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ARMOUR; ARMOURED TURRETS; ARMOURED OR ARMED VEHICLES; MEANS OF ATTACK OR DEFENCE, e.g. CAMOUFLAGE, IN GENERAL
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This subclass covers the defensive aspects such as protection gear camouflage and personal, vehicle and stationary armour (passive and active).

It include armed and armoured vehicles.

It further includes offensive and defensive systems using flames, gas or smoke.

It also includes passive and active tactical defence installations, including laying or removing land mines and other obstacles.

It includes means of attack other than conventional weaponry, e.g. electical stunning means, directed energy weapons, EMP generators.

Personal protection gear (shields for personal use F41H 5/08; [N: footwear for use in minefields A43B 3/0026]; for protection against chemical warfare A62B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Protective gear worn by a person against ballistic aggression. It might also include protection against malevolent knife or needle aggression (professional cut/puncture resistant garments, see limiting reference).

Includes means for strapping said gear to the body.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Professional, industrial or sporting protective garments
Footwear for use in minefields
Clothing for protection against chemical warfare
Body protectors for players and sportsmen
Armour plates (for inserting into a vest)
Shields for personal use
Protection helmets (crash helmets A42B 3/00)
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Crash helmets
of plastics; Plastic head-shields
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Plastics is to be construed as including all the fibre reinforced multilayer helmets

Camouflage, i.e. means or methods for concealment or disguise (for vessels B63G 8/34, B63G 13/02; [N: sound camouflage, i.e. simulating gun fire noise, F41A 33/00; dummy or decoy targets F41J; chaff per se F41J 2/00; ammunition for dispensing chaff F42B 5/15, F42B 12/70; radar absorbing fabrics H01Q 17/005]) [C0403]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes passive camouflage, i.e. covers, nets, garments , as well as active, electronic camouflage and shielding.

Includes camouflage in the visible and in the infrared spectrum.

Includes camouflage patterns.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for military shielding in aircraft
B46D7/00
Camouflage for underwater vessels
Camouflage for other marine vessels
Sound camouflage, i.e. simulating gun fire noise
Dummy or decoy targets
Chaff per se
Apparatus for generating fog or smoke screens
Smoke producing projectiles
Cartridged ammunition for dispensing chaff
Smoke pot projectors
Cargo ammunition for dispensing chaff
Radar absorbing fabrics
H01Q17/0000E
Armour; Armour plates(processes for manufacturing or treating B21,C21,[N: heat treatment C21D 9/42; wall or panel structure for safes E05G 1/024])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

This main group includes the aspects of composition, configuration and the mounting of the armour elements.

It further includes the aspects of application/use of armours, e.g. as shields, turrets, manhole covers or windows

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Armoured vehicles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mechanical metal-working without essentially removing material, punching metal
B21
Metallurgy of iron
C21
Heat treatment for armour plates
Wall or panel structure for safes
Reactive armour; Dynamic armour
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes armour using liquid and the blast or shockwave mitigation effects of a fluid e.g. by rheological properties

Includes armour using electrical fields for the incapacitation of warheads

Includes armour with dilatant, materials or other chemically reactive substances in layers.

Includes pyrotechnically reactive substances.

Includes dynamic armour, i.e. elastically reacting armour.

Includes systems for intercepting incoming projectiles or missiles, i.e. active armour.

Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
ERA
often used in the field for explosive reactive armour.
[N: Armour plate, or auxiliary armour plate mounted at a distance of the main armour plate, having cavities at its outer impact surface, or holes, for deflecting the projectile]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also includes slat armour and nets for protection against hollow charge projectiles such as rocket propelled grenades (RPG).

composed of more than one layer [N: (outerwear resistant to mechanical aggressions A41D 31/0055; layered products B32B; shaping reinforced articles B29C 67/00)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Layered armour where the armour effect is enhanced by the mechanical impedance discontinuities between the layers.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Outerwear resistant to mechanical aggressions
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Layered products, i.e. layers built up from strata of flat or non-flat, e.g. cellular or honeycomb, form
Shaping reinforced articles
Synonyms and Keywords

In patent documents the expression/word "plastic layers" is often used with the meaning "plastic films, foam layers, rubber layers, elastomeric layers, thermoplastic and duroplastic layers"

[N: Layered armour containing ceramic material]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The ceramic being the main armour component, meaning the stopping action of the projectile is mainly performed by the ceramic layer(s).

