movement of the earth working element through the power drive portion of its cycle effects a loading of a resilient means which means then effects movement of the earth working element to its initial position.

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36,for subsurface shear or nipper-type tools wherein plural earth working elements or parts thereof are moved toward or away from each other by a positive drive means having a spring device as part thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 63]    63With non-driven tool (e.g., plow, harrow, drag, scraper, knife or roll, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus which have a plurality of earth working elements, one of said elements being driven by a power driven means while another of said elements is not connected to said drive.
(1) Note. The nondriven earth working element may be fixed relative to the driven element (such as a plow, harrow, drag, scraper or knife) or may be a rolling earth working element such as a disk or roller.
(2) Note. The nondriven earth working element may be a ground contacting part or portion of a hood or shield for a driven earth working element provided such part or portion is specifically designed to work the earth; e.g., hoods with scraping, leveling, or smoothing blades or edges and hoods with depending crust breaking teeth are included under this definition.

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33,for the combination of a nondriven plow with a power operated moldboard adapted to remove the furrow turned by the plow.
80,for driven earth working elements combined with wheel substitutes, i.e., runners or other ground contacting supporting means other than wheels, which perform no substantial earth working function.
133+,for a plurality of nondriven earth working elements which are different one from the other.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 24 for unearthing devices with comminuting or multiple cutting of recovered plant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 64]    64Non-driven furrow opener and driven dam former:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which the nondriven earth working element is provided for forming a furrow or irrigation ditch and the driven earth working element is provided for disposing earth across said furrow or ditch to thereby block or interrupt the same in order to form therein a series of basins spaced from each other by interposed dams.

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143,for nondriven furrow openers followed by intermittently rolling ditch blockers.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 65]    65Interdigitating non-driven and driven tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which earth working portions of the non driven earth working elements intermesh or interdigitate with earth working portions of the driven earth working elements.

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49,for a plurality of driven, rotary earth working elements which are disposed in intermeshing relation to each other.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 66]    66Cooperating driven cleaner or comminutor and contiguous tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is disposed in contact with or along side of and within the confines of a fixed or rolling earth working element in order, for example, to clean the latter or to treat a furrow slice passing between the two earth working elements.

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30,for earth working means combined with driven means for shifting material lying on the surface of the earth without disturbing the soil, the driven means working on material which has not collected on the earth working means rather than on material which has already collected on parts or portions of said earth working means.
39,for cleaners or comminutors which are spaced above the original surface of the undisturbed ground and which cooperate with driven earth working elements.
558,and 606, for devices or machines for scraping the soil from earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 67]    67Driven comminutor at outlet of earth guide:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which the nondriven earth working element is in the form of a surface adapted to pick up earth and guide it to a driven earth working element which pulverizes said earth.
(1) Note. The guide surface may be in the form of a trough, grate, ramp, or tube.

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33,(and see the Notes thereunder) for power driven conveyers which handle severed earth materials after they leave the earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 68]    68Rolling tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is associated with a nondriven earth working element which is freely journaled on a support in a manner to contact the ground and to be rotated by the resistance thereof as the latter element traverses a field.
(1) Note. Said nondriven earth working element may be a disk, roller or toothed drum but a rolling member disclosed as a mere support is excluded.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 69]    69With tool drive from rolling tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 68.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is actuated by a power transmission means other than a mere rigid or articulated shaft which means is interposed between the driven earth working element and the rolling earth working element in such manner that in the disclosed use of the device the flow of power is always from the rolling earth working element to the driven earth working element.

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520,for rolling tools which are on different axes and in mutual driving relationship.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 70]    70Fore-and-aft non-driven tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is disposed between a first forwardly positioned nondriven earth working element and a second rearwardly positioned nondriven earth working element.

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145+,for three or more diverse tools following the same path, all of such tools being nondriven earth working tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 71]    71Non-driven tool follows path of driven tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which the nondriven earth working element follows the path of the driven earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 72]    72Leveling drag or furrow shaper:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 71.  Apparatus in which the nondriven earth working element comprises a ground-engaging forming member having a lower surface shape which is substantially flat or horizontal or which is upwardly concave to form a cross sectional configuration which is desired to be imparted to the disturbed earth behind the driven earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 73]    73Staggered driven and non-driven tool (e.g., cotton chopper, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 63.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is positioned to engage the earth in an area laterally and longitudinally of the area in which a nondriven earth working element engages the earth.
(1) Note. The driven earth working element generally works a plant row which row is undisturbed in the sense of not being broken, pulverized, tilled, or the like, however, the nondriven earth working element or elements may hill earth onto or scrape earth from the plant row before the driven earth working element engages the same.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 74]    74With power take-off from tool drive to adjust tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the means for transmitting power from a power source to the driven earth working element is provided with a power take-off for adjusting the position of the earth working element relative to the earth.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.

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315+,317+, 321, 322+, 324+, 395+, 439+, and especially 452+, for power driven means to shift an implement which is otherwise undriven in order to lift it or move it for adjustment purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 75]    75Interconnected tool lift and drive control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a means is provided to interrupt a power drive to a driven earth working element simultaneously with a bodily movement of the element to a different vertical position with respect to the ground.
(1) Note. The usual purpose of these devices is to stop or arrest the cyclic motion of the earth working element when it is lifted to an inoperative position out of contact with the earth.

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83,for devices in which the power drive to an earth working element is interrupted by shifting of said element back or forth along the line of travel of the device.
103,for overload relief or clutch means for interrupting the drive to a driven earth working element upon engagement of such element with an obstruction or as desired by an attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 76]    76Implement with ground support for depth control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a driven implement is connected to a vehicle for vertical movement with respect thereto and is provided with a ground-contacting supporting member which member moves over the earth"s surface and imparts to said implement a vertical movement corresponding to the contour of the earth"s surface to thereby maintain the earth working element of the driven implement at a predetermined working depth.

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117,for driven earth working elements which are freely or yieldably mounted on supporting frames whereby they may move vertically or laterally relative to said frames, there being provided no ground supports other than the support afforded by ground contact of the elements themselves.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 77]    77Vertically biased implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Apparatus in which the driven implement is provided with a resilient means for normally biasing said implement in a vertical plane.

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117,for driven tools which are provided with a resilient means for yieldably biasing the same on a chassis.
497,for nondriven tools which are spring biased in a vertical plane and which are provided with ground support means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 78]    78Vertically adjustable ground support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Apparatus in which the ground contacting supporting member is adapted to be vertically adjustably connected to the driven implement whereby the normal working depth of the earth working element may be altered by moving said ground-contacting supporting members from one vertical position to another.
(1) Note. See the class definition for the meaning of "adjustable".
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 79]    79Tool driven from prime mover on vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 76.  Apparatus in which the earth working element of the driven implement is drivingly connected by a transmission means to a power source on the vehicle.
(1) Note. The power source of this definition may be a self-contained prime mover for propelling the vehicle or an auxiliary self-contained power means; for example, an auxiliary gasoline or Diesel engine, an electric motor, etc. The power source does not include a mere power take-off from a driven or rolling ground wheel of the propelling vehicle. For such devices see subclasses 76 and 105+.

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125,for drive details in the transmission means from a power source on a vehicle to a driven earth working element carried thereby.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 45 for a tractor powered trailing unearthing unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 80]    80With wheel substitute (e.g., runner, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus comprising a runner or other ground contacting supporting means other than a wheel.

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42+,for driven earth working elements which are mounted on a frame, the frame being provided with (1) a ground support means and (2) a means for guiding the same over the earth by a walking attendant.
76,for driven implements with ground supports and articulated connections to vehicles.
240+,for ground supports for nondriven earth working tools, which supports only engage the ground while transporting said tools.
387+,for wheel substitutes which are combined with nondriven earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 81]    81With plant deflector or protector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which (1) means are provided to move the above ground portions of plants and to direct them either towards or away from a driven earth working element in order to assure that they are destroyed or preserved, respectively, or (2) means are provided for protecting the plant against earth moved by the earth working element.

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29,for earth working elements combined with means for shifting material, such as trash, dead plants, reclining stalks, etc., lying on the surface of the soil without disturbing such soil.
517,for plant deflectors, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 82]    82Driven tool selectively shiftable along line of travel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a driven earth working element which normally travels in a given path or orbit with respect to a frame which supports said element is shiftable at the will of the operator back or forth in the direction in which the frame is moved across the ground to correspondingly shift the path or orbit.
(1) Note. The usual purpose of such shifting is to contact or to avoid contact with certain plants in a row while "chopping" out excess plants.
(2) Note. The shifting motion must be a rectilinear one substantially exactly in or parallel to the line of travel to come under this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 83]    83Tool drive interrupted by shifting tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 82.  Apparatus in which the back or forth shifting movement of the earth working element is operative to effect a disengagement or declutching of the drive means to said earth working element to thereby arrest the cyclic motion of the element while in said back or forth position.
(1) Note. The usual purpose of these devices is to stop the cyclic motion of the tool when it has been shifted to a fore or after position to avoid chopping out or otherwise injuring a plant.

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75,for driven earth working elements which are mounted for vertical shifting on a frame, the vertical shifting causing an interruption of the drive to the elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 84]    84Simultaneously reciprocating and oscillating blade having elongated shank:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the earth working element comprises at least one tooth which has an earth-engaging portion and an elongated shank portion said earth-engaging portion having an oscillating motion about a point and the point itself having a component of motion generally parallel to or coinciding with the longitudinal axis of the shank in addition to the motion imparted to it by the traverse of the apparatus over the ground whereby the motion of the earth-engaging portion may be analyzed as a reciprocation in directions generally longitudinally of the shank and also an oscillation in directions generally transversely of the shank.
(1) Note. The earth-engaging portion is usually either perpendicular to the shank to provide a hoeing action or else aligned with the shank to provide a spading motion.
(2) Note. An earth working element comprising a carrier means such as a chain or wheel, for example, which carrier forms the support for earth-engaging teeth and has an orbital movement while the teeth supported by it also move with respect to it is not included. See subclasses 91+ for such devices.
(3) Note. An earth working element comprising a driven wheel or like carrier means having movably mounted on the periphery thereof a blade or like earth working portion, there being provided a means to swing such blade or portion back and forth through an arc the center of which arc moves through a circular path concentric with the circular path of the driven carrier is not included. See subclass 94 for such elements.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 99 for a digger supported and guided for motion in a rectilinear or curvilinear path.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 8.1+ for a motor vehicle having reciprocating or oscillating leg propulsion means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 85]    85Transverse chopping type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is driven in an endless path or orbit which lies in a plane which is generally vertical and disposed perpendicularly to the direction of travel of a frame on which the earth working element is mounted.
(1) Note. The patents in this and the indented subclasses are generally directed to devices which hoe transversely across a row of plants to chop out certain of the plants.

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70,and 73, for transverse choppers combined with nondriven earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 86]    86With plural cranks or cams driving each blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Apparatus in which the elongated shank portion is driven by plural cranks or eccentric pins or cams which engage the earth working element at points which are spaced along said shank portion.

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88,for other earth working elements having elongated shank portions driven by plural spaced cranks or eccentric pins or cams.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 87]    87Means for varying contour of path of blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 85.  Apparatus in which means are provided to vary the shape or contour of the path or orbit through which the earth working element is driven.
(1) Note. A mere incidental change in the shape or contour of the path or orbit of the element due to the raising or lowering of the same to vary the working depth thereof or to raise the same for transport is not included herein. The claim must set forth means for varying the shape or contour of the path, which means is independent of the raising and lowering means.

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89,for other earth working elements having elongated shank portions which are provided with means for varying the shape or contour of the path or orbit through which said earth working elements are driven.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 88]    88With plural cranks or cams driving each blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Apparatus in which the elongated shank portion is driven by plural cranks or eccentric pins or cams which engage the earth working element at points which are spaced along said shank portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 89]    89Means for varying contour of path of blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 84.  Apparatus in which means are provided to vary the shape or contour of the path or orbit through which the earth working element is driven.
(1) Note. A mere incidental change in the shape or contour of the path or orbit of the element due to the raising or lowering of the same to vary the working depth thereof or to raise the same for transport is not included herein. The claim must set forth means for varying the shape or contour of the path, which means is independent of the raising and lowering means.

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87,for transverse chopper-type earth working elements which are provided with means for varying the shape or contour of the path or orbit through which the earth working elements are driven.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 90]    90Irregular or off-center ground-engaging wheel or support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which an earth working element which is supported on a frame is moved towards and away from the earth by a lifting member which is rotatably or pivotally supported on an axis on said frame and has circumferential portions which extend radially to varying distances from said axis in such fashion that said lifting member engages the earth and periodically lifts the frame and the earth working element.
(1) Note. The frame may be a vehicle chassis, all or part of which is lifted to move the earth working element.
(2) Note. The lifting member may roll on the earth or may be driven with respect to the frame.

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236+,for irregular ground-engaging wheels or levers which engage the earth to resist motion of the apparatus thereover, whereby upon a predetermined resistance relative motion between the wheels or levers and the apparatus causes a manipulation of the apparatus or a part thereof, the lever or wheel passing through only a portion of a cycle i.e., passing through a cycle of less than 360°.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 91]    91Blade movable with respect to cyclically driven carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a tooth or like earth working part or portion is movably supported on a carrier which carrier is driven in a definite closed path or orbit whereby said tooth, part or portion moves with respect to said carrier as said carrier moves through its path or orbit.
(1) Note. A vehicle upon which the tooth or like earth working part or portion is mounted would not be a "carrier" for this subclass even if it were steered to travel in a closed circular path.
(2) Note. A tooth or like earth working part or portion which can be moved from one position of adjustment to another on its carrier is not considered "movably mounted" for this definition.

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109,for a tooth or like earth working part or portion which can be moved from one position of adjustment to another on a rotary driven carrier.
541,for rolling carriers having movably mounted thereon teeth or like earth working parts or portions which can be moved with respect to the rolling carrier from an earth working position to a position in which the teeth are prevented from engaging the ground.
545,for rolling carriers having projections on the periphery thereof which projections move relative to he carriers as said carriers rotate.
550,for a tooth or like earth working part or portion which can be selectively moved from one position of adjustment to another on a rolling carrier means.

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175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 89+ for an earth boring device including a tool element on a continuously driven flexible or articulated endless member.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 92]    92With means for moving blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Apparatus in which a means is provided for positively causing the movement of the tooth or like earth working part or portion relative to the carrier as said carrier moves through its path or orbit.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those earth working elements having earth working parts or portions which rotate or move in orbital paths relative to the cyclically driven carriers on which said parts or portions are mounted.
(2) Note. A mere spring connection between the blade and carrier for causing movement is not included in this definition. See subclass 96 for such apparatus.

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48+,for a carrier which is itself a separate earth working element.
546,for rolling carriers having earth working teeth, parts, or projections on the periphery thereof, there being provided a means to cause movement of said teeth, parts, or projections relative to the rolling carriers.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 93]    93Rectilinearly reciprocating blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Apparatus in which the tooth or like earth working part or portion is driven in such a fashion that it reciprocates in a straight line path with respect to the driven carrier upon which it is mounted.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 94]    94Blade oscillating arcuately or swivelly with respect to rotary carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Apparatus in which the tooth or like earth working part or portion is mounted on a rotating carrier, there being provided a means for moving said tooth, part, or portion back and forth in an arcuate path relative to said carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 95]    95By cam or crank:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 92.  Apparatus in which the tooth or like earth working part or portion is driven with respect to the driven carrier by a cam or crank.
(1) Note. The cam or crank is usually but not necessarily actuated in response to motion of the carrier.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 96]    96Blade flexible or with yieldable mount on carrier:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 91.  Apparatus in which the tooth or like earth working part or portion is supported on the driven carrier by means which include a member which bends or distorts to allow said tooth or like earth working part or portion to move relative to said carrier.
(1) Note. The support may comprise a freely bendable connection or a resilient means adapted to bias the tooth or like earth working part or portion to a given position and which means may be employed either with or in lieu of a hinge connection between the carrier and said tooth, part, or portion.
(2) Note. The support may be a mere continuation of a spring formed or flexible blade or blade shank.

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45,for "flail type" tools wherein a tooth or like earth working part or portion is so pivotally mounted on a driven rotary carrier that during rotation of said carrier centrifugal forces cause the free end of said tooth or like earth working part or portion to swing to a radial position relative to the axis of rotation of said carrier.
261+,for nondriven earth working elements provided with means permitting the elements to shift with respect to the earth or a supporting frame when said elements encounter an overload.
543,for rolling nondriven tools having the teeth or like earth working parts or portions thereof formed of resilient material.
544+,for rolling nondriven tools in which the teeth or like earth working parts or portion thereof are mounted on a spring or are so related to a spring that relative movement between such teeth, parts or portions and the rolling supporting structure stresses the spring.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 97]    97Compound motion for tool (e.g., reciprocating and oscillating, reciprocating and rotating):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the earth working element or an earth-engaging portion thereof has different, distinct kinds of motions (such as reciprocating and rotating) with respect to the earth, these motions either occurring simultaneously or successively during the cyclical operation of the earth working element.

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91+,for blades or teeth which are movably mounted on carriers which are also movably mounted so that said blades or teeth travel in paths determined by the superposed motions caused by the respective movable mountings.
101,for earth working elements which move in a guide means only in a reciprocating path.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 98]    98Tool mounted for lateral shifting:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a movably supported earth working element which is driven in a given path or orbit is provided with an actuating or manipulating means whereby during operation said element may be shifted at the will of an operator to positions in which said path or orbit is spaced from its initial position transversely of the line of travel of the element across the ground.
(1) Note. The usual purpose of the lateral shifting is to follow a crooked row of plants or to chop or avoid cutting out certain plants in a row.
(2) Note. The lateral shifting means may be a handle or foot lever type attendant operated actuating means which may be selectively moved from one latched position to another, or a handle or foot lever type attendant operated manipulating means which may be moved from one position and held in the position to which it is moved by continued application of force on the manipulating means by the attendant.

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117,for driven earth working elements which are mounted for free or yielding movement laterally of the path of travel, there being provided no attendant operated actuating or manipulating means for effecting such movement.
332+,for nondriven tools which are manipulated by an attendant to vary their position relative to a supporting frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 99]    99About generally vertical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 98.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is swingable on a fixed radius about a fixed vertical axis in a generally horizontal plane transversely across the line of travel of said element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 100]    100Blade on endless driven belt or chain:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a tooth or like earth working part or portion is mounted on a flexible or articulated member which is driven in a closed path or circuit relative to a frame upon which said tooth, part, or portion and member are supported.
(1) Note. The flexible or articulated member is generally a chain or endless belt type carrier to which the tooth, part, or portion is immovably fixed while said tooth, part, or portion is actually in ground engagement, but said tooth, part, or portion may move slightly as said carrier moves around gears, pulleys, or otherwise changes its direction in its closed path.

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23,for earth working elements towed across a field from a fixed traction point by a flexible member.
91+,for blades which are movably mounted on belts or chains.
542,for rolling, rotating, or orbitally moving nondriven endless belts or chains having teeth or blades thereon.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 94 for unearthing unit carried by an endless flexible member.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 89+ for an earth boring device including a tool element on a continuously driven flexible or articulated endless member.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   subclasses 187+ for an endless flexible track for a land vehicle, said track having detachable cleats for penetrating the ground to secure better traction for the track.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 101]    101Tool guided for rectilinear reciprocation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a guide means is provided for constraining an earth working element to move back and forth in a straight line path.

