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SYSTEMS ACTING BY MEANS OF FLUIDS IN GENERAL; FLUID-PRESSURE ACTUATORS, e.g. SERVO-MOTORS; DETAILS OF FLUID-PRESSURE SYSTEMS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR ([N: hydraulically or pneumatically operated lifting devices for soil-working machines A01B 63/10; hydraulic drawing presses B21D; hydraulic or pneumatic manipulators B25J; hydraulic or pneumatic tipping devices for vehicles B60P 1/00; hydraulic or pneumatic remote control for railway signals B61L 7/04; hydraulic or pneumatic mine supports E21D 15/44]; motors, turbines, compressors, blowers, pumps F01 to F04; [N: fluid signal amplifiers, relays F15C]; fluid dynamics F15D; fluid clutches or brakes F16D; fluid springs F16F; fluid gearing F16H; pistons, cylinders packing F16J; valves, taps, cocks, actuating-floats F16K; safety valves with auxiliary fluid operation of the main valve F16K 17/10; fluid-operating means for valves F16K 31/12 ; pipes, pipe joints F16L; lubricating F16N)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems transferring mechanical energy by means of a fluid under pressure using the principles of fluid statics or hydrostatics, i.e. hydraulic or pneumatic systems

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Desalination
Water purification
Engine water cooling
Fuel injection
Central heating systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hydraulically or pneumatically operated lifting devices for soil-working machines
Hydraulic drawing presses
Hydraulic or pneumatic manipulators
Hydraulic or pneumatic tipping devices for vehicles
Hydraulic or pneumatic remote control for railway signals
Hydraulic or pneumatic mine supports
Motors, turbines, compressors, blowers, pumps
Steam engines
Perpetua mobilia using fluid
Fluid signal amplifiers, relays
Fluid dynamics
Fluid clutches or brakes
Fluid springs
Fluid gearing
Pistons, cylinders packing
Valves, taps, cocks, actuating-floats
Safety valves with auxiliary fluid operation of the main valve
Fluid-operating means for valves
Pipes, pipe joints
Lubricating
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Pneumatic
using air or an inert gas (except steam) as a pressure medium.
Hydraulic
using a liquid as the pressure medium.
Telemotor
system or device in which a substantially constant amount of fluid is trapped between an input member and an output member to act as a fluid link
Servomotor
fluid-pressure actuator, e.g. a piston and a cylinder, directly controlled by a valve or other device (e.g. pump) which is responsive to operation of an initial controlling member (e.g. joystick). The initial controlling member may be adjacent to the servomotor or at a distance and may be, e.g. a hand lever.
Installations or systems with accumulators; Supply reservoir or sump assemblies
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hydro-pneumatic suspensions
Pumps having reservoirs
Central heating systems
Special rules of classification within this group

The main group F15B 1/00 is complemented by the main group F15B 2201/00 and is used for classifying invention information only.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Accumulator
vessel for storing pressurised liquid (e.g. using a liquid and a gas chamber separated by a membrane or piston or using an elastic housing)
Installations or systems with accumulators ([N: energy recuperation means F15B 21/14]; devices damping pulsations or vibrations for fluids for use in, or connection with, pipes or pipe systems F16L 55/04)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Energy recuperation means
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Accumulator
vessel for storing pressurised liquid (e.g. using a liquid and a gas chamber separated by a membrane or piston or using an elastic housing)
[N: used for damping]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pumps having accumulators for reducing pressure pulsations
Hydro-pneumatic suspensions
Buffers for preventing water hammer
[N: used as an emergency power source, e.g. in case of pump failure]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2211/212 takes precedence

[N: used as a supplementary power source, e.g. to store energy in idle periods to balance pump load]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also for recuperation of hydraulic energy (as e.g. used in hydraulic excavators)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Dredgers or soil-shifting machinery with energy recovery arrangements
[N: used for thermal compensation, e.g. to collect expanded fluid and to return it to the system as the system fluid cools down]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Central heating systems
having accumulator charging devices (control of fluid pressure in general G05D 16/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. valves controlling flow of hydraulic fluid to and from the liquid chamber of an accumulator.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Accumulator gas charging devices
Control of fluid pressure in general
Accumulators (connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies B60C 29/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Vessel for storing pressurised liquid (e.g. using a liquid and a gas chamber separated by a membrane or piston or using an elastic housing).

