The basic subject matter of this class is limited to machines
and methods for removing an object from a position immediately below
the surface of the earth or from a position in which it extends
partially through the earth"s crust by either (1) selectively
engaging and the picking or pulling said object in such manner that
it is removed from the earth (either with or without any substantial
disturbance of the soil) or (2) by excavating said object and portions
of the surrounding earth in such manner that said object is separated
from said earth portions either during the excavation or subsequent
thereto, or, in the case of shallow rooted plants or small stones projecting
through the earth"s surface, by directly engaging and thrusting,
impelling or pushing against said plants or small stones to force
them out of the ground. The object must be completely recovered
at some instant substantially free of earth, but otherwise in its original
condition except that, in the case of plants, portions thereof may
have been previously severed from the root. For example, machines
which dig root plants are included if the root is recovered substantially
intact regardless of whether the plant foliage or tap root is removed
or whether the foliage and/or root are retained, subsequently
destroyed, or returned to the earth.
Included in this class are railroad ballast cleaners which remove
or excavate the ballast from the railroad bed, separate the fine
foreign matter from the coarse stone aggregates and which may return
the latter to the railroad bed.
The scope of this class also includes (1) combinations of the
basic subject matter with other features where said combination
is not provided for elsewhere such as (a) an additional treatment
of the object as, e.g., sorting, cleaning or severing said object
into parts, and (b) combinations of said basic subject matter with
an accompanying soil treating operation, and (2) subcombinations
of said basic subject matter not provided for elsewhere.
SECTION II - NOTES TO THE CLASS DEFINITION
Note. The unearthed object is normally (1) a weed or plant
root with the vine, stem, or top portion of said plant either connected
to the root or severed therefrom, (2) a stone or small rock capable
of being handled in a manner consistent with the basic subject matter
of this class as set forth in definition A supra, or (3) a foreign
object recovered from sand removed from a beach.
Note. Subject matter relating to merely turning a furrow or
digging a ditch to invert the earth in such fashion that some or
all of a series of earth embedded objects are placed on top of the
removed earth is excluded and forms subject matter for the appropriate
soil handling Classes 37 or 172.
Note. Implements which are hand supported and have no driven
digging or earth separation parts are excluded and are to be found
in the appropriate implement classes noted below.
Note. Stump and boulder extractors are excluded. See Lines
With Other Classes, below.
Note. Subject matter relating to pulling up plant by grasping
the stalk or foliage is included (1) where there is a disclosure
that the plant root is removed from the ground even where it is
not clear from the disclosure whether the plant stalk or foliage
is severed or whether the stalk or foliage is capable of pulling
the plant root from the ground.
Note. Subject matter relating to partial unearthing of plants
or buried objects in the manner provided for by this class has been included
because of its similarity to corresponding means which completes
Note. Included in this class are structures and methods disclosed
as adapted for the purpose of moving small stones along the surface
of the ground to gather or windrow the stones. See (4) Note to subclass
SECTION III - LINES WITH OTHER CLASSES AND WITHIN THIS CLASS
Stump and boulder extractors are classified in appropriate
subclasses in Class 254 and Class 37 as noted below.
Subject matter relating to recovering objects buried in soil
located beneath a body of water has been excluded and will be found
in appropriate subclasses of Class 37 or in Class 299, subclasses
8 and 9 if objects are separated from the soil subsequent to excavation.
Subject matter relating to recovering objects buried in the
surfaces of tunnels, shafts or vertical soil faces or recovering
a valuable mineral constituent has been excluded and will be found
in appropriate subclasses of Class 299.
subclasses 302 and 303 for boulder or tree stump-type excavators,
subclasses 304+ for self-loading vehicles which excavate snow
or earth material, elevate it, and dump it into the vehicle, subclasses
307+ for devices excavating beneath a body of water and
which may excavate bottom material containing desired objects, and
subclass 316 for fork- or rake-type scoops.
Harvesters, appropriate subclasses, for machines for severing portions
of plants while the plant is connected to an earth embedded root,
subclasses 328.1+ for machines which harvest fruit or nuts which
may be lying upon the ground.
Earth Working, appropriate subclasses for earth working implements
which merely form a furrow or disturb the earth without separating an
object from the surrounding earth. Such earth working implements
may indiscriminately cut roots or other plant material as they proceed
along the ground and turn a furrow but they do not act to separate
the object from the surrounding turned earth. Class 172 may take that
subcombination of a Class 171 apparatus which merely cuts and lifts
earth to direct it towards a separating device which separates the
desired objects from the earth. Many of the Class 172 devices disclose
teeth, blades or other means which are inherently useful to selectively
dig buried objects from the ground while allowing the soil to fall
back in place. Where the disclosure of this type of device relates
solely to earth working, the patent is placed in Class 172, where
the invention is disclosed as useful both to work the earth and
to unearth plants or buried objects the patent is placed in Class
171, since unearthing is always accompanied by soil disturbance.
Tool Driving or Impacting, appropriate subclass for subject matter directed to driving
or impacting a tool, when such subject matter includes features
peculiar to tool driving, but which does not include features limiting
the subject matter to a specific tool art, such as specific shape
of the work contacting portion of a tool, related tools, or an opposed
work support, and see particularly
subclasses 184+ for driving or impacting means mounted on a wheeled
vehicle. Class 171 has not been cleared as to subject matter in
conflict with this line.
Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,
subclasses 233+ for apparatus for separating objects from finer
or coarser accompanying material, and subclasses 509+ for
apparatus for separating different objects in accordance with their
particle size or other physical characteristics. Class 209 takes
the claimed subcombination of a specific sorting and/or
separation means, whether or not combined with a feeding or discharge
conveyor means even when disclosed in a plant or buried object unearthing organization.
Handling: Hand and Hoist-Line Implements, appropriate subclasses, especially
subclasses 50.6+ and 86.4+ for hand or hoist-line implements
which may be used to lift a plant or other object from the ground.
Mining or In Situ Disintegration of Hard Material, appropriate subclass for a process or apparatus for recovering
valuable mineral material from the earth and breaking up hard, solid material
in situ, and particularly
subclasses 7+ for mining or excavating combined with separation
of the material into constituent parts.
Material or Article Handling,
subclass 439 and 440 for draft motion responsive handlers and transporters
adapted to pick up surface objects such as bales, shock or golf
balls which are not normally disposed below the ground.
Crop Threshing or Separating, appropriate subclasses, for apparatus for removing
portions of a harvested plant by threshing.
SECTION V - GLOSSARY
Devices which are forced into a mass of earth and are then
raised to lift an object disposed in said earth and/or to
lift portions of the earth itself with objects embedded therein.
Devices which comprise means to engage a portion of a buried
or partially buried object and to temporarily fasten itself to said
object in order to hold onto the object while it is lifted out of
IMPALING OR SNAGGING
The act of removing or unearthing an object at least
partially imbedded in the ground by an extractor which penetrates
through the surface of the object or which passes through or around
a reentrant or restricted portion of the object to form a temporary
connection between said object and the extractor.
A device which is provided with spaced portions having openings
therebetween in which the spaced portions are adapted to retain
all objects above a predetermined particle size while finer material
passes through the openings.
Articles or plants which were formerly at least partially surrounded
by a mass of earth and which have been separated from said mass
of earth as distinct objects, substantially free from said earth
and available at some identifiable time for any desired purpose
which may involve either use or destruction thereof.
Diggers as defined above which comb through the earth and
which are provided with interstices through which the earth sifts
while the desired objects rest on the digger and are thus moved
through the earth and separated from said earth.