Includes surface mounted interlocking or abutting ceramic tiles.

Also includes glass ceramics.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ceramic elements embedded in a matrix
F41H5/00H
[N: Layered armour containing metal(in combination with ceramic layers F41H 5/0421; heat treatment of armour plate C21D 9/42)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The metal being the main armour component, meaning the stopping action of the projectile is mainly performed by the metal layer(s)

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ceramic armour in combination with metal layers
Heat treatment for armour plates
[N: Layered armour containing fibre- or fabric-reinforced layers (in combination with ceramic layers F41H 5/0428, with metal layers F41H 5/0457)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The fibrous layer(s) or tapes being the main armour component, meaning the stopping action of the projectile is mainly performed by the fibrous layer(s) or tapes.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ceramic armour in combination with additional metal layers
Metal armour in combination with additional fibre or fabric-reinforced layers
F41H4/04D4
[N: Layered armour containing hard elements, e.g. plates, spheres, rods, separated from each other, the elements being connected to a further flexible layer or being embedded in a plastics or an elastomer matrix]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

The layer with the plurality of hard elements, possibly within a matrix, being the main projectile stopping layer.

Also includes chain mail type armour with linked or engaging rings or platelets

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Ceramic armour comprising externally mounted, full-body covering ceramic tiles
Special rules of classification within this group

This group is restricted to the aspect of a plurality of hard elements acting together to stop a projectile.

Documents classified in this group should also have a material specific class attributed in F41H 5/0414 or F41H 5/0442

Spade bayonets, i.e. usable as a spade, bayonet or cover against rifle fire [N: (not used; see F41C 27/04)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Arrangements for mounting spades or shields on smallarms
Special rules of classification within this group

NOT IN USE

Antiquated, obsolete entry from the beginning of the IPC, ignore for search.

Manhole covers, e.g. on tanks; [N: Doors on armoured vehicles or structures]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes locking systems for doors on armoured vehicles.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Mounting of windows on armoured vehicle doors
Peepholes; Windows; [N: Loopholes] (manufacture or composition of glass C03; Covers therefor) [N: informative reference: transparent bullet-proof laminates F41H 5/0407; layered products essentially comprising glass B32B 17/06]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes observation means incl. camera's and periscopes on vehicles

Includes locking systems for AFV doors

mounting armoured transparent panels in vehicle body or doors frames to protect interface gaps

gunports not being/having ball or swivel mounts

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Manufacture or composition of glass
Layered products essentially comprising glass
Bearings for supporting a pivoting gun in a wall, e.g. a turret wall (ball or swivel mount)
Transparent bullet-proof laminates
Doors on manhole covers
Armoured or armed vehicles (general vehicle aspects B60; armoured or armed ships B63G; armoured or armed aircraft B64D; mounting guns, e.g. machine guns, on vehicles F41A 23/00)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes in principle all tactical military, para-military or police vehicles, i.e. the ones being armoured against aggression and the ones serving as a mobile weapon platform.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
General vehicle aspects
Special military vehicles like armoured bridge layers or tank transporters
Armoured or armed ships
Armoured or armed aircraft
Mounting guns, e.g. machine guns, on vehicles
Turrets
Layered armour
Special rules of classification within this group

Vehicles which are nor armoured but only armed should be classified in the main group F41H 7/00, if applicable with a double classification in the group pertinent to the weapon mounted on the vehicle.

