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NON-POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT MACHINES OR ENGINES, e.g. STEAM TURBINES (machines or engines for liquids F03; non-positive displacement pumps F04D)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:
  • Non-positive-displacement engines for elastic fluids, e.g. steam turbines,
  • Non-positive-displacement engines for liquids and elastic fluids,
  • Non-positive-displacement machines for elastic fluids,
  • Non-positive-displacement machines for Iiquids and elastic fluids.
References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machines or engines for liquids
Non-positive-displacement pumps
Special rules of classification within this subclass

In this subclass the indexing scheme F05D is used as follows:

F05D 2200/00: mathematical features

F05D 2210/00: working fluid

F05D 2220/00: application

F05D 2230/00: manufacture

F05D 2240/00:components

F05D 2250/00: geometry

F05D 2260/00: function

F05D 2270/00: control

F05D 2300/00: materials

Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines (wit working-fluid flows in opposite axial directions for balancing axial thrust F01D 3/02; with other than pure rotation F01D 23/00; turbines characterised by their use in special steam systems, cycles, or processes, regulating devices therefor F01K)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Non-positive-displacement machines or engines, e.g. steam turbines: i.e. machine or engine that uses an impeller or propeller and through which fluid is moved

Relationship between large subject matter areas

Machines or engines with working-fluid flows in opposite axial directions for balancing axial thrust F01D 3/02, with other than pure rotation F01D 23/00, turbines characterised by their use in special steam systems, cycles, or processes, regulating devices therefor F01K

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machines or engines with other than pure rotation
Machines or engines with working-fluid flows in opposite axial directions for balancing axial thrust
Turbines characterised by their use in special steam systems, cycles, or processes, regulating devices therefor
with stationary working-fluid guiding means and bladed or like rotor, {e.g. multi-bladed impulse steam turbines} (F01D 1/24 takes precedence; without stationary working-fluid guiding means F01D 1/18)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Machines or engines without stationary working-fluid guiding means
Special rules of classification within this group

F01D 1/24 takes precedence

with pressure velocity transformation exclusively in rotor, e.g. the rotor rotating under the influence of jets issuing from the rotor, {e.g. Heron turbines (the working fluid being a combustion products F02C 3/165; jet propulsion plants per se F02K) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aspects of working fluid being guided through a rotor construction such that the action of the expelled working fluid jet creates a reaction on the rotor, i.e. a turning motion is induced upon the rotor

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Jet propulsion plants per se
The working fluid being a combustion product
F03C3/16B
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 1/32

media0.jpg

taken from DE102009005872

using fluid friction
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aspects of extracting power from working fluid by making use of the viscous forces within the fluid, usually by the provision of a stack of closely arranged plates through which the working fluid is forced, such as e.g. a Tesla turbine

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 1/36

media1.jpg

taken from WO2009150427

of the screw type
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 1/38

media2.jpg

taken from FR937311

characterised by having one fluid flow in one axial direction and another fluid flow in the opposite direction
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 3/02

media3.jpg

taken from FR937311

axial thrust being compensated by thrust-balancing dummy piston or the like
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 3/04

media4.jpg

taken from US2326112

Blades; Blade-carrying members (nozzle boxes F01D 9/02) ; Heating, heat-insulating, cooling or anti-vibration means on the blades or the members {special arrangements in rotors dealing with breaking off of part thereof F01D 21/045}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Nozzle boxes
Special arrangements in rotors dealing with breaking off of part thereof
{Repairing methods or devices}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Maintenance management and planing of maintenance routines
Special rules of classification within this group

Turbine blade repair related document should also be circulated to B23P 5/00

{for flow machines or engines with only one axial stage (for more than one stage F01D 5/06) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For more than one stage
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/021

media5.jpg

taken from GB944166

{with concentric rows of axial blades}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/022

media6.jpg

taken from US6578351

{of the screw type}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/023

media7.jpg

taken from US4500254

{Fixing blade carrying members on shafts (attachment of a member on a shaft in general F16D 1/06; for non-positive displacement pumps F04D 29/00) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Attachment of a member on a shaft in general
For non-positive displacement pumps
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/025

media8.jpg

taken from US2010297468

{Shaft to shaft connections}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/026

media9.jpg

taken from US2010226786

{the rotor disc being formed of sheet laminae (rotor blade aggregates of unitary construction F01D 5/34) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This sub group covers:

Bladed disks (BLISKS) or other integrally manufactured rotor and disc arrangements, e.g. machined from a billet, manufactured by composite materials or manufactured individually and finalley joined to a non separable unit, e.g. by friction welding

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Rotor blade aggregates of unitary construction
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/028

media10.jpg

taken from GB630395

Annular blade-carrying members having blades on the inner periphery of the annulus and extending inwardly radially, i.e. inverted rotors
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/03

media11.jpg

taken from US2006016172

for radial-flow machines or engines
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/04

media12.jpg

taken from JP59113202

{of the Ljungström type}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Ljungström type machines in which the working fluid usually flows radially outwardly between two counter rotating bladed plates or more generally speaking turbines in which the fluid is expanded in a radial direction passing through consecutive turbine stages, wherein the turbine blades are mounted in circular alternating rows on plate like structures