Spaced portions of a separator which support objects larger
than a certain size while smaller particles or objects pass through
the spaces therebetween.
Moving of small stones and rocks resting on the surface of
the earth into piles, rows or collection receptacles.
Trash, previously cut tops or foliage or other nonearth material
accompanying the objects disclosed as intended to be removed from
the earth and recovered.
This is the generic term for any of the various organizations
for removing an object imbedded in the earth, at or near the ground
surface as by digging or picking the object and separating it free
from any substantial accumulation of earth, the separation being
accomplished either simultaneously with or subsequent to the removal of
the object from its position in situ in the ground.
An entity which includes all of the apparatus necessary to
completely unearth a buried or partially buried object in its path
regardless of the presence or absence of additional, similar entities
in the same organization.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes a plurality of unearthing units,
each of which is capable of operating in the manner contemplated
by the class definition as a complete entity and in which any one
of the units may be used alone and then replaced by another in response
to a manual control or in response to the occurrence of a given
Note. Mere plural exhuming units which are capable of separate
vertical or lateral adjustment so that either or both may be in
operation at one time, and plural successive units which, in turn,
each pass over the same area to be harvested have been excluded
and have been classified elsewhere in this schedule on the basis
of pertinent details of the individual unit.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which the unearthing apparatus is provided
with a ground penetrating means of substantially flat shape lying
generally in or parallel to a vertical plane extending in the direction
of draft for the disclosed function of constraining the movement
of the apparatus over the earth to a desired path.
Note. This subclass includes those stabilizing fins or colters
which are inclined relative to the direction of draft at such an
angle with respect to an associated angularly disposed unearthing
apparatus as to thereby counteract the side draft caused by such
angularly disposed apparatus and thus maintain the same in a straight
line in the direction of draft.
subclass 144 for an earth-working implement comprising a colter,
jointer and plow, subclasses 165+ for diverse earth working
tools including a colter, and subclasses 190+ for diverse
earth working tools including a vertical longitudinal blade (e.g.,
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes a means for recovering a plant
or buried object and a generally cylindrical member or axially elongated surface
of revolution engaging the ground and adapted to (1) press against
the ground to break up clods and/or to flatten the earth"s
surface or (2) to engage a plant to press a part thereof against
or into the ground.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a severing means is disposed in a plane
perpendicular to the earth"s surface in order to sever
portions of a standing or growing plant.
Note. The usual purpose of such vertical cutters is to sever
laterally extending vine or top portions which would otherwise wrap
around parts of the apparatus.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes, in addition to a means to unearth
a desired buried object, either (1) a means to scratch a reference
line on the earth"s surface; or (2) means trailing an unearthing
implement to prepare the surface of the earth for the reception
of the desired unearthed object, or to otherwise work the earth.
Note. The additional earth disturbance is usually for the
purpose of (1) removing undesired weeds (2) scratching, plowing or
cultivating the earth or otherwise breaking it up to prepare for
a subsequent crop (3) scraping the surface of the earth with a blade
to provide a smooth surface after recovery of the desired object
or (4) plowing a strip of earth adjacent the strip from which buried objects
are to be recovered.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes a means to recover a plant or buried
object from the ground and a collector which receives the recovered
object or portions thereof from said means, said collector being
emptied in response to (1) a predetermined travel of the apparatus,
or (2) a predetermined weight or quantity of collected objects.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus having a means to unearth a plant or buried object
and including a sensing means actuated by said plant or object either before
or after it is unearthed and a means which is responsive to actuation
of said plant or object sensing means to drive a portion of said apparatus.
SUPPORT OVERLOAD RELEASE AND RESET; DRIVE OVERLOAD RELIEF; OR
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which means is provided (1) which includes
a frangible, frictional or resilient member or connection in the
mounting of the recovery device, or a portion thereof, said member
normally holding the recovery device, or a portion thereof in its
normal working position until an abnormal condition arises, which
overloads the device or said portion thereof and breaks the frangible
element or overcomes the frictional or resilient force, thereby
permitting the device or said portion thereof to move to a nonoverloaded
position and there remain until manually reset, (2) in the power
transmission for the device, or portions thereof, including a resilient,
frictional or frangible member or connection adapted to yield or break
when the device, or a portion thereof, is subjected to an abnormal
operating condition whereby the drive to the recovering device is momentarily
interrupted or positively disengaged; or (3) to sense a condition
which may or not may occur and respond to such condition by causing
an operation of the recovery device to occur only when said condition
Note. Automatic devices are those which will, for example,
set the recovery device, or a portion thereof, in operation when
a desired plant or object is encountered, and cause such operation
to cease when the plant or object has been worked upon.
Note. Overload-relief means are those means interposed in
the drive or support for the unit, or a part thereof, which will, for
example, permit the drive of the recovery device, or a portion thereof,
to cease upon encountering an obstruction; or to move to a position
where it will pass an obstruction or an unyielding object.
for recovery devices or parts thereof which are
resiliently mounted on a supporting frame to move from a normal
position to an abnormal position and to be returned to said normal
position by a resilient means.
subclasses 2+ for earth-working apparatus with automatic power
controlled means, subclasses 103+ for a driven earth-working
tool or cleaner with an overload-relief means or clutch in the drive
train, and subclasses 261+ for an earth-working tool with
an overload shifting means.
WITH PRELIMINARY REMOVAL OR UNDESIRED EARTH MATERIAL:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus having an unearthing unit adapted to traverse
an area including a zone of earth which has desired plants or buried
objects embedded therein in order to remove and separate said plants
or objects from the earth and including a ground-working means outside
(but adjacent) said zone and adapted to move undesired material
in a direction away from said zone in order to decrease the amount
of undesired material handled by said unearthing unit without substantially
decreasing the quantity of unearthed product.
Note. The ground-working means may be a plow or scraper disposed
either laterally of or above the desired object containing zone
to either scrape or cut off the undesired earth or vegetation above said
zone and/or laterally thereof.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which means are provided (1) to divert recovered
objects from one receptacle to another when said one is full, or
(2) to removably suspend or clamp a receptacle for recovered objects
in such fashion that it may be replaced.
WITH APPARATUS CLEANER IN NONRECOVERY ZONE OF UNEARTHING UNIT:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which means is provided to remove accumulated
dirt, recovered objects, or portions of said recovered objects from
parts of said apparatus which means is located outside the normal
path of flow of dirt and/or objects through said apparatus.
90, 101, and 114+, for strippers which are
interposed in the path of objects moving through the apparatus and which
constitute the normal means to intercept and divert said objects
from one portion of the device and onto another portion thereof.
WITH TOOTHED MOVING STRIPPER OR PICK-OFF FOR UNDESIRED OBJECT:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes a pronged member whose position
is continually changing and which is disclosed as being specifically adapted
to selectively snag or comb vines, tops, weeds trash or other material
accompanying desired unearthed objects and to move said material
away from the normal path of the desired objects through the apparatus
to separate said material from the desired objects.
RECOVERED OBJECT PASSES THROUGH SEPARATOR INTERSTICES:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus having a means to remove and/or separate
from the earth a plant or buried object which is desired to be retained
and which includes, in addition, an apertured, interstitial or perforated
barrier adapted to permit said desired plant or object to pass therethrough
but which will retain larger objects and thus segregate said desired
objects from the larger objects.
Note. The larger objects may consist of (1) trash, vines or
rocks or (2) larger objects of the same kind as the smaller object
and are ordinarily delivered to a different location than the smaller objects.
