Journal articles

The Office of the Chief Economist (OCE) publishes research findings from its team of economists and their collaborators in peer reviewed economic journals and in law journals.


Closing the Gender Gap in Patenting: Evidence from a Randomized Control Trial at the USPTO

Nicholas A. Pairolero, Andrew A. Toole, Peter-Anthony Pappas, Charles A.W. deGrazia, Mike H.M. Teodorescu
Academy of Management Proceedings, vol 2022, no 1, July 2022
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Using a randomized control trial at the United States Patent and Trademark Office, we identify the heterogeneous causal impacts across gender and technologies of increased patent examination assistance on the probability of obtaining patent rights. Women applicants were 11 percentage points more likely than men to benefit from this assistance, and the benefits were largest for new inventors and in areas of technology where women had the worst relative outcomes. Our results suggest that a portion of the gender patenting gap could be eliminated through the provision of additional resources and assistance during patent prosecution.

Challenges facing independent inventors: Do patents help?

Charles A.W. deGrazia, Nicholas A. Pairolero, Peter-Anthony Pappas, Andrew A. Toole, Mike H.M. Teodorescu
Academy of Management Proceedings, vol 2022, no 1, July 2022
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Identifying artificial intelligence (AI) invention: A novel AI patent dataset

Alexander V. Giczy, Nicholas A. Pairolero, and Andrew Toole
The Journal of Technology Transfer, 2021
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Examination incentives, learning, and patent office outcomes: The use of examiner’s amendments at the USPTO

Charles A.W. deGrazia, Nicholas A. Pairolero, and Mike H.M. Teodorescu
Research Policy, vol 50, issue 10, December 2021
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The Promise of Machine Learning for Patent Landscaping

Andrew A. Toole, Nicholas A. Pairolero, James Q. Forman, and Alexander V. Giczy
Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal, vol 36, no 4, May 2020
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Innovation activities and business cycles: are trademarks a leading indicator?

Charles A. W. deGrazia, Amanda Myers, and Andrew A. Toole
Industry and Innovation, vol 27, issue 1-2, 2020
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