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20,and 22, for vertically reciprocating sod cutters.
21,for vertically reciprocating turf perforators which pierce the soil to aerate the same.
61+,for tools which are guided for rectilinear reciprocation but which are intermittently driven through their cycle of operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 102]    102Tool moves in horizontal, transverse path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 101.  Apparatus in which the guide means limits the movement of the earth working elements to a path transverse to the direction of draft and lying in a horizontal plane.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 103]    103With overload relief or clutch in drive train (e.g., overload release, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the drive transmission means between a driven earth working element and its motivating means is provided with a power transmitting member which (1) slips, bends, breaks, distorts, or in some other manner allows a relative displacement between said earth working element and its motivating means, or (2) can be selectively moved from one position in which the drive transmission means is interrupted between the driven earth working element and its motivating means to another position in which said drive transmission means is again operative to transmit power directly from the motivating means to the driven earth working element.
(1) Note. Generally the function of the overload relief means is to protect the earth working element whenever it encounters an obstruction, while the clutch functions to interrupt the power drive to the earth working element whenever desirable.

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75,for driven earth working elements which are provided with means to interrupt the power drive to said element upon a bodily shifting of the same from one vertical position to another.
83,for driven earth working elements which are provided with means to interrupt the power drive to said element upon a bodily shifting of the same back or forth in the direction of draft.
96,for teeth or like earth working parts or portions which are yieldably mounted on a power driven cyclic carrier for motion with respect thereto upon contact by a resisting member.
117,for means to yieldably support an earth working element which means may permit the earth working element to rise up out of contact with an obstruction.
533,for a clutch between a shaft and a rolling, rotating, or orbitally moving nondriven tool mounted thereon.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 9 for unearthing devices with drive overload release.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 104]    104Unidirectional clutch in drive from ground wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 103.  Apparatus in which an overrunning clutch or its equivalent is interposed between a ground wheel and an earth working element driven thereby in such a manner that the wheel may drive the earth working element when said wheel is turning in one direction but not in the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 105]    105Driven from rolling or driven ground wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a driven earth working element is mounted in a frame which is provided with a claimed ground-engaging supporting wheel and details of a power transmitting means from the wheel to the earth working element are set out in the claims.
(1) Note. Mere mention of a transmission between the wheel and the earth working element or a broad statement of the type of transmission (e.g., gearing) have not been considered to involve detailed structure which would require classification under this definition since traction drives of this type are very common in the art.
(2) Note. The wheel may itself be driven by power applied to it or may be a freely rolling wheel. In the case of a driven wheel the wheel must be interposed in the path of power from the source to the earth working element to come under this definition.

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44,for "rod weeder" type implements which may be positively driven from a ground wheel on the weeder supporting frame.
61+,for earth working elements which may be intermittently driven from a rolling or driven ground wheel, such intermittent drive generally being from several pins or other projections which are spaced about the periphery of the wheel or from mutilated gears or cam operated drive clutches which are operatively associated with the wheel.
69,and the Note thereunder for earth working elements which are driven by nondriven earth working elements as the latter roll over the ground.
103+,for earth working elements which may be driven from a rolling or driven ground wheel and which include in the drive transmission from such wheel an overload relief or clutch means.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 108 for traction wheel drive for an unearthing unit part.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 337+ for transmission mechanisms for driven ground wheels.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclasses 439+ for a wheel operated motion or draft responsive load handler.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 106]    106Belt or chain drive:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 105.  Apparatus in which the drive interposed between the earth working element and a wheel includes an endless flexible force transmitting member.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 107]    107Tool driven about horizontal, longitudinal axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is driven about an axis which is parallel to the ground and is additionally located in a plane which is generally parallel to the direction of travel of the earth working element over the ground.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those earth working elements which oscillate about a longitudinal axis generally back and forth across a crop row, for example, for thinning out or chopping cotton plants.

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5+,for "cotton chopper" type tools which may be driven to oscillate or rotate about a horizontal longitudinal axis and in which the operation of said tool is further under the control of a sensing means.
58,for a plurality of laterally spaced tools each driven about a longitudinal axis.
63+,especially subclasses 70 and 73 for driven tools which may move about a longitudinal axis and which in addition, are combined with one or more non-driven tools.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 97 for a rotary digger driven about a horizontal longitudinal axis.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 39.1+ for a floor working hard material disintegrating machine having a driven rotary cutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 108]    108Rotary driven tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 107.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element rotates about an axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 109]    109Adjustable tooth or blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 108.  Apparatus in which the rotary earth working element includes a tooth or like earth working part or portion whose relative position on the hub or supporting portion of said element may be adjusted.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable", see the class definition.
(2) Note. This definition is intended to embrace those rotary earth working elements in which a tooth or like earth working part or portion thereof may be changed from one position of adjustment to another, such tooth, part, or portion being locked in each selected position of adjustment.

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96,for earth working elements wherein the tooth or like earth working parts or portions thereof are flexibly or yieldably moved from one position to another on the supporting hub or carrier of said elements.
550,for rolling earth working elements having peripherally spaced thereon and adjustably secured thereto a plurality of teeth, blades, or the like earth working parts or portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 110]    110Tool driven about generally vertical axis (e.g., oscillating choppers, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is driven about an axis which is generally perpendicularly disposed relative to the ground.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those earth working elements which oscillate about a vertical axis.

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48+,especially subclass 59, for a plurality of tools each of which is provided with a separate individual drive means for causing the same to move about a vertical axis.
522+,for nondriven tools of the rolling, rotating, or orbitally moving type which move about a vertical axis.

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299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclass 41.1 for a floor working hard material disintegrating machine driving a substantially vertical axis cutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 111]    111Rotary driven tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 110.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is rotatably driven about a vertical axis.

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111Planting,   subclass 160 for a power driven earth working tool, rotatable about a vertical axis, which is claimed in combination with a planting machine.
175Boring or Penetrating the Earth,   subclasses 170+ for a drive for an earth boring tool, and including a drive for a vertical axis rotary-type earth boring tool which may be manipulatively mounted on a wheeled vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 112]    112With deflector or shield for thrown material:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is provided with a guard or baffle means disposed in the path of material thrown from said element generally to intercept said material and alter the course or path of flow thereof to thereby cause said material to be deposited in a position or location other than that which said material would have assumed without said baffle means.
(1) Note. This definition includes hoods or like housings or enclosures against the inner surfaces of which unearthed material from a driven earth working element is impinged to break up clods or lumps of said material.
(2) Note. This definition is intended to take those patents in which the shield or deflector is disposed on or above the original ground surface and performs no earth working function except that incidental to shielding or deflecting the driven earth working element.

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32,for screens and the like, placed in the path along which unearthed material emerges from an earth working element to separate constituent portions of said material.
63+,for nondriven tools combined with driven earth working elements which tools may be in the form of hoods or shields provided with ground contacting parts or portions designed to perform an earth working function such, for example, as leveling or further pulverizing the earth proceeding from the driven implement, or breaking or scratching the earth"s crust prior to working thereof by said driven earth working elements.
72,for leveling drags or plates which follow the driven earth working element and level or shape the soil redeposited on the earth by said element.
508+,for guards or shields for nondriven earth working elements.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 112 for an unearthing unit provided with a protective guard or casing.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 113]    113Laterally directed outlet flow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 112.  Apparatus in which the baffle or guard means acts on the material flowing from the driven earth working element to deflect said material laterally of the direction of draft of said element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 114]    114Specific propelling means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus comprising a motor or motor actuated means for traversing a driven earth working element over the ground.
(1) Note. Self-propelled or tractor-propelled implements are common in this art. Hence for a patent to be classified under this definition, the propulsion means must be recited in some detail, and the mere recitation of a motor is not enough. However, a broad reference to a wheel substitute such as a tracklaying means on a tractor is sufficient. Also a recitation of a relationship with a propulsion means such as the statement that an implement hitch arm is connected to a differential housing (as distinct from merely a "rear axle housing") is enough.

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105,for self-propelled or tractor-propelled devices wherein the earth working element is driven from a rolling or a driven ground wheel of said device.
292,for specific propulsion means for non-driven earth working elements, and see the Search Class Notes thereunder for appropriate fields of search in Class 74, Machine Element or Mechanism, Class 180, Motor Vehicles, and Class 305, Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles.
352,for manually driven stepper-type propulsion means.

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180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for specific propelling means for motor vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 115]    115Tool steers implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is used to steer the apparatus in the desired direction as it traverses the ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 116]    116Tool propels implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 114.  Apparatus in which (1) the sole means disclosed for traversing the apparatus over the ground is the driven earth working element and the apparatus is not disclosed as being guided by a walking attendant or (2) the driven earth working element aids in traversing the apparatus over the ground or is the sole means for traversing the apparatus over the ground and there is a significant recitation in a claim indicating this fact.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 117]    117Tool freely or yieldably mounted on chassis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is so mounted on a supporting frame that during normal operation said earth working element can (1) move freely relative to said frame, or (2) can move against the action of a biasing member which generally urges said earth working element into a predetermined position.
(1) Note. This definition includes lateral as well as vertical movement, and the tool need not be capable of universal movement but such tool may move in a guide way or the like even though the amplitude of the movement may be limited by stop means.
(2) Note. The movement of the tool relative to the frame as contemplated by this definition is a shifting or movement of the tool from one position to another in the frame, which movement is above and beyond the motion of the tool as it is driven through its path or orbit. Such shifting or movement may be either a translation of the tool as a unit or simply a pivotal movement of the tool about a fixed axis.

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77,for a driven implement having a ground support and being jointedly connected to a vehicle there being additionally provided a resilient means for normally biasing the implement in a vertical plane.
96,for teeth or like earth working parts or portions which are yieldably mounted on a power driven carrier for motion with respect thereto.
98+,for earth working elements which are provided with a means whereby an attendant can selectively vary the lateral position of said elements during normal operation.
497+,for an actuator adapted to lift a nondriven tool for transport on a wheeled vehicle, there being provided a resilient means for biasing the tool to a predetermined position but permitting the same to yield on overload or the like.
501+,for an actuator adapted to lift a nondriven tool for transport on a wheeled frame, there being provided a lost motion connection between the actuator and tool whereby during earth working said tool is free to move relative to said actuator or frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 118]    118Tool driven about axis transverse to draft line:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is driven about an axis which is parallel to the ground or disposed at an angle relative to the ground and is additionally located in a plane which is transverse to the direction of travel of the earth working element.
(1) Note. This subclass includes those earth working elements which are driven to and fro in an arcuate path about an axis extending transversely to the direction of draft; e.g., oscillating hoes and choppers.

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61+,for earth working elements which are intermittently driven back and forth in an oscillatory path about an axis that is disposed transversely to the direction.
124,for earth working elements which are disposed at an angle other than 90° to the direction of draft as viewed in plan.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 98 for a rotary digger driven about a longitudinal transverse axis.
299Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material,   subclasses 25+ for an ice working device having a driven cutter, and subclasses 39.1+ for a floor working hard material disintegrating machine having a rotary cutter.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 119]    119Screw or spiral rib, blade or tooth row:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Apparatus in which an earth working element which is driven about an axis transverse to the direction of travel is provided either with (1) a radially protruding ridge or sharpened plate or (2) a row of radially projecting prongs, which ridge, plate or row lies along a line which exends both longitudinally and circumferentially of a surface of revolution, such as a cylinder or cone.

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532,for nondriven earth working elements which are provided with screw or spiral arranged teeth, or like earth working parts or portions.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 120]    120Disk or planar cutter (e.g., saw, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Apparatus in which an earth working element which is driven about an axis extending transversely to the direction of travel is in the form of a generally circular member which may be either flat or dished.

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55,for plural groups of driven disks.
518+,for rolling, rotating, or orbitally moving disc or planar cutter-type tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 121]    121Laterally extending bar or blade with skeleton support (e.g., lawn mower type, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element includes a laterally extending bar or earth working part or portion held on a rotatable support by openwork or by spaced supporting means.
(1) Note. The overall appearance of these earth working elements is very similar to that of a conventional lawn mower.

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552,for nondriven earth working elements having laterally extending blades on skeleton supports.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 122]    122Drum with teeth or blades:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Apparatus which comprises a relatively large diameter drum or roller-like member having spaced about the periphery thereof a plurality of teeth, blades, or like earth working parts or portions.
(1) Note. The peripheral surface of the drum should be in ground contact as distinguished from a small diameter supporting shaft for teeth, blades, cutters, or like earth working portions, which shaft would be spaced above the ground.

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554,for rolling nondriven tools comprising drums having axially spaced teeth or blades thereon.

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492Roll or Roller,   subclasses 30+ for a roll, per se, not elsewhere provided for, having surface projections, indentations or slits.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 123]    123Rotary driven tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 118.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is rotatably driven about an axis extending transversely to the direction of travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 124]    124Tool driven about diagonal axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which the driven earth working element is driven about an axis which as viewed in plan is disposed at an angle other than 90° to the direction of draft.

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118,for earth working elements which are driven about axes which are disposed at 90° to the direction of draft.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 125]    125Tool drive details:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 35.  Apparatus in which a mechanical drive feature is significantly claimed, such as a gearing, universal coupling, bearing, lubrication means or details of a drive motor.
(1) Note. For classification under this definition a patent must have a claim which contains some detailed description of a particular mechanical drive feature. Thus, the mere nominal inclusion of "a gear", "a universal coupling", "a bearing", etc., will not suffice, while a more specific identification of the drive feature such as "a worm gear", "a double clevis type universal coupling", "a floating roller bearing", etc., will suffice.

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103,for a clutch or overload release coupling interposed between an earth working element and a driving means therefor.
105,for mechanical drive features forming part of a specialized drive interposed between an earth working element and a traction and supporting wheel driving the same.
533,for a clutch interposed between a shaft and a rolling nondriven earth working element.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 142 for details of a drive for a driven unearthing device.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 126]    126WITH EARTH MARKER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working device in combination with means for making a mark or on the earth, which mark is to be used as a sight line for the earth working means on a subsequent pass over the field.
(1) Note. This subclass is intended to include marking devices disclosed as mounted on some earth working means (e.g., a planter) even if the earth working means is claimed only as a support. However, devices for making a mark in the earth disclosed as independent instrumentalities not mounted on some principal earth working means are treated as if they themselves were earth working devices (which they are since they mark the earth) and are classified in appropriate subclasses below.

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133+,for diverse earth working elements.
204+,for earth working elements alternating for right or left hand operation.

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33Geometrical Instruments,   subclasses 18.1+ for scribers of general utility comprising mechanically guided relatively traveling means for scratching or scoring lines.
104Railways,   subclass 244.1 for furrow followers for guiding a vehicle along the furrow.
111Planting,   subclasses 25+ for means, combined with or disclosed in combination with a planter, for intermittently marking the earth to indicate seed depositories and subclass 33 for means for intermittently impressing on the ground a mark, or combinations of such means with means for marking an unbroken line on a field. A planter claimed by name only, combined with a marker is classifiable in Class 172.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 6 for unearthing device with an earth marker.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 127]    127Marker shiftable on turning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Apparatus wherein the marker means is designed to make a mark to one side of the earth working device while the apparatus proceeds in one direction, and to shift to mark at the other side of the implement in response to the turning of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 128]    128Marker adjusted upon raising implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Apparatus comprising means for raising the earth working device to a transport position and means interconnected therewith to shift the earth marking means with respect to the earth working device responsive to the raising movement of the earth working device.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include those devices in which the earth working device and marker are raised as a unit without relative movement.

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209+,for apparatus comprising tools alternating for right or left hand operation, lifting of the apparatus being interrelated with shifting of the tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 129]    129Ground wheel operated marker control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Apparatus in which the earth working device includes ground-engaging wheels and the marker means is moved relative to the earth working device by power derived from rotation of the wheels.

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492,and 493, for actuators adapted to lift a tool for transport wherein power for said actuators is derived from a continuous source of power.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 130]    130Multiple interconnected markers:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Apparatus wherein plural markers are provided and interconnected such that when one marker is adjusted to operative position, the other marker is simultaneously moved to inoperative position.

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127,for interconnected markers shiftable on turning.
128,for interconnected markers shiftable on lifting the earth working device.
204+,for apparatus comprising earth working tools alternating for right or left hand operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 131]    131Markers on laterally shiftable member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 130.  Apparatus in which the markers are mounted at opposite ends of a common carrying member, the carrying member being movable laterally to place the markers into alternate operative and inoperative positions.
(1) Note. The lateral shifting is more than a mere pivoting movement. The common carrying member is usually moved bodily in a lateral direction and also pivoted on a longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 132]    132Marker swingable about longitudinal axis to both sides:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 126.  Apparatus having marker means mounted to pivot through approximately 180° about an axis which extends in the direction of travel of the implement and centrally thereof so as to be alternately usable on opposite sides of the implements.

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224+,for implements alternating for right or left hand operation which are rotated about a longitudinal axis from one operative position to the other.

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104Railways,   subclass 244.1 for furrow followers for a vehicle to guide it along a furrow, such followers being mounted in a manner similar to that of a marker mounting.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 133]    133DIVERSE TOOLS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising the combination of earth working elements of different size or shape each working the earth at the same time or adjustable into earth working position.
(1) Note. The diverse earth working elements must each be present in the apparatus at the same time, though one may be removable leaving another.
(2) Note. The diverse earth working elements must be distinct entities as distinguished from a single unit having portions of different shape to perform different functions. For such unitary elements see for example, subclasses 540+. A single disk is considered a unit. Where one tool or soil working element (e.g., sweep) is directly mounted upon another tool or soil contacting element (e.g., cultivator shovel) or on a common support or frame and for any given adjusted position (if the two are adjustably connected) could be made integral and the second element in effect forms a continuation of the first, for continuous soil contact, this is considered to be a single tool and is excluded from this definition.
(3) Note. The combination of a plow and an element for merely cutting or breaking a furrow slice raised by the plow is not classified under this definition. For subject matter of this type see subclass 758.
(4) Note. Where one implement is claimed so broadly that it can be considered merely a named support for the other, not distinguishable from a general utility support such as a vehicle, the device is classified on the basis of the other implement. See (2) Note in the definition of subclass 452 and (5) Note in the definition of subclass 669.
(5) Note. Earth working elements which differ merely by being for right or left hand operation or being mirror images of one another are not included. See subclasses 204+, 642, and 686 for such apparatus.
(6) Note. A device comprising an earth working element mounted on a frame which frame may incidentally contact the earth and act as an earth leveling member and so be considered a diverse earth working element is not included under this definition unless the frame is specifically shaped or modified to perform said function.
(7) Note. The combination of an implement or implements having a part rotated by engagement with the soil and a nonrotating part are included under this definition even though the parts may be contiguous or form a continuation of one another if both of said parts perform a substantial earth working, cutting, or turning function. A plow having a moldboard which includes rollers or a belt to reduce friction is not included since the rollers or belts are not considered to have any substantial earth working function. (See subclasses 717 and 718). However, a plow having a disk moldboard is included. (See subclass 167). Also a rotating tool having a mere scraping element for removing earth from the tool is not included while a rotating tool having an adjacent moldboard for turning a slice raised by the tool is included. (See subclasses 168 and 558+).
(8) Note. A runner or landside directly connected to or forming a direct rearward continuation of a tool is considered to be a part of the tool. Thus, if an earth working blade, sweep, or the like is connected to such a runner or landside the resultant device is considered to be a single tool having multiple earth working portions and is not classified under this definition. See subclasses 728 and 746, for example. However, if a runner or landside is spaced rearwardly from a tool and does not form a direct continuation thereof and has an earth working blade, sweep, or the like mounted thereon, this is considered to be two separate tools and classification under this definition results.
(9) Note. A runner which is not attached to the rear of or does not form a rearward continuation of a tool and has a plurality of different type or shape blades or earth working portions attached thereto rearwardly of its forward end is considered to be a mere common support for diverse tools and the resultant apparatus is classified under this definition. (See subclass 188).
(10) Note. A pair of laterally spaced runners or landsides with unlike tools mounted thereon and spanning the same is included under this definition.
(11) Note. Where a nonearth working mounting member for one tool is directly connected to or carried by the earth working portion of a diverse tool, patents will be classified under this definition even if the claims do not recite the tool by which the member is carried.
(12) Note. This definition includes those devices in which one of the tools may be solely disclosed as cutting a vertical slit in the earth merely to prevent side sway or counterbalance side thrust. (See subclasses 190+).
(13) Note. Where there is combined with an earth working implement, such as a plow, a separate and distinct member which receives soil elevated by the implement and acts to deflect the soil to the side, invert it, etc., the member in this combination will be considered an earth working tool and be classified under this definition.
(14) Note. Hand held tools having diverse earth working portions or elements are not included. See subclasses 371+, especially subclasses 375 and 378+ for such devices.