Note. The barrier usually comprises an apertured surface disposed
along the path of the recovered objects to be separated.
This subclass is indented under subclass 14. Apparatus which includes means to segregate like objects
which differ only in their dimensions into different groups according
to size subsequent to the separation of the object from the earth.
RAILROAD BALLAST REMOVAL AND ASSORTING OR SEPARATING:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a means is provided for excavating or
picking up the aggregate-type ballast of a railroad bed and (1)
classifying said aggregate into different groups according to size,
shape, weight or other physical characteristics, and/or
(2) dividing from said aggregate undesirable matter such as weeds,
dirt, trash or like debris.
Note. Included are devices which may or may not return the
ballast to the road bed.
SEPARATION OR ORIENTATION BY FLUID CURRENT OR SUSPENSION:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which object or portions thereof are (1) separated
into different groups according to their different densities or
shapes, or (2) oriented into a desired position because of the difference
in shape or density between parts of said objects by means of (a)
a stream of liquid or gas, or (b) a body of liquid or fluent material
into which the objects or portion thereof are introduced.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus having means to remove buried objects from the
earth and including means to separate desired objects from accompanying material
or objects by means of any device not provided for above which acts
in response to the difference between the physical properties or
attributes of (a) the desired objects and (b) the accompanying object
or materials to be separated therefrom.
Note. Apparatus which separates objects from other objects
or material in response to a mere difference in size is excluded.
Note. For example, the objects may be separated in response
to differences in their weight, shape, density, coefficient of friction,
elasticity, electroconductivity or magnetic properties.
Note. Included, for example, are yieldable means which are
selectively deformable by either one of (a) the desired objects
or (b) the accompanying material or objects in order to separate the
Classifying, Separating, and Assorting Solids,
subclasses 599 and 699 for apparatus for separating objects in accordance
with the degree of compressibility, and subclasses 598 and 941 for
apparatus for separating objects in accordance with the shape or
contour of the objects regardless of the relative sizes thereof.
WITH RAKE OR LATERAL DEFLECTOR FOR GROUND CONTACTING RECOVERED
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which include, subsequent to a means for unearthing
plants or buried objects which leaves said plants or objects on
the surface of the earth, a member which extends from a point spaced
above the ground to a point on or near the ground, said member being disposed
either (1) transversely to the line of draft in such fashion that
it piles up said objects, plants, or parts of said plants ahead
of it on the ground to collect them in piles, or (2) at an inclination
to the line of draft such that said objects, plants or parts of
said plants are biased laterally along the ground to a delivery point
along a line parallel to said line of draft.
Note. Rake-like devices which penetrate the ground and thus
dig up objects are excluded.
WITH MANUAL OPERATION STATION (E.G., TOPPING, SEPARATION
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which there is provision to support or accommodate
a human operator who is necessary (1) to the handling of the recovered
object to carry it through a portion of its travel through the apparatus
or (2) to perform some manipulative step on said recovered object
such as inspecting the object or severing a portion thereof.
Note. Mere stepping platforms which an operator uses from
time to time to gain access to a portion of the apparatus or which
support the operator near a portion of the device which requires
adjusting or unloading are excluded and have been considered frame
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes a means mounted for motion relative
to a supporting frame to engage an above-ground portion of a plant
whose roots are disposed in situ in the ground and hold said portion
in a desired location and attitude relative to the earth"s
surface while said portion is severed from the plant root.
Note. These devices usually consist of cooperating moving
holding members which move rearwardly at the same velocity as the
forward speed of traverse of the apparatus to hold the plant in
a desired position while it is severed from the plant root.
WITH SELECTIVE DELIVERY TO ALTERNATE LOCATIONS (E.G., BY-PASS):
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which means is provided anywhere in the apparatus
to shift at the will of an operator the flow of recovered objects
or portions thereof from one continuous course through said apparatus
Note. The usual purpose of such shifting is (1) to select
one of a plurality of locations for a windrow of recovered objects or
cut toppings, (2) to discharge to a common windrow from different,
adjacent plant rows, for example, by employing a shiftable or reversible
outlet conveyor or (3) to switch the flow or recovered objects or
portions thereof from one path to another through the apparatus
in order to use different sections of said apparatus alternately
or selectively or to selectively bypass certain of said sections.
WITH COMMINUTING OR MULTIPLE CUTTING OF RECOVERED PLANT PART:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which an object or some portion thereof which
has been previously unearthed is pulverized into discrete particles or
reduced to a series of pieces as by severing at a number of spaced
subclasses 39+ for a driven earth working tool or cleaner comprising
a cleaner or comminutor spaced from the ground surface, and subclasses
63+ for a nondriven earth working tool combined with a
driven comminuting means. In these devices the earth and any objects
contained therein are comminuted without separating the objects
and the earth.
WITH CLEANING OF RECOVERED OBJECT BY BRUSHING OR WIPING:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which include in addition to a means to unearth
a plant or buried object from the soil, a member having a soft or
flexible portion or portions adapted to contact the plant or object
after it has been freed from any substantial accumulation of accompaning
earth inorder to frictionally engage or impinge upon the surface
of said plant or object for the disclosed purpose of removing adhering
surface dirt or other foreign matter.
WITH ABOVE-GROUND MEANS FOR DETACHMENT OF PLANT PART:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which the object recovered or extracted from
the ground is a plant and portions of said plant are removed therefrom
by means located at a point above the earth"s surface before,
after or during unearthing of said plant.
Note. Included herein are devices which remove foilage from
a useful root portion or which separate the stalks or vine from
a goober, tuber, fruit, berry or vegetable.
Harvesters, appropriate subclasses, for cutting devices for standing
or growing plants, especially
subclasses 121.4+ for plant topping means, per se, with gauges wherein
the topped plants are permitted to remain in the ground.
Earth Working, especially
subclasses 699+ for earth-working apparatus which cuts through
the earth and may be used to sever, by a means located below ground,
a root portion from the remainder of the plant.
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Apparatus in which the plant parts are separated by (1)
means which engages different portions of the plant and moves said
portions in different lineal or torsional directions, (2) means
which impacts or violently agitates the plant to jar portions therefrom,
or (3) means to compress the plants in such fashion that sections
connecting said portions are distorted until broken to allow said
part to separate.
This subclass is indented under subclass 27. Apparatus including at least a pair of adjacent oppositely
rotating members between which certain portions of a plant are engaged
and fed until such portions are pinched or pulled apart from other
portions of said plant.
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Apparatus in which the part of a plant which is normally
disposed above the ground is progressively severed at different
positions spaced along the path traversed by the plant recovering means.
Note. The plant may be either in its natural position in the
earth or it may have been removed from the earth when either or
both of the severing positions are reached.
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Apparatus in which portions are severed from the plant by
a sharpened member which is mounted to be freely rotatable by contact
with the ground or the plant.
Note. The plant parts may be severed either before, during
or after recovery of the plant from the earth.
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Apparatus in which a means is provided to remove and separate
a plant from the earth and then sever a portion therefrom at a particular position
which apparatus includes a means to move the plant either to said
position or away from said position.
This subclass is indented under subclass 31. Apparatus in which the sharpened cutting instrument disposed
in the path of recovered plants is shiftable by contacting the plant
by a sensing device operatively secured to the instrument in order
to sever the plant portions at a desired location.
Note. The gage may move the cutter in a manner to remove a
plant top at a constant location regardless of the position of the
plant, or the location of the cut may be varied in accordance with
the size or shape of the plant.