[N: Unmanned ground vehicles, i.e. robotic, remote controlled or autonomous, mobile platforms carrying equipment for performing a military or police role, e.g. weapon systems or reconnaissance sensors (F41H 11/16 takes precedence)]
References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Self-propelled mine-clearing vehicles
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Steering control for unmanned (ground) vehicles
Remote controlled aircraft
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
UAV
Unmanned arial vehicle
UGV
Unmanned ground vehicle
USV
Unmanned surface vessels
UUV
Unmanned undersea vehicle
[N: Gratings for ventilation openings]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Gratings or similar covers for air inlet, respectively air outlet, openings on an armoured vehicle, the covers offering protection against ballistic threats while still permitting air to flow into and out of the vehicle.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Slat armour; Nets
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ventilating openings in vehicle exterior; Ducts for conveying ventilating air
Air scoops
[N: Floors or base plates for increased land mine protection] [N0411]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Specially formed or reinforced outer bottom walls of a vehicle body, e.g. V-shaped for blast deflection;

Special assemblies located on the inside of the outer bottom wall of the vehicle body for mitigating the blast wave, resulting from a mine or IED explosion, e.g. deformable assemblies such as honeycomb structures.

Floor plates for the passenger cell not connected to the outer bottom wall or blast wave mitigating assemblies.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protecting loads on vehicles against shocks in general
Equipment for attack or defence by spreading flame, gas or smoke [N: or leurres]; Chemical warfare equipment (protection against chemicals A62B)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Offensive and defensive equipment using dispersion of gas, smoke, fog, aerosols including the projection of flames by sustained fuelling of a burning directional flame.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Protection against chemical warfare
Apparatus for generating artificial fog or smoke screens ([N: for producing special effects on stages A63J 5/00]; smoke-pot projectors, e.g. arranged on vehicles, F42B 5/155)
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Stationary or vehicle borne, non-portable apparatus generating a sustained flow of artificial fog or smoke.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Devices for producing special effects on stages
Camouflage (active, using smoke screens)
Projectiles producing smoke
Smoke pot projectors
Hand-held or body-worn self-defence devices using repellant gases or chemicals
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Portable device used by an individual for self-defence dispensing an aerosol, or a cloud of repellant gases or chemicals, such as pepper spray (OC), malodorant chemicals, chemicals inducing nausea, colouring agents (markers), diluted acids, etc.

Such a hand-held device may be in the form of a pressurised spraying can or it might be integral or attached to a weapon, an accessory or a personal shield.

A body-worn device may be in the form of an arm band, a bracelet or a ring, or eventually integrated in a back pack, a body armour, a piece of protective clothing or similar.

Special rules of classification within this group

Self defence spraying devices integrated into weapons, accessories or protective shields must be double classified in the respective groups.

Defence installations; Defence devices (constructional aspects see Section E, e.g. [N: air-raid shelters] E04H 9/04; [N: protective arrangements for buildings E04B 1/92; extinguishing or preventing the spread of fire from, incendiary bombs A62C 3/06 ; dynamic armour F41H 5/007; ballistically deployed systems for restraining persons or animals F41H 13/0006; electronic countermeasures G01S])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Active and passive defensive installations except conventional shields, armours and shelters.

Includes areal barrages, harbour nets, obstacles and minefields.

Includes demining methods and devices.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Constructional aspects. Civil engineering aspects
E
Extinguishing or preventing the spread of fire from, incendiary bombs
Protective arrangements for buildings
Air-raid shelters
Ballistically deployed systems for restraining persons or animals
Reactive armour; Dynamic armour
Electronic counter measures
Anti-aircraft or anti-guided missile [N: or anti-torpedo] defence installations or systems (cartridges or missiles for producing smoke or for dispensing radar chaff or infra-red material F42B 5/15, F42B 12/48, F42B 12/70; [N: informative reference: details of radar or sonar systems G01S 7/00; jamming or electronic countermeasures G01S 7/38, G01S 7/495, H04K 3/00])
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Active systems or installation capable of destroying, neutralising or deviating incoming missiles.

Hard-kill methods includes the physical destruction of the incoming missile with perforating, fragmenting or high explosive projectiles.