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16,for a lawn edger with a rolling or driven cutter and a fixed cutter or furrower.
20,for a sod cutter with a means for transverse cutting while moving.
34,for an earth working apparatus adapted for use upside down.
50+,for plural driven diverse tools.
63+,for a driven tool combined with a nondriven tool.
126+,for an earth working device combined with an earth marking means.
204+,for alternating tools which differ merely by being for right or left hand operation.
245+,for apparatus comprising a tool convertible or changeable to a diverse tool, and specially subclasses 251+ for a tool changeable to a diverse tool by assembly or disassembly.
452+,for a broadly claimed implement with an actuator adapted to lift a tool on said implement for transport.
540+,for a rolling tool with circumferentially spaced tines, blades or the like of different shape or size.
558+,for a disk with disk cleaning means. See (7) Note.
642,for a pair of relatively movable tools cooperating to move earth to and from a plant row, the tools differing merely by being for right or left hand operation.
669+,for a broadly claimed implement supporting an earth working element.
684.5,and 799.5, for implements comprising plural scraping blades which are of different size or shape, or mounted in different angular relationship with respect to a reference line.
686,for right and left hand tools.
714+,for plural earth-engaging parts of an earth working element, the parts being movable during operation. See (7) Note.
728,for a symmetrical-type tool with an attached runner and additional blades attached to the runner. See (8) Note.
746,for an earth working tool with a portion extended beyond the landside.
758,for a moldboard-type earth working element with a furrow slice cutter or breaker.
777+,for a scraper supporting a narrow depending tool.

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30Cutlery,   especially subclasses 123+ for knives and cutters of general application combined with other devices.
37Excavating,   subclasses 403+ for a scraper combined with a scoop, shovel, or the like.
56Harvesters,   subclasses 400.04+ for hand rakes combined with other tools.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 4 for unearthing devices with additional earth or plant rolling implement, subclass 6 for unearthing devices with additional earth marker or earth conditioner, subclass 10 for unearthing devices having preliminary removal of earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 134]    134One located in path of implement wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements are supported or propelled by a wheeled frame and at least one of the earth working elements operates on the soil traversed or to be traversed by the wheel or wheels.

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175+,for rolling and nonrolling implements operating along the same path.
297+,for a tool located forward of the rear of a motor vehicle.
671,for a wheel and tool mounted on a single longitudinal beam and traveling in the same path.
676,for a tool mounted on a wheeled frame and traveling in the same path as the wheel.
810+,for a tool located forward of a motor vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 135]    135One implement surrounds another :
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which an implement has earth working portions which operate on all four sides of an implement having a diverse earth working element.
(1) Note. The surrounding implement may comprise a plurality of like separate tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 136]    136Tools usable alternately only:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising earth working elements arranged adjustably in the apparatus so that when an element of one type is in ground-working position an element of another type must be out of ground working position.
(1) Note. Hand held tools having alternately usable unlike earth working portions or elements are excluded from the definition. See subclass 375.
(2) Note. This definition includes apparatus in which two integral diverse tools must be removed and reversed to bring the diverse tool into operation. The diverse tools must always be present in the apparatus when the apparatus is working the earth.

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34,for apparatus adapted to be inverted in its entirely to provide an earth working operation in either position.
204+,for alternately usable tools which differ merely by being for right or left hand operation.
251+,for a tool which is changeable to a diverse tool by an assembly or disassembly operation.
375,for hand cultivating tools having diverse alternately usable earth working portions. See (1) Note above.
777+,for an alternately usable scraper and narrow depending tool attached thereto.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 2 for alternately usable unearthing units.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 137]    137With means to vary spacing of tools upon turning:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus including means to alter the spacial relationship of the diverse earth working elements incident to a change in the direction of movement.
(1) Note. Tool mountings which merely permit relative movement between the tools in the absence of means to change the relationship upon turning are not classified in this and indented subclasses, but are classified below on other bases.
(2) Note. The variation in the spacing of the tools may be in a horizontal direction or may be a variation in the relative elevations of the tools.

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255,for apparatus in which a tool is lifted out of or lowered into ground engagement incident to a change of direction of movement.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 456.1+ for articulated vehicles having plural connections therebetween.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 138]    138With interconnected vertical adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements are independently mounted so as to be elevatable about separate axes or along different paths and lifting means are connected to each of the earth working elements the lifting means being so interrelated that vertical movement of one earth working element is accompanied by vertical movement of the other.
(1) Note. The tools may move in opposite directions, i.e., one move up while the other moves down.
(2) Note. The lifting means may comprise an actuator or an attendant manipulated handle.

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488+,for a single-lift actuator for plural relatively movable like tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 139]    139Plow and colter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 138.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements comprise a moldboard-type tool for turning a furrow slice and a cutting knife to cut a vertical slit in the earth in advance of the moldboard-type tool.

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144,for the combination of a colter, jointer and plow.
165+,for diverse tools one of which is a colter.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 140]    140With independent means for vertical movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus including a frame on which the diverse earth working elements are mounted and separate means are provided to selectively vertically move the diverse earth working elements with respect to the frame.
(1) Note. The moving means may be an actuator or an attendant manipulated handle.
(2) Note. This definition includes apparatus in which both tools are lifted by a single manipulating means and the second tool is lifted with respect to the first by a second manipulating means.

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301,for plural tools mounted ahead of the rear and to the rear of a motor vehicle and being actuatable by independent power units.
468,for plural tools liftable for transport on a wheeled frame and being independently actuatable.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 141]    141Interconnected adjustment of horizontal angle of rolling and position of diverse tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements is of the rolling or rotating type, the axis of rotation thereof being adjustable in a substantially horizontal plane and a diverse earth working element adjustable about a separate point or along a different path, the adjustment of one earth working element resulting in an adjustment of the other earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 142]    142Including spring formed tool or standard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the diverse earth working elements comprises an earth working element which is formed of or supported directly upon a member formed of resilient material.
(1) Note. A pivoted tool having means to bias the tool about the pivot is not included under this definition.

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389+,for spring-tooth type implements having runners or other wheel substitutes.
643,for plural spring teeth in a single implement.
707+,for spring teeth, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 143]    143Including intermittently rolling tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements is of the rolling or rotating type and including brake or stop means for slowing down or stopping the rotation or rolling thereof.

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528+,for rolling or rotating tools having means for stopping or retarding the rotation thereof.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 144]    144Colter, jointer and plow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements comprise a plow or earth turning element having a moldboard to turn a furrow slice, a smaller plow or element to throw a strip of soil into the far side of the furrow in advance of the main plow, and a cutting knife to cut a slit in the ground forward of the plow, the plow operating in the slit.
(1) Note. The colter and jointer must be separate from one another and from the plow.
(2) Note. Patents claiming the combination of a separate colter and jointer disclosed for use with a plow will be classified as originals under this definition.

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163+,for the combination of a jointer and plow.
165+,for the combination of a colter and diverse tool operating in the slit formed by the colter.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 3 for unearthing devices with a stabilizing colter or fin.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 145]    145Three or more diverse implements following same path (A, B, C, or A, B, A,):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising at least three diverse implements in succession, the second implement following in or overlapping the path of the first and the third following in or overlapping the path of the second, the implements being longitudinally spaced and having diverse earth working elements.
(1) Note. Two of the implements may be the same if a different implement intervenes.
(2) Note. If an implement follows in or overlaps the path of travel of a diverse implement the implements are considered to be traveling in the same path. Thus it may be seen that three implements may be following overlapping paths under this definition and yet the third implement be laterally spaced with respect to the first. It should be particularly noted, that the word "implement" covers either a group of like earth working elements or a single earth working element.

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144,for the combination of a plow with a separate colter and jointer.
175+,for two rolling and nonrolling implements following the same path.
195+,for two diverse implements following the same path.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 146]    146Four or more:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Apparatus in which at least four diverse implements follow the same or overlapping paths.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 147]    147Alternately diverse (A, B, A, B):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 146.  Apparatus in which the implements are alternately alike, but successively unlike.

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148,for three implements following the same or overlapping paths, the first and third implements being alike and the intermediate implement being of a different type.
152+,for at least four laterally spaced implements which are alternately alike, but successively unlike.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 148]    148Longitudinally spaced like implements with intermediate diverse implement (A, B, A):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Apparatus in which the first and third implements in the direction of travel are alike and the intermediate or second implement is of a different type.

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147,for four or more implements following the same path which are alternately alike, but successively unlike.
155+,for laterally spaced like implements with an intermediate unlike implement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 149]    149Including rolling tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 145.  Apparatus in which one of the diverse implements includes an earth working element which is given a rotating motion by the resistance of the earth as it is drawn thereover.

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143,for diverse tools one of which is a tool which has an intermittent rolling motion imparted thereto.
146+,for four or more diverse implements following the same path and including a rolling implement.
148,for longitudinally spaced like implements with an intermediate diverse implement including a rolling implement.
175+,for two rolling and nonrolling implements following the same path.
184+,for two diverse rolling implements following the same path.
518+,for rolling implements, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 150]    150Smooth levelling roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Apparatus in which the rolling earth working element comprises a smooth surface compaction roller of uniform diameter and free from protuberances or depressions.

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170+,for other diverse tools one of which is a smooth leveling roller.

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404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 122+ , for compacting rollers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 151]    151Diverse rolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 149.  Apparatus including two implements having rolling earth working elements of unlike types.

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150,and 172, for diverse rolling tools one of which is a smooth leveling roller.
154,for four or more laterally spaced rolling tools which are alternately alike, but successively unlike.
158,for laterally spaced like rolling tools with an intermediate diverse rolling tool.
184+,for other diverse rolling tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 152]    152At least four alternately diverse laterally spaced tools (A, B, A, B):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising four or more earth working elements spaced laterally of the direction of travel, the elements being alternately alike, but successively unlike.
(1) Note. The alternate earth working elements may consist of a group of like tools.

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155+,for laterally spaced like tools with an intermediate diverse tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 153]    153Alternate rolling and non-rolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which one set of alternate earth working elements is of the rolling type while the other set of alternate earth working elements is of the nonrolling type thus providing a laterally spaced group of earth working elements which are successively of the rolling and nonrolling type.
(1) Note. This definition includes a single rolling tool having a plurality of laterally spaced sets of tines, teeth or the like with nonrolling tools operating in paths between the sets of teeth.

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65,for a plurality of laterally spaced interdigitating driven and nondriven tools.
156,and 157, for laterally spaced like tools and an intermediate diverse tool of the rolling and nonrolling type.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 154]    154All rolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 152.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements are all of the rolling type.
(1) Note. This definition includes two rolling tools having laterally spaced sets of teeth, tines, or the like with the sets of one tool operating in paths between the sets of the other tool.
(2) Note. This definition includes apparatus having relatively rotatable earth working elements of different shape or contour even if the members axially abut or one element carries the other.

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65,for a plurality of laterally spaced interdigitating driven and nondriven tools.
158,for laterally spaced like rolling tools with an intermediate diverse rolling tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 155]    155Laterally spaced like tools with intermediate diverse tool (A, B, A):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising a pair of like earth working elements spaced laterally of the direction of travel and a diverse earth working element which operates along a path intermediate the paths of the like elements.
(1) Note. Laterally spaced right and left hand tools are considered to be like earth working elements under this definition.

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152+,for four laterally spaced tools which are alternately alike, but successively unlike.
193+,for a tool with a rearwardly spaced sweep or earth working blade, etc., which is attached to the tool standard or mounted on a member attached to the tool or its standard.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 156]    156Spaced rolling with intermediate nonrolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Apparatus in which the spaced like earth working elements are of the rolling or rotating type and the intermediate earth working element is of the nonrolling type.

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153,for four laterally spaced tools which are successively of the rolling and nonrolling type and are alternately alike.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 157]    157Spaced non-rolling with intermediate rolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Apparatus in which the spaced like earth working elements are of the nonrolling type and the intermediate earth working element is of the rolling or rotating type.

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153,for four laterally spaced tools which are successively of the rolling and nonrolling type and are alternately alike.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 158]    158All rolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Apparatus in which the laterally spaced like earth working elements and the intermediate diverse earth working element are all of the rolling or rotating type.

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154,for four laterally spaced tools which are successively unlike and alternately alike, all of the tools being of the rolling type.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 159]    159Spaced right and left hand tools with intermediate symmetrical tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Apparatus in which the laterally spaced earth working elements are nonidentical or positioned in a nonidentical way so as to function in a right and left handed manner and so located and constructed as to be mirror images of each other, and the intermediate earth working element comprises an element of symmetrical shape.
(1) Note. For the definition of a symmetrical tool see subclass 721.

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193+,for a tool with a rearwardly spaced sweep or earth working blade, etc., which is attached to the tool standard or mounted on a member attached to the tool or its standard.
642,for relatively movable right and left hand tools for throwing soil to or from a crop row.
686,for right and left hand tools.
721+,for symmetrical tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 160]    160Including spike tooth:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 155.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements comprises a straight tooth of uniform or decreasing diameter in a downward direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 161]    161Including implement alternating for right or left hand operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements comprises earth working means (other than a scraper) adapted to be adjusted so as to shift the earth in alternate lateral directions with respect to the direction of draft at different times.

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204+,for tools alternating for right or left hand operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 162]    162Reversal of implement adjusts diverse tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 161.  Apparatus in which adjustment of the earth working means for alternate operation is accompanied by an adjustment of the diverse earth working element.
(1) Note. The adjustment of the diverse tool may comprise merely the operation of a latch or lock which holds the tool in adjusted position or may comprise the adjustment of the diverse tool in response to operation of a latch or lock to permit adjustment of the alternating implement.
(2) Note. This definition does not include apparatus in which the alternating implement and diverse tool are rigidly connected and adjusted as a unit. Nor does this definition include apparatus in which the diverse tool is freely mounted and may assume a different position upon reversal of the alternating implement due to altered ground resistance, gravity, etc.
(3) Note. The diverse tool is usually a jointer or colter.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 163]    163Jointer and plow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising the combination of an earth working element having a moldboard for raising and inverting a furrow slice and a second earth working element operating in advance of the first and operative to raise and turn a smaller furrow slice and deposit it in the far side of a previously formed furrow so as to be covered by the furrow slice of the moldboard-type earth working element.

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144,for the combination of a plow, colter, and jointer.
382,for a plurality of like earth working elements (e.g., plows) which operate at different depths in the soil.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 164]    164Rolling jointer:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 163.  Apparatus comprising a jointer and plow the jointer being of the rolling or rotating type.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 165]    165Including colter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising a colter for cutting a vertical slit in the ground in advance of at least a portion of an earth working element and an earth working element following the colter and having a vertically extending portion operating in the slit.

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19+,for sod cutters having means for cutting a strip of earth vertically and horizontally.
139,for a plow and colter mounted so as to be vertically movable along different paths or about different axes and lifting means connected to the tools such that vertical movement of one is accompanied by vertical movement of the other.
144,for the combination of a colter, jointer, and plow.

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111Planting,   subclass 140 for a coulter claimed in combination with a planting machine.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 3 for unearthing devices with stabilizing colter or fin.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 166]    166Rolling colter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 165.  Apparatus in which the colter is of the rolling or rotating type.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 167]    167Fixed point or share with rotary moldboard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising a nonrolling earth working element adapted to cut a slice of earth and an adjacent rotary earth working element, usually in the form of a disk, for receiving said slice and inverting it.
(1) Note. A moldboard merely having friction reducing rollers or being in the form of a belt to reduce friction is not included under this definition.

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33,for implements having power driven moldboards.
717,for implements having a moldboard in the form of a belt.
718,for implements having a moldboard with friction reducing rollers.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 168]    168Rotating tool with fixed moldboard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising a rolling or rotating earth working element for cutting or raising a furrow slice and a nonrolling adjacent member for receiving the furrow slice and inverting or completing the inversion of the same.

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166,for a rolling colter which acts to cut a vertical slit in the earth and a tool which operates in the slit.
558+,for disk-type tools with scrapers which merely act to scrape the disks to clean same.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 169]    169Including tool rotatable about vertical axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements is of the rolling or rotating type and rotates about an axis which is substantially vertical.
(1) Note. The axis may deviate from the vertical by as much as 45°.

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522+,for tools which rotate about a substantially vertical axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 170]    170Including smooth levelling roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements comprises a smooth surface compaction roller of uniform diameter and free of projections or depressions.

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150,for three or more diverse implements following the same path one of which is a smooth leveling roller.
176,for a nonrolling tool for forming a furrow or ridge and a following rolling tool which conforms to the shape of the furrow or ridge.

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404Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus,   subclasses 122+ , for compacting rollers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 171]    171Spaced from moldboard side of plow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Apparatus including an earth working element having a moldboard to turn a furrow slice in one direction, the roller being spaced laterally from the turning or moldboard side of the moldboard-type earth working element.

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202+,for a plow and tool laterally spaced from the moldboard side of the plow.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 172]    172With diverse rolling tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Apparatus in which the second earth working element is also of the rolling or rotating type and other than a smooth leveling roller.

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184+,for diverse rolling implements not including a smooth leveling roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 173]    173With teeth:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 170.  Apparatus in which the roller has combined therewith a plurality of nonrolling earth working teeth.
(1) Note. For the definition of "tooth" see subclass 713.

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160,for laterally spaced like tools with an intermediate diverse tool and including spike teeth.
197,and 198, for diverse nonrolling tools following the same path and including teeth.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 174]    174Rolling and non-rolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements is given a rotating motion by the resistance of the earth as it is drawn thereover and another earth working element is of a nonrolling type.