This subclass is indented under subclass 31. Apparatus having means to carry unearthed plants into engagement
with a sharpened cutting implement and including positively driven abutment
or feed means, said apparatus being adapted to move said plant in
the direction of its length until an enlarged portion of the plant engages
said abutment or feed means in order to locate said plant relative
to said cutting implement.
This subclass is indented under subclass 31. Apparatus in which plants which have been recovered from
the ground engage a locating device to shift said plants relative
to a sharpened cutting instrument in order to remove a portion of
each plant at a desired location.
Note. The locating device may be either a fixed guide or a
moving positioning member.
Note. The locating device may shift the recovered article
relative to a conveyor means carrying said article to the cutting instrument
and this shifting may occur either before or after the article is engaged
by the conveyor means.
This subclass is indented under subclass 34. Apparatus which includes means to turn an unearthed plant
laterally relative to the direction of draft into a generally recumbent
position in which a portion of said plant is severed.
This subclass is indented under subclass 31. Apparatus in which the means to move the plant to or from
a position where a portion thereof is severed, is adapted to grip
the plant during the cutting operation.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36. Apparatus in which means is provided to move the material
detached from the plant from the area where cutting occurs to one
side of the device in order to form a windrow or to load said material
into a separate carrier at the side of the device.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36. Apparatus in which the means to hold the plant during the
cutting operation and to move it to and/or from the cutting
area includes a pair of confronting endless members having contiguous
runs which cooperate to hold the plant therebetween.
This subclass is indented under subclass 36. Apparatus in which the means to hold the plant during the
cutting operation and to move it to and/or from the cutting
area includes a rotary element which turns about a single axis.
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Apparatus in which means is arranged and disposed to cooperate
with a plant part severing means, for discharging the severed plant
parts to a point away from the standing plants.
Note. The deflector may merely push the cuttings aside or
may lift and convey said cuttings to a windrow or collection receptacle.
This subclass is indented under subclass 26. Apparatus wherein the above-ground portion of the plant
is separated from the remainder by means of a device having a sharpened
portion and having a motion in addition to that due to the translating
motion of the apparatus.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Article unearthing means (1) claimed in combination with
features other than particle-size responsive-separating means, soil-comminuting
means, conveying or handling means or means to support, transport,
actuate or control any of the preceding means and not provided for
in other classes or in preceding subclasses of this class, or (2)
having means or parts disclosed as capable of rearrangement or modification
by addition thereto or subtraction therefrom to selectively provide,
on the one hand, a device for recovering buried objects in a certain
manner and, on the other hand, either a device for recovering such
objects in an entirely different manner, or else a structure to perform
a completely different function.
Note. Examples of treating operations provided herein are
drying, burying, or burning of the recovered object.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a means which is driven by either a motor
or a ground-engaging traction member is provided to position a portion
of said apparatus relative to its supporting frame, said means being
selectively actuated in response to an operator actuated control
to move said portion from one position of adjustment to another.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which the buried object-recovering device is
related to an automotive chassis in such fashion that it is mounted
on a separate frame having ground- engaging support means therefore
and adapted to be towed by said automotive chassis, said recovering device
being actuated by a power take-off driven from a motor mounted on
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which the buried-object recovering device is
supported, in its operative position, from a mobile ground-supported frame
in such manner that the entire device can be detached as a unit
from said frame.
Note. The unearthing unit disposed on a carrying frame which
is towed by an automotive frame through a separable draft connection
(which connection may or may not support part of said carrying frame)
has been excluded unless said unit is also detachable as a unit
from said carrying frame.
Note. The unearthing unit may be detachably supported on either
an automotive frame or a towed frame.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which an entire unearthing unit for a buried
object is mounted on a frame or chassis in such fashion that it
may be moved by means of either (1) an operator controlled or actuated
device or (2) a surface object or ground contour-engaging guide
means which shifts the unearthing unit bodily with respect to said
frame in a generally horizontal plane, either pivotally or transversely
to the direction of motion of said chassis across a field.
Note. The usual purpose of the laterally shiftable mounting
is to permit continuous alignment of the object-recovering means
with a series of plants in a row.
subclass 26 for an earth-working means guided from a surface
track or previously formed furrow, and subclass 667 and the subclasses
there noted for an actuator for laterally adjusting an earth-working means.
SEPARATE DRAFT CONNECTIONS TO UNEARTHING UNIT AND UNEARTHING
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a means for recovering buried objects
is supported from a ground supported frame or chassis said chassis
having a connection to a draft means and an additional independent
draft device is connected to said recovering means in order to pull
said recovering means independently of horizontal forces applied
through said frame.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a means is provided (1) to return earth
only into the space formerly occupied by the recovered object, or
(2) to engage the earth adjacent the location of the object being
recovered to retain said earth in place as the object is withdrawn
from the soil.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which comprise means for individually holding
either (1) an underground portion of a growing plant or buried object,
or (2) an above ground portion of a plant extending through the
earth"s surface and lifting it without any substantial
disturbance of the soil and without any substantial relative motion between
the holding means and the plant or object.
Note. Those devices which dig plants by merely supporting
them and not grasping or holding them are excluded. For example
devices having spaced tines to dig and separate objects from the
soil are excluded and classified herebelow as diggers if the objects
merely rest on the tines.
Note. This and the indented subclasses provide for the holding
and lifting (i.e. extractor) subcombinations, per se, and also for
combinations of said subcombinations with a plow or other preliminary digging
Note. Included in this and the indented subclasses are means
to remove plants from the earth by pulling on the foliage or stalks.
See also (5) Note of the class definition.
This subclass is indented under subclass 50. Apparatus in which means is provided to shake, rap, strike,
jiggle or otherwise jar or vibrate an extractor such as an object
impaler, snagger or grasping device or a plant or object carried
thereby a number of tines in succession in order to assist in removing
surface dirt or incrustations from said plant or object.
Note. Strippers which remove the object from the extractor
and which may incidently jar the object are excluded and have been
classified on the basis of the details of the extractor.
This subclass is indented under subclass 50. Apparatus in which an extractor is mounted on a support
which is movable relative to a frame and an unloader is provided
which has a different motion relative to said frame in such fashion
that said unloader engages an extractor carried object with a pushing,
pulling, wiping or combing action to remove said object or portion
of an object from said extractor.
This subclass is indented under subclass 50. Apparatus including (1) a sharpened means to penetrate the
surface of an object being recovered, or (2) means disclosed as
being specially adapted to hook or catch into or around a reentrant
or elongated above ground portion of said object in order to hold
on to said object and remove it from the ground.
Note. The snagging means is usually employed to hook or catch
into vines which fold or drape over said means or tangle therewith
in order to pull out the vines.
This subclass is indented under subclass 53. Apparatus wherein the impaling or snagging extractor means
is carried by a moving support and is moved relative to said support
after the object has been extracted, to discharge such object.
This subclass is indented under subclass 50. Apparatus in which the extractor includes spaced members
which are adapted to engage and hold a buried object therebetween
and lift it from its position in the earth.
This subclass is indented under subclass 55. Apparatus in which the extractor includes carrier means
provided with grasping means which have a relative motion toward
and away from each other which is over and above the motion imparted
to said grasping means by the movement of the carrier means, for
the purpose of grasping or releasing the plant or buried object.
Note. Organizations employing grasping elements mounted on
plural carriers in which the only relative motion of the elements
is that due to relative motion of the carriers are excluded and
have been classified in other pertinent subclasses of this schedule
on the basis of the carrier structure.
