Journal articles

The Office of the Chief Economist (OCE) publishes the research findings of its team of economists and their collaborators in peer reviewed economic and law journals.

Identifying artificial intelligence (AI) invention: A novel AI patent dataset

Alexander V. Giczy, Nicholas A. Pairolero, and Andrew Toole
The Journal of Technology Transfer, 2021
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Artificial intelligence (AI) is an area of increasing scholarly and policy interest. To help researchers, policymakers, and the public, this paper describes a novel dataset identifying AI in over 13.2 million patents and pre-grant publications (PGPubs). The dataset, called the Artificial Intelligence Patent Dataset (AIPD), was constructed using machine learning models for each of eight AI component technologies covering areas such as natural language processing, AI hardware, and machine learning. The AIPD contains two data files, one identifying the patents and PGPubs predicted to contain AI and a second file containing the patent documents used to train the machine learning classification models. We also present several evaluation metrics based on manual review by patent examiners with focused expertise in AI, and show that our machine learning approach achieves state-of-the-art performance across existing alternatives in the literature. We believe releasing this dataset will strengthen policy formulation, encourage additional empirical work, and provide researchers with a common base for building empirical knowledge on the determinants and impacts of AI invention.”

Examination incentives, learning, and patent office outcomes: The use of examiner’s amendments at the USPTO

Charles A.W. deGrazia, Nicholas A. Pairolero, and Mike H.M. Teodorescu
Research Policy, vol 50, issue 10, December 2021
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The Promise of Machine Learning for Patent Landscaping

Andrew A. Toole, Nicholas A. Pairolero, James Q. Forman, and Alexander V. Giczy
Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal, vol 36, no 4, May 2020
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Innovation activities and business cycles: are trademarks a leading indicator?

Charles A. W. deGrazia, Amanda Myers, and Andrew A. Toole
Industry and Innovation, vol 27, issue 1-2, 2020
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The Dynamic Relationship Between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki, and Andrew A. Toole
International Journal of the Economics of Business, vol 26, no 1, March 2019
2019 Best Paper Prize from the International Journal of the Economics of Business
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Shorter Patent Pendency Without Sacrificing Quality: The Use of Examiner’s Amendments at the USPTO

Charles deGrazia, Nicholas Pairolero, and Mike Teodorescu
Academy of Management Proceedings, vol 2019, no 1, August 2019
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Patent Examination Quality and Litigation: Is There a Link?

Alan C. Marco and Richard D. Miller
International Journal of the Economics of Business, vol 26, no 1, February 2019
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Embracing Invention Similarity for the Measurement of Vertically Overlapping Claims

Charles A. W. deGrazia, Jesse P. Frumkin and Nicholas A. Pairolero 
Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2019
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