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143,for diverse tools including an intermittently rolling tool.
149+,for three or more diverse implements following the same path, at least one of which is of the rolling type.
153,for at least four laterally spaced diverse tools alternate tools being of the rolling type.
156,and 157, for laterally spaced like tools with an intermediate diverse tool of the rolling and nonrolling type.
164,for a rolling jointer and plow.
166,for a rolling colter combined with a diverse tool.
169,for diverse tools one of which is rotatable about a vertical axis.
170,for diverse tools including a smooth leveling roller.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 175]    175Following same path:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Apparatus in which the rolling and nonrolling earth working elements are included in implements which travel in the same or overlapping paths and are longitudinally spaced from one another.
(1) Note. If an implement follows in or overlaps the path of travel of a diverse implement the implements are considered to be traveling in the same path. It should be particularly noted that the work "implement" covers either a group of like earth working elements or a single earth working element.

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71,for a driven tool and nondriven tool traveling in the same path.
149+,for three or more diverse implements following the same path at least one of which is the rolling type.
195+,for diverse implements of the nonrolling type following the same path.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 176]    176Furrowing or ridging implement followed by furrow or ridge roller:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Apparatus in which the non-rolling implement opens a furrow in or forms a ridge on the ground and the rolling implement operates in the furrow or on the ridge and conforms to the shape thereof.

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143,for diverse tools wherein one of the tools is of the intermittent rolling or rotating type.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 177]    177Rolling tool has circumferentially spaced blades, tines or the like:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Apparatus in which the rolling earth working element of the rolling implement has teeth, tines, blades, projections or other configurations so the circumferential portion of the element located in a plane generally at right angles to the axis of rotation engages the earth intermittently or with a varying effect as the element turns.

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540+,for rolling earth working elements, per se, with circumferentially spaced blades, tines, or the like.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 178]    178Including disk gang:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Apparatus in which the rolling implement comprises a group of earth working elements of generally circular platelike members each having the same axis of rotation.
(1) Note. The disks may be planar or concavo-convex.

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518+,for disk gangs, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 179]    179Non-rolling tool group with laterally co-extensive rolling tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Apparatus comprising a group of earth working elements of the nonrolling type spaced from one another transversely of the direction of travel and a rolling earth working element or elements having the same lateral extent as, and traveling the same path traversed by, the nonrolling earth working element group.

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173,for a smooth leveling roller combined with a plurality of earth working teeth.
177,for a plurality of laterally spaced nonrolling tools following the same path as a rolling tool having circumferentially spaced blades, tines, or the like.
178,for a plurality of laterally spaced nonrolling tools following the same path as a plurality of disks rotatable about a common axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 180]    180Rolling precedes non-rolling (same path):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 175.  Apparatus in which the rolling implement is located ahead of the nonrolling implement.

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164,for a rolling jointer and plow.
166,for a rolling colter and diverse tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 181]    181Concave furrowing disk with trailing tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 180.  Apparatus in which the earth working element of the rolling implement comprises a generally circular platelike member concave in a generally forward direction to form a furrow and the nonrolling implement includes an earth working element of the nonrolling type operating in said furrow.
(1) Note. The nonrolling tool may act to square off or undercut, etc., the furrow formed by the rolling tool.

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164,for a rolling or rotating jointer followed by a moldboard-type tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 182]    182Laterally spaced:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 174.  Apparatus in which the rolling and nonrolling earth working elements are spaced laterally of the direction of travel and operate along different paths.

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153,for at least four laterally spaced rolling and nonrolling tools which are alternately alike and successively unlike.
156,and 157, for laterally spaced like tools and an intermediate diverse tool, the tools being of the rolling and nonrolling type.
201+,for laterally spaced diverse tools of the nonrolling type.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 183]    183With scissors or shearing action between adjacent faces:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 182.  Apparatus in which the rolling and nonrolling earth working elements have juxtaposed sides which contact or nearly contact during operation to perform a cutting or shearing operation.
(1) Note. The cutting or shearing action is usually for stalks or vines.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 184]    184Diverse rolling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which each of the earth working elements is given a rotating motion by the resistance of the earth as it is drawn thereover.

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51+,for diverse rotary driven tools.
151,for three or more diverse implements traveling in the same or overlapping paths and including diverse rolling tools.
154,for four or more laterally spaced tools which are alternately alike, but successively unlike and being all of the rolling type.
158,for laterally spaced like rolling tools with an intermediate diverse rolling tool.
172,for diverse rolling tools one of which is a smooth compaction roller.
518+,for rolling or rotating tools, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 185]    185Spaced on same axis of rotation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements have their working portions axially spaced from one another and are mounted to rotate about the same axis.
(1) Note. A rolling tool having circumferentially spaced unlike tines, blades, or the like which lie in substantially a single plane is not considered to be diverse tools. However, unlike earth working portions spaced on the same axis of rotation and having an intervening space with no earth working or earth contacting portion comes within this definition.
(2) Note. This definition includes apparatus having relatively rotatable earth working elements of different shape or contour even if the elements axially abut or one element carries the other.

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154,for four or more laterally spaced diverse tools which are alternately alike, but successively unlike and rotatable about a common axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 186]    186Plane and dished disks:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the earth working elements comprise circular platelike members at least one of which has all the parts thereof in a single plane and another of which is of concavo-convex shape.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 187]    187Differing in size:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 184.  Apparatus in which the earth working elements are of substantially similar shape, but differ in size.

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185,for similarly shaped different size rolling earth working elements which rotate about the same axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 188]    188Runner attached:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising a longitudinal runner adapted to support at least a portion of the weight of the apparatus and a plurality of diverse earth working elements attached to the runner at points rearwardly of the forward end thereof.
(1) Note. An earth working element having a rearwardly extending runner or landside with earth working members attached thereto is considered to be a single tool having plural earth working portions and is excluded from this definition. See subclasses 681+.

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387+,for apparatus having a wheel substitute such as a runner and see the Notes thereto for other related art.
681+,see (1) Note above.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 189]    189Including fabric or flexible tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements comprises a flexible fabric, chain, cable, strand, rope, or wire.

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612,for fabric or flexible tools, per se, and see the Note thereto.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 190]    190Including vertical, longitudinally oriented disc or blade (e.g., as stabilizer):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus wherein an upright, generally planar disc or blade is disposed in the direction of travel.
(1) Note. The blade or disc often works the earth only to provide lateral stability to the implement as it moves in its intended direction of travel.

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144,and 165+, for a colter which cuts a vertical slit in the earth and a tool which follows the colter and operates in the slit cut thereby.
752,for a unitary earthworking element having a separable vertical planar lognitudinal cutter including apparatus in which the cutter is mounted on a runner or landside which forms a direct rearward continuation of the shovel, moldboard, or the like.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 3 for unearthing devices with stabilizing colter or fin.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 191]    191Plural:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 190.  Apparatus comprising a plurality of separate planar longitudinal blades.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 192]    192Including horizontal knife or cutter:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements comprises a substantially flat blade disposed in a horizontal plane in the working position and adapted to cut through the soil at or below the surface thereof.

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720,for subsurface blades, per se, which operate in substantially a horizontal position.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 193]    193First tool with spaced trailing sweep:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus comprising an earth working element (e.g., shovel or moldboard) for moving soil transverse to the line of travel and mounted upon a standard and an earth working blade or sweep following the earth working element and operating upon the moved soil and mounted on the standard behind the earth working element or on a rearwardly extending member connected to the earth working element or standard.

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722,for symmetrical tools having separately attached wings or moldboards.
728,for symmetrical tools having an attached rearwardly extending runner on depth gauge and additional blades attached directly to the runner.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 194]    194Sweep adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 193.  Apparatus in which the working position of the sweep can be selectively adjusted with respect to the earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 195]    195Second implement follows path of first:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which the diverse implements travel in the same or overlapping paths and are longitudinally spaced in the direction of travel, the implements having diverse earth working elements.
(1) Note. If an implement follows in or overlaps the path of travel of a diverse implement the implements are considered to be traveling in the same path. It should be particlarly noted that the word implement covers either a group of like earth working elements or a single earth working element.

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71+,for a driven tool and a nondriven tool traveling in the same path.
144,for a colter, jointer and plow.
145+,for three or more diverse implements following the same or overlapping paths.
163+,for a colter and jointer, or a jointer and plow, or a colter and diverse tool.
175+,for rolling and nonrolling implements following the same path.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 196]    196Including subsoiler:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Apparatus in which the earth working element of one of the implements comprises a subsoiler which acts on the soil at a greater depth than the earth working element of the other implement.
(1) Note. For the definition of subsoiler see subclass 699.

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699+,for subsoilers, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 197]    197Teeth and scraper, leveller or drag:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements comprise a plurality of earth working teeth, and a substantially vertical blade disposed generally transversely of the direction of travel or a horizontal bar or plate having a continuous ground engaging edge or horizontal surface which acts to scrape or level the surface of the soil.
(1) Note. A vertical blade which is disposed at an angle to the direction of movement of the apparatus of substantially other than 90° so as to provide substantial lateral soil movement is excluded from this definition unless such blade is a scraper for producing a level surface.
(2) Note. See the definition of subclass 713 of this class for the definition of teeth. However, ripper or scarifier teeth are included under this definition even if they do not meet the definition of subclass 713.

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189,for diverse tools one of which is a fabric or flexible tool.
199+,for other diverse tools following the same path and including a drag, scraper, or leveling blade.
785,for a scraper between front and rear vehicle ground supports combined with teeth preceding the scraper.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 198]    198Including teeth:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Apparatus in which earth working elements of one of the implements comprise a plurality of teeth.
(1) Note. See the definition of subclass 713 of this class for the definition of teeth.

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160,for laterally spaced like tools with an intermediate diverse tool and including a spike tooth.
173,for the combination of a smooth leveling roller and teeth.
197,for teeth combined with a drag, scraper, or leveling blade.
713,for teeth, per se.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 199]    199Including drag, scraper or levelling blade:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 195.  Apparatus in which the earth working element of one of the implements comprises a substantially vertical blade disposed transversely of the direction of travel or a horizontal bar or plate having a continuous ground engaging edge or horizontal surface which acts to scrape or level the surface of the soil.
(1) Note. A vertical blade which is disposed at an angle to the direction of movement of the apparatus of substantially other than 90° so as to provide substantial lateral soil movement is excluded from this definition unless such blade is a scraper for producing a level surface.

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189,for diverse tools one of which is a fabric or flexible tool.
197,for teeth combined with a drag, scraper, or leveling blade.
784+,for a scraper between front and rear vehicle ground supports combined with a diverse tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 200]    200Proceeded by implement of different type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 199.  Apparatus in which the drag, scraper, or leveling blade follows behind an implement having an earth working element of a different type.

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72,for a driven tool followed by a leveling drag or furrow shaper.
197,for teeth combined with a drag, scraper, or leveling blade.
785,for a scraper between front and rear vehicle ground supports combined with a tool of a different type ahead and spaced from the scraper.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 201]    201Laterally spaced:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 133.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working elements are spaced laterally of the direction of travel and operate along different paths.
(1) Note. Two implements which travel in overlapping paths are considered to be following the same path and are thus not classified under this definition. Thus, where one implement comprises a plurality of like laterally spaced earth working elements only some of which follow in the path of the diverse implement classification under this definition does not result. See subclasses 195+.

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152+,for four laterally spaced tools which are alternately alike, but successively unlike.
155+,for laterally spaced like tools and an intermediate diverse tool.
182,for laterally spaced rolling and nonrolling tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 202]    202Spaced from moldboard side of plow:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 201.  Apparatus in which one of the earth working elements is a plow having a moldboard for turning a furrow slice in one direction and a land side and the diverse earth working element disposed to travel in a path spaced outwardly from the moldboard side.

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171,for a smooth roller spaced from the moldboard side of a plow.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 203]    203Connected to moldboard or handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 202.  Apparatus in which the diverse earth working element has a connection directly to the moldboard or to the handles of the plow.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 204]    204ALTERNATING FOR RIGHT OR LEFT HAND OPERATION (OTHER THAN SCRAPER):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising earth working means adapted to be adjusted so as to shift the earth in alternate lateral directions, with respect to the line of draft at different times.
(1) Note. Devices in which an earth working element is adjustable about a vertical axis for right or left hand operation, there being no actuating means for such adjustment or the actuating means comprising no more than a handle directly connected to the earth working element, are not included. See subclasses 577, 600, 603, and 735.
(2) Note. Devices in which an earth working element is swung laterally (e.g., a cultivator shovel moved toward or away from a plant row) are not included if the purpose of the device is merely to provide for lateral adjustment and any moving of the earth to the right or left is merely incidental and not claimed.
(3) Note. A disk, scraper, or drag which is adjustable about a vertical axis to throw soil in opposite directions is not included. See subclasses 600 and 603 for such disks and subclasses 781+ and other appropriate subclasses for such scrapers or drags.

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34,for an apparatus which may include right and left hand tools in which the complete apparatus is adapted for use in an upside down position.
126+,for earth marking means mounted on an earth working device, said marking means being alternately engageable with the ground.
161+,for apparatus comprising diverse tools, at least one of which is alternated for right or left hand operation.
662,for an apparatus comprising plural relatively movable tools, at least one of which may be moved to nonuse position.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 2 for alternately usable unearthing units.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 205]    205Draft revoluble on transverse axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus in which the earth working means comprises separate earth working elements which are rotatable about a horizontal axis traverse to the direction of draft in order to alternately place the earth working elements in operation, the rotation being effected as a result of torque developed due to resistance of the ground to the forward motion of the earth working elements or some other ground contacting part of the earth working element carrier.

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37Excavating,   subclasses 436 , 440, and 441 for scoops adapted to be rotated due to forward movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 206]    206Interrelated tool shift and lateral movement of draft member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus in which the apparatus has a draft beam or tongue which may be adjusted laterally with respect to the earth working means and in which adjustment of the earth working means for alternate operation is accompanied by lateral adjustment of the draft member.
(1) Note. Lateral adjustment of the draft member or adjustment of the earth working means for alternate operation may be accompanied merely by the operation of a latch to permit earth working means adjustment or draft member lateral adjustment, respectively.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 207]    207Draft member reversed:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Apparatus in which the draft tongue or beam is swung through an angle of substantially 180° with respect to the frame on which the earth working means is mounted so as to draw the apparatus alternately in opposite directions.

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214,for oppositely directed tools having a reversible draft tongue, the reversal of the draft tongue not causing any adjustment of the tools.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 208]    208Draft member latch control:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 206.  Apparatus in which the adjustment of the earth working means is accompanied by the operation of means which lock the draft member against lateral displacement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 209]    209Interrelated tool lift and shift:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus having earth working means other than parallel separate tools and means to raise the earth working means from the ground and in which the adjustment of the earth working means for alternate operation results from the operation of the raising means or the lowering of the earth working means to the ground after being raised.
(1) Note. The "parallel separate tools" of the definition are defined in subclass 228. For interrelated lifting and shifting of such tools see subclasses 228+.
(2) Note. The adjustment of the earth working means may be no more than unlocking or unlatching of the same to permit reversal.

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128,for an apparatus comprising an earth working device and earth marking means, the earth marking means being adjusted upon lifting the implement.
162,for diverse tools including an implement alternating for right or left hand operation where reversal of the implement adjusts a diverse tool.
228+,for parallel separate tools which may be raised or lowered to place them in alternate operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 210]    210Mast type hitch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.  Apparatus in which the means for raising the earth working means is a mast-type hitch.
(1) Note. See this class, subclass 439 for the definition of mast-type hitch.

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445,for tools carried by a mast-type hitch including an auxiliary means which is operated by the vertical movement of the hitch.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 211]    211Lift by ground support manipulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 209.  Apparatus in which the means for raising the earth working means comprises a wheel or wheel substitute which is depressed with respect to the frame on which the earth working means is mounted.

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398,for implements including an actuator adjusted ground support and means interconnecting the actuating means and the earth working tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 212]    212Interrelated tool shift and ground support manipulation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus having a wheel or wheel substitute which automatically assumes a new supporting position with respect to its former supporting position, and also with respect to the earth working means, in response to adjustment of the earth working means to alternate positions.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 213]    213Tools oriented for movement in opposite directions
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus having separate earth working elements so directed as to be alternately usable when the frame on which they are mounted is moved in opposite directions without reversal of the frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 214]    214Wheeled frame with reversible draft member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus in which the earth working elements are carried by a wheeled frame having a draft member shiftable from one end of the frame to the opposite end through substantially 180° to draw the device in either direction.

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207,for tools adapted for alternate use having a reversible draft member, the reversal of the draft member adjusting the tools for alternate use.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 215]    215Tilting beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus in which the oppositely oriented earth working elements are rigidly mounted at spaced points upon a longitudinally extending beam or frame which may be tilted about a horizontal transverse axis to alternately place the earth working elements in operative position.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 216]    216Pivoted about spaced transverse axes, or translated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus in which the earth working elements may be placed into and out of operative position by (1) movement about separate axes which are transverse to and spaced in the direction of travel or (2) movement in vertical planes in which the earth working elements maintain substantially the same angular position with respect to the ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 217]    217With movable deflector:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 213.  Apparatus having shiftable earth deflector means (e.g., moldboard) alternately cooperating with the earth working elements as the frame is moved in opposite directions.

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218,for tools having a single earth breaking portion with an earth deflector means which is adjustable to move soil toward either side of the device.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 218]    218Shiftable moldboard:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus comprising an earth working means having one portion which operates in and acts to break the soil in the same position for both directions of earth movement and an earth deflector or deflectors connected therewith and adjustable to different positions to move the soil toward either side of the device.

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217,for tools having oppositely directed earth breaking points with a movable deflector for moving the soil in alternate directions on movement of the tool in opposite directions.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 219]    219Tool shifted for opposite throw:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus in which the same earth working element is utilized to move the soil in alternate lateral directions.
(1) Note. An earth working means having opposite ends or sides, one being used to move the soil in one direction and the other side or end being used to move soil in the other direction, is considered to be plural tools and is excluded from this and indented subclasses, except when the ends or sides are connected by a common moldboard or soil deflector portion which is utilized to deflect soil in both phases of operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 220]    220Reversible disk with reversible cleaner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is of the rolling-disk type having cleaning means to remove soil therefrom, the cleaning means being movable relative to the disk upon reversal of the disk so as to perform the cleaning operation for either direction of earth movement.
(1) Note. A scraper which merely moves as a unit with a reversible disk is not considered to be a reversible cleaning means for this subclass.

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558+,for cleaning means for disks.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 221]    221Plural tools shifted about individual vertical axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Apparatus including a plurality of earth working elements, each operative to move soil in opposite directions, the earth working elements being adjustable about spaced vertical axes to reverse the direction of soil movement.

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569,for a plurality of disks which are pivoted on vertical axes with interconnected means for moving them identically without shifting them for opposite throw.
647,for plural relatively movable tools which are simultaneously adjusted about their individual vertical axes without being shifted for opposite throw.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 222]    222With translational movement of axes:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 221.  Apparatus wherein, in addition to the movement of the earth working elements about their vertical axes, at least one of the axes is also moved horizontally at the same time.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 223]    223Moldboard type shiftable about longitudinal axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 219.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is of the type having a point, share and moldboard and in which the earth working element is adjustable about an axis extending substantially in the direction of travel to reverse the direction of soil movement.