This subclass is indented under subclass 55. Apparatus in which the extractor includes spaced members,
at least one of which is in the form of a rotatable support having
a helically arranged member thereon adapted to confront or engage
the other of said members to cooperate therewith in feeding a buried
object longitudinally of said support.
Note. These helical screw extractors are usually employed
to engage the foliage of a plant and lift it from the earth either with
or without the help of an object-digging device.
This subclass is indented under subclass 55. Apparatus in which the extractor includes spaced members
between which an object being unearthed in grasped at least one
of said members being in the form of a rotatably mounted (1) wheel
or narrow circular device having a lateral, peripheral, article-
engaging face or (2) an elongated device having a generally cylindrical
or conical article-accommodating periphery.
Note. The spaced members may in either case be provided with
either continuous peripheral surfaces or with spaced elements lying
along the periphery of a cylinder or cone.
Note. The disk-type extractors are generally disposed in nonparallel
planes to provide zones where they approach and recede in order
to grasp and release an article while the cylindrical extractors are
generally but not necessarily, disposed with their axes diverging
in order to feed the unearthed object longitudinally of the cylinder.
This subclass is indented under subclass 55. Apparatus wherein the opposed plant engagers comprise opposed
diverging members which are fixedly mounted on an upwardly moving carrier;
the diverging sides generally engage an intermediate portion of
the sides of the plant with a wedging action to hold it during upward movement.
Note. Devices in which converging members dig under a buried
object and lift and guide said object out of the earth as the object
rolls or slides up the inclined surface thereof are excluded since
they do not grasp said object.
This subclass is indented under subclass 55. Apparatus in which the extractor includes spaced members
between which an object being unearthed is grasped, at least one
of said members being in the form of a moving endless element such
as a belt, chain, strand or the like (1) adapted to engage said
object directly or (2) provided with object-engaging devices supported
on said endless element to engage said object and hold it against
the other of said members.
This subclass is indented under subclass 60. Apparatus in which both of the spaced extractor members
are endless elements or are attached to or supported by endless
elements and which elements or members cooperate to engage an object
therebetween to unearth it.
This subclass is indented under subclass 50. Apparatus including a means to (1) agitate, plow or otherwise
disturb the soil or (2) sever underground plant parts and/or
to lift an underground plant part into a position where it is more
readily accessible to the extractor.
Note. Patents classified herein as originals usually recite
(1) details of the soil disturber or plant lifter or else (2) particular
relations of said soil disturber or plant lifter to an extractor
associated therewith. Where details of the extractor are claimed
the patent is cross-referenced here, if appropriate, on the basis
of claimed or novel disclosed soil disturber or plant lifter structure.
STONE GATHERING AND/OR UNEARTHING BY IMPELLING
ABOVE-GROUND PLANT OR OBJECT PORTION:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a member, disposed entirely above ground
is moved above and adjacent the earth"s surface into contact
with the sides of plants or partially buried objects to impinge
or thrust against said plants or objects in order to dislodge them
from the soil.
Note. An underground cutter may or may not be provided to
sever plant roots.
Note. The beater or impeller may be inclined at an angle to
the line of draft in order that the unearthed objects (usually bean
vines) may slide along the beater or impeller into a windrow.
Note. The beater or impeller may be rigidly supported on a
frame or may be movable with respect to said frame.
Note. Included herein are those structures disclosed as adapted
for the purpose of moving small stones along the surface of the
ground in order to gather or windrow said stones because of the similarity
of said structures to the apparatus provided for by this subclass
definition and the likehood of said structures engaging and unearthing
stones which are partially embedded in the ground.
for unearthing apparatus which includes a member
disposed above ground and extending to a point above and immediately
adjacent the earth"s surface, said member being generally transverse
or inclined relative to the line of draft in order to engage and impell
unearthed objects on the ground and push them either forwardly into
piles or laterally into windrows.
This subclass is indented under subclass 63. Apparatus in which the member which impinges or thrusts
against plants, surface stones, or partially buried objects is disposed
at an angle to the direction in which the apparatus is traveling
in order to windrow, i.e. to deposit the uprooted objects in a row.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which the unearthing apparatus includes a disassociating
means which, in operating position, is generally horizontal and planar
and which is adapted to be dragged through or along the ground and
formed of a plurality of interconnected links joined for horizontal
and vertical movement relative to each other whereby said disassociating
means will agitate and set apart the desired objects from the earth.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including a device disposed entirely above the
earth"s surface for the disclosed purpose of engaging material
lying upon or extending through the earth"s surface to
lift, depress or shift said material into or away from the path
of the apparatus for recovering buried objects prior to the unearthing
of said objects.
Note. These devices may constitute above ground guards or
fenders which (1) deflect standing plant parts away from parts of
said device which might tangle therewith or (2) engage loose trash
lying in the path of said apparatus to shift it out of said path.
This subclass is indented under subclass 67. Apparatus in which the preliminary deflector is movably
mounted on a support means and an additional means is provided for
positively imparting a cyclic movement to said deflector.
This subclass is indented under subclass 67. Apparatus including a surface material-engaging device which
is either shiftably or turnably mounted in order to (1) lift, throw
or convey loose surface material into or out of the path of the
apparatus, (2) to engage standing plant parts to re-arrange the
foliage or stalks, or (3) to press plants further into the earth.
Note. A mere altering or changing the position of adjustment
of the deflector relative to the ground has not been considered
moving for this subclass.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including a frame or chassis and a supporting
means adapted to move a digging means transversely of the line of
draft, said digging means consisting solely of a single series of
peripherally-spaced earth-engaging elements, the said elements moving
relative to said frame or chassis in a closed path defining a surface
of revolution, a cross section of which surface conforms to the
shape of a single element of said series, said elements being adapted
to work through the soil to push or impact plants or buried objects
either in situ through the earth or through soil lifted from its natural
position to remove them from said earth or soil.
Note. Bifurcated- or forked-earth- engaging elements have
been excluded and have been classified in pertinent subclasses herebelow.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes an interstitial separating member
adjoining a nondriven soil cutting or lifting element and mounted
for to-and-fro and/or up-and-down motion in its entirety
or as a unit, relative to said element, said separating member (1)
having a portion thereof, or means mounted on a portion thereof engaging
the ground in order to follow the undulations in the soil to vibrate
the separating member or (2) said separating member being provided
with a means to move said member thru a small amplitude in order,
in each case, to shake soil and entrained desired objects deposited
on or against the separating member.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus in which the separating surface is either (1)
carried, at least in part, by an elastic member or (2) is moved
in at least one direction by or through an elastically distortable member.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus in which the movable separating surface is so
formed that the intersection of said surface and a reference plane
disposed perpendicularly to the direction of draft of the apparatus
forms a line which is disposed at different heights above the ground
at different portions along the length of said line.
Note. The usual purpose of the transverse curve or inclination
is to bias the recovered objects to roll laterally to a desired
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus which includes confining means disposed along
a lateral edge of the moving separating surface to prevent the recovered
objects from falling off said edge.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus which include, in addition to a first movably-supported
separating surface, either (1) an additional and discontinuous separating surface,
or (2) an additional separating surface or individual bars or similar
separating elements which are hinged to the first separating surface.
Note. The discontinuous separator surfaces may be moved relative
to each other or may be merely spaced apart or hinged together.