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pressure vessels per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pumps having accumulators for reducing pressure pulsations
Hydro-pneumatic suspensions
Buffers for preventing water hammer
Central heating systems
See also
Special rules of classification within this group

The sub-group F15B 1/04 is complemented by the main group F15B 2201/00 and is used for classifying invention information only. F15B 2201/00 takes precedence.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "pressure accumulator", "Druckspeicher", "Hydrospeicher "and "Accumulateur" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "bladder-type accumulator" and "Blasenspeicher" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "membrane-type accumulator" and "Membranspeicher" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "accumulator using pistons" and "Kolbenspeicher" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "accumulators having springs" and "Federspeicher" are often used as synonyms.

using a gas cushion; Gas charging devices; Indicators or floats therefor
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/205 takes precedence.

[N: the accumulator having a fusible plug]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accumulators with a safety plugs that melt at a certain temperature for relieving the pressure.

[N: the gas cushion being entirely enclosed by the separating means, e.g. foam or gas-filled balls]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Accumulators using bladders
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/3154 takes precedence.

with flexible separating means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Accumulators with flexible separating means but without gas cushion
See also
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/315 takes precedence.

Accumulators not using a gas cushion are classified in F15B 1/04 even if they have flexible separating means (e.g. a membrane).

[N: the separating means being bellows]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Fig. from US2004244857

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/3153 takes precedence.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "bellows", "Faltenbalg" and " soufflet" are often used as synonyms.

[N: characterised by the way housing components are assembled]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/605 takes precedence.

[N: characterised by the attachment means (F15B 1/14 takes precedence)]
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 1/14 takes precedence.

[N: in the form of a bladder]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Accumulators using bladders, i.e. essentially cylindrical flexible separating means having a first open end portion which is normally rounded and a second end portion with a fluid inlet for separating a hydraulic fluid and a gas.

Fig. from US2006042707

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/3152 takes precedence.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "bladder", "Blase" and "vessie" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words " bladder-type accumulator", "Blasenspeicher" and "accumulateur à vessie" are often used as synonyms.

Anti-extrusion means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/43 takes precedence.

fixed to the separating means
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/435 takes precedence.

Liquid port constructions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/41 takes precedence.

with rigid separating means, e.g. pistons
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2201/31 takes precedence.

Accumulators using springs and no gas cushion are classified in F15B 1/04 even if they have rigid separating means (e.g. a piston).

Supply reservoir or sump assemblies
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Reservoirs for vehicle braking systems
Fluid supply systems for power Power-steering systems with reservoirs
Pumps having reservoirs
Intensifiers or fluid-pressure converters, e.g. pressure exchangers; Conveying pressure from one fluid system to another, without contact between the fluids [N: (fluid-driven pumps F04B 9/08)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices for converting fluid energy, i.e. from a flow of fluid having high pressure and low flow rate to a flow of fluid having low pressure and high flow rate or vice versa.

E.g. devices using pistons of different size or rotating fluid pumps and motors of different capacity.

Fig. from FR2822906

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Fluid-driven pumps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pressure intensifiers in processes of separation using semi-permeable membranes, e.g. dialysis, osmosis
Fluid-driven pumps
Transducers converting variations of physical quantities, e.g. expressed by variations in positions of members, into fluid-pressure variations or vice-versa; Varying fluid pressure as a function of variations of a plurality of fluid pressures or variations of other quantities (F15B 9/00 takes precedence; for measuring or controlling G01, G05)
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Fluid pressure actuators
Pressure sensors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Transducers for measuring or controlling
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 9/00 takes precedence.