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224+,for alternately usable separate tools which are adjusted about a longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 224]    224Axially rotatable implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus in which the earth working means comprises earth working elements which are alternately placed into operative position by rotation about an axis which is horizontal and longitudinal (i.e., in the direction of travel).

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34,for earth working apparatus in which the complete apparatus is adapted for use upside down.
232,for tools alternated for right or left hand operation by rotation about an axis lying in a vertical longitudinal plane and at an angle to the horizontal.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 225]    225With actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 224.  Apparatus in which an actuator is provided to rotate the earth working elements with respect to a frame or support.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 226]    226Gearing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 225.  Apparatus in which the actuator comprises gearing.
(1) Note. For the definition of gearing, see Class 74, Machine Element or Mechanism, subclass 640.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 227]    227Chain or cable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 226.  Apparatus in which the gearing comprises a flexible member (e.g., chain or cable) cooperating with a sprocket or drum, rotation of the sprocket or drum effecting rotation of the earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 228]    228Parallel separate tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus employing separate earth working elements oriented for movement in the same direction which are alternately placed into operation by movement in substantially longitudinal vertical, parallel planes.
(1) Note. The tools may deviate slightly from the vertical planes during alternation so as, for example, to clear one another.

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472,for plural tools simultaneously raised by an actuator for transport on a wheeled frame and which are individually lowered.
481,for tools raised by an actuator for transport on a wheeled frame and held in one position by a latch means separate from the actuating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 229]    229Interconnected for simultaneous raising and lowering:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus having means connecting the earth working elements such that movement of one element in one direction (i.e., raising or lowering) is accompanied by movement of the other element in the opposite direction.
(1) Note. The connecting means may be temporarily disabled to allow both tools to be raised or lowered.

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130+,for apparatus comprising an earth working device and plural earth marking means, the plural earth marking means being interconnected so that adjustment of one causes movement of another.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 230]    230Independently operable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 228.  Apparatus having separate operating means for each earth working element such that each element is movable to operative and inoperative positions independently of the other element.

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304,for plural tools carried forward of the rear of a motor vehicle which are independently actuatable.
468+,for plural tools having independently operable actuator means to lift the tools for transport on a wheeled frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 231]    231Power derived from ground wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 230.  Apparatus in which each of the operating means is actuated by power derived from a separate wheel engaging the ground and turned as an incident to the travel of the machine over the ground.

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399,for vertically adjustable ground supports with a power take-off from plural wheels.
408+,for vertically adjustable ground wheels in which the wheel actuates its own crank axle mount.
492+,for tools lifted for transport on a wheeled frame by means of an actuator operated by a power take-off, the power take-off usually being from a ground wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 232]    232Oblique axis in longitudinal vertical plane:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 204.  Apparatus in which the earth working means is alternately placed into operative position by movement about an axis which lies in a vertical plane extending in the direction of travel and is at an angle to the horizontal.

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224+,for tools alternated for right and left hand operation by rotation about a horizontal, longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 233]    233WITH OBSTRUCTION FEELER FOR MOVING OR RELEASING IMPLEMENT TO AVOID OBSTRUCTION (INCLUDES DAM FORMER):
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus adapted to be moved over the surface of the earth comprising a feeler means adapted to sense the presence of an obstruction in or on the ground (e.g., a rock, tree, or mound of earth) and to cause or permit movement of the apparatus or a part thereof to avoid the obstruction.
(1) Note. The feeler means must constitute an element specifically provided for that purpose and not be a mere part of the tool supporting structure. A mere pivoted tool which may move because of direct contact of the tool or its supporting means with an obstruction is not included under this definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

5+,for apparatus in which an obstruction sensing means is operative to control a power means to adjust the apparatus or some part thereof to avoid the obstruction.
38,for an implement including a driven tool and obstruction feeling means for moving or releasing the implement.
236,for apparatus comprising a ground engageable lever means (including a segment of a wheel) which is engageable merely with the ground rather than an obstruction and which causes a manipulation due to its resistance to forward motion.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

293Vehicle Fenders,   subclasses 102+ for protective structure attached to vehicles comprising barrier structures for fending off blows from other vehicles or objects.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 234]    234Relatively movable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 233.  Apparatus in which the feeler means is movable relative to the implement part to be moved.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 235]    235Latch releasing:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 234.  Apparatus in which the feeler means operates a lock or latch to release the implement part so as to be free to move to another position to avoid the obstruction.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 236]    236GROUND ENGAGEABLE DRAFT RESPONSIVE LEVER:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working element adapted to be propelled over the earth and a lever adapted to be lowered into engagement with the earth so as to resist motion of the apparatus whereby when the lever is engaged with the earth and the apparatus moved thereover relative motion between the lever and apparatus occurs due to the resistance of the lever, which results in some manipulation of the apparatus or a part thereof.
(1) Note. A ground wheel adapted to supply a force for manipulation of the apparatus due to its rolling over the ground is not included. See subclasses 407+, particularly subclass 409 for such devices. However, a lever arrangement including an arc, which may be a portion of a wheel, for rolling contact with the ground to manipulate the device is included, if said lever does not pass through a complete cycle of 360° by contact with the ground to again be in position to repeat the cycle. The lever is not considered to pass through a cycle of 360° by contact with the ground when the initial movement of the lever through a portion of the cycle is effected by earth contact movement of an earth working tool connected therewith, and such devices would be included under this definition. See subclass 90 for an earth working element driven by an irregular ground-engaging wheel or support.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

90,for ground-engaging levers or irregularly shaped wheels used to give a regular or intermittent cyclical motion to an implement as it is drawn over the ground without any manipulation from the operator, i.e., a device in which a latch is released by the operator and the ground-engageable lever or irregular wheel moves through a cycle of at least 360° would be classified in subclass 90, while other latch-release type devices which must be manually advanced through part of their cycle of operation or which must be manually reset and which are not free to complete a cycle of 360° once having been unlatched are included under this definition (236).
205,for implements alternating for right or left hand operation and draft revoluble about a transverse axis by means of a ground-engageable draft responsive lever.
233+,for apparatus comprising a feeler means which senses some special obstruction and which causes manipulation of a part due to a movement or tendency to movement of the apparatus past the obstruction, resistance to movement being not necessarily present.
238,for apparatus including a ground wheel or wheel substitute which is moved relative to the frame by the draft force.
239,for apparatus including ground wheels and linkages for providing a constant depth of operation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

254Implements or Apparatus for Applying Pushing or Pulling Force,   subclasses 418+ for attached vehicle jacks, including jacks comprising a leg which engages the ground and lifts the vehicle by moving the vehicle with respect to the ground.
280Land Vehicles,   subclass 43 for devices for rendering an apparatus transportable by movement of the apparatus with respect to a leg lowered to engage the ground.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclass 438 for a ground-engaging lever for manipulating a part of a load handler or transporter.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 237]    237Roll over type implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 236.  Apparatus having an earth working element mounted to rotate through 360° about a horizontal transverse axis, the draft responsive lever being operative to rotate the tool on said axis over an arc of less than 360° being caused by a force other than from the lever, usually from earth resistance to the earth working element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

205,for earth working tools alternating for right or left hand operation and draft revoluble about a transverse axis by means of a lever engaging the ground.
528+,for rolling or rotating tools having means to stop or retard the rotation thereof.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

37Excavating,   subclass 441 for a scoop with a dumping runner.
56Harvesters,   379+ for roll-over type rakes.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 238]    238GROUND SUPPORT MOVED VERTICALLY RELATIVE TO FRAME BY DRAFT MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a framework, a ground wheel or wheel substitute carried thereby, an earth working element associated with the framework, a means for applying a draft force to the framework and means connecting the ground wheel or wheel substitute to the draft-force applying means whereby the ground wheel or wheel substitute may be moved vertically with respect to the framework by the draft-force applying means due to a force resulting from resistance of the apparatus to being moved over the earth by the draft force applying means.
(1) Note. Apparatus in which the vertical movement of the ground wheel is only the result of the draft force causing a ground wheel to rotate so that power from the rotating ground wheel causes the vertical movement is not included under this definition. See subclasses 407+, especially subclasses 408+ for apparatus in which a wheel is vertically adjusted by power from a wheel.
(2) Note. Apparatus comprising a ground wheel or wheel substitute which moves relatively to the framework due to irregularities in the surface of the ground and is connected to a draft means so as to move it correspondingly is not included. See subclass 239 for such apparatus.
(3) Note. Apparatus in which the draft- force applying means causes the ground wheel or wheel substitute to move only when a turn is being made is not included. See subclass 255 for such apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

236,for apparatus including a ground-engageable draft responsive lever.
239,for apparatus comprising a ground level responsive depth control of the type comprising a wheel and a linkage associated with an articulated hitch to a propelling vehicle.
255,for apparatus in which a turning movement causes an earth working element to be lifted off or lowered into the ground.
407+,especially subclasses 408+ for apparatus in which a wheel is vertically adjusted relative to its running gear by power derived from the rolling motion of a wheel.
467,for an apparatus comprising an actuator adapted to lift a tool for transport on a wheeled frame or broadly claimed implement and also comprising a shiftable hitch for causing vertical movement of the tool.
588,for apparatus comprising a hitch shiftable on a tongue for angling gangs of disks.
605,for an apparatus comprising a shiftable hitch for moving a tool relative to the frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 239]    239DRAFT, PITCH OR GROUND LEVEL RESPONSIVE DEPTH CONTROL:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working element and a propelling device therefor, such as a tractor, the connection between the earth working element and its propelling device being such that (1) the earth working element tends to sink lower into the earth from a median working position when the draft force necessary to propel the element decreases and tends to raise out of the earth when the draft force increases or (2) the earth working element tends to move up and down from a median position relative to its propelling device as its propelling device pitches down and up, respectively, over uneven ground so as to maintain an approximately constant depth in the ground, (3) the earth working element tends to rise from a median position when the downward component or suck of the soil pressure increases and tends to sink from a median position when the downward component or suck of the soil pressure decreases or (4) the earth working element tends to move up from a median position as it approaches or is in a rise of ground and tends to move down from a median position as it approaches or is in a depression in the ground.
(1) Note. This subclass is intended to provide for linkages or the like which are automatic in action but wholly mechanical so as not to fit the definition of the "Automatic" subclasses. An earth working element which is simply spring-pressed downwardly or which is merely pivoted at a forward point may be analyzable as coming under this definition, but such devices are not so classified. The devices under the definition comprise linkages or equivalent mechanism of greater complexity especially intended to function as stated in the definition. For example, a trailing implement connected to a tractor by a simple hitch including a spring so that the earth working tool is raised or lowered as the spring is stressed due to changes in draft load is classified in subclass 238 or subclass 678.
(2) Note. Apparatus classified under this definition is sometimes known as constant draft or constant depth apparatus.
(3) Note. Apparatus including gauge wheels connected by linkages to the propelling means to perform the functions set out in the definition are included.
(4) Note. Merely holding an earth working element down against a tendency to rise out of the ground is not included. Such devices are classified according to the structure claimed.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

2+,for automatically operated power control devices especially subclasses 7+ for automatically operated power control devices responsive to changes in draft load.
238,for ground wheels moved vertically with respect to the running gear by means of the draft force (usually for lifting the earth working element for transport).
261+,for earth working elements which shift on occurrence of an overload.
678,for spring-biased hitches.
779,for a scraper whose position is automatically controlled by a linkage for leveling.
811+,for a scraper positioned in front of a motor vehicle and maintained in a horizontal position as the ground supports of the vehicle move over irregular terrain so that the vehicle tilts sidewise.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 446.1+ for articulated vehicles with a hitch responsive to change in draft load, there being no disclosure of an earth working element being the cause of the change in draft load.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 240]    240WITH GROUND SUPPORT ENGAGEABLE WITH GROUND FOR TRANSPORT ONLY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a ground wheel or wheel substitute such as a runner so arranged in the apparatus or so attachable to the apparatus that when the wheel or wheel substitute engages the ground the apparatus may not effectively perform its intended earth working operation but may merely be readily moved.
(1) Note. A wheel or wheel substitute may be stated to be for transport only but if as disclosed it may actually engage the ground in supporting or gauging relation without precluding the operation of the earth working tool it is not classified under this definition. Such devices may be found in subclasses 395+. If the means attaching the wheel or wheel substitute to the implement can only be used to support the implement for transport and in any other position the wheel serves no purpose (e.g., gauging or supporting) classification under this definition results.
(2) Note. The wheel or wheel substitute may constitute a part of the earth working element itself, which functions as a wheel or runner or an earth working element in accordance with different positions in the apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

56Harvesters,   subclass 228 for transporting attachments for harvesters.
280Land Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses, especially subclasses 43+ and 47.131+ for wheel attachments for vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 241]    241Apparatus inverted to engage ground support with ground:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Apparatus, in which the wheel or wheel substitute is so positioned with relation to the earth working element that the entire apparatus must be turned upside down to bring the wheel or wheel substitute into ground-engaging position.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

34,for apparatus which is adapted for use upside down to provide an earth working function in either position.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 242]    242Implement tiltable on longitudinal axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is pivoted about an axis extending longitudinally of the apparatus to shift it from an earth working position and enable engagement of the wheel or wheel substitute with the ground.
(1) Note. The wheel or runner may constitute a part of the earth working element itself, which functions as a wheel or runner or an earth working element in accordance with different positions in the apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

224+,for an apparatus comprising axially rotatable alternately useable tools for right and left hand operation having wheels which alternately contact the ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 243]    243Tool changeable to or replaced by ground support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Apparatus in which a wheel or wheel substitute replaces an earth working element or is attached directly to an earth working element or in which an earth working element is manipulated to act as a wheel.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

535,for a detachable rim for a disk, the rim being used for an earth working function, e.g., a packing roller rather than as a ground wheel.
540+,for a rolling or rotating earth working element having spaced teeth, tines, or blades which may be made by placing such teeth on a wheel.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

301Land Vehicles: Wheels and Axles,   subclasses 38.1+ for wheels useable with ordinary wheels for emergency purposes.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 244]    244Tool and ground support moved together relative to frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 240.  Apparatus in which there is a framework supporting an earth working element and the ground wheel or wheel substitute and the ground wheel or wheel substitute is so connected to the earth working element that movement of one relative to the frame is accompanied by movement of the other relative to the frame.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

397+,for apparatus having a vertically adjustable ground support which is movable together with a tool relative to a supporting frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 245]    245CONVERTIBLE; OR CHANGEABLE BY DISASSEMBLY OR ASSEMBLY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus, (A) adapted to be rearranged to perform different functions, or (B) adapted to be altered so as to operate in a different way or change its function in some way by (1) the steps of disassembling the apparatus in some major portion and then reassembling the apparatus with the same or different portion, (2) the step of disassembling some major portion from the apparatus, or (3) the step of assembling some major portion to the apparatus.
(1) Note. Conversion features are common in this art. A mere preamble in a claim to the effect that a device is convertible or is a conversion attachment is generally not enough for classification under this definition. The conversion feature should be spelled out as by (a) specifically claiming one embodiment of an apparatus having a first function and claiming with that embodiment a feature useable only for a second conversion function, or (b) repeated functional statements in the claim, or (c) a preamble which is so long and detailed that it may be considered part of the body of the claim. Where no other suitable classification exists a broad mention of conversion may be enough for classification under this definition.
(2) Note. The change in the apparatus must be more than merely placing a part in one of a series of adjacent holes or in general making a change which amounts to only an adjustment or minor alteration in the overall functioning of the device.
(3) Note. The change must be more than to change a part between an operative and an inoperative position.
(4) Note. When the conversion consists of the assembly of a part the claim must recite some element of the combination which has little or no utility when the part is in the combination but is useful when the part is absent from the combination.
(5) Note. Various specific types of apparatus which fit this definition have been considered to be better classified in subclasses below this subclass and not indented under it as indicated in the Search Notes. The general rule is that if a subclass below furnishes a specific home for subject matter apparently covered by this definition the patent is properly classified in the subclass below.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

14,for a lawn edger convertible to a nonearth working implement.
34,for a complete apparatus adapted for use upside down.
136,for diverse tools, not of the hand-held type, carried at the same time in an apparatus but useable alternately only, by merely changing the position of the tools with respect to the earth.
243,for an earth working element which is changeable to or replaced by a ground support for transporting the apparatus.
310,for plural wheeled implements.
341,for hand guided wheeled straddle row type cultivators with an added intermediate tool.
355,for attendant guided or propelled wheeled implements with alternately useable tools rocked about a wheel axis.
375,for alternately useable hand-held earth working elements, carried at the same time in the apparatus and alternately useable by a mere change of position while remaining in the apparatus.
439+,for a device converting an automatic power control means to a nonautomatic position controlled mast-type hitch.
443,for an implement with a mast-type hitch adapted to be bolted to a tractor as a unit thereby inherently acting to convert a tractor adapted to use with a simple hitch to one having a mast-type hitch.
452+,for an automatic power control device converted to a nonautomatic lift device, especially subclass 465 for a device converting an automatic power control means to a servomotor with a follow-up control (e.g., a position controlled device).
535,for detachable rims for disks, which rims may be rollers.
536,for a wheel or roller and an axially adjacent earth working element on the same axis.
539,for a wheel or roller with a ridge or rim attached to convert it to an earth working device.
540+,for a wheel or roller with blades mounted on the circumference to convert it to an earth working device.
541,for a roller with tines, blades, or the like which may be projected from or withdrawn beneath the surface of the roller.
568,for a disk gang with a removable section.
577,for a reversible group of rolling earth working elements.
581,for groups of disk gangs changeable to different arrangements.
603,for a disk changeable to positions having a different angular relationship to adjacent structure when viewed in plan.
625,for plural tool groups which are relatively movable as a result of operation and connected to a forward draft bar and have alternate draft means.
702+,for an earth working element with a reversible part.
719,for an earth working element with an added-on cutting or wearing edge, point, or surface.
735,for an earth working element adjustable to present different working portions.
777+,for a scraper supporting a readily detachable narrow depending tool.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 51+ for implements having parts or adjustments permitting conversion of said implement to a fork, shovel, other implement, or different type of the same implement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 246]    246To land vehicle with body:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus changeable between a condition in which it functions as a device under the class definition and a condition in which it functions as a land vehicle having a body portion of general utility for transporting loads.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 247]    247To device classifiable in another class:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus changeable between a condition in which it functions as a device under the class definition and a condition in which it funcitons as a device classifiable in some other class.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

14,for a lawn edger convertible to a nonearth working implement.
246,for an earth working implement changeable to a land vehicle with a body.
375,for a hand-held implement with alternately useable diverse tools, one of which may be a tool not classifiable in this class.
535,for a detachable rim for a disk, which rim may be a roller.
536,for a wheel with a tool mounted on the same axis for rotation with the wheel.
539,for a wheel or roller with a ridge or rim attached to convert it to an earth working device.
540+,for a wheel or roller with blades mounted on the circumference to convert it to an earth working device.
541,for a roller with tines, blades, or the like which may be projected from or withdrawn beneath the surface of the roller, thereby converting the device from one classifiable in this class to one classifiable in Class 404, Road Structure, Process, or Apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