This subclass is indented under subclass 75. Apparatus which include plural separating surfaces, at least
one of which is movably mounted for a motion which is not imparted
to another one of said surfaces, said surfaces being provided with
elements which interfit so that alternate elements are part of one
separator while the intermediate elements are part of the other
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus which includes in addition to a separator having
an intersitial separating surface movably mounted in a position
adjoining a plow member, a separator supporting member of irregular
or eccentric shape interposed between the separator and the ground
in such fashion that the supporting member is turned about an axis
by contact with the ground and imparts a motion to the separator
in response to such turning.
Note. The noncircular rolling member may be supported on the
separator itself, on a supporting frame carrying the separator,
or on a separate frame or subframe provided especially for the rolling
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus which includes a separator having a front end
movably supported on a ground-traversing frame and the rear end
pulled behind said frame in which the rear end is supported either
by (1) direct contact with the earth or (2) by resting on a member
which rolls or slides along the earth and which member is provided solely
to carry the weight of said trailing end.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus which includes a separator which is movably mounted
by swinging members which are pivoted to the separator at points
which are spaced apart along the line of draft.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus which includes a separating surface which is mounted
to move about an axis which is (1) disposed along the line of draft
or (2) which is disposed at an angle to a plane perpendicular to
the line of draft.
Note. The axis need not be disposed in a horizontal plane
but may extend at an angle relative to said horizontal plane.
This subclass is indented under subclass 71. Apparatus which include a separating surface which has a
portion continuously moving horizontally along a line or direction
which is generally perpendicular to the line of draft.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which a buried object-recovering device is
fixedly mounted on a support which is adapted to rest on the ground
in such fashion that said support may oscillate back and forth while
remaining in contact with the ground.
Note. Included herein are diggers supported by a rocking chair-like
LEADING PLOW OR CUTTER WITH CONTIGUOUS, FIXED INCLINED
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes an earth cutting or lifting member
and an interstitial separator fixedly adjoining or integral with
a rear portion of said cutting or lifting member and extending upwardly
and rearwardly therefrom at an angle from a horizontal plane in
order to separate from the soil desired objects dislodged by said
cutting or lifting member.
Note. The separator may either comb through soil to selectively
remove only desired objects or the soil containing the desired objects
may be deposited on or against the upper side of the separator so that
only the soil falls thru the separator.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus which includes a member which is adapted to extend
into a mass of earth containing plants or buried objects to be forced through
said earth and engage said plants or objects, with a minimum of
soil disturbance, said member consisting of a plurality of spaced elements
or portions having an earth passage therebetween which are (1) spaced
apart a distance such that said plants or objects cannot pass therebetween
but will be propelled through said earth and thus separated therefrom;
or (2) so disposed with respect to the forward motion of said apparatus
that said elements successively engage said plant or object in a
manner to propel it step by step, transversely relative to said
forward motion and thus remove it from the earth.
Note. The separating digger must impart a motion to the buried
objects and separators which merely support excavated objects as
they move with the surrounding earth and which allow the earth to fall
therethrough are excluded and are classified on the basis of the
excavation and subsequent separation.
Note. The digger may operate on plants or buried objects contained
in a mass of earth which is either in situ or which has been lifted
from its original position provided that means is employed to constrain
the earth to flow to the digger in substantially the same manner
as if it were still in situ.
Note. Included herein are separating diggers which comprise
vertically-disposed digger elements arranged in a generally rake-like
formation which comb through the soil to remove buried objects.
This subclass is indented under subclass 84. Apparatus which includes a first member shaped like a sector
of a circle and a second member having a portion moving through
a corresponding path adjacent said first member in such fashion
as to provide an article confining space, at least one of said members
being provided with digging elements adapted to comb through the
soil to unearth objects imbedded therein and to deliver said objects between
Note. The moving member may be a separating digger or a mere
impeller wheel or belt which shifts the objects confined between
Note. The said first member is usually fixed on a frame and
may be a separating digger, a separator or a mere guide to confine
the said objects.
This subclass is indented under subclass 84. Apparatus in which the separating digger is provided with
a mounted member having a bearing surface to hold the digger from
movement with respect to said mounting member to provide (1) a motion
which directly causes the separation of an object from the earth
and/or (2) a movement which causes a discharge or unloading
of objects already collected on or by the separating digger.
Note. Mere adjustably supported separating diggers have been
excluded and classified on the basis of other pertinent details
of the digger.
Note. The separating digger may be manually actuated, power
operated by a motor or traction drive or mounted so that it is freely
Note. Pivotally-supported separating diggers are included
where the digger is adapted to swing up and discharge recovered
objects collected on the digger to thus complete the digging operation.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus including a moving separating digger and means
adapted to remove or transfer objects resting on the digger, which
means is supported (1) on the digger or (2) on a digger carrier
which is movably mounted on a traveling support.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus in which a moving-digger means includes several
separate elements each of which is adapted to propel a buried object towards
the other element so that the object may pass in between them.
Note. The several diggers usually intermesh to form a temporarily
interdigitated grate-like support for the object which allows loose
dirt to fall through in order to separate said dirt from the object while
it is lifted from the ground.
for plural cooperating moving elements which may
or may not penetrate the earth"s surface, which elements
are disposed in opposed relation for holding and lifting a plant or
buried object from the earth.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus in which a moving digger is mounted on a frame
and a feeding or discharge means is provided which is interposed
in the path of objects on the digger and which has a motion relative
to both the digger and said frame to clean said digger, to pulverize
clods, or to remove recovered objects from said digger.
Note. The discharge means may be a moving stripper or a conveyor
arranged to remove the flow of recovered objects from the digger.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus in which a moving digger is provided with a discharge
device interposed in the path of objects on the digger to remove
said objects from the digger.
Note. The discharge means is usually a comb or trough.
Note. The discharge device must actually remove the objects
or strip them from the digger and conveyors or chutes which are
merely disposed in the path of objects which fall from the digger
are excluded and will be found in an appropriate subclass in Classes
198 or 193, respectively.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus which includes a moving supporting member which
rolls or is driven with respect to a frame, digging means being
mounted on said supporting member in such fashion that it necessarily
moves with respect to said supporting member when the latter moves,
said digging means being provided with spaced elements which dig
through the soil and engage plants or buried objects therein to
move them through the soil while allowing the soil to sift through as
the digging means moves.
Note. The digger is often carried by a crank or wheel, additional
means being provided to change the relation of the digger to the
crank or wheel as the latter moves.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus which includes a digger having digging elements
disposed about the periphery of a rotary or belt-like member (1)
in which a receptacle is disposed within said periphery to receive
recovered objects in order to retain them or to guide them away
from the digger, or (2) in which said member has a surface provided
with interstices adapted to support recovered objects but which
permit smaller objects or material to pass to or through the interior
of the periphery.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus in which (1) the digger is continuously moved
through a closed path by contact with the earth as the apparatus
traverses a field, or (2) the digger is mounted on a supporting frame
and has at least one axis which is coaxial with a ground-contacting
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus including a member which is journalled for movement
about an axis and is disclosed as turning continuously in the same direction
about said axis, said member being provided with spaced elements
which dig through the soil and engage plants or buried objects therein
to move them through the soil but which allow the soil to sift through
as the member moves.
This subclass is indented under subclass 95. Apparatus in which the rotating digger is (1) arranged with
certain digging elements extending radially further from the axis
of rotation than others in such fashion that they terminate adjacent
a conical surface, or (2) arranged in such fashion that the digging
elements or portions thereof define a substantially conical surface.