Systems in which the movement produced is definitely related to the output of a volumetric pump; Telemotors [N: (for control in motor vehicles B60K; in ships B63H 25/00; in aircraft B64C 13/00; combinations of telemotor and servomotor systems F15B 17/00)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. systems wherein a master cylinder is directly connected to a slave cylinder. Illustrative example:

Fig. from WO2006129746

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For control in motor vehicles
Vehicle brakes
For control in ships
For control in aircraft
Combinations of telemotor and servomotor systems
Hydraulic clutch actuation
Hydraulic gear shifting devices
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Telemotor
system or device in which a substantially constant amount of fluid is trapped between an input member and an output member to act as a fluid link, e.g. realised as a master cylinder which is directly connected to a slave cylinder.
[N: with multiple inputs (input units F15B 7/08, e.g. for dual control)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Input units (e.g. master cylinders)
[N: with rotary or crank input (input units F15B 7/08)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Input units
in which the ratio between pump stroke and motor stroke varies with the resistance against the motor (in brake-actuating systems for motor vehicles B60T)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
In brake actuating systems for motor vehicles
Details (F15B 15/00 takes precedence)
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 15/00 takes precedence for slave cylinders.

Input units; Master units
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Vehicle brake master cylinders
Compensation of the liquid content in a system (F15B 7/08 takes precedence; pressure-maintaining arrangements for brake master cylinders B60T 11/228)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pressure-maintaining arrangements for brake master cylinders
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 7/08 takes precedence.

Servomotors with follow-up action, [e.g. obtained by feed-back control], i.e. in which the position of the actuated member conforms with that of the controlling member [N: (F15B 11/10 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Fluid power drives using position feed-back

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Servomotor
fluid-pressure acutator, e.g. a piston and a cylinder, directly controlled by a valve or other device (e.g. pump) which is responsive to operation of an initial controlling member (e.g. joystick). The initial controlling member may be adjacent to the servomotor or at a distance and may be, e.g. a hand lever.
in which the controlling element and the servomotor each controls a separate member, these members influencing different fluid passages or the same passage
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Fig. from US4733601

in which both the controlling element and the servomotor control the same member influencing a fluid passage and are connected to that member by means of a differential gearing
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This class is also used for systems with a differential gear ratio of 1:1. Illustrative example:

Fig. from FR74115

Systems essentially having two or more interacting servomotors, [N: e.g. multi-stage (F15B 18/00, F15B 20/00 take precedence; servo-operated pilot valves for the following stage F15B 13/042)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. multi-stage systems

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servo-operated pilot valves for the following stage
Servomotor systems without provision for follow-up action; [N: Circuits therefor] (F15B 3/00 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Servomotor systems without provision for follow-up action and circuits therefor

Special rules of classification within this group

The main group F15B 11/00 is omplemented by the main group F15B 2211/00 and is used for classifying invention information only. F15B 2211/00 takes precedence.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
Servomotor
fluid-pressure acutator, e.g. a piston and a cylinder, directly controlled by a valve or other device (e.g. pump) which is responsive to operation of an initial controlling member (e.g. joystick). The initial controlling member may be adjacent to the servomotor or at a distance and may be, e.g. a hand lever.
[N: Systems with load-holding valves (locking valve details F15B 13/01)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This class comprises releasable check valves and proportional braking valves.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Locking valve details
See also
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2211/30515 takes precedence.

Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "load holding valve" and "Lasthalteventil" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "releasable check valve" and "Entsperrbares Rückschlagventil " are often used as synonyms.

[N: in which a rapid approach stroke is followed by a slower, high-force working stroke (F15B 11/0325 takes precedence)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
by means of differential connection of the servomotor lines, e.g. regenerative circuits [N: (interconnecting valve details F15B 13/021)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Regeneration valves per se
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems with directional control valves having a regenerative position
for controlling the actuating force (F15B 11/024 takes precedence)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 11/024, F15B 2211/76 take precedence.

by means of fluid-pressure converters (fluid-pressure converters per se F15B 3/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid pressure converters
by means of servomotors having a plurality of working chambers (servomotors per se F15B 15/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servomotors (fluid pressure actuators)
[N: during starting or stopping (F15B 11/048 takes precedence)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 11/048, F15B 2211/00 take precedence.

by regulating means in feed line, [N: i.e. "meter in"] (F15B 11/046, F15B 11/05 take precedence)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 11/05, F15B 2211/351 take precedence.

[N: by controlling pump output or bypass, other than to maintain constant speed (adjusting pump output or bypass to maintain constant speed F15B 11/055)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Adjusting pump output or bypass to maintain constant speed
[N: by controlling the number of pumps or parallel valves switched on]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. systems controlling the speed by means of so-called digital valves or by means of systems using pulse code modulation (PCM)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Circuits with digital valves
by regulating means in return line, [N: i.e. "meter out"] (F15B 11/046, F15B 11/05 take precedence)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 11/05, F15B 2211/353 take precedence.

