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STARTING OF COMBUSTION ENGINES(starting of free-piston combustion engines F02B 71/02; starting of gas-turbine plants F02C 7/26 ); STARTING AIDS FOR SUCH ENGINES, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means and methods for starting of combustion engines or for aiding engine start.

References relevant to classification in this subclass
This subclass/group does not cover:
Starting of free-piston combustion engines
starting of gas-turbine plants
Starting apparatus having hand cranks (with intermediate power storage F02N 5/00-F02N 15/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting apparatus having hand cranks.

In old vehicles the engine was started using hand cranks. Nowadays these are limited to special applications like some airplanes

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Starting apparatus having mechanical power storage
Starting apparatus having fluid-driven auxiliary engines or apparatus
Starting of engines by supplying auxiliary pressure fluid to their working chambers
Starting of engines by means of electric motors
Starting of engines, or driving of starting apparatus by use of explosives
Other power-operated starting apparatus
Other muscle-operated starting apparatus (with intermediate power storage F02N 5/00- F02N 15/00 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting of engines achieved by manual actuation by the operator

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With intermediate power storage
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Starting using hand cranks
having pull-cords
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Pull-cord actuated starting, e.g. recoil mechanisms used in lawn movers.

having foot-actuated levers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Kick starters for motorbikes and similar arrangements

Starting apparatus having mechanical power storage
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting apparatus having mechanical power storage

of spring type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting apparatus, whereby the energy for starting is at least partially stored in a spring and subsequently released to effect starting.

of inertia type
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting apparatus, whereby the energy for starting is stored in moving parts. This can be the engine flywheel. Also covers the connection of the engine via the clutch to the wheels of a moving vehicle to accelerate the engine for starting (e.g. in hybrid vehicles) and the acceleration of the starter before the starter and the engine are connected.

Starting apparatus having fluid-driven auxiliary engines or apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting apparatus, starting of engine by using auxiliary engine or hydraulic motors, e.g. air motor.

Starting of engines by supplying auxiliary pressure fluid to their working chambers
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Supply of high pressure fluid to engine to achieve engine start.

Starting of engines by means of electric motors electric motors (arrangement or mounting of prime-movers consisting of electric motors and internal combustion engines for mutual or common propulsion B60K 6/20)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The usual way to start an engine is to use one or more electric motors.

Special rules of classification within this group

Subgroups also cover control of engine starting.

the motors being associated with current generators
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The starter is also used as a generator during normal engine running. Normally called starter/generator or starter/alternator.

and with ignition apparatus
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting apparatus with ignition apparatus.

Circuits [N: or control means] specially adapted for starting engines
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Circuits or control means specially adapted for starting engines; Starting apparatus.

[N: characterised by means for initiating engine start or stop (F02N 11/0814 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means to initiate the engine start, could be related to specific arrangements of ignition switches but also automatic restart at engine stall or based on temperature measurements, both in driver cabin (for trucks) and engine temperature.

Furthermore automatically stopping the engine at extended idling (important for the US) or after they have been automatically started.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Arrangements for automatically starting and stopping engine during idling, e.g. at vehicle stop
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ignition switches
H01N27/06
Special rules of classification within this group

Safety means, especially for preventing engine start for safety reasons, should additionally be classified in F02N 11/10

[N: Remote means]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Automatic engine start using a remote, popular especially in the US to preheat the vehicle or the engine.

[N: comprising means for controlling automatic idle-start-stop]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting apparatus comprising means for controlling automatic idle-start-stop.

Starting apparatus with a start-stop system wherein the engine is automatically stopped when the vehicle has stopped at e.g. a traffic light. The engine will then be automatically restarted based on driver's intention to continue driving or based on system requirements.

[N: related to action of the driver]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for detecting driver's will to continue driving or to maintain current vehicle position.

[N: related to prevention of engine restart failure, e.g. disabling automatic stop at low battery state]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means not allowing automatic engine stop is if restart cannot be guaranteed, e.g. at low battery or starter failure.

[N: related to special engine control, e.g. giving priority to engine warming-up or learning]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means prohibiting automatic stop is if engine running is required for other reasons related to the engine, e.g. for adaptation, cleaning of catalysts or purging of fuel vapors.