This subclass is indented under subclass 86. Apparatus in which a separating digger is supported and
guided for motion in a rectilinear or curvilinear path not provided
for above, means being provided to impart such motion to the digger.
Note. Included herein are separating diggers which have a
spading, hoeing or pawing motion.
This subclass is indented under subclass 84. Apparatus in which a separating digger is mounted on a frame
and a means is provided which is interposed in the path of objects
on the digger and which has a motion relative to the digger to clean
said digger, to remove recovered objects from the digger, or to
assist in moving the recovered objects along said digger.
Note. The means may be a moving stripper or a conveyor arranged
to remove the flow of buried objects from the digger.
Note. The separating digger is usually fixed to the frame.
This subclass is indented under subclass 84. Apparatus which include a separating digger having at least
a portion having digging elements disposed generally in a plane
which is inclined at an acute angle with respect to a vertical plane
extending longitudinally along the path traversed by said portion
in such manner as to deliver recovered objects at the edge of said
Note. Included herein are diggers or portions of diggers arranged
in pairs which diverge either forwardly or rearwardly with respect
to the direction of traverse to deliver the separated objects centrally or
laterally, respectively, or the pair.
Note. Included herein are patents which claim a series of
separate, laterally staggered diggers which shift recovered objects
laterally in a succession of steps.
Note. Driven or rolling diggers which meet the above definition
are cross- referenced here when claimed details of the moving digger
require classification higher in the schedule.
This subclass is indented under subclass 84. Apparatus in which the separating digger includes two mutually
cooperating digger surfaces which extend, side by side, downwardly in
the direction of draft and which are spaced apart at a distance
such that said surfaces are adapted to contact opposite sides of
each object being recovered to lift said object and guide it along
Note. The cooperating surfaces may be formed as part of an
integral unit provided that there is an adequate opening or clear
space below and between said surfaces to allow soil to pass through freely
as the object is lifted therefrom.
Note. The surfaces are usualy flat and disposed in upwardly
and laterally diverging planes but they may be surfaces of rods
and 58, for spaced, downwardly inclined, rotating
members which engage opposite sides of a plant to extract it from
the ground and which may enter the earth at their forward ends to
form spaced digging means.
for devices which are disclosed as having closely
spaced digger elements which form an interstitial supporting surface
upon which the objects being recovered rest but in which spaced elements
do not contact opposite sides of said objects.
This subclass is indented under subclass 84. Apparatus in which the separating digger includes an interstitial
or grid-like surface disposed in a plane which slants downwardly towards
the direction in which the apparatus travels in order to dig under
buried objects and urge them up said plane to or above the surface of
Note. The surface need not be continuous but may comprise
a number of bars, rollers, tines or similar work supporting, digging
This subclass is indented under subclass 104. Apparatus in which the inclined separating digger includes
a fork-like member having a plurality of separate, closely spaced
tines, or teeth to dig under buried objects and form an interstitial
surface to urge said objects along said surface to or above the
surface of the earth.
This subclass is indented under subclass 104. Apparatus in which the inclined separating digger includes
a series of closely spaced, transversely arranged members which
are disposed at progressively higher levels away from the direction
of draft in order to dig under buried objects and roll them up the
ladder rung-like transverse elements.
TRACTION WHEEL DRIVE DETAILS FOR UNEARTHING UNIT PART:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus having claimed specific details of a power transmission
between a supporting wheel of a chassis and moving parts of a means
mounted on said chassis for recovering buried object.
Note. A mere recitation that a digger or picker is driven
from a supporting wheel axle has been excluded.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including an unearthing apparatus and a wheel-
or runner-supported frame which frame is interconnected by a transverse horizontal
pivot to an additional wheel- or runner-supported frame, the unearthing
apparatus being mounted on one or both of said frames and there
being provided a means for varying the included angle between the
two frames by simultaneously swinging each said frame about the
horizontal pivot to thereby selectively alter the vertical position
or attitude of said unearthing apparatus or portions thereof.
DIGGER AND MOVING CONVEYER UNIT ADJUSTABLE RELATIVE TO CHASSIS:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which the unearthing apparatus includes an
excavating means interconnected with a moving-conveyor means, which means
are mounted on a vehicular frame for simultaneous movement relative
to said frame, there being provided a means for securing the unit
in variable positions of adjustment in order, generally, to vary
the working depth or attitude of the excavating means.
Note. The conveyor means may, in addition, be a separating
means for segregating the desired objects from undesired objects
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which means are provided to excavate a mass
of earth having plant roots or other objects imbedded therein; means
being provided to receive said mass and to remove the earth from
said objects and/or to lift said objects from the mass
of earth to thereby separate and recover said objects.
Note. Patents which disclose a separating digger but claim
it only as a digger broadly in combination with an additional separator
are classified herein as originals and are crossed here if any significant
details of the separating digger are recited which would require
classification of the original higher in the schedule.
for organization including a digging member and
a moving conveyor adjustable therewith as a unit relative to a supporting
chassis in which the conveyor may either be a separator or may conduct
earth and/or buried objects to a separator.
subclass 32 for an earth working apparatus with means for separating
earth portions after earth working, and subclasses 681+ for
earth working tools which are adapted to raise or turn a mass of
earth having buried objects therein or adapted to move below the
ground surface and sever plant roots.
This subclass is indented under subclass 111. Apparatus including a reticulate surface which is moved
by contact with the earth as the apparatus progresses across a field
and which is adapted to receive a mass of excavated earth and entrained
buried objects to retain the latter but to allow the earth to sift
or fall through.
Note. The reticulated surface is usually a rolling wheel or
This subclass is indented under subclass 111. Apparatus in which a helical- or auger-like feeding means
is disposed in contiguous relation to an excavating or separating
means for moving unearthed material through or along the surfaces
of said excavating or separating means.
This subclass is indented under subclass 111. Apparatus including a means which (1) impacts unearthed
material to hurl it through a desired trajectory, (2) cooperates
with an excavating or disassociating surface to assist in moving
unearthed material along or from said surface, or (3) disintegrates
unearthed material moving along or carried by a surface of the excavator
or separator by comminuting said material between said surface and
Note. The supporting surface may be a digging surface or a
separating surface and the motion imparted to the excavated material
may be for the purpose of (1) merely moving the material through the
apparatus, (2) assisting the flow of part of the material through
a separator surface, or (3) comminution of conglomerated portions
of the material.
for moving separating diggers disposed adjacent
a plow or earth guide in position to receive a slice of earth in
its original condition as it was in situ and to comb through said
slice to remove desired objects buried therein.
This subclass is indented under subclass 114. Apparatus in which the impeller or breaker means is journalled
for movement in a circular path about a fixed axis lying in or extending generally
parallel to a vertical plane extending in the direction of draft.
This subclass is indented under subclass 114. Apparatus in which the impeller or breaker means is mounted
for movement in a closed orbital path, there being at least two
spaced parallel axes about which said means traverses during a single
cycle of its operation.
Note. The endless impellers are not conveyors because they
do not carry the earth and/or entrained objects but merely push
it relative to a second fixed or moving surface which supports it.
This subclass is indented under subclass 117. Apparatus which includes a pair of endless belt members
each of which has a run disposed adjacent to and in cooperation
with a run of the other in such fashion that a recovered object
or plant may be confined and transported between said runs or an
earth clod may be crushed between said runs.
This subclass is indented under subclass 114. Apparatus in which the impeller or breaker means is journalled
on a frame structure and adapted to be moved through a closed orbital path
or through a rectilinear reciprocatory path.