37Excavating,   subclasses 403+ for a scraper convertible to a scoop, shovel, or other material pick up means.
56Harvesters,   subclasses 400.04+ for hand rakes convertible to earth working devices.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclass 51 for hand forks and shovels convertible to earth working devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 248]    248To different type of hitch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus in which an apparatus under the class definition having one distinct type of draft connection to a propelling means is convertible or changeable to an apparatus having another distinct type of draft connection to a propelling means.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

439+,for a device converting an automatic power control means to a nonautomatic position controlled mast-type hitch.
443,for an implement with a mast-type hitch adapted to be bolted to a tractor as a unit, thereby inherently acting to convert a tractor adapted to use with a simple hitch to one having a mast-type hitch.
452,for a device converting an automatic power control means to a nonautomatic lift device especially subclass 465 for a device with an automatic control converted to a device having a servomotor with a follow-up position control.
463,for an apparatus comprising wheeled frame and an actuator adapted to lift a tool for transport, the lift actuator and the tool forming a removable unit.
625,for an apparatus comprising plural tool groups movably connected to a forward transverse draft bar and having alternate draft means spaced ninety degrees apart.
677+,for earth working implements with some significant detail of the hitch.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 415.1+ for articulated vehicles with convertible hitches, and subclass 474 for articulated vehicles with selectively rigid or flexible hitches.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 249]    249Plural simultaneously usable tools to single tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus which is changeable between a condition in which it has a plurality of spaced earth working elements to a condition in which the plurality if elements have been joined or juxtaposed to form a part of a single earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 250]    250Changeable by disassembly or assembly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 245.  Apparatus adapted to be altered so as to operate in a different way or change its function in some way by (1) the steps of disassembling the apparatus in some major portion and then reassembling the apparatus with the same or different portions, (2) the step of disassembling some major portion from the apparatus, or (3) the step of assembling some major portion to the apparatus.
(1) Note. See the definition of subclass 245 for Notes limiting and explaining this definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

243,for an earth working element replaceable by a ground support.
702+,for an earth working element with a reversible part.
719,for an earth working element with an added-on cutting or wearing edge, point, or surface.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 251]    251Tool changeable to diverse tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Apparatus which is changeable from a device having an earth working element of one kind to a device in which said earth working element has been replaced by or changed to an earthworking element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

136,for diverse tools, not of the hand-held type, carried at the same time in an apparatus but usable alternately only, by disassembling and assembling the tools to change their position with respect to the earth.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 252]    252Tool plus added part forms diverse tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 251.  Apparatus in which the change is brought about by adding to an earth working element or a major portion of an earth working element a part to form an earth working element of a different shape or size than the original earth working element, said part not being intended for use as an earth working element by itself in the apparatus.
(1) Note. Merely attaching an earth working element to a nominally recited spring tooth or rigid earth working tooth is not included, the tooth in that case being considered merely a standard. However, if some earth working configuration of the tooth is claimed the device is classifiable under this definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

535,for detachable rims for disks.
708,for an earth working element attached to a spring tooth.
719,for an earth working element with an added-on cutting or wearing edge, point, or surface.
777+,for a scraper supporting a readily detachable narrow depending tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 253]    253Tool added or substracted:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Apparatus in which the alteration of the apparatus comprises the addition of an earth working element or the removal of an earth working element.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

341,for hand guided wheeled straddle row type cultivators with an added intermediate tool.
568,for a disk gang with a removable section.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 254]    254Tool rearranged on support structure:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 250.  Apparatus in which the alteration comprises placing an earth working element in distinctly different positions relative to adjacent supporting structure so that the element may perform its earth working function in each of these different positions.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

554,for a disk changeable to positions having a different angular relationship to adjacent structure when viewed in plan.
577,for a reversible group of rolling earth working elements.
581,for groups of disks changeable to different arrangements.
702+,for a reversible part. Where the rearrangement of a tool results merely from reversing a nonrolling tool or part thereof, a standard, or a reversible part between such a tool and a standard or the standard and a beam, classification is in subclasses 702+.
735,for an earth working element adjustable to prevent a different working portion.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 255]    255TURN LIFTS TOOL OFF OR LOWERS TOOL INTO GROUND:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising means for lifting an earth working element out of the ground or lowering the element into ground engagement responsive to a change in the direction of movement of the apparatus over the ground or responsive to a steering means for changing the direction of movement of the apparatus.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

278+,for apparatus with actuating means for horizontally angling the axis of rotation of a ground wheel, which angling may be accompanied by a vertical movement of the wheel with respect to its carrying frame but there being no turning of the implement as a result of the wheel angling, particularly subclasses 279+ for an implement part interconnected with a motor vehicle steering means, subclass 283 for a wheel on a trailing implement responding to turning movement and interconnected with an adjustable earth working element, and subclass 287 for a wheel on a nonself-propelled device having means to angle it horizontally and interconnected with an earth working element. In subclasses 279+, 283, and 287 the earth working element does not move off or into the ground responsive to turning movement.
383+,for apparatus with a ground wheel whose axis of rotation may be adjusted to different angular positions and in which horizontal angling may be accompanied by vertical wheel movement but there being no turning of the implement as a result of the wheel angling.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 256]    256PROPULSION UNIT GUIDED BY WALKING ATTENDANT OR PART OF ARTICULATED VEHICLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising (1) a self-propelled vehicle having means such that an attendant walking on the ground may guide the vehicle, or (2) a vehicle made up of a self-propelled frame section having a ground wheel and another frame section having a ground wheel connected to the self-propelled section by a pivot means providing a vertical axis, the self-propelled section when in use being unstable except for its connection to the other section.
(1) Note. The disclosure of an unstable tractor (e.g., one or two wheel) which is guided by a walking attendent will be classified under this definition even though (1) the guiding means (e.g., handles) or (2) the motor, is not claimed, provided the claim includes some recitation of (1) the tractor or tractor frame, or (2) the handles, respectively.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

42+,for an implement with a drive means for a tool or cleaner and guided by a walking attendant.
329+,for an implement comprising a vehicle other than a self-propelled vehicle and guided by a walking attendant.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

56Harvesters,   subclasses 14.7+ , for a harvester deriving its motive power from a tractor to which it is hitched, and 16.7+, for a motor-driven lawn mower guided by a walking attendant.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 19.1+ for a motor driven vehicle guided by a walking attendant.
280Land Vehicles,   subclass 47.11 for a wheeled vehicle in which the wheel is steered by the attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 257]    257Riding attendant:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus in which the apparatus is guided by an attendant riding thereon.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

433,for a riding attachment on other than a self-propelled implement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 258]    258Endless track or single driven wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus comprising an endless track traction means or a drive for one ground wheel only.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

280Land Vehicles,   subclass 414.5 for articulated vehicles having an actuator for vertically moving a wheel of a trailing vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 259]    259With vertically adjustable wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus in which a ground wheel may be vertically adjustable with respect to its carrying frame.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 260]    260With actuator for moving earth working element vertically:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 256.  Apparatus having an actuator for causing an earth working element to move vertically with respect to its supporting frame.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

257,for apparatus in which there is an unstable propulsion unit vertically pivotally connected to another section with a riding attendant and there is also a means for causing an earth working element to move vertically.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 260.5]    260.5HAVING TOOL OVERLOAD SHIFT CONTROLLED BY A FLUID PRESSURE DEVICE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus including (a) an earth working element; (b) means permitting the element to change position with respect to the ground, or with respect to its supporting or propelling means, when it meets an obstacle while being drawn over the ground, and (c) a fluid pressure responsive means (e.g., a hydraulic system) to yieldingly resist the change in position of the element.
(1) Note. The patents classified herein include overload shift mechanisms of the type found in this class, either in subclasses 261+ or subclasses 705+, but also with the recitation of fluid pressure responsive means to control the overload shifting. This subclass is intended to provide a locus for fluid pressure responsive tool overload shift mechanisms.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

111Planting,   subclass 151 for a trip mechanism claimed in combination with a planting machine.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 261]    261OVERLOAD SHIFTING:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working element and means permitting the element to shift with respect to the earth or with respect to its supporting or propelling means when it meets an obstacle while being drawn over the field, said means (1) having a high initial resistance to said shifting of the element, which resistance decreases after the element starts to shift, or (2) requiring manual resetting by an attendant (e.g., a shear pin).

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96,for driven earth working elements having the teeth or like earth working part or portions thereof so flexibly or yieldably mounted on a driven carrier member that said teeth or like parts or portions will yield on encountering an obstacle.
233+,for an obstruction feeler for moving an implement to avoid an obstruction, including devices for forming small dams in the ground having feelers sensing accumulations of earth.
238,for a ground support moved vertically relative to a frame by a draft force.
528+,for a rolling earth working element with means for stopping or retarding its motion.
683,for an earth working element latched in earth working position, the latch being manually releasable.
705+,for spring-biased tools in which the spring resistance remains constant or increases as the tool shifts from normal working position.

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111Planting,   subclass 151 for a trip mechanism claimed in combination with a planting machine.
171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 9 for unearthing devices with overload release.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 14.5 for vehicle trains with an overload release. The trailing vehicle in subclass 14.5 may be a broadly named implement combined with means to control the application of pulling power on the occurrance of an overload.
280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 449+ for articulated vehicles with an overload release connection between them.
464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclasses 30+ for an overload release device in rotary drive elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 262]    262Alternate tool brought into operation upon shift:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus in which the earth working element, upon the occurrence of an overload, shifts to an inoperative position and a second earth working element is brought into operative position.

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528+,for a rolling earth working element with means to stop or retard rotation at will.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 263]    263Actuator released:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus in which there is an actuator which is separated from adjacent and associated structure when the earth working element shifts.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 264]    264Against spring return device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus wherein resilient means is employed to resist shifting of the element, the resilient means returning the element to operative position after passing of the overload.

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705+,for spring-biased tools in which the spring resistance remains constant or increases as the tool shifts from normal working position.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 455 for articulated vehicles having an overload release of the type having a pivoted jaw or hook with a resilient keeper.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 265]    265Swinging about fixed pivot axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 264.  Apparatus wherein the movable element pivots about a fixed point on the support.
(1) Note. This definition excludes those devices in which the movable element pivots about an axis and the axis also moves as a result of the overload shift.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 452+ for articulated vehicles having an overload release of the type having a pivoted jaw or hook.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 266]    266Including toggle linkage:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 265.  Apparatus including two links pivoted to one another, one of the links also being pivoted to the implement and the other of the links being also pivoted to the support, the links being so positioned as to offer a high initial resistance to movement of the tool from working position and a decreased resistance after some movement has occurred.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 267]    267Toggle adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Apparatus in which the angularity between the links when in a normal or unshifted position is adjustable.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 268]    268Toggle links at acute angle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 266.  Apparatus in which the axes of the two links are disposed at an angle to each other of less than 90° when the implement is in the normal or unshifted position.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 269]    269Resilient latch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus wherein the element is substantially rigidly held in place by a resiliently biased latch device until a predetermined overload occurs.

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270,for an element held in position by mere frictional resistance with an adjacent element and overcomes the frictional resistance to move upon the occurrence of an abnormal load.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 455 for articulated vehicles having an overload release of the type having a pivoted jaw or hook with a resilient keeper.
464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclasses 37+ for an overload release coupling including a resiliently biased positive drive connection.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 270]    270Friction lock:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus wherein a friction clamp is employed to rigidly hold the element in place until a predetermined overload occurs.

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269,for an element held in position by a resilient latch which yields upon overload to permit the element to shift.

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464Rotary Shafts, Gudgeons, Housings, and Flexible Couplings for Rotary Shafts,   subclasses 30+ for friction drive connections in rotary drive overload release devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 271]    271Frangible lock (e.g., shear pin, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 261.  Apparatus wherein the element is rigidly held in place by means destructible upon the occurrence of a predetermined overload.
(1) Note. The destructible means is usually a break pin.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 451 for articulated vehicles having an overload release of the frangible type.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 272]    272WITH MEANS TO FACILITATE MOUNTING OF IMPLEMENT ON MOTOR VEHICLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a self-propelled vehicle and specifically claimed means to permit and facilitate rapid attachment of an implement thereto with a minimum amount of labor.
(1) Note. It is recognized that the terms "rapid attachment" and "minimum amount of labor" are difficult to limit and define. The attachment should be accomplished without the necessity of tools and/or with little or no direct manual effort required on the part of an attendant to position the implement.
(2) Note. The following is illustrative of subject matter included under this definition:
(a) Apparatus in which a preliminary or pilot connection is made which supports or positions the implement or implement part on the tractor before the principal connection is completed.
(b) Apparatus in which the connection can be completed by engaging an implement part with a tractor part without the addition of a separate connecting member (the connection may be tightened after engagement).
(c) Apparatus in which the tractor is driven into interfitting relation with the implement (e.g., self-coupling) or in which the connection can be completed without the necessity of the attendant leaving the tractor.
(3) Note. If a self-propelled vehicle is disclosed it need not be claimed as such for classification under this definition. Any reference in the claim to a structure disclosed as a self-propelled vehicle is sufficient.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 477+ for means to facilitate the connection of articulated vehicles.
296Land Vehicles: Bodies and Tops,   subclasses 35.1+ for devices for securing a body to a vehicle.
403Joints and Connections,   appropriate subclasses for joints and connections of general application.
414Material or Article Handling,   subclass 563 for towing apparatus adapted to engage one end of a vehicle and elevate it into towing position, and subclasses 697+ for material moving devices with a vertically swinging load support of the tilting shovel or fork type with means to facilitate mounting them upon a motor vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 273]    273Tool forward of rear of motor vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is entirely located in front of the rearmost point of the frame or wheels of the self-propelled vehicle when connected thereto in working relationship.

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297+,for tools mounted forward of the rear of a self-propelled vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 274]    274Implement has ground support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus in which the implement is provided with ground-support means (e.g., wheel or stand) to sustain a portion of the weight thereof, said ground-support means being separate from the ground-support of the self-propelled vehicle.
(1) Note. This definition does not include a runner or landside which forms part of or is closely associated with an earth working element.
(2) Note. The ground support may be operative only when the implement is disconnected from the self-propelled vehicle or may be operative at all times.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 763.1 for a land vehicle having a retractable ground support to stabilize the vehicle when not in use, subclasses 423.1+ for semi-trailers with landing gear, and subclass 475 for articulated vehicles having a retractable ground support.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 275]    275Self-coupling by horizontal movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 272.  Apparatus in which the self-propelled vehicle and implement assume a coupled or connected relationship as a result of relative movement toward one another in a horizontal plane and require no manual manipulation at the time of making the connection.
(1) Note. This definition includes apparatus where a manual manipulation may be required to preset or condition one of the connecting members for the connecting action prior to relative movement and actual connection of the parts.
(2) Note. This definition includes apparatus having a plurality of connecting points between the self-propelled vehicle and implement wherein at least one of the points is self-coupling.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 434+ and 508+ for coupling devices between articulated vehicles which are automatically connected by movement of one of the vehicles toward the other.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 278]    278WITH WHEEL STEERING OR ACTUATOR FOR HORIZONTALLY ANGLING WHEEL AXIS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising (1) an actuating means for moving the axis of rotation of a ground wheel to different positions of adjustment in a horizontal angular direction with respect to the running gear, or (2) means to change the horizontal angular direction of the axis of rotation of a ground wheel mounted on an implement with respect to the running gear in response to articulative movement between the implement and propulsion means for the implement.
(1) Note. The terminology "actuating means" as used above is meant to include "steering" or an "actuator" as defined in the class definition.
(2) Note. There must be some specific description in a claim of the steering means or a specific relationship to the steering means for classification under this definiton; merely calling for a steerable tractor or steerable wheel is not enough.
(3) Note. The "running gear" is the framework most intimately connected with the wheels. It does not include a mere draft tongue. For steering a trailing vehicle by swinging a draft tongue relative to its wheels see subclasses 324+.
(4) Note. Means for changing the direction of a freely swiveling caster by swinging the running gear are not included. There must be some means for positively causing the wheel to turn with respect to its running gear.

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23+,for an implement guided by a stationary object, including an implement guided by a feeler element running in a previously made furrow.
256+,especially 257 for steering devices comprising means for swinging an unstable propulsion unit with respect to another unit pivoted thereto on a vertical axis.
383+,for devices in which the axis of a wheel is angularly adjustable but there are not actuating means for making the adjustment.
580,for disk gangs with power means for horizontally angling them.
591+,for disk gangs with handle-operated horizontal angling means.
799,for a vehicle with a scraper between front and rear supports and means for horizontally angling a ground wheel.

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104Railways,   subclass 244.1 for furrow followers for guiding a vehicle along the furrow.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclasses 6.2+ for vehicles steered by driving and subclasses 400+ for steering gear.
280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 6.15+ for a land vehicle of general utility including means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body, chassis, or frame which may or may not include steering; subclasses 124.11+ for a land vehicle of general utility including a pivotally mounted axle or axle assembly providing resilient, shock absorbing support which may or may not include steering; subclasses 137.5+ for a land vehicle of general utility including a turnable axle lacking resilient, shock absorbing support; subclass 419 for a vehicle train including interconnected steering of the plural articulated vehicles; subclasses 442+ for a vehicle train including steering control of a following vehicle"s wheel through articulate movement of the interconnecting draft member; or subclasses 771+ for a land vehicle of general utility including occupant operated steering, especially subclass 87.2 wherein a controlled wheel is offset from the main running gear of the vehicle. With regard to an articulated vehicle or a vehicle train, see the (3) Note in Class 280 definition and the (1) Note in Class 280, subclass 400 definition for a further statement of the class line.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 279]    279Implement part interconnected with motor vehicle steering means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Apparatus in which the steering means is for steering a wheel of a self-propelled vehicle and is connected to an earth working device by a linkage so that movement of the steering means causes movement of a part of the earth working device relative to other parts or a movement of the earth working device with respect to the vehicle.

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255,for means interconnected with a steering means for moving an implement vertically responsive to turns.
282,for an implement having an articulated connection with a propulsion means, the implement having a ground wheel which turns on turning movement of the propulsion means due to a connection with the propulsion means itself rather than a connection with the steering linkage of the propulsion means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 280]    280Implement wheel steered:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 279.  Apparatus wherein the element of said device which is moved comprises a ground wheel or the like.
(1) Note. The mere motion of a caster wheel on the device due to a movement of said device is not included. There must be some linkage for positively causing movement of the wheel of the device.

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282,for a wheel on a device carrying an earth working element which is moved in response to turning movement of a propulsion means rather than by a means connected with the steering linkage.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 137.5+ for a land vehicle of general utility including a turnable axle lacking resilient, shock absorbing support; subclass 419 for a vehicle train having interconnected steering of the plural units; or subclasses 442+ for a vehicle train including steering control of a following vehicle"s wheel through articulative movement of the interconnecting draft member.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 281]    281Transverse tool bar laterally shiftable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 279.  Apparatus wherein the portion of the device which is moved is an earth working element mounting means extending crosswise of the line of draft and movable relative to its support in an endwise direction.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 282]    282Wheel on trailing implement responds to turning movement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Apparatus in which the ground wheel whose position is changeable is on an implement which trails behind and has an articulated connection with a propulsion means such that the wheel is caused to turn relative to the implement by turning movement of the propulsion means relative to the implement.
(1) Note. A freely swiveling caster wheel is not included. There must be some means for positively causing the wheel to turn when the propulsion means turns.
(2) Note. A hitch attached to a swinging axle carrying wheels so as to swing the axle with respect to the running gear when the propulsion means turns is included.