Soft-kill methods include missile neutralisation by influencing the missile's electronic homing and initiation systems (jamming, blinding, altering) or to mislead the incoming missile's sensory system with decoys so as to avoid it's impact with the object to be protected.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Cartridges for dispensing radar chaff or infra-red material
F41B5/15
Missiles for producing smoke
F41B12/48
Missiles for dispensing radar chaff or infra-red material
F41B12/70
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Armour comprising elements mounted at a distance from the main object, e.g. slat armour for catching or disrupting hollow charge projectiles
Details of radar or sonar systems
Jamming means, e.g. producing false echoes
Counter-measures or counter-counter-measures using electronic or electro-optical or optronic means
Jamming of communication; Counter-measures
Aerial barrages
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Barriers prohibiting the passage of aircraft and missiles.

The might be configured as:

rigid ground fixed structures,

WO03036220 US2004050014

nets supported by floating balloons or airships and tethered to the ground,

WO2010117393 DE4214201

nets towed by or jettisoned from aircraft.

GB529623 GB129329

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Ballistically deployed restraining systems, e.g. nets
Chain shot, i.e. submissiles interconnected by chains or the like
Barbed-wire obstacles; Barricades; Stanchions; Tank traps; Vehicle-impeding devices; Caltrops [N: (making barbed wire B21F 25/00; barbed-wire fencing E04H 17/04; road barricades, obstructing passage of vehicles or pedestrians E01F 13/00)]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Making barbed wire
Road barricades, obstructing passage of vehicles or pedestrians
Forcibly arresting or disabling vehicles
Barbed-wire fencing
Self-propelled mine-clearing vehicles [N: or mine clearing devices attached to a vehicle]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Earthmoving vehicle aspects
E02F3/67 and subgroups
Robotic vehicles
Special rules of classification within this group
Devices for remotely destroying mines, i.e. magnetic field generators, sound wave devices, flame throwing devices, IR lures
Disruptors
using brushing or sweeping means or dozers to push mines lying on a surface aside; using means for removing mines intact from a surface
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

May include magnets for picking up ferro magnetic items and gripping means for picking up or handling items.

Decoy or sacrificial vehicles; Decoy or sacrificial devices attachable to vehicles
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Includes magnetic means for creating a magnetic field "lure/decoy" for triggering mines or other non-contact devices for remotely exploding mines or unexploded ordnance (UXO).

Includes sound wave devices, IR-lures, water jets or other devices for triggering potential contact or proximity sensors in a mine.

References relevant to classification in this group
This subclass/group does not cover:
Disruptors
Directed energy weapons
Glossary of terms
In this subclass/group, the following terms (or expressions) are used with the meaning indicated:
UXO
Unexploded ordnance
Means of attack or defence not otherwise provided for [N: (details of radar or sonar systems G01S 7/00)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Inlcudes ballistically deployed restraining systems, directed energy weapons and electro-shock weapons.

Includes acoustic weapons.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cattle prods with electric stunning means
Batons with electric stunning means
F41B15/07
Details of radar or sonar systems
Laser devices
[N: Ballistically deployed systems for restraining persons or animals, e.g. ballistically deployed nets]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Including ballistically deployed nets for restraining surface vessels.

Including ballistically deployed nets for catching aerial vehicles.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Aerial barrages
Chain shot projectiles
[N: Electrical discharge weapons, e.g. for stunning, such as tasers] [N1004]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Including documents concerning remote discharge via ionised beams.

N: for nearby electrical discharge, i.e. the electrodes being positioned on the device and the device brought manually or otherwise into contact with a nearby target (batons with electric discharge capability F41B 15/04; electric shock devices for animals A01K 15/02)]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Including devices for administering an electrical shock to the wearer of the device.

Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Cattle prods with electric stunning means
Batons with electric discharge capability
[N: Directed energy weapons, i.e. devices that direct a beam of high energy content toward a target for incapacitating or destroying the target]
Informative references
Attention is drawn to the following places, which may be of interest for search:
Mine clearing remotely by means of directed energy weapons
Counter-measures or counter-counter-measures using electronic or electro-optical or optronic means
[N: the high-energy beam being a laser beam]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Also includes documents concerning laser as enabling technology.

[N: the high-energy beam being acoustic, e.g. sonic, infrasonic or ultrasonic]
Definition statement
This subclass/group covers:

Devices and methods for producing focused acoustical beams or fan shaped diverging beams. Not omni-directional sound producing devices.

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Last Modified: 10/11/2013