This subclass is indented under subclass 111. Apparatus including a means to strike, squeeze or comminute
conglomerated portions of the earth, without unduly injuring objects entrained
therein in which the means is disposed subsequent to the excavating
means and either prior to or subsequent to the separating means.
This subclass is indented under subclass 111. Apparatus including a means to excavate a mass of earth
with buried objects entrained therein and a separating means to
remove the earth from said objects in which either (1) the excavating
means moves, (2) the separating means moves, or (3) a transporting
device, interposed between the excavating means and separating means,
Note. Excavating means, separating means and transporting
devices which are movable only for adjustment purposes are excluded
and classified elsewhere in this schedule on the basis of claimed
details of the various means or the manner in which they are adjustably supported.
This subclass is indented under subclass 124. Apparatus including an earth lifting or transporting device
interposed between an excavator and a separator which device is
moved by contact with the earth as the apparatus moves across a
This subclass is indented under subclass 124. Apparatus including an interstitial or reticulated surface
which receives excavated earth with buried objects therein and which
surface is movably supported in order to assist in separating the
objects from the earth and/or to transport said objects
during the separating operation.
Note. Included herein are those reticulated separating surfaces
formed of a continuous endless belt, band or conveyor flight and
not provided for below.
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Apparatus in which the reticulated separating surface is
provided with a driving means which imparts thereto a motion in
a different direction from the direction of the normal flow of the recovered
objects across said separating surface in order to assist in the
separating function thereof.
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Apparatus which includes a rotary, cylindrical member having
an axially extending reticulated or interstitial separating surface
projecting outwardly and generally radially from the peripheral
surface thereof, said separating surface being adapted to receive
a mass of excavated earth having buried objects entrained therein
in such fashion as to support said objects while allowing said earth
to sift through said separating surface and thus separate from said
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Apparatus in which the reticulated separating surface is
formed as a member defining a surface of revolution and journalled
for rotation in such fashion that a mass of excavated earth having
buried objects entrained therein is applied to either the exterior
or interior of said member in order to retain the objects while
the earth passes therethrough.
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Apparatus in which a number of reticulated separating surfaces
formed of continuous endless belts, bands or flights are disposed
in such relative positions that objects carried by one belt, band
or flight are deposited on the next belt, band or flight in sequence.
Note. The successive belts are usually inclined with the outlet
area of one belt disposed above the inlet area of the next so that
the fall of the object from one to the other is utilized to assist
in the separation.
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Apparatus including a number of separate separators, one
of which is an endless separating belt band or conveyor in which
objects, carried on one separator are deposited on the next separator
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Apparatus including a separating surface formed with interstices
or apertures, said surface being mounted for a unitary movement
to assist in passing earth therethrough or to carry or feed separated
objects along said surface.
Note. Included herein are sifting shakers which have no other
motion than a jiggling movement to enhance sifting of earth therethrough.
This subclass is indented under subclass 126. Apparatus in which the interstitial separating surface includes
a plurality of individual members mounted on a support, said members
having (1) different motions with respect to said support, (2) motions
about different axes, or (3) any motion relative to each other,
and said members being closely spaced in order to support recovered
objects while dirt passes through the space between adjacent members.
Note. The relatively moving members may be rotating rollers
or cranked shafts.
This subclass is indented under subclass 124. Apparatus in which an excavating member is movably supported
on a frame for digging or loosening earth and/or buried
objects entrained therein, and a separating means is supported on the
frame separately from the excavating member.
Note. The moving digger may be the means which lifts the soil
and entrained buried objects from the ground or said digger may
be supplementary to said means.
This subclass is indented under subclass 111. Apparatus in which the means to separate earth from recovered
buried objects includes a portion of a receiving and collecting
chamber for said recovered objects.
Note. The separator normally consists of a screen or grill
in a lower surface of the article collecting chamber.
Note. The separating collector may or may not be preceded
by an additional separating means.
for plant or buried object unearthing units which
dump periodically in response to either the weight of collected
objects or distance traveled by the unit in order to leave the unearthed objects
This subclass is indented under subclass 111. Apparatus in which the excavating means and the separating
means (1) are formed integral one with the other, or (2) are immovably
and rigidly adjoined one to the other.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus wherein a baffle or hood means is so disposed
relative to the unearthing apparatus, parts thereof or drive means
therefor, that (1) such apparatus, parts, or drive means are shielded
from foreign matter, dirt or recovered objects, or (2) an operator
or attendant is protected from foreign matter, dirt or recovered
objects which might otherwise strike or injure him.
subclasses 112+ for a driven earth working tool with a deflector
or shield for thrown material, and subclasses 508+ for
an earth working implement with a guard, shield or plant diverter.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus wherein the unearthing device is provided with
an intercepting means disposed in the normal path of flow of the
material through said device for receiving and transporting or guiding
said material in a direction which when measured in a horizontal plane
is angularly disposed with respect to said normal path of flow of
material in order, generally, to deliver material or portions thereof
to a predetermined position within the device or on the ground.
UNEARTHING UNIT FIXED ON VERTICALLY SHIFTABLE VEHICLE FRAME:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus in which the unearthing apparatus includes the
frame of a vehicle, said frame having an excavating and/or
separating means rigidly connected thereto, and which frame is provided
with a means for varying its vertical position relative to the ground
whereby the working depth of said excavating and/or separating
means may be selectively changed from one position to another.
Note. The frame is generally provided with a crank axle, gage
wheel or runner means which is movable relative to the frame in
order to position said frame at different heights above the ground.
subclasses 6.15+ for a land vehicle of general utility including
means, interposed between the vehicle body, chassis, or frame and running
gear thereof, for altering height or levelness of the vehicle body,
chassis, or frame; or subclasses 43+ for a land vehicle
of general utility having vertically adjustable wheels for altering
a dimension of the vehicle or a part thereof.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including a buried object recovering device floatingly
supported on a vehicle frame and a ground- engaging supporting member
operatively connected to said recovering device to continuously
shift said recovering device relative to said frame in response
to changes in contour of the ground.
LIFTING OR TILTING MEANS FOR UNEARTHING APPARATUS:
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including a selectively operable mechanism connected
to a part of a means for recovering buried objects mounted on a chassis
in order to (1) raise or lower said part to adjustably position
it with respect to said frame or (2) to adjustably vary the inclination
or attitude of said part with respect to the earth"s surface.
subclasses 452+ and the subclasses there noted, for an actuator
adapted to lift an earth working implement for transport on a wheeled
frame, and subclass 668 for an actuator adapted to move an earth working
implement vertically with respect to a wheeled frame.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including a specific means forming a part of a
power supply system to move a portion of a device which removes
and separates buried objects from the earth.
Note. Included here are devices having means to effect a declutching
of a drive to an unearthing apparatus in response to a vertical
or lateral shifting of such apparatus.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus including claimed features relating to movable
supporting members or platforms for mounting a device or portion
of a device for removing and separating buried objects from the
Note. The supporting member or frame may or may not have supporting
wheels and may or may not be provided with means to steer said frame
as it is propelled.
This subclass is indented under the class definition. Apparatus for recovering buried objects embedded in the
earth either immediately below the surface thereof or extending
through the earth"s surface and not provided for above.
Note. Included herein are devices under the class definition
which include article-receiving means to retain unearthed objects
until a desired accumulation thereof has been achieved, after which, generally,
the means is cleared, dumped or otherwise readied for the reception and
retention of more objects.
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