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/041

media13.jpg

taken from EP811752

{the wheel comprising two adjacent bladed wheel portions e.g. with interengaging blades for damping vibrations}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/045

media14.jpg

taken from US4183719

for counteracting blade vibration
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects of blade vibration and countermeasures thereof if related to the blade itself and its construction

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring mechanical vibrations
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/16

media15.png

taken from US6033186

{Film cooling (F01D 5/187 takes precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All aspects of film cooled blades, arrangement and shape of film cooling holes

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/186

media16.jpg

taken from EP2267276

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

Shower head (cooling)
dito
Film cooling
expression used in order to describe the cooling technology used in oder to cool a blade with an external layer of coolant
{Convection cooling}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/187

media17.jpg

taken from EP2299058

{with an insert in the blade cavity to guide the cooling fluid, e.g. forming a separation wall}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/188

media18.jpg

taken from EP2107214

{the insert having a tubular cross-section, e.g. airfoil shape}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/189

media19.jpg

taken from US2010124499

Specially-shaped blade tips to seal space between tips and stator { (F01D 5/225 takes precedence) }
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/20

media20.png

taken from EP1367222

Blade-to-blade connections, {e.g. for damping vibrations}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
In combination with seals
F01D 11/005 and lower subclasses
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/22

media21.png

taken from US6402474

allocate this Indexing Code if document is addressing vibrations and damping thereof

using wire or the like
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/24

media22.jpg

taken from JP59108804

Antivibration means not restricted to blade form or construction or to blade-to-blade connections {or to the use of particular materials}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measuring mechanical vibrations
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/26

media23.jpg

taken from EP1980715

Selecting particular materials; {Particular measures relating thereto;} Measures against erosion or corrosion
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Making articles from metallic powder
{Selecting composite materials, e.g. blades with reinforcing filaments}
Relationship between large subject matter areas
Shaping/repair of composites
Special rules of classification within this group

Indexing Code-codes for fibers, materials, resin etc. in F05D 2300/00

{Protective coatings for blades}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Coatings in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Composition of the coating(s) is covered by C23C 28/00

{of axial insertion type}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/3007

media24.jpg

taken from EP2233696

{with side plates}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 5/3015

media25.jpg

taken from EP1895103

Rotors with blades adjustable in operation; Control thereof (for reversing F01D 1/30)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Rotors with blades adjustable in operation, e.g. unshrouded fans with a single rotor or two counter-rotating rotors

media26.png

taken from US2006188375

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rotors for reversing
Stators (non-fluid guiding aspects of casings, regulating, controlling, or safety aspects, see the relevant groups)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Stators, i.e. stationary fluid guiding arrangements such as nozzles etc

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Casings
Regulation or control
Safety
{Nozzle boxes}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This sub group covers:

Nozzle boxes, i.e. usually a bladed section of a guiding apparatus with inner and outer shrouds segments that when assembled with several other nozzle boxes results in a stator structure. Two or four nozzle boxes form a complete circular fluid supply assembly

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/047

media27.jpg

taken from EP1703083

{for radial admission}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Nozzles or nozzles boxes forming a ring or a sector and in which working fluid is supplied radially onto a turbine stage or a turbine wheel

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/048

media28.jpg

taken from US200805689

Fluid supply conduits to nozzles or the like
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The fluid conduits themselves, i.e. anything that supplies fluid into the casing of the turbine or ducts fluid around the casing, e.g. from a bleed valve to the user or a hot section of the turbine

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/06

media29.jpg

taken from EP967376

{Fluid supply or removal conduits traversing the working fluid flow, e.g. for lubrication-, cooling- ,or sealing fluids (see also F01D 25/16, F01D 25/24 and F01D 25/26) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bearings
Casings
Double casings
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 9/065

media30.jpg

taken from US2010275572

Preventing or minimising internal leakage of working-fluid, e.g. between stages (sealings in general F16J) {sealing arrangements for transition ducts of combustor cans F01D 9/023}
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Sealing issues related to centrifugal compressors
Sealing in general
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Sealing arrangements for transition ducts of combustor cans
{for sealing space between stator blade and rotor}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 11/00

media31.jpg

taken from US3146938

{by packing rings; Mechanical seals}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 11/003

media32.jpg

taken from GB866636

Actively adjusting tip-clearance
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Blade tip magnetic field sensors
by selectively cooling-heating stator or rotor components
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 11/24

media33.jpg

taken from EP1555394

Combinations of two or more machines or engines (F01D 15/00 takes precedence; regulating or controlling, see the relevant groups; combinations of two or more pumps F04; fluid gearing F16H)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Combinations of two or more pumps
Fluid gearing
{with at least two independent shafts, i.e. cross-compound}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 13/003

media34.jpg

taken from JP359003104

{one being a reverse turbine}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Machines or engines containing a separate turbine for reverse operation

media35.jpg
media36.jpg

taken from US4245467

Working-fluid interconnection of machines or engines
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 13/02

media37.jpg

taken from US4986732

Adaptations of machines or engines for special use; Combinations of engines with devices driven thereby (regulating or controlling see the relevant groups; aspects predominantly concerning driven devices, see the relevant classes for the devices)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Adaptation off machines or engines for special use, combinations of engines with devices driven thereby: gas turbines in combination with pumps, electrical generators, turbines specifically adapted for driving vehicles, air turbines used in compressed air driven power tools or dentistry applications