[N: with counterbalance valves, e.g. to prevent overrunning or for braking]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Counterbalance valves
Pressure control using counterbalance valves
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2211/50581 takes precedence

specially adapted to maintain constant speed, e.g. pressure-compensated, load-responsive [N: (F15B 11/161 takes precedence); counterbalance valves F15B 11/0445; valves for load sensing F15B 13/0416]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Valves for load sensing
Directional control valves in combination with pressure compensating valves
Flow control using pressure compensating valves
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LS
Load sensing

In patent documents the following expressions/words "pressure-compensated", "Lastdruckunabhängig" and "LUDV" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "pressure compensator", "pressure compensating valve" and "Druckwaage" are often used as synonyms.

[N: by adjusting the pump output or bypass (pump control F04B 49/00)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pump control
Pressure margin control in load sensing systems
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 11/165 takes precedence.

involving features specific to the use of a compressible medium, e.g. air, steam
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control specific to compressible fluids
providing distinct intermediate positions; with step-by-step action [N: with a number of pistons in a single cylinder step-by-step action obtained by combining two or more servomotors F15B 11/18; (for restricting the stroke F15B 15/24)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Step-by-step action obtained by combining two or more servomotors (actuators)
Restricting the stroke of servomotors (actuators)
with special provision for automatic return [N: (fluid gearing with oscillating input or output F16H 43/00)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid gearing with oscillating input or output
with two or more servomotors [N: (for soil-shifting machines E02F 9/22)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For soil-shifting machines
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following abbreviations are often used:

LS
Load sensing

In patent documents the following expressions/words "pressure-compensated", "Lastdruckunabhängig" and "LUDV" are often used as synonyms.

In patent documents the following expressions/words "pressure compensator", "pressure compensating valve" and "Druckwaage" are often used as synonyms.

[N: for giving priority to particular servomotors or users (priority valve details F15B 13/022; for power steering B62D 5/07)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
One or more output members having priority
Flow control using flow dividers
Priority valve details
For power steering
[N: for sharing the pump output equally amongst users or groups of users, e.g. using anti-saturation, pressure compensation]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Valves for load sensing
Directional control valves in combination with pressure compensating valves
Flow control using pressure compensating valves
[N: for adjusting the pump output or bypass in response to demand]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pump control
Maintaining constant speed by controlling pump output or bypass
Pressure margin control in load sensing systems
[N: with an isolator valve (duplicating valve), i.e. at least one load sense (LS) pressure is derived from a work port load sense pressure but is not a work port pressure itself]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Load-sensing circuits with isolator valves
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 2211/6058 takes precedence.

using two or more pumps
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servomotor systems with multiple pumps
controlling several interacting or sequentially-operating members (fluid distribution or supply devices for the control of two or more servomotors F15B 13/06)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid distribution or supply devices for the control of two or more servomotors
[N: the position of the actuator controlling the fluid flow to the subsequent actuator (telescopic booms B66C 23/70)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Telescopic booms
Synchronisation of the movement of two or more servomotors
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Synchronisation of cylinders in fluid-driven presses
See also
Details of servomotor systems ([N: F15B 1/04, F15B1/06, F15B 3/00, F15B 7/08, F15B 11/02, F15B 11/10, F15B 15/00 take precedence; Valves for servomotor systems])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Components of hydraulic or pneumatic circuits such as valves and flow dividers.

Special rules of classification within this group
Locking-valves or other detent, [N: i.e. load-holding], devices (associated with the actuator F15B 15/26; [N: systems with load-holding valves F15B 11/003])
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems with load holding valves
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "over-centre valve", "Lasthalteventil", "Senkbremsventil" and "locking-valve"are often used as synonyms.

