Journal articles

The Office of the Chief Economist (OCE) publishes the research findings of its team of economists and their collaborators in peer reviewed economic and law journals.

Examination incentives, learning, and patent office outcomes: The use of examiner’s amendments at the USPTO

Charles A.W. deGrazia, Nicholas A. Pairolero, and Mike H.M. Teodorescu
Research Policy, vol 50, issue 10, December 2021
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We investigate how U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) patent examiner experience and seniority-based incentives affect the innovation ecosystem. First, we show that examiners respond to production incentives and demonstrate learning by increasing the use of examiner’s amendments in both experience and seniority, a mechanism not previously studied. Second, this examination procedure directly benefits innovators and firms by significantly reducing prosecution processing time without impacting patent quality. Finally, after considering examiner’s amendments, the negative relationship between examiner characteristics and patent examination quality found in the previous literature does not persist at first action, a decision point that allows for the clear measurement of examiner behavior. Our results demonstrate a need for reformulated policy recommendations related to the structure of examination at the USPTO.

The Promise of Machine Learning for Patent Landscaping

Andrew A. Toole, Nicholas A. Pairolero, James Q. Forman, and Alexander V. Giczy
Santa Clara High Technology Law Journal, vol 36, no 4, May 2020
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Innovation activities and business cycles: are trademarks a leading indicator?

Charles A. W. deGrazia, Amanda Myers, and Andrew A. Toole
Industry and Innovation, vol 27, issue 1-2, 2020
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The Dynamic Relationship Between Investments in Brand Equity and Firm Profitability: Evidence Using Trademark Registrations

Dirk Crass, Dirk Czarnitzki, and Andrew A. Toole
International Journal of the Economics of Business, vol 26, no 1, March 2019
2019 Best Paper Prize from the International Journal of the Economics of Business
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Shorter Patent Pendency Without Sacrificing Quality: The Use of Examiner’s Amendments at the USPTO

Charles deGrazia, Nicholas Pairolero, and Mike Teodorescu
Academy of Management Proceedings, vol 2019, no 1, August 2019
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Patent Examination Quality and Litigation: Is There a Link?

Alan C. Marco and Richard D. Miller
International Journal of the Economics of Business, vol 26, no 1, February 2019
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Embracing Invention Similarity for the Measurement of Vertically Overlapping Claims

Charles A. W. deGrazia, Jesse P. Frumkin and Nicholas A. Pairolero 
Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 2019
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