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280,for an implement wheel connected with the steering linkage of a self-propelled vehicle.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 426 for articulated vehicles wherein the wheels of a semi-trailer are steered as a result of the articulate motion, and subclasses 442+ for articulated vehicles wherein the wheels are steered by articulative movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 283]    283Interconnected with adjustable tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus wherein the ground wheel and an earth working element supported by the implement frame are interconnected whereby when the wheel is caused to turn the earth working element is also caused to move relative to the frame.

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255,for an implement in which an earth working element is moved vertically responsive to turning.
287,for a steering wheel interconnected with an earth working element wherein the wheel is mounted on a non-self-propelled device.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 284]    284With additional angular adjustment of wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus in which the horizontal angularity of the axis of rotation of the ground wheel is selectively adjustable independently of the change caused by turning movement of the propulsion means.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 285]    285Rear wheel turned or controlled:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 282.  Apparatus in which a wheel located to the rear of the tool is angled.
(1) Note. If more than one tool is present, the wheel must be behind all the tools.

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283,for actuated wheels on trailing implements interconnected with an adjustable tool and located to the rear of the tool.
284,for actuated wheels on trailing implements provided with additional angular adjusting means.
291,for a steerable wheel on a nonself-propelled implement in which the wheel is behind the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 286]    286Wheel on non-propelled device:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 278.  Apparatus in which the said wheel is part of an implement frame which does not carry its own propelling means.

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799,for a nonself-propelled vehicle with a scraper between front and rear supports and means for horizontally angling a ground wheel.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 124.11+ for a land vehicle of general utility including a pivotally mounted axle or axle assembly providing resilient, shock absorbing support which may or may not include steering; subclasses 137.5+ for a land vehicle of general utility including a turnable axle lacking resilient, shock absorbing support; subclass 419 for a vehicle train including interconnected steering of the plural articulated vehicles; subclasses 442+ for a vehicle train including steering control of a following vehicle"s wheel through articulative movement of the interconnecting draft member; or subclasses 771+ for a land vehicle of general utility including occupant operated steering.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 287]    287Wheel interconnected with tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus wherein the wheel and an earth working element supported by the frame are interconnected whereby when the wheel is caused to turn the earth working element is also caused to move relative to the frame.

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212,for an implement which is adustable to move soil in opposite directions and having a wheel whose position is changed in response to the adjustment.
255,for an implement with an earth working element which is moved vertically when the implement is turned.
279,for an implement part interconnected with a self-propelled vehicle steering means.
283,for a wheel interconnected with an earth working element which turns in response to turning movement of the propulsion means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 288]    288Plural interconnected relatively movable wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus in which two or more wheels are interconnected whereby they are constrained to move relative to one another when angled.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 289]    289Transversely aligned stub shafts:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 288.  Apparatus in which there are two wheels each of which is mounted on its individual axle and wherein the axles are aligned transversely of the implement and are interconnected for concurrent movement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 290]    290Swinging axle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus wherein two wheels are supported by one axle mounted for pivotal swinging movement about a vertical axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 291]    291Wheel behind tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 286.  Apparatus in which the wheel is located to the rear of the tool.
(1) Note. If more than one tool is present the wheel must be behind all of the tools.

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283,for actuated wheels on trailing implements interconnected with an adjustable tool and located to the rear of the tool.
284,for actuated wheels on trailing implements provided with additional angular adjusting means.
285,for actuated wheels on trailing implements which are located to the rear of the tool.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 292]    292SPECIFIC PROPELLING MEANS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a motor or motor-actuated means for traversing an implement over the ground.
(1) Note. Self-propelled or tractor-propelled implements are common in this art. In order for a patent to be classified under this definition the propulsion means must be recited in some detail. The mere recitation of a motor is not enough. However, a broad reference to a wheel substitute such as a tracklaying means on a tractor is sufficient. Also a recitation of a relationship with the propulsion means such as the statement that an implement hitch arm is connected to a differential housing (as distinct from merely a rear axle housing) is enough.

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114+,for specific propelling means for driven tools.
256+,for a propulsion unit guided by a walking attendant or part of an articulated vehicle.
352,for manually driven stepper-type propulsion means.

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74Machine Element or Mechanism,   appropriate subclasses for power transmitting means.
180Motor Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for self-propelled vehicles.
280Land Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for specific propelling means for land vehicles.
305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   appropriate subclasses for track or stepper means for vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 293]    293SERIES OF LIKE ELEMENTS SEQUENTIALLY OPERATED BY POWER CYCLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising power driven actuating means and means whereby a plurality of like elements (such as earth working elements or wheels) are moved one after another by the actuating means after only one setting of a control device for the actuating means.
(1) Note. Manually actuated devices are excluded. Power is derived from a motor such as a servomotor or by a mechanical power take-off as from a rolling wheel or motor.

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407,for a ground support which is vertically adjustable relative to a frame by power-operated means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 294]    294Sequentially operated servo-motors:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Apparatus in which the actuating means comprises a plurality of servomotors which are serially operated to correspondingly move the separate parts of the apparatus.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 295]    295Tool forward of rear of motor vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Apparatus in which at least one of the like elements comprises an earth working element which is mounted on a self-propelled vehicle forwardly of the rear of said vehicle.

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294,for a plurality of like elements sequentially operated by servomotors.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 296]    296Shaft with spirally arranged projections:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 293.  Apparatus in which the power-driven actuating means comprises a rotatable shaft having radially projecting portions arranged at longitudinally and circumferentially spaced points on said shaft, and means operatively connected to the like elements of the apparatus for sequentially moving them, said means being located in the paths of said radially projecting portions so that the lost motion due to the circumferential spacing of the portions causes sequential motion of said parts.

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407,for a ground support which is vertically adjustable relative to a frame by power-operated means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 297]    297TOOL FORWARD OF REAR OF MOTOR VEHICLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working element which is entirely located in front of the rearmost point of the frame or wheels of a self-propelled vehicle.
(1) Note. Patents having a sole specific disclosure of an earth working element forward of the rear of a self-propelled vehicle are classified under this definition even if the location is not claimed, provided that some reference to the vehicle is made in the claims. The reference to the vehicle may be no more than a reference to a frame disclosed as rigidly attached to the vehicle.
(2) Note. The rearmost point is determined by the direction of movement of the vehicle when in use, the earth working element being ahead of the rear in the direction of movement.

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273,for an earth working element located forward of the rear of a self-propelled vehicle and having means to facilitate mounting of the element thereon.
295,for a plurality of tools, which are sequentially operated by a power cycle, at least one of which is located forward of the rear of a motor vehicle.
780,and 781+, for a scraper between front and rear ground supports of a vehicle.
810+,for an earth working element in front of a self-propelled vehicle.

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172Earth Working,   subclasses 780+ for four-wheeled scrapers in which the scraper is mounted ahead of the rear wheels.
280Land Vehicles,   subclass 496 for articulated vehicles having the point of connection of the draft means for a trailing vehicle located forward of the axis of the rear axle of the leading vehicle.
293Vehicle Fenders,   subclass 58 for individual wheel guards attached to vehicles and extending downwardly in front of each front wheel to clear objects from the path of the wheel.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 298]    298With ground support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus in which the earth working element ahead of the rear of the motor vehicle is part of an implement which has a wheel or wheel substitute which is separate and distinct from the motor vehicle ground support means.
(1) Note. If the ground support under this definition comprises a wheel substitute, it must be a wheel substitute as defined in subclass 387 of this class. This definition does not include a runner or landside forming a part of or closely associated with an earth working element.

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832,and 834, for an implement mounted ahead of a motor vehicle and having a ground support.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 299]    299Power actuator with cut-out or lock-out means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus provided with an actuator for lifting the earth working element out of ground contact to transport position, said actuator including a power means comprising a servomotor or a power take-off and (1) having means operative to permit movement of the power means output member without moving the earth working element, the range of movement being such that the earth working element may remain in working position or transport position while the power means output member traverses its full range of movement between transport and working position or (2) having means for preventing operation of the power means in addition to the normal controls for the power means.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
(2) Note. Various commonly used means, such as chain connection between a rock arm and a drag bar, are inherently capable of being used to allow full movement of the power means without moving the earth working element, but such devices are not classified under this definition unless this function is specifically described.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 300]    300With rearwardly mounted tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus including also an earth working element positioned to the rear of the self-propelled vehicle.

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295,for a plurality of tools which are sequentially operated by a power cycle, at least one of the tools being located forward of the rear of a motor vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 301]    301Tools actuated by independent power units:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 300.  Apparatus provided with actuators for independently lifting different earth working elements out of ground contact to transport position said actuators including a plurality of power units comprising independently operated servomotors or power take-offs.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuators" see the class definition of "actuator".
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 302]    302Front and rear independent:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 301.  Apparatus in which there is a power unit for at least one rearwardly mounted unit and a power unit for at least one forwardly mounted unit, the power unit for the rearwardly mounted unit being operable independently of the power unit for any forwardly mounted unit.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 303]    303Power actuator with manual adjusting or supplemental manual actuating means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus provided with an actuator for lifting the earth working element out of ground contact to transport position said actuator including a power means comprising a servomotor or a power take-off and in addition a lever means manipulable by an attendant for moving the earth working element or the power means or a part thereof to effect an adjustment of the earth working element by human power or for acting as an adjustable stop to alter the range of movement imparted to the earth working element by the power means.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.

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485,for a power means for lifting a tool for transport on a wheeled frame and having a manual adjusting or actuating means.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 304]    304Tools independently actuatable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus comprising a plurality of earth working elements and a plurality of actuators which are independently operable to independently move different earth working elements out of ground contact to transport position.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuators" see the class definition.

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230+,for parallel separate tools alternating for right and left hand operation having independently operable means for alternating the operating position of the tools, as by raising and lowering the latter.
301+,for tools mounted ahead of the rear and to the rear of a motor vehicle and having independent power units for raising the tools.
468,for a plurality of tools with separate actuators to independently lift the tools for transport on a wheeled frame.
784+,for a scraper mounted between front and rear ground supports of a vehicle and a diverse tool with independently operable actuators for the scraper and tool.
786+,for a scraper mounted between front and rear ground supports of a vehicle and another scraper with independently operable actuators for the scrapers.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 305]    305With means for moving tool laterally:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus comprising a power device or attendant-operated lever such as a handle for moving an earth working element to different positions laterally of the line of draft so as to work the earth in such different positions.
(1) Note. Apparatus comprising an actuating means for moving an earth working element in a vertical plane positioned diagonally of the line of draft is not included under this definition. See subclass 309.
(2) Note. The tool moving means may be an actuator to set and hold the tool in any of a number of adjusted positions or may be a handle requiring the continued application of force by an attendant to hold the tool in the desired lateral position.

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281,for a tool located forward of the rear of a motor vehicle and which is laterally shiftable through interconnection with the vehicle steering means.
781+,for a scraper mounted between front and rear supports of a vehicle with an actuator for moving the scraper laterally.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 306]    306Connected to front axle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus in which the wheel frame has a front and a rear axle and there are means (other than the wheel frame) connecting the earth working element to the front axle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 307]    307Parallelogram type lift:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus provided with an actuator for lifting the earth working element out of ground contact to transport position including a pair of approximately parallel struts pivoted to the earth working element and the wheeled frame so as to give the earth working element an approximately translatory motion as it is moved between transport and working positions.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

484,for an actuating means having parallel links for lifting a tool for transport on a wheeled frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 308]    308With push bar:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus comprising a generally longitudinally extending bar supporting an earth working element, means at the rearward portion of said bar connecting it to the self-propelled vehicle, an actuator for lifting the earth working element out of ground contact to transport position and means at the forward portion of said bar connecting it to the actuator.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

479,for tools lifted for transport on a wheeled frame by an actuator, the tool being pivoted to the frame on a transverse pivot axis and the actuating means being connected to the tool forward of the pivot axis.
788,for a scraper mounted between front and rear ground supports of a vehicle and connected to the vehicle by a push bar which is liftable by an actuator.
810+,particularly 828+, for a motor vehicle having a tool mounted ahead of it connected to the vehicle by a push bar which is liftable by an actuator.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 309]    309Pivoted on horizontal diagonal axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 297.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is movable from earth engaging to transport position and is pivoted on a horizontal axis extending diagonally of the line of draft in moving between said positions.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 310]    310PLURAL WHEELED IMPLEMENTS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus in which there are plural earth working devices and plural ground wheels, the different ground wheels or groups of ground wheels being intimately associated with different earth working devices or groups of earth working devices.
(1) Note. Plural earth working devices and plural wheels are not classified under this definition if the wheels are equally associated with each ground working device, e.g., a single transverse tool bar supported on wheels at each end with trailing drag bars supporting earth working elements is not classified under this definition, but a plurality of drag bars supporting earth working elements, each drag bar having its own gauge wheel is classified under this definition.
(2) Note. The definition includes devices comprising a tractor having earth working elements mounted thereon and also propelling an implement comprising an earth working element and wheel.

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269,for wheeled vehicle attachments to receive and hold a rope and that are adapted to be released upon appreciable pull on the rope.
298,for plural wheeled implements connected to a motor vehicle, at least one of the implements being forward of the rear of the motor vehicle.
392,for plural runner supported implements which are relatively movable during operation.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 411.1+ for articulated vehicles wherein a plurality of trailing vehicles are drawn by a propelling vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 311]    311Outrigged implement adjustable inwardly:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Apparatus comprising a vehicle having associated therewith an earth working implement having a wheel, the earth working implement being extended laterally from the vehicle and the implement being adjustable to a position closer to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 312]    312Implement draft connection forwardly of rear of self-propelled vehicle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Apparatus comprising a self-propelled vehicle and a trailing implement, a draft connection of the implement to the vehicle being forward of the rear axle of the vehicle.
(1) Note. The implement may be actually readily detachably coupled to the tractor behind the rear axle, but if the tractor carries additional structure forming a continuation of the implement beam or frame which structure extends to a point forward of the rear axle the device is included in this definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 313]    313Laterally spaced with separate draft tongues:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Apparatus comprising a plurality of transversely spaced wheeled implements having separate draft tongues or members for attachment to different draft animals or vehicles.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 314]    314Implements in echelon (e.g., gang plows, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 310.  Apparatus comprising at least three implements aligned in a direction at an angle other than 90° with respect to the line of travel, each implement having a wheel.
(1) Note. Each implement may consist of more than one earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 315]    315ACTUATOR ON TRAILING IMPLEMENT, CONTROLLED FROM PROPELLING VEHICLE:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising an earth working device trailing behind a propelling vehicle and an actuator completely carried by the device, the actuator being under the control of an attendant stationed on the vehicle.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
(2) Note. The broad combination defined above is basically very common in the art. For classification under this definition a claim should refer to the relationship of the actuator to the vehicle in some significant detail to indicate that the actuator is controlled from the vehicle.
(3) Note. A trailing device under the definition must have at least a part thereof resting on the ground and after operation of the actuator a part of the device must still rest on the ground.
(4) Note. The trailing device comprehends the organization which is intended to be attached to the vehicle by the user of the device.
(5) Note. It is difficult at times to determine whether the actuator should be considered to be completely carried by the earth working device or partly carried by the vehicle. Generally both the part of the actuator for effecting movement and the part for holding something in position must be supported on the device but the actuator may react against the vehicle. In the case of an actuator of the power take-off type it is sufficient if the power take-off clutch is mounted on the device. In the case of an actuator of the hydraulic ram type both the cylinder and the piston of the ram must be supported on the device. In the case of an actuator of the lever and ratchet type both the lever and ratchet must be supported on the device. In the case of an actuator of the telescoping internally threaded cylinder and externally threaded rod type both the rod and the cylinder must be supported on the device.

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463,for an actuator carried on an implement adapted to lift the implement for transport on a wheeled frame.
591+,for horizontally adjustable disk gangs in which a manually operated lever is actuated by an attendant not described as being on the tractor and the draft force of the tractor then causes an angling movement of the gangs.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 407 for articulated vehicles wherein the load of a trailer on a leading vehicle is adjusted by adjusting the point of application of draft to the leading vehicle, and subclasses 420+ for articulated vehicles having service connections.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 316]    316Servo-motor on implement:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 315.  Apparatus in which the actuator is a servomotor carried by the implement.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.

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491,for implements liftable for transport on a wheeled frame by means of a servo-motor.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 317]    317ACTUATOR ON VEHICLE FOR RELATIVELY MOVING PARTS OF TRAILING IMPLEMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a vehicle, an earth working device trailing behind the vehicle, and an actuator on the vehicle for moving parts of the earth working device relative to each other while at least some part of the device remains on the ground.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
(2) Note. A relative movement of parts incident to lifting the device off the ground for transport is not included. Also relative movement which results merely from gravity and a lost motion connection is not included, as where an implement frame is lifted and a gauge wheel thereupon drops.
(3) Note. Merely rocking an earth working element about a wheel axis is not included. See subclasses 321 and 322+ for such devices.
(4) Note. The parts which are usually relatively moved are an earth working element with respect to the implement frame or a gauge wheel with respect to the implement frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 318]    318Actuator on vehicle moves implement ground support vertically relative to implement frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Apparatus comprising an actuator carried on the vehicle and connected to an implement so that movement of the actuator causes some relatively vertical motion to occur between the implement wheel, or wheel substitute, and the frame of the implement which carries said wheel.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
(2) Note. The actuator must apply some positive force to the wheel axle. Merely lifting the implement frame and thereby dropping the wheel due to a lost motion connection is not included. See subclass 321 for such apparatus.

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238,for apparatus in which a wheel is moved vertically with respect to its running gear in response to the draft load.
293+,for devices of this nature in which the wheels are sequentially operated by a power cycle.

SEE OR SEARCH CLASS:

280Land Vehicles,   subclass 407 for articulated vehicles wherein the load of a trailer on a leading vehicle is adjusted by adjusting the point of application of draft to the leading vehicle, and subclass 414.5 for articulated vehicles having an actuator for vertically moving a wheel of a trailing vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 319]    319Interconnected means for moving hitch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 318.  Apparatus in which there is a means for moving the hitch connection of the implement with the vehicle, the hitch moving means being interconnected in operation with the wheel moving means.
(1) Note. The interconnecting means must be something additional in the structure such as a linkage. Apparatus in which the hitch moves merely because relative movement of the wheel moves the implement beam or frame is not included. Such apparatus is found in subclass 318.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 320]    320Disk gang angling:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 317.  Apparatus in which the earth working device comprises a group of rolling- generally circular platelike elements, each having the same axis of rotation, the actuator on the vehicle being effective to adjust said axis in a horizontal plane.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.