Fluid distribution or supply devices characterised by their adaptation to the control of servomotors ([N: F15B 11/15 takes precedence]; multiple-way valves F16K 11/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Multiple-way valves
Special rules of classification within this group

Subgroups F15B 13/022 - F15B 13/029 are not complete

[N: Valves for interconnecting the fluid chambers of an actuator (regenerative circuits F15B 11/024)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Regenerative circuits
Systems with directional control valves having a separate valve for interconnecting the fluid chambers of an actuator
Systems with directional control valves having a regenerative position
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "valves for interconnecting the fluid chambers of an actuator" and "Regeneration valves" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Flow-dividers; Priority valves (circuits for giving priority to particular servomotors F15B 11/162; priority valves for power steering B62D 5/07)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Priotity valves for power steering
Circuits for giving priority to a particular servomotor
Flow control using flow dividers
[N: Excess flow valves, e.g. for locking cylinders in case of hose burst]
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "excess flow valves", "Rohrbruchsicherung" and "clapet parachute" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Check valves]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Load holding valves
Locking valves
[N: Counterbalance valves]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servomotor systems with counterbalance valves
Pressure control using counterbalance vavles
[N: for linearly sliding valves, e.g. spool valves]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Fig. from WO2008015752

[N: with means or adapted for load sensing (fluid systems with load sensing F15B 11/05, F15B 11/161)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems with load sensing
[N: with manually-operated pilot valves, e.g. joysticks (arrangements of handles or pedals for cranes B66C 13/54; control levers for dredgers and soil shifting machines E02F 9/2004; similar mechanical control actuators G05G9/049)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements of handles or pedals for cranes
Control levers for dredgers and soil shifting machines
Similar mechanical control actuators
G05G9/049
with electrically-controlled pilot valves [N: electrically-operated main valves F15B 13/044]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrically operated main valves
operated by electrically-controlled means, e.g. solenoids, torque-motors [N: (electrically-controlled pilot valves F15B 13/043)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrically controlled pilot valves
[N: Modular valves]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Modular valves in general
[N: Data bus systems]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servomotor systems using data bus, e.g. CAN bus
Special measures for feedback, [N: e.g. by a follow-up device (servomotors with follow-up action F15B 9/00; devices with means or adapted for load sensing F15B 13/0416)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servomotors with follow-up action
Devices with means or adapted for load sensing
Fluid-actuated devices for displacing a member from one position to another (motors for continuous movement F01 to F03); Gearing associated therewith
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Hydraulic or pneumatic actuators with linear or non-continuous rotary output.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Motors with continuous rotary movement
for mechanically converting rectilinear movement into non- rectilinear movement
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid-driven safety belt tensioners
[N: Actuator having both linear and rotary output, i.e. dual action actuator]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Corresponding FI class
characterised by the construction of the motor unit (pistons, cylinders, packing F16J)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Pistons, cylinders, packings
[N: the motor being of the slotted cylinder type (locking mechanisms therefor F15B 15/265)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Locking mechanisms therefor
[N: the motor being of the rodless piston type, e.g. with cable, belt or chain (locking mechanisms therefor F15B 15/265)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Locking mechanisms therfor
the motor being of diaphragm type (connection of valves to inflatable elastic bodies B60C 29/00; diaphragms, bellows F16J 3/00; [N: clutches with a fluid-actuated elastic clutching member F16D 25/04])
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Inflatable flexible elements for lifting goods
Bellows pistons
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Corresponding FTerms
3H081/AA14-3H081/AA18
Hoisting using inflatable flexible elements
Pneumatic actuators for EGR valves
Clutches with fluid-actuated elastic clutching member
Bellows
F16 J3/06
[N: using inflatable bodies that contract when fluid pressure is applied, e.g. pneumatic artificial muscles or McKibben-type actuators]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Fig. from US4819547

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Corresponding FI class
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "fluidic muscle-type actuator", "McKibben-type actuator" and "Fluidischer Muskel" are often used as synonyms.

of the oscillating-vane or curved-cylinder type
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Rotary motors with continuous output movement
Sealings for vane motors
F15J15/54B
[N: of the curved-cylinder type]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Illustrative example of subject matter classified in this group.