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dental machines
Portable grinding machines
Adaptations for driving, or combinations with, electric generators
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Features relating to the electrical generator
Regulating or controlling by varying flow (for reversing F01D 1/30; by varying rotor-blade position F01D 7/00; specially for starting F01D 19/00; shutting-down F01D 21/00; regulating or controlling in general G05) { specially adapted for hand-held tools or the like F01D 15/06}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Specially for starting
Specially for starting
Shutting-down
Regulating or controlling by varying flow for reversing
F01F1/30
Regulating or controlling in general
responsive to speed
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Measurement of rotational speed
responsive to condition of working-fluid, e.g. pressure
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pressure sensors
{for radial flow; i.e. the vanes turning around axes which are essentially parallel to the rotor centre line (F01D 17/167 takes precedence) }
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vanes assemblies usually activated by a unison ring or the like in which the vanes are turning uniformly around an axis that is parallel to the rotor main axis, e.g. like in a conventional automotive turbocharger assembly

Special rules of classification within this group

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40 as additional information or F02C 6/12 as invention information

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 17/165

media38.png

taken from US2003014972

{of vanes moving in translation}
Special rules of classification within this group

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40 as additional information or F02C 6/12 as invention information

Starting of machines or engines; Regulating, controlling, or safety means in connection therewith (warming-up before starting F01D 25/10; turning or inching gear F01D 25/34)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Warming-up before starting
Turning or inching gear
Control of a generator (circuit) during starting/stopping of driving means
Shutting-down of machines or engines, e.g. in emergency; Regulating, controlling, or safety means not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Shutting-down of machines or engines, e.g. in emergency; regulating, controlling, or safety means not otherwise provided for, e.g. shutting down operations or methods should be classified in here if none of the sub groups apply

{Arrangements for testing or measuring (for measuring vibrations G01H) }
Relationship between large subject matter areas
Measurements by optical means
Measuring vibrations
Measuring linear or angular speed
Trip gear
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Trip mechanisms for trip valves

media39.jpg

taken from US4379544

Non-positive-displacement machines or engines with movement other than pure rotation, e.g. of endless-chain type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group:

media40.png

taken from DE3139802

{Cleaning of turbomachines}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cleaning in general
Administration of workflow
Arrangement of bearings; Supporting or mounting bearings in casings (bearings per se F16C)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Bearings in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/16

media41.jpg

representative image taken from EP1013896

This subgroup also contains features relating to turbochargers.

If information is presented about the overall bearing configuration see also F02C 7/06.

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40

{Bearing supports}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/162

media42.jpg
media43.jpg

taken from EP1630358 and US5080555

{Flexible supports; Vibration damping means associated with the bearing}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/164

media44.jpg

taken from EP1553324

{Sliding contact bearing (gas bearings F01D 25/22) }
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Gas bearings in turbomachines
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/166

media45.jpg

taken from US4371219

{for axial load mainly}
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/168

media46.jpg
media47.jpg

taken from US2005047690 and US2005147335

Lubricating arrangements (of machines or engines in general F01M)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Aspects related to lubrication of the engine such as lubrication circuits, lubricant supply, scavenging and the like, covers also features relating to turbochargers and lubrication thereof

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Lubricating arrangements of machines or engines in general
Special rules of classification within this group

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40

Casings (modified for heating or cooling F01D 25/14) ; Casing parts, e.g. diaphragms, casing fastenings (casings for rotary machines or engines in general F16M) {special arrangements in stators dealing with breaking-off of part of rotor F01D 21/045}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Casings for turbomachinery and also features relating to turbocharger casings.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special arrangements in stators dealing with breaking-off of part of rotor
Casings modified for heating or cooling
Casings for rotary machines or engines in general
Special rules of classification within this group

If specific for turbochargers classify also in F05D 2220/40

{Temporary support structures, e.g. for testing, assembling, installing, repairing; Assembly methods using such structures}
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Tools for holding and clamping
Devices holding or positioning work or tools
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/285

media48.png

taken from GB1211313

Exhaust heads, chambers, or the like
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Silencing or noise abatement in jet pipes or walls
F01K1/82C
Noise attenuators in general
Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/30

media49.jpg
media50.jpg

taken from EP1262666 and US3945760

{with fluid, e.g. liquid injection}
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Exhaust heads or chambers or diffusers comprising an additional injection of fluid such as air or liquids for any desired purpose such as cooling, cleaning of exhaust, deswirling etc.

Special rules of classification within this group

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in F01D 25/305

media51.jpg

taken from US3885822

Turning or inching gear
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Auxiliary equipment for rotating the rotor of a gas or steam turbine at low rpm, e.g. for inspection purposes or prevention of sagging and the like

media52.jpg

taken from US4430575

This page is owned by Office of Patent Classification.
Last Modified: 10/11/2013