[N: State of vehicle accessories, e.g. air condition or power steering]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The engine is automatically started (or not stopped) if the engine running is required to support vehicle accessories.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Engine is started if battery charge is low
Engine running is required for engine related aspects
[N: with means for restarting the engine directly after an engine stop request, e.g. caused by change of driver mind]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means restarting engine when engine is still rotating.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control of engagement between starter pinion and engine gear while engine is still rotating
[N: with means for detecting successful engine start, e.g. to stop starter actuation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for detecting successful engine start, e.g. to stop starter actuation; Means detecting when the engine has started, e.g. to stop the starter or for other engine control.

[N: characterised by means for controlling the engagement or disengagement between engine and starter, e.g. meshing of pinion and engine gear]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for controlling the engagement or disengagement between engine and starter, e.g. meshing of pinion and engine gear; Control or circuit aspects for connecting the starter and the engine, mainly starters using pinions.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
More mechanical aspects concerning the connection between the engine and the starter
[N: during engine shutdown or after engine stop before start command, e.g. pre-engagement of pinion]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Engagement of pinion while the engine is still rotating , e.g. by accelerating starter first and thereafter engage the pinion with the engine gear.

Also engaging the pinion when the engine has stopped but when no engine start request has been detected. This can be done when future engine start is likely, e.g. based on vehicle door opening.

[N: specially adapted to the type of the starter motor or integrated into it]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

All circuits specially adapted to a certain type of motor, e.g. all inverter circuits are inside here.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Starter/generators
[N: characterised by the electrical power supply means, e.g. battery]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Anything related to the battery or other means for supplying energy for starting.

[N: comprising several power sources, e.g. battery and capacitor or two batteries]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Everything related to the use of two batteries or power supplies in a vehicle in relation with starting:

  • choice of battery;
  • one battery for starting and one battery for accessories;
  • capacitor charging, e.g. before engine start.
Safety devices (F02N 11/08 takes precedence)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Safety devices; diagnosis of starters.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Circuits or control means specially adapted for starting engines
[N: for preventing engine starter actuation or engagement (preventing unauthorised use or theft of vehicles B60R 25/04)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices prohibiting engine start, and therefore the starter actuation, in order to protect the engine, the starter or the environment.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Preventing unauthorised use or theft of vehicle
[N: when the engine is already running (F02N 11/0848 takes precedence)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices preventing new starter actuation when the engine is already or still running in order to protect the starter, e.g. the pinion.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
With means for detecting successful engine start
Starting of engines, or driving of starting apparatus by use of explosives, e.g. stored in cartridges
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Systems or Methods for starting combustion engines moved by explosive mixture other than the combustion mixture, in particular explosive cartridges. It could be either portable or constructional fixed to the engine. This is e.g. the case for model cars

Other power-operated starting apparatus; Component parts, details, or accessories, not provided for in, or of interest apart from groups F02N 5/00 to F02N 13/00
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Covers all remaining aspects of starting devices, especially the connection between the starting apparatus and the engine.

Gearing between starting-engines and started engines; Engagement or disengagement thereof
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Connections between the engine and the starting means.

the gearing including disengaging toothed gears
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The gearing between the engine and the starting means (mainly starter) is disengaged.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Electrical or electronical control of the engagement and disengagement and circuits therefore
Starting aids for combustion engines, not otherwise provided for
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting aids; means for aiding engine start.

[N: Aiding engine start by using decompression means or variable valve actuation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for reduction of the necessary torque for starting using decompression valves or variable intake or exhaust valve actuation

[N: Aiding engine start by starting from a predetermined position, e.g. pre-positioning or reverse rotation]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Means for reducing torque needed to start the engine taking into account engine crank angle, e.g. by moving the engine to a certain position the necessary torque can be reduced.

Aiding engine start by thermal means, e.g. using lighted wicks (using electrically-heated glow-plugs F02P 19/02 )
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Heating the engine or its components prior to engine start.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Control of glow plugs
Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Subject matter not provided for in other groups of this subclass.

[N: Starting combustion engines by ignition means]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

So-called direct start by injecting fuel into one engine cylinder and igniting it, can be without or combined with starter actuation.

[N: Providing a combustible mixture inside the cylinder]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Starting whereby the fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber and then ignited to achieve engine start.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013