Fig. from JP58163805

[N: in clusters, e.g. multiple cylinders in one block (servomotors having a plurality of working chambers F15B 11/036; motors with two or more independently movable working pistons F15B 15/1409)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems with servomotors having a plurality of working chambers
Motors with two or more independently movable working pistons
[N: with two or more independently movable working pistons (systems F15B 11/12, F15B 11/18)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servomotor systems with step-by-step action
Servomotor systems with stepwise operation
[N: Pistons; Piston to piston rod assemblies]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Pistons per se
Combined units comprising both motor and pump [N: (telemotors F15B 7/00)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Telemotors
Locking mechanisms [N: (locking valves not combined with the actuator F15B 13/01)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Locking valves not combined with the actuator
[N: using positive interengagement, e.g. balls and grooves, for locking in the end positions]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Locking mechanisms using positive interengagement for locking in any distinct position (not restricted to locking in the end positions).

[N: Screw mechanisms attached to the piston]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subgroup contains documents relating to locking mechanisms using screw mechanisms attached to the piston but not using friction.

[N: using electromagnetic radiation, e.g. radar or microwaves]
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 15/2846 takes precedence.

Combinations of telemotor and servomotor systems
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Telemotors
Servomotors with follow-up
Servomotors without follow-up
Parallel arrangements of independent servomotor systems
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

E.g. redundant systems.

Fig. from DE1940946A1

Testing; [N: Calibrating; Fault detection or monitoring; Simulation or modelling of] fluid-pressure systems or apparatus not otherwise provided for
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Testing of fluid pressure systems
Monitoring of fluid pressure systems
Safety arrangements; Applications of safety devices (safety devices in general F16P) [N: F16P 3/22]; Emergency measures
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Safety devices in general
Safety devices for pneumatic or hydraulic control systems
Control during or prevention of an electric or electronic failure
Control during or prevention of an hydraulic or pneumatic failure
Control during or prevention of a human failure
Prevention of failures
Detection of failures
Control measures for coping with failures
[N: Electrical failure]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control during or prevention of electric or electronic failures
[N: Fluid pressure supply failure]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid supply failure
[N: Leakage; Spillage; Hose burst]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Valve or hose failure
[N: Valve failure (F15B 18/00 takes precedence)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Valve or hose failure:
Common features; Fluid-pressure systems, or details thereof, not covered by any preceding group
Servomotor systems with programme control derived from a store or timing device; Control devices therefor ([N: programme control in washing-machines D06F 33/04]; programme control in general G05B 19/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Servomotor systems with electrically operated control means
Programme control in general
[N: Deaeration, venting, bleeding; Removal or measurement of undissolved gas (preventing cavitation F15B 21/047)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing cavitation
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the following expressions/words "deaeration" and "Entlüftung" are often used as synonyms.

[N: Viscosity or temperature compensation (warming up fluid systems F15B 21/042)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Warming up fluid systems
[N: Preventing foaming, churning or cavitation (supply reservoir or sump assemblies F15B 1/26)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Supply reservoir or sump assemblies
Control during or prevention of cavitation
[N: Compensation or avoidance of ambient pressure variation (systems with a pressurised main reservoir F15B 1/265)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Systems with a pressurised main reservoir
[N: Noise or vibration reduction]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For pumps
[N: Compressed air preparation units, e.g. comprising air driers or condensors, filters, oilers or lubricators, pressure regulators (for steam traps F16T; for mist lubrication F16N 7/32; for air conditioning F24F)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For mist lubrication
For steam traps
For airconditioning
Use of special fluids, e.g. liquid metal; Special adaptations of fluid-pressure systems, or control of elements therefor, to the use of such fluids
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Actuators having special fluid pressurization means
[N: Use of electro- or magnetosensitive fluids, e.g. electrorheological fluid]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control specific to the type of fluid, e.g. specific to magnetorheological fluid
[N: using a data bus, e.g. "CANBUS"]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Modular units using data bus
Special rules of classification within this group

F15B 13/0867 takes precedence.

Delay devices or arrangements ([N: hydraulic braking F15B 11/076]; associated with fluid motors or actuators F15B 15/22)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Hydraulic braking
Delay devices associated with fluid motors or actuators
Fluid oscillators or pulse generators (fluid oscillators predominantly used for computing or control purposes F15C 1/22, F15C 3/16)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Fluid oscillators used for computing or control purposes
Energy recuperation means (for vehicles B60T 1/10); [N: Means for reducing energy consumption (regenerative circuits F15B 11/024)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
For vehicles
Regenerative circuits
Systems for storing electric energy in the form of pneumatic energy
Control measure for saving energy
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Last Modified: 10/11/2013