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584+,and 599, for disk gangs in which the axis of rotation of the gang may be adjusted.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 321]    321ACTUATOR ON VEHICLE FOR MOVING WHEELED IMPLEMENT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a vehicle having associated therewith an earth working device including a ground wheel, said vehicle carrying an actuator for moving the earth working device.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

298,for a wheeled implement mounted ahead of the rear of a motor vehicle and means on the vehicle for moving the implement.
832,and 834, for a wheeled implement mounted ahead of a motor vehicle and means on the vehicle for moving the implement.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 407 for articulated vehicles wherein the load of a trailer on a leading vehicle is adjusted by adjusting the point of application of draft to the leading vehicle, and subclasses 490.1+ for articulated vehicles wherein the draft means may be vertically adjusted with respect to at least one of the vehicles or the ground.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 322]    322WITH ACTUATOR FOR ROCKING TOOL ABOUT WHEEL AXIS:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a ground wheel having an axis of rotation, a member extending radially from the axis of rotation and pivotally connected thereto, an earth working element connected to said member, and an actuator for pivotally moving said member and earth working element about the axis of rotation without changing the position of the earth working element with respect to the member.
(1) Note. See the class definition for the meaning of "actuator".
(2) Note. The movement of an earth working element about the axis of a ground wheel which may take place when a wheel of a stable wheeled frame is adjusted vertically with respect to the frame and another wheel is not included under this definition. See subclasses 395+ for such devices.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

329+,for apparatus comprising an earth working element rockable about a wheel axis by a handle held in position by an attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 323]    323Unstable wheeled frame moved by actuator:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 322.  Apparatus in which an unstable frame carrying the ground wheel is moved with respect to the ground by the actuator.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
(2) Note. It is sometimes difficult to say whether or not a part should be considered a frame carrying the ground wheel or merely a frame carrying an earth working element. The frame carrying the ground wheel is the running gear of the apparatus. If it is shown as supporting a seat for the attendant or directly attached to a hitch means such as a tongue it is considered to be the running gear or "frame" of the definition.
(3) Note. The "unstable frame carrying the gound wheel" of the definition is a frame which relies on a draft connection to a propelling means such as a tractor or horse or on the contact of an earth working tool with the ground to keep it in a fixed position, e.g., a two wheeled frame is unstable while one with more than two wheels on different axes is stable. A frame is considered to be unstable if it is "unstable" in any position of adjustment, e.g., as when an actuator causes a wheel of a stable frame to leave the ground to thereby cause the frame to be of the "unstable" type. See subclasses 395+ for a stable wheeled frame carrying an earth working element, the stable frame being tilted about the axis of a wheel by a vertical adjustment of another wheel relative to the frame.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 109 for an apparatus comprising an unearthing unit on a vehicular break frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 324]    324WITH ACTUATOR ON TRAILING GROUND SUPPORTED FRAME FOR MOVING DRAFT MEANS LATERALLY OR VERTICALLY:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising a framework having a ground support (e.g., wheels or wheel substitutes) a draft means for connecting it to a propulsion means and an actuator on the framework or draft means for moving the draft means vertically relative to the framework or laterally of the line of draft.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
(2) Note. The draft means may be a tongue, and a movement of the tongue is considered a movement of the draft means.
(3) Note. Relative movement of the draft means and the frame caused merely by a relative movement of the ground support with respect to the frame (e.g., a tongue truck moved vertically with respect to the main frame) is not included under this definition. The actuator must include force-exerting means acting between the frame and draft means. See subclasses 395+ for a ground support relatively adjustable vertically with respect to the frame.

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315+,for apparatus in which a draft means is moved with respect to a wheeled frame by an actuator on the wheeled frame claimed in detail as controlled from a propelling vehicle.

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56Harvesters,   subclass 218 for harvesters with adjustable tongues.
280Land Vehicles,   subclass 83 for a vertically adjustable tongue truck, subclasses 456.1+ for a laterally adjustable hitch between a tractor and trailer, particularly, subclasses 467+ for a laterally adjustable trailer tongue, subclasses 463+ for articulated vehicles having actuator means provided for selective adjustment of the draft means on the trailing vehicle, and subclass 490.1 for a vertically adjustable hitch between a tractor and trailer.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 325]    325Tool rigidly connected to tongue:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Apparatus in which the draft means comprises a tongue on the framework, and an earth working element is connected to the tongue so as to be rigidly related to it and to move with it when it is moved by the actuator.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "actuator" see the class definition.
(2) Note. The earth working element may be adjustable with respect to the tongue but must be rigidly related to it in any position of adjustment.

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111Planting,   subclass 56 for forward and rearward sections connected by a transverse pivot and capable of a buckling action to lift certain parts of the planter.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 326]    326Vertically:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 324.  Apparatus in which the draft means is moved vertically with respect to the framework.
(1) Note. In those devices in which the hitch means has a very minor vertical movement due to its manner of support on the frame but accomplishes its function due to a horizontal component of motion, classification is not under this definition. Such devices may be found in subclasses 588 and 605.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

323,for apparatus comprising unstable wheeled frames on earth working element and an actuator for rocking the earth working element about the wheel axis and moving the frame with respect to the ground whereby the hitch means move vertically with respect to the frame.
395+,for apparatus in which a wheel is adjusted vertically with respect to the frame, whereby the draft means is moved vertically with respect to the frame, there being no means acting between the frame and draft means.

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171Unearthing Plants or Buried Objects,   subclass 109 for an unearthing unit mounted on a vehicular break frame.
280Land Vehicles,   subclass 407 for articulated vehicles wherein the load of a trailer on a leading vehicle is adjusted by adjusting the point of application of draft to the leading vehicle, and subclass 414.5 for articulated vehicles having an actuator for vertically moving a wheel of a trailing vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 327]    327With vertically adjustable ground support
 This subclass is indented under subclass 326.  Apparatus in which a ground support is vertically adjustable with respect to the framework.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
(2) Note. Devices in which the framework tilts about the wheel axis are not included in this definition. See subclasses 323 or 326 for such devices.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 328]    328Interconnected means for adjusting draft means and ground support:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 327.  Apparatus in which the adjustable ground support and the adjustable hitch are interconnected so that movement of one influences movement of the other.
(1) Note. Devices in which the ground support and hitch means are rigidly mounted on the same support to move together are not included. The interconnection must be by a linkage or the like.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 329]    329GUIDED BY WALKING ATTENDANT; SUPPORTED, PROPELLED, OR HELD IN POSITION BY ATTENDANT:
 This subclass is indented under the class definition.  Apparatus comprising (1) an earth working element having a handle for manipulating and supporting it (e.g., a hand hoe) or (2) an implement having a handle whereby the device is guided or propelled by a walking attendant (e.g., a walking plow) or (3) an earth working element supported on a frame and having means such as handles or foot pedals contacted by the attendant to manipulate the earth working element, the said element being held in the position to which it is moved by continued application of force on the manipulating means by the attendant (e.g., a straddle row cultivator) or (4) earth working means harnessed to the attendant or worn by him (e.g., a glove with earth scratching prongs) or (5) manipulating means such as a handle or foot pedal for moving any part (e.g., a draft tongue) and holding it in the position to which moved by continued application of force by the attendant.
(1) Note. An earth working element which may be raised by an attendant so as to be scraped by a stationary or relatively movable cleaner is not included under this definition. See subclass 461 and subclasses 606+ for such devices.
(2) Note. A seat or attendant"s station is not considered a handle or manipulating device under this definition. See subclasses 431+ for apparatus with means manipulated by moving a seat or shifting weight on a seat or other attendant"s station.
(3) Note. For part (3) of this definition a broadly claimed implement about which an earth working element is manipulated is considered a mounting frame.

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37,for hand driven implements adapted to be rotated through at least one complete revolution.
41,for a driven tool supported by an attendant.
42+,for an implement comprising a driven tool guided by a walking attendant.
256+,for a motor propelled implement guided by a walking attendant.

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16Miscellaneous Hardware (e.g., Bushing, Carpet Fastener, Caster, Door Closer, Panel Hanger, Attachable or Adjunct Handle, Hinge, Window Sash Balance, etc.),   subclasses 110.1+ for handles and handle attaching devices for miscellaneous articles of hardware not otherwise classified.
30Cutlery,   subclasses 340+ for knives and cutter comprising blades provided with manipulating handles and including the means for attaching said handles to said blades.
56Harvesters,   subclasses 16.7+ , for a motor-driven lawn mower steered by a walking attendant, and subclass 400.01, for a hand rake.
125Stone Working,   subclass 43 for miner"s picks.
180Motor Vehicles,   subclass 19.1 for a motor vehicle steered by a walking attendant.
280Land Vehicles,   subclasses 47.17+ for a wheeled vehicle which the attendant may apply a propelling force thereto, and subclasses 47.34+ for stable wheeled vehicles which are handle propelled by an attendant.
294Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements,   subclasses 49+ for hand forks and shovels.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 330]    330With seat for moving hitch:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus having combined therewith a seat or attendant"s station which is movable with respect to the apparatus and held in position by the attendant and a draft member or tongue for connecting the apparatus to a propelling means, the seat and draft member or tongue being connected so that movement of the seat changes the position of the draft member or tongue with respect to the apparatus.

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435,for attendant manipulated seats which may move an implement or draft member.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 331]    331Hitch guided relative to supporting frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus including a draft member or tongue for connecting the apparatus to a propelling means and attendant manipulated means for moving the draft member or tongue with respect to the implement.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

330,for a movable attendant seat for manipulating a draft member combined with attendant-operated means for holding the implement in position.
435,for a movable attendant seat for manipulating a draft member.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 332]    332Tool manipulated with respect to mounting frame:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus comprising a ground supported (e.g., wheeled) frame, an earth working element movably mounted on the frame and being manipulable and held in the position to which moved by the continued application of force by the attendant to vary its position with respect to the frame.
(1) Note. A mere wheeled axle is not considered a frame under this definition even though the earth working element may be rocked on the axle. However, a wheeled axle having a draft tongue rigid therewith is considered to be a frame under this definition. Some patents which disclose only a wheeled axle have been classified under this definition where they are obviously fragmentary disclosures of that type implement which comprises a wheeled frame of greater extent (e.g., with tongue).
(2) Note. An earth working element about or upon which another earth working element is manipulated is considered a mounting frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 333]    333Arched wheel frame (i.e., straddle row, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Apparatus comprising a wheeled frame having the central portion thereof elevated above the axis of rotation of the wheels to clear a crop row and having a pair of attendant manipulated earth working elements adapted to operate on opposite sides of a crop row.
(1) Note. For classification under the definition the means by which the earth working elements are manipulated (e.g., handles) need not be claimed.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 334]    334Seat counterbalanced beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus including an operator"s seat pivoted to the frame and also connected to the earth working elements so that the operator"s weight provides an upward force on the earth working elements.

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431+,for other earth working apparatus having a seat or attendant"s station including that in which the seat is movable by the attendant to manipulate the implement.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 335]    335With spring biasing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus including resilient means to bias the earth working elements with respect to the wheeled frame or with respect to each other.

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705+,spring-biased earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 336]    336Spring biased upwardly during operation:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 335.  Apparatus in which the resilient means tends to bias the earth working elements out of ground engagement during operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 337]    337Combined implement lift and wheel adjustment:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus having means to raise the earth working elements with respect to the wheeled frame and connected means to concurrently change the position of the wheels with respect to the frame.

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398,for other earth working elements mounted on a wheeled frame and actuating means for lifting the element and also vertically moving a wheel with respect to the frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 338]    338Tongueless, animal draft:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus adapted to be propelled by animals and characterized by the absence of a draft tongue.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 339]    339With balancing means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 338.  Apparatus provided with a member to contact the ground and stabilize the apparatus when the earth working elements are placed in an inoperative position.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 340]    340Multiple plant row type:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus provided with a plurality of pairs of earth working elements adapted to operate on opposite sides of a plurality of crop rows.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 341]    341With added intermediate tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus having an additional earth working element disposed to operate between the pair of earth working elements.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 342]    342Cross connected drag bars:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus in which the earth working elements of the pair or the bars mounting said elements have a laterally extending member connecting same in addition to the frame member on which they are mounted.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 343]    343Foot operated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus in which the earth working elements are adapted to be operated by the feet of an attendant seated thereon.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 344]    344With support bracket for transport:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 333.  Apparatus in which the frame is provided with means to support the earth working elements in an elevated nonuse position.

SEE OR SEARCH THIS CLASS, SUBCLASS:

662,for plural relatively movable tools movable to nonuse position.
674,for support brackets on wheeled frames for holding an implement in nonearth working position.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 345]    345Manipulated about longitudinal axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Apparatus in which an earth working element is movable by an attendant about an axis which extends in the direction of travel.

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459,for actuating means for lifting an earth working element for transport on a wheeled frame, the earth working element being pivotable about a longitudinal axis.
666,for an actuator for pivoting an earth working element about a longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 346]    346Plural tools independently or oppositely manipulable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Apparatus including a plurality of earth working elements which may be manipulated individually or are so connected as to move in opposite directions when manipulated.

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333+,for arch wheel frame implements provided with a plurality of earth working elements which are independently or oppositely manipulated.
345,for plural earth working elements which are manipulated about a longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 347]    347Spring biased:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Apparatus in which there is provided a resilient means which biases the earth working element during operation.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 348]    348Vertically manipulated:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 332.  Apparatus in which the earth working element may be manipulated in a vertical direction by the attendant.

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345,for earth working elements which are manipulated about a longitudinal axis.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 349]    349Rolling tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is of the rolling or rotating type.

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15+,for handle-propelled rolling lawn edgers.
518+,for rolling, rotating, or orbitally moving earth working elements.

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452Butchering,   subclass 145 for hand- operated meat tenderizing rolls.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 350]    350Handle swingably mounted on axis of tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 349.  Apparatus having a handle which is mounted to be freely pivotable about the axis of rotation of the rolling or rotating earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 351]    351Guided or propelled by walking attendant and with ground support or draft means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus comprising (1) an implement having ground support means (e.g., wheel) separate from the earth working means and a separate handle for propelling or guiding the implement, or (2) draft means for propelling the implement and a separate handle for guiding same.
(1) Note. The ground support must act as a depth gauge or support a portion of the weight of the implement.
(2) Note. The draft means under part (2) of this definition may comprise a member for the application of human power such as a body harness. Note subclass 353 indented hereunder for an implement having a harness and separate handle to be propelled and guided by a single attendant.

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256+,for a hand guided self-propelled implement.
322,for earth working elements which are attendant manipulated with respect to a ground-supported frame.
371,for tools with handles for manipulating and supporting same (i.e., hand tools).

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111Planting,   subclass 82 for implements propelled by a walking attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 352]    352With stepper propulsion means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which the apparatus is propelled by means of a member operated by the attendant which reacts with the ground to move the apparatus a given distance and the member is then reset to repeat the operation.
(1) Note. Search Class 180, Motor Vehicles, subclasses 4 and 8 for stepper propulsion means for vehicles.

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305Wheel Substitutes for Land Vehicles,   subclasses 1+ for devices comprising ground-engaging feet operating by a step-by-step movement in the travel of the vehicle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 353]    353With body harness or engaging means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which the draft means comprises a means adapted to engage or be attached to some part of the body other then the hands.

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370,for an operator-supported earth working element having means to attach the earth working element to the operator.

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280Land Vehicles,   subclass 1.5 for a vehicle with means for engaging the body (other than the hands) of a walking attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 354]    354With wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which the ground support means comprises a wheel.

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17,for lawn edgers provided with a wheel or roller.
353,for a tool provided with a handle and a wheel, and having means adapted to engage or be attached to some part of the body other than the hands for propelling the implement.
669+,for a tool supported on a wheeled frame.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 355]    355Alternately usable tools rocked about wheel axis:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Apparatus comprising a plurality of interconnected earth working elements which may only be in ground contact at different times and being connected to pivot on the axis of rotation of the wheel to engage the desired earth working element with the ground.

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136,for diverse tools useable alternately only.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 356]    356Plural longitudinally spaced wheels:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Apparatus in which the implement is provided with two wheels spaced in the direction of travel.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 357]    357Handle forward of tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Apparatus in which the handle is located forward of the earth working element, so as to adapt the apparatus to be pulled by the attendant.
(1) Note. The handle may be adjustable so as to adapt the apparatus to be pushed or pulled.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 358]    358Tool forward of wheel:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is located forwardly of the wheel.

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671+,for an earth working element mounted on a single longitudinal wheeled frame in which the wheel is located rearwardly of the forward end of the earth working element.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 359]    359Tool and handle relatively vertically adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 354.  Apparatus in which the earth working element and the handle are selectively vertically adjustable relative to one another.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.

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366,for an earth working element having a handle in which the handle and earth working element are selectively relatively adjustable in relation to one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 360]    360With wheel substitute (e.g., runner, etc.):
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which the ground support means comprises an element other than a wheel such as, for example, a runner.

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387,for other earth working apparatus having a wheel substitute spaced from the earth working elements.
764,for earth working elements having closely associated runners and see the Search Notes thereto for related art.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 361]    361Handle connected to tool or runner:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which the handle is directly attached to that portion of the earth working element which operates in the soil or to a runner or landside connected thereto.
(1) Note. This subclass does not include those devices where a brace extends from the handle to the earth working blade.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 362]    362Tool standard connected to handle:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which the earth working element is secured to a generally upright member or standard and the standard is secured directly to a portion of the handle.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 363]    363Plural handles associated with relatively adjustable tools:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus having a plurality of relatively adjustable earth working elements, handles associated therewith, an individual handle and associated earth working element being concurrently adjustable relative to another handle and associated earth working element.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 364]    364Handle mounted tool adjusting, latching or locking mechanism:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which there is attached to the handle, means whereby some portion of the earth working element is adjustable relative to some other portion of the earth working element or to the apparatus.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 365]    365Tool and handle relatively adjustable:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus in which the handle is adjustable with respect to the earth working element.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 366]    366Vertically:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 365.  Apparatus in which the elevation of the handle with respect to the earth working element is adjustable.
(1) Note. For the meaning of "adjustable" see the class definition.

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359,for an earth working element having a handle and wheel in which the handle and earth working element are selectively vertically adjustable relative to one another.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 367]    367Multiple handles connected to multiple longitudinal tool carrying beams:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus having a plurality of beams extending substantially in the direction of travel and having an earth working element or elements connected thereto and a plurality of handles, one connected to each of said beams.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 368]    368Plural handles connected to opposite sides of longitudinal beam:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 351.  Apparatus having a beam extending in the direction of travel and a pair of handles connected at their ends to opposite sides of the beam at the same longtitudinal location.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 369]    369With brace member:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 368.  Apparatus in which there is provided at least one member connected to the handles and another portion of the implement to brace the handles.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 370]    370With attendant attaching means:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus of the type wherein the earth working element is harnessed to or worn by the attendant.
  
[List of Patents for class 172 subclass 371]    371Hand tool:
 This subclass is indented under subclass 329.  Apparatus comprising an earth working means having a handle for manipulating and supporting it (e.g., hand hoe).
(1) Note. Mortar mixing hoes are also included on account of their similarity of structure.
(2) Note. Patents are classified under this definition even if only the earth working portion is claimed and not the handle if the sole disclosure relates to hand tools or the claim preamble relates to a hand tool.

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13+,for hand tools of the lawn-edger type.
349+,for handle propelled